Special Issue "Biofilm Infection"

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A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Gordon Ramage (Website)

Infection and Immunity Research Group, Glasgow Dental School, School of Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, 378 Sauchiehall Street, Glasgow, G2 3JZ, UK
Interests: biofilms; candida; aspergillus; oral; respiratory; biomaterial; resistance; antibiotic; antifungals; naturals
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Craig Williams (Website)

Institute of Healthcare Associated Infection, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, UK
Interests: the role of biofilms in human infection; treatment of infection in immunocompromised patients; the role of the built environment in the transmission of healthcare associated infection
Guest Editor
Dr. Karen Smith (Website)

Institute for Healthcare Associated Infections, University of the West of Scotland, Ayr, UK
Interests: resistance; chronic biofilm infections; novel antimicrobials; wounds; respiratory tract

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In clinical microbiology when chemotherapeutic management fails, there is a tendency to focus on defined antimicrobial resistance mechanisms related to inheritable genetic traits. However, it is increasingly apparent that treatment failure may be related to microbial biofilms, which are an increasingly important clinical problem. Microbial biofilms are complex and heterogeneous structures encased within extrapolymeric matrix, and cells encased within, exhibit dramatic change in their resistance profiles compared to free-floating counterparts by adapting to their environment and changing their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics accordingly.

While our understanding of the basic biology of microbial biofilms has greatly improved, we still face challenges in developing effective clinical management strategies. Some key areas still require exploration:

  1. How do we diagnose biofilm related infections more effectively?
  2. What is the impact of biofilms on clinical outcomes?
  3. How do we manage polymicrobial biofilm infection?
  4. Are there methods to augment existing chemotherapeutic strategies?
  5. Does sub-optimal treatment of biofilms make them more pathogenic?

"Antibiotics" will publish a special issue focusing on the clinical management of biofilm related infections. It is our pleasure to invite submissions of high quality research based papers related to the questions mentioned above.

Prof. Dr. Gordon Ramage
Prof. Dr. Craig Williams
Dr. Karen Smith
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Novel Organo-Selenium Bandage that Inhibits Biofilm Development in a Wound by Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Wound Pathogens
Antibiotics 2014, 3(3), 435-449; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3030435
Received: 30 April 2014 / Revised: 7 August 2014 / Accepted: 19 August 2014 / Published: 25 August 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1807 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biofilm formation in wounds is a serious problem which inhibits proper wound healing. One possible contributor to biofilm formation in a wound is the bacteria growing within the overlying bandage. To test this mechanism, we used bandages that contained a coating of [...] Read more.
Biofilm formation in wounds is a serious problem which inhibits proper wound healing. One possible contributor to biofilm formation in a wound is the bacteria growing within the overlying bandage. To test this mechanism, we used bandages that contained a coating of organo-selenium that was covalently attached to the bandage. We tested the ability of this coating to kill bacteria on the bandage and in the underlying tissue. The bandage material was tested with both lab strains and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis. It was found that the organo-selenium coated bandage showed inhibition, of biofilm formation on the bandage in vitro (7–8 logs), with all the different bacteria tested, at selenium concentrations in the coating of less than 1.0%. These coatings were found to remain stable for over one month in aqueous solution, 15 min in boiling water, and over 6 years at room temperature. The bandages were also tested on a mouse wound model where the bacteria were injected between the bandage and the wound. Not only did the selenium bandage inhibit biofilm formation in the bandage, but it also inhibited biofilm formation in the wound tissue. Since selenium does not leave the bandage, this would appear to support the idea that a major player in wound biofilm formation is bacteria which grows in the overlying bandage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilm Infection)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Sub-Optimal Treatment of Bacterial Biofilms
Antibiotics 2016, 5(2), 23; doi:10.3390/antibiotics5020023
Received: 12 November 2015 / Revised: 8 May 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
PDF Full-text (255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacterial biofilm is an emerging clinical problem recognized in the treatment of infectious diseases within the last two decades. The appearance of microbial biofilm in clinical settings is steadily increasing due to several reasons including the increased use of quality of life-improving [...] Read more.
Bacterial biofilm is an emerging clinical problem recognized in the treatment of infectious diseases within the last two decades. The appearance of microbial biofilm in clinical settings is steadily increasing due to several reasons including the increased use of quality of life-improving artificial devices. In contrast to infections caused by planktonic bacteria that respond relatively well to standard antibiotic therapy, biofilm-forming bacteria tend to cause chronic infections whereby infections persist despite seemingly adequate antibiotic therapy. This review briefly describes the responses of biofilm matrix components and biofilm-associated bacteria towards sub-lethal concentrations of antimicrobial agents, which may include the generation of genetic and phenotypic variabilities. Clinical implications of bacterial biofilms in relation to antibiotic treatments are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilm Infection)
Open AccessReview Going beyond the Control of Quorum-Sensing to Combat Biofilm Infections
Antibiotics 2016, 5(1), 3; doi:10.3390/antibiotics5010003
Received: 12 October 2015 / Revised: 27 November 2015 / Accepted: 30 December 2015 / Published: 9 January 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most bacteria attach to surfaces where they form a biofilm, cells embedded in a complex matrix of polymers. Cells in biofilms are much better protected against noxious agents than free-living cells. As a consequence it is very difficult to control pathogens with [...] Read more.
Most bacteria attach to surfaces where they form a biofilm, cells embedded in a complex matrix of polymers. Cells in biofilms are much better protected against noxious agents than free-living cells. As a consequence it is very difficult to control pathogens with antibiotics in biofilm infections and novel targets are urgently needed. One approach aims at the communication between cells to form and to maintain a biofilm, a process called quorum-sensing. Water soluble small-sized molecules mediate this process and a number of antagonists of these compounds have been found. In this review natural compounds and synthetic drugs which do not interfere with the classical quorum-sensing compounds are discussed. For some of these compounds the targets are still not known, but others interfere with the formation of exopolysaccharides, virulence factors, or cell wall synthesis or they start an internal program of biofilm dispersal. Some of their targets are more conserved among pathogens than the receptors for quorum sensing autoinducers mediating quorum-sensing, enabling a broader application of the drug. The broad spectrum of mechanisms, the diversity of bioactive compounds, their activity against several targets, and the conservation of some targets among bacterial pathogens are promising aspects for several clinical applications of this type of biofilm-controlling compound in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilm Infection)
Open AccessReview Foreign Body Infection Models to Study Host-Pathogen Response and Antimicrobial Tolerance of Bacterial Biofilm
Antibiotics 2014, 3(3), 378-397; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3030378
Received: 2 April 2014 / Revised: 1 July 2014 / Accepted: 6 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1139 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The number of implanted medical devices is steadily increasing and has become an effective intervention improving life quality, but still carries the risk of infection. These infections are mainly caused by biofilm-forming staphylococci that are difficult to treat due to the decreased [...] Read more.
The number of implanted medical devices is steadily increasing and has become an effective intervention improving life quality, but still carries the risk of infection. These infections are mainly caused by biofilm-forming staphylococci that are difficult to treat due to the decreased susceptibility to both antibiotics and host defense mechanisms. To understand the particular pathogenesis and treatment tolerance of implant-associated infection (IAI) animal models that closely resemble human disease are needed. Applications of the tissue cage and catheter abscess foreign body infection models in the mouse will be discussed herein. Both models allow the investigation of biofilm and virulence of various bacterial species and a comprehensive insight into the host response at the same time. They have also been proven to serve as very suitable tools to study the anti-adhesive and anti-infective efficacy of different biomaterial coatings. The tissue cage model can additionally be used to determine pharmacokinetics, efficacy and cytotoxicity of antimicrobial compounds as the tissue cage fluid can be aspirated repeatedly without the need to sacrifice the animal. Moreover, with the advance in innovative imaging systems in rodents, these models may offer new diagnostic measures of infection. In summary, animal foreign body infection models are important tools in the development of new antimicrobials against IAI and can help to elucidate the complex interactions between bacteria, the host immune system, and prosthetic materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilm Infection)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessConcept Paper Bacteriophages and Biofilms
Antibiotics 2014, 3(3), 270-284; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3030270
Received: 25 April 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 25 June 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (851 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biofilms are an extremely common adaptation, allowing bacteria to colonize hostile environments. They present unique problems for antibiotics and biocides, both due to the nature of the extracellular matrix and to the presence within the biofilm of metabolically inactive persister cells. Such [...] Read more.
Biofilms are an extremely common adaptation, allowing bacteria to colonize hostile environments. They present unique problems for antibiotics and biocides, both due to the nature of the extracellular matrix and to the presence within the biofilm of metabolically inactive persister cells. Such chemicals can be highly effective against planktonic bacterial cells, while being essentially ineffective against biofilms. By contrast, bacteriophages seem to have a greater ability to target this common form of bacterial growth. The high numbers of bacteria present within biofilms actually facilitate the action of bacteriophages by allowing rapid and efficient infection of the host and consequent amplification of the bacteriophage. Bacteriophages also have a number of properties that make biofilms susceptible to their action. They are known to produce (or to be able to induce) enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix. They are also able to infect persister cells, remaining dormant within them, but re-activating when they become metabolically active. Some cultured biofilms also seem better able to support the replication of bacteriophages than comparable planktonic systems. It is perhaps unsurprising that bacteriophages, as the natural predators of bacteria, have the ability to target this common form of bacterial life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilm Infection)
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