Special Issue "Structural Health Monitoring of Large Structures Using Acoustic Emission–Case Histories"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Acoustics and Vibrations".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Kanji Ono

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, HSSEAS School of Engineering & Applied Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 9009, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: acoustic emission; materials science
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Tomoki Shiotani

iTi Laboratory, Dept. Civil & Earth Resources Eng’g Grad. School Eng'g, Kyoto University, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: civil engineering materials, assessment of deterioration, NDT, sensors, AE, UT, FOS, tomography
Co-Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Martine Wevers

Department of Materials Engineering, University of Leuven, Leuve 3000, Belgium
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Interests: materials engineering; quality assurance engineering; mechanical engineering
Co-Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Marvin A. Hamstad

Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208, USA
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Interests: materials engineering; mechanical engineering; acoustic emission

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Acoustic emission (AE) techniques have successfully been used for assuring the structural integrity of large rocket motorcases since 1963 [1], and their uses have been expanded to ever larger structures [2], especially since the structural health monitoring (SHM) of large structures has become the most urgent task for engineering communities globally. The needs for advanced methods of AE monitoring are felt keenly by those dealing with aging infrastructures. Many publications have appeared covering various aspects of AE techniques [3], but documentation of actual applications of AE techniques has been limited mostly to reports of successful results without technical details that allow objective evaluation of the results. There are some exceptions in the literature [4–6]. In this Special Issue of the Acoustics section of Applied Sciences, we seek contributions in the same manner as these exceptions cited here. Here, however, we seek contributions describing case histories of AE applications to large structures that have achieved the goals of SHM and do so by giving adequate technical information supporting the success stories. Types of structures can include aerospace and geological structures, bridges, buildings, factories, maritime facilities, off-shore structures, etc. Experiences with AE monitoring methods designed and proven for large structures, including remote sensing methods, are also welcomed.

  1. Green, A.T.; Lockman, C.S.; Steele, R.K. Modern Plastics; Breskin Publications Inc.: New York, NY, USA, 1964; 41, pp 137–139.

  2. Ono, K. Application of acoustic emlssion for structure diagnosis. In Proceedings of the 56th Scientific Conference of Committee for Civil Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences and Scientific Committee of the Polish Association of Civil Engineers and Technicians, Krynica, Poland, 19–24 September 2010; page 25.

  3. Acoustic emission working group. Available online: www.aewg.org (accessed on 1 September 2017).

  4. MONPAC Technology. Acoustic Emission 1986, 8, 1–34.

  5. Hay, D.R., Cavaco, J.A.; Mustafa, V. Monitoring the civil infrastructure with acoustic emission: bridge case studies. Acoustic Emission 2009, 27, 1–9.

  6. Gorman, M.R. Modal AE analysis of fracture and failure in composite materials, and the quality and life of high pressure composite pressure vessels. Acoustic Emission 2011, 29, 1–28.

Prof. Dr. Kanji Ono
Prof. Dr. Marvin A. Hamstad
Prof. Dr. Tomoki Shiotani
Prof. Dr. Martine Wevers
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Acoustic Emission

  • Structural Health Monitoring

  • Large Structures

  • Case Histories

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Remote Monitoring and Evaluation of Damage at a Decommissioned Nuclear Facility Using Acoustic Emission
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1663; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091663
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Reinforced concrete systems used in the construction of nuclear reactor buildings, spent fuel pools, and related nuclear facilities are subject to degradation over time. Corrosion of steel reinforcement and thermal cracking are potential degradation mechanisms that adversely affect durability. Remote monitoring of such
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Reinforced concrete systems used in the construction of nuclear reactor buildings, spent fuel pools, and related nuclear facilities are subject to degradation over time. Corrosion of steel reinforcement and thermal cracking are potential degradation mechanisms that adversely affect durability. Remote monitoring of such degradation can be used to enable informed decision making for facility maintenance operations and projecting remaining service life. Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring has been successfully employed for the detection and evaluation of damage related to cracking and material degradation in laboratory settings. This paper describes the use of AE sensing systems for remote monitoring of active corrosion regions in a decommissioned reactor facility for a period of approximately one year. In parallel, a representative block was cut from a wall at a similar nuclear facility and monitored during an accelerated corrosion test in the laboratory. Electrochemical measurements were recorded periodically during the test to correlate AE activity to quantifiable corrosion measurements. The results of both investigations demonstrate the feasibility of using AE for corrosion damage detection and classification as well as its potential as a remote monitoring technique for structural condition assessment and prognosis of aging structures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Part Qualification Methodology for Composite Aircraft Components Using Acoustic Emission Monitoring
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1490; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091490
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
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Abstract
The research presented in this article aims to demonstrate how acoustic emission (AE) monitoring can be implemented in an industrial setting to assist with part qualification, as mandated by related industry standards. The combined structural and nondestructive evaluation method presented departs from the
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The research presented in this article aims to demonstrate how acoustic emission (AE) monitoring can be implemented in an industrial setting to assist with part qualification, as mandated by related industry standards. The combined structural and nondestructive evaluation method presented departs from the traditional pass/fail criteria used for part qualification, and contributes toward a multi-dimensional assessment by taking advantage of AE data recorded during structural testing. To demonstrate the application of this method, 16 composite fixed-wing-aircraft spars were tested using a structural loading sequence designed around a manufacturer-specified design limit load (DLL). Increasing mechanical loads, expressed as a function of DLL were applied in a load-unload-reload pattern so that AE activity trends could be evaluated. In particular, the widely used Felicity ratio (FR) was calculated in conjunction with specific AE data post-processing, which allowed for spar test classification in terms of apparent damage behavior. To support such analysis and to identify damage critical regions in the spars, AE activity location analysis was also employed. Furthermore, recorded AE data were used to perform statistical analysis to demonstrate how AE datasets collected during part qualification could augment testing conclusions by providing additional information as compared to traditional strength testing frequently employed e.g., in the aerospace industry. In this context, AE data post-processing is presented in conjunction with ultimate strength information, and it is generally shown that the incorporation of AE monitoring is justified in such critical part qualification testing procedures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multiple Signal Classification-Based Impact Localization in Composite Structures Using Optimized Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1447; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091447
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
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Abstract
Multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm-based structural health monitoring technology is a promising method because of its directional scanning ability and easy arrangement of the sensor array. However, in previous MUSIC-based impact location methods, the narrowband signals at a particular central frequency had to
[...] Read more.
Multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm-based structural health monitoring technology is a promising method because of its directional scanning ability and easy arrangement of the sensor array. However, in previous MUSIC-based impact location methods, the narrowband signals at a particular central frequency had to be extracted from the wideband Lamb waves induced by each impact using a wavelet transform. Additionally, the specific center frequency had to be obtained after carefully analyzing the impact signal, which is time consuming. Aiming at solving this problem, this paper presents an improved approach that combines the optimized ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and two-dimensional multiple signal classification (2D-MUSIC) algorithm for real-time impact localization on composite structures. Firstly, the impact signal at an unknown position is obtained using a unified linear sensor array. Secondly, the fast Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) with an optimized EEMD algorithm is introduced to extract intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) from impact signals. Then, all IMFs in the whole frequency domain are directly used as the input vector of the 2D-MUSIC model separately to locate the impact source. Experimental data collected from a cross-ply glass fiber reinforced composite plate are used to validate the proposed approach. The results show that the use of optimized EEMD and 2D-MUSIC is suitable for real-time impact localization of composite structures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Acoustic Emission/Seismicity at Depth Beneath an Artificial Lake after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(8), 1407; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8081407
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
Acoustic emission (AE)/seismicity activity increased near the city of Sendai, Japan, after the 11 March 2011 Tohoku earthquake in a newly seismically active region near the Nagamachi-Rifu fault, which caused a magnitude 5.0 earthquake in 1998. The source of this activity was around
[...] Read more.
Acoustic emission (AE)/seismicity activity increased near the city of Sendai, Japan, after the 11 March 2011 Tohoku earthquake in a newly seismically active region near the Nagamachi-Rifu fault, which caused a magnitude 5.0 earthquake in 1998. The source of this activity was around 12 km beneath an artificial lake. At the same time, activity on the Nagamachi-Rifu fault nearly ceased. More than 1550 micro-earthquakes were observed between 11 March 2011 and 1 August 2012, of which 63% exhibited similar waveforms and defined 64 multiplets. It appears that crustal extension of about 2 m during the Tohoku earthquake and additional extension of about 1 m during the following year changed the stress field in this region, thus generating micro-earthquakes and controlling their frequency. However, it has been presumed that crustal movement during the Tohoku earthquake did not affect the direction of principal stress, and that these events induced repeated quasi-static slips at asperities and the resultant micro-earthquakes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Acoustic Emission Method for Locating and Identifying Active Destructive Processes in Operating Facilities
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(8), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8081295
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract
Durability, safety, and usability are the three foundations of structural reliability, vital in the economic and social context. As the locating and tracking of potential damage and evaluating its impact on the condition of the structure are part of service life assessment, relevant
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Durability, safety, and usability are the three foundations of structural reliability, vital in the economic and social context. As the locating and tracking of potential damage and evaluating its impact on the condition of the structure are part of service life assessment, relevant methods should be developed that would detect the onset of the deterioration process and enable the monitoring of its progress within the entire volume of the structure, not only in the areas selected in a subjective way. The acoustic emission (AE) method relying on the analysis of active destructive processes can be the best choice. This article reports the results of the application of the AE method for identifying active destructive processes and tracking their development during the routine operation of various types of structures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Industrial Facilities under Static and Cyclic Loading
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(8), 1228; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8081228
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
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Abstract
Acoustic emission (AE) testing is traditionally carried out on non-operating objects. Such requirement is associated both with the Kaiser effect, leading to the necessity for exceeding the test load above the working one and with a high level of noise during object operation.
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Acoustic emission (AE) testing is traditionally carried out on non-operating objects. Such requirement is associated both with the Kaiser effect, leading to the necessity for exceeding the test load above the working one and with a high level of noise during object operation. However, AE testing could be performed under operating conditions, if the AE data acquisition period is increased and a specialized method is developed, which should take account of the effect of various noise, features of the object loading under operating conditions, the effect of damaging factors and possible destruction mechanisms. This paper investigates the possibility to carry out structural health monitoring (SHM) of hydrotreaters, highway bridges, high-temperature pipelines, gas adsorbers, roller bearings of rotary kilns and draglines on the basis of AE method. Architecture of SHM-system and specific data analysis procedures are proposed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Structural Reliability Prediction Using Acoustic Emission-Based Modeling of Fatigue Crack Growth
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(8), 1225; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8081225
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, AE signals collected during fatigue crack-growth of aluminum and titanium alloys (Al7075-T6 and Ti-6Al-4V) were analyzed and compared. Both the aluminum and titanium alloys used in this study are prevalent materials in aerospace structures, which prompted this current investigation. The
[...] Read more.
In this paper, AE signals collected during fatigue crack-growth of aluminum and titanium alloys (Al7075-T6 and Ti-6Al-4V) were analyzed and compared. Both the aluminum and titanium alloys used in this study are prevalent materials in aerospace structures, which prompted this current investigation. The effect of different loading conditions and loading frequencies on a proposed AE-based crack-growth model were studied. The results suggest that the linear model used to relate AE and crack growth is independent of the loading condition and loading frequency. Also, the model initially developed for the aluminum alloy proves to hold true for the titanium alloy while, as expected, the model parameters are material dependent. The model parameters and their distributions were estimated using a Bayesian regression technique. The proposed model was developed and validated based on post processing and Bayesian analysis of experimental data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Time Series Analysis of Acoustic Emissions in the Asinelli Tower during Local Seismic Activity
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(7), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8071012
Received: 5 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
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Abstract
The existence of ongoing damage processes in a masonry wall of the Asinelli Tower in Bologna have been investigated by the acoustic emission (AE) technique. A time correlation between the AE activity in the monitored structural element and the nearby earthquakes has been
[...] Read more.
The existence of ongoing damage processes in a masonry wall of the Asinelli Tower in Bologna have been investigated by the acoustic emission (AE) technique. A time correlation between the AE activity in the monitored structural element and the nearby earthquakes has been observed. In particular, the largest cluster of AE signals has been recorded within a few hours after the main shock (4.1 magnitude) occurrence. The presented findings suggest that aging and deterioration of the monitored structural element significantly depend on the action of light earthquakes, even at considerable distance. Trends of two evolutionary parameters, the b-value and the natural time variance κ1, have been derived from the AE time series in order to identify the approach of the monitored structural element to a “critical state” in relation to the earthquake occurrence. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A New Closed-Form Solution for Acoustic Emission Source Location in the Presence of Outliers
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060949
Received: 21 April 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
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Abstract
The accuracy of an acoustic emission (AE) source location is always corrupted by outliers due to the complexity of engineering practice. To this end, a preconditioned closed-form solution based on weight estimation (PCFWE) is proposed in this study. Firstly, nonlinear equations are linearized,
[...] Read more.
The accuracy of an acoustic emission (AE) source location is always corrupted by outliers due to the complexity of engineering practice. To this end, a preconditioned closed-form solution based on weight estimation (PCFWE) is proposed in this study. Firstly, nonlinear equations are linearized, and initial source coordinates are obtained by using equal weights. Residuals, which are calculated by source coordinates, are divided into three regions according to normal distribution. Secondly, the weight estimation is developed by establishing the relationship between residuals and weights. Outliers are filtered by the iteration between the weight estimation and source location. Subsequently, linear equations are reconstructed with the remaining measurements containing no outliers, while they are ill-conditioned. Finally, the preconditioning method is applied to weaken the ill condition of the reconstructed linear equations, so as to improve the location accuracy. This new method is verified by a pencil-lead break experiment. Tests results show that the location accuracy and stability of the new method are superior to traditional methods. In addition, outlier tolerance and the velocity sensibility of the new method are investigated by simulating tests. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Review on In Situ Acoustic Emission Monitoring in the Context of Structural Health Monitoring in Mines
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1595; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091595
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 9 September 2018
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Abstract
A major task in mines and even more in underground repositories for nuclear waste is to investigate crack formation for evaluation of rock mass integrity of the host rock. Therefore, in situ acoustic emission (AE) monitoring are carried out in mines as part
[...] Read more.
A major task in mines and even more in underground repositories for nuclear waste is to investigate crack formation for evaluation of rock mass integrity of the host rock. Therefore, in situ acoustic emission (AE) monitoring are carried out in mines as part of geomechanical investigations regarding the stability of underground cavities and the integrity of the rock mass. In this work, the capability of in situ AE monitoring in the context of structural health monitoring (SHM) in mines and in various geological settings will be reported. SHM pointed out, that the AE network is able to monitoring AE activity in rock with a volume up to 10 6 cubicmeter and distances up to 200 m (e.g., 100 m × 100 m × 100 m) in the frequency range of 1 kHz to 150 kHz. Very small AE events with source size in approximately centimeter to millimeter scale are detected. The results show that AE activity monitors rock deformation in geological boundaries due to convergence of the rock. In addition, high AE activity occurs in zones of dilatancy stress in homogenous rock. In conclusion in situ AE monitoring is a useful tool to observe instabilities in rock long before any damage becomes visible. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Review on Structural Health Evaluation with Acoustic Emission
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060958
Received: 20 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
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Abstract
This review introduces several areas of importance in acoustic emission (AE) technology, starting from signal attenuation. Signal loss is a critical issue in any large-scale AE monitoring, but few systematic studies have appeared. Information on damping and attenuation has been gathered from metal,
[...] Read more.
This review introduces several areas of importance in acoustic emission (AE) technology, starting from signal attenuation. Signal loss is a critical issue in any large-scale AE monitoring, but few systematic studies have appeared. Information on damping and attenuation has been gathered from metal, polymer, and composite fields to provide a useful method for AE monitoring. This is followed by discussion on source location, bridge monitoring, sensing and signal processing, and pressure vessels and tanks, then special applications are briefly covered. Here, useful information and valuable sources are identified with short comments indicating their significance. It is hoped that readers note developments in areas outside of their own specialty for possible cross-fertilization. Full article
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Open AccessReview Evaluation of Low-Temperature Cracking Performance of Asphalt Pavements Using Acoustic Emission: A Review
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020306
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
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Abstract
Low-temperature cracking is a major form of distress that can compromise the structural integrity of asphalt pavements located in cold regions. A review of an Acoustic Emission (AE)-based approach is presented that is capable of assessing the low-temperature cracking performance of asphalt binders
[...] Read more.
Low-temperature cracking is a major form of distress that can compromise the structural integrity of asphalt pavements located in cold regions. A review of an Acoustic Emission (AE)-based approach is presented that is capable of assessing the low-temperature cracking performance of asphalt binders and asphalt pavement materials through determining their embrittlement temperatures. A review of the background and fundamental aspects of the AE-based approach with a brief overview of its application to estimate low-temperature performance of unaged, short-term, and long-term aged binders, as well as asphalt materials, is presented. The application of asphalt pavements containing recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) and recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) materials to thermal cracking assessment is also presented and discussed. Using the Felicity effect, the approach is capable of evaluating the self-healing characteristics of asphalt pavements and the effect of cooling cycles upon their fracture behavior. Using an iterative AE source location technique, the approach is also used to evaluate the efficiency of rejuvenators, which can restore aged asphalt pavements to their original crack-resistant state. Results indicate that AE allows for relatively rapid and inexpensive characterization of pavement materials and can be used towards enhancing pavement sustainability and resiliency to thermal loading. Full article
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