Open AccessArticle
Responses of Bed Morphology to Vegetation Growth and Flood Discharge at a Sharp River Bend
Water 2018, 10(2), 223; doi:10.3390/w10020223 -
Abstract
In this study, we conducted simulations using a two-dimensional, depth-averaged river flow and river morphology model to investigate the effect of vegetation growth and degree of flow discharge on a shallow meandering channel. To consider the effects of these factors, it was assumed
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In this study, we conducted simulations using a two-dimensional, depth-averaged river flow and river morphology model to investigate the effect of vegetation growth and degree of flow discharge on a shallow meandering channel. To consider the effects of these factors, it was assumed that vegetation growth stage is changed by water flow and bed erosion. The non-uniformity of the vegetation growth was induced by the non-uniform and unsteady profile of the water depth due to the irregular shape of the bed elevation and the unsteady flow model reliant on hydrographs to evaluate three types of peak discharges: moderate flow, annual average maximum flow, and extreme flow. To compare the effects of non-uniform growing vegetation, the change in channel patterns was quantified using the Active Braiding Index (ABI), which indicates the average number of channels with flowing water at a cross section and the Bed Relief Index (BRI), which quantifies the degree of irregularity of the cross-sectional shape. Two types of erosion were identified: local erosion (due to increased flow velocity near a vegetation area) and global erosion (due to the discharge approaching peak and the large depth of the channel). This paper demonstrated that the growth of vegetation increases both the ABI and BRI when the peak discharge is lower than the annual average discharge, whereas the growth of vegetation reduces the BRI when the peak discharge is extreme. However, under extreme discharge, the ABI decreases because global erosion is dominant. The conclusions from this study help to deepen the understanding of the interactions between curved river channels and vegetation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Multivariate Hybrid Modelling of Future Wave-Storms at the Northwestern Black Sea
Water 2018, 10(2), 221; doi:10.3390/w10020221 -
Abstract
The characterization of future wave-storms and their relationship to large-scale climate can provide useful information for environmental or urban planning at coastal areas. A hybrid methodology (process-based and statistical) was used to characterize the extreme wave-climate at the northwestern Black Sea. The Simulating
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The characterization of future wave-storms and their relationship to large-scale climate can provide useful information for environmental or urban planning at coastal areas. A hybrid methodology (process-based and statistical) was used to characterize the extreme wave-climate at the northwestern Black Sea. The Simulating WAve Nearshore spectral wave-model was employed to produce wave-climate projections, forced with wind-fields projections for two climate change scenarios: Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5. A non-stationary multivariate statistical model was built, considering significant wave-height and peak-wave-period at the peak of the wave-storm, as well as storm total energy and storm-duration. The climate indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic Pattern, and Scandinavian Pattern have been used as covariates to link to storminess, wave-storm threshold, and wave-storm components in the statistical model. The results show that, first, under both RCP scenarios, the mean values of significant wave-height and peak-wave-period at the peak of the wave-storm remain fairly constant over the 21st century. Second, the mean value of storm total energy is more markedly increasing in the RCP4.5 scenario than in the RCP8.5 scenario. Third, the mean value of storm-duration is increasing in the RCP4.5 scenario, as opposed to the constant trend in the RCP8.5 scenario. The variance of each wave-storm component increases when the corresponding mean value increases under both RCP scenarios. During the 21st century, the East Atlantic Pattern and changes in its pattern have a special influence on wave-storm conditions. Apart from the individual characteristics of each wave-storm component, wave-storms with both extreme energy and duration can be expected in the 21st century. The dependence between all the wave-storm components is moderate, but grows with time and, in general, the severe emission scenario of RCP8.5 presents less dependence between storm total energy and storm-duration and among wave-storm components. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Hydrological Responses to Various Land Use, Soil and Weather Inputs in Northern Lake Erie Basin in Canada
Water 2018, 10(2), 222; doi:10.3390/w10020222 -
Abstract
In the last decade, Lake Erie, one of the great lakes bordering Canada and the USA has been under serious threat due to increased phosphorus levels originating from agricultural fields. Large scale watersheds contributing to Lake Erie from the USA side are being
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In the last decade, Lake Erie, one of the great lakes bordering Canada and the USA has been under serious threat due to increased phosphorus levels originating from agricultural fields. Large scale watersheds contributing to Lake Erie from the USA side are being simulated using hydrological and water quality (H/WQ) models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the results from the model are being used by policy and decision makers to implement better management decisions to solve emerging phosphorus issues. On the Canadian side, modeling applications are limited to either small watersheds or one major watershed contributing to Lake Erie. To the best of our knowledge, no efforts have been made to model the entire contributing watersheds to Lake Erie from Canada. This study applied the SWAT model for Northern Lake Erie Basin (NLEB; entire contributing basin to Lake Erie). Various provincial, national and global inputs of weather, land use and soil at various resolutions was assessed to evaluate the effects of input data types on the simulation of hydrological processes and streamflows. Twelve scenarios were developed using the input combinations and selected scenarios were evaluated at selected locations along the Grand and Thames Rivers using model performance statistics, and graphical comparisons of time variable plots and flow duration curves (FDCs). In addition, various hydrological components such as surface runoff, water yield, and evapotranspiration were also evaluated. Global level coarse resolution weather and soil did not perform better compared to fine resolution national data. Interestingly, in the case of land use, global and national/provincial land use were close, however, fine resolution provincial data performed slightly better. This study found that interpolated weather data from Environment Canada climate station observations performed slightly better compared to the measured data and therefore could be a good choice to use for large-scale H/WQ modeling studies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources of the Bheri River Basin, Nepal
Water 2018, 10(2), 220; doi:10.3390/w10020220 -
Abstract
Streamflow alteration is one of the most noticeable effects of climate change. This study explored the effects of climate change on streamflow in the Bheri River using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. Three General Circulation Models (GCMs) under two Representative
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Streamflow alteration is one of the most noticeable effects of climate change. This study explored the effects of climate change on streamflow in the Bheri River using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. Three General Circulation Models (GCMs) under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs; 4.5 and 8.5) for the periods of 2020–2044, 2045–2069, and 2070–2099 were used to investigate the impact of climate change. Based on the ensemble of the three models, we observed an increasing trend in maximum and minimum temperatures at the rate of 0.025 °C/year and 0.033 °C/year, respectively, under RCP 4.5, and 0.065 °C/year and 0.071 °C/year under RCP 8.5 in the future. Similarly, annual rainfall will increase by 6.8–15.2% in the three future periods. The consequences of the increment in rainfall and temperature are reflected in the annual streamflow that is projected to increase by 6–12.5% when compared to the historical data of 1975–2005. However, on a monthly scale, runoff will decrease in July and August by up to 20% and increase in the dry period by up to 70%, which is favorable for water users. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Trophic State and Oxygen Conditions of Waters Aerated with Pulverising Aerator: The Results from Seven Lakes in Poland
Water 2018, 10(2), 219; doi:10.3390/w10020219 -
Abstract
Eutrophic lakes of all types are marked by oxygen shortage in the bottom waters during the summer season, which results in excessive release of phosphorus load. Therefore, numerous restoration activities (chemical precipitation, aeration) are being taken based on bottom-up control, which consists of
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Eutrophic lakes of all types are marked by oxygen shortage in the bottom waters during the summer season, which results in excessive release of phosphorus load. Therefore, numerous restoration activities (chemical precipitation, aeration) are being taken based on bottom-up control, which consists of limiting the nutrient pool available to lower trophic levels. The present study provides an efficiency analysis of pulverising aeration of waters in two stratified and five unstratified lakes located in Poland. The assessment was based on monitoring data (dissolved oxygen concentration (DO), % oxygen saturation (DO%), visibility of the Secchi disc (ZSD), the concentrations of: chlorophyll a (CHL), total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN)) obtained before and after installation of the aerator on the lakes. The study was conducted during the spring and the summer seasons. Throughout the study period, the stratified lakes exhibited oxygen saturation <0.1%. Having completed the restoration activities, TN:TP ratio was found to gradually increase in all analysed lakes, which indicates that aeration may decrease phosphate content in the water column. In three lakes, the ratio was > 17, so phosphorus became the most growth-limiting nutrient. The restoration activities on four unstratified lakes had no significant effect on the changes of the Carlson trophic state indices (TSI). Either individual values of the TSI(TP), TSI(CHL) and TSI(ZSD) were comparable, or the value of TSI(TP) was higher than one or both of the remaining indices for all of the lakes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Analysis of Exceptional Flood Events in the Context of Heavy Rains in the Summer of 2010: Siret Basin (NE Romania) Case Study
Water 2018, 10(2), 216; doi:10.3390/w10020216 -
Abstract
The Siret River crosses northeastern (NE) Romania from the north to the south, and it discharges into the Danube, near the city of Galati. Between 17 June and 10 July 2010, significant amounts of precipitations in the mountainous basin of Siret were recorded.
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The Siret River crosses northeastern (NE) Romania from the north to the south, and it discharges into the Danube, near the city of Galati. Between 17 June and 10 July 2010, significant amounts of precipitations in the mountainous basin of Siret were recorded. The floods comprised two periods with four bimodal cycles, and they were counted as among the strongest on the Romanian territory. The exceptional floods occurred in the rivers of Siret, Suceava, Moldova, Bistrita, Trotus, and so on. The most important compound flood wave was determined by the precipitations, which fell between 29 June and 1 July 2010, when significant amounts of rain were recorded, sometimes exceeding 80 mm/day. The high discharges on the Bistrita River—downstream from the Bicaz Reservoir—were controlled by complex hydro-technical works. The maximum discharge for summer floods in the year 2010 was recorded at the Dragesti hydrometric station: 2884 m3/s (historic discharge) compared with the preceding historic discharge (2850 m3/s) of the year 2008. The effects of floods were strongest in the counties of Suceava, Neamt, and Bacau. The floods on the main course of the Siret River were analyzed in correlation with the tributaries within the mountainous sector. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study on the Palatability Impacts of Potable Water as a Hydronic Medium
Water 2018, 10(2), 218; doi:10.3390/w10020218 -
Abstract
Hydronic systems installed in buildings utilize water to transport thermal energy within the building for heating and cooling purposes. These systems can be closed loop, where the water is chemically treated and circulated indefinitely, or they can be open loop, where the water
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Hydronic systems installed in buildings utilize water to transport thermal energy within the building for heating and cooling purposes. These systems can be closed loop, where the water is chemically treated and circulated indefinitely, or they can be open loop, where the water is not treated and is effluxed as a result of occupant activities, such as bathing or cooking. Water in an open loop system may circulate within the system for a limited time before it is extracted from the system by occupant activities and replaced with new water from the local water supply. The implementation of open loop hydronic systems is becoming more common in multi-unit residential buildings, even though a number of questions regarding the use of such systems remain unanswered. One concern regarding the use of circulated potable water for heating purposes is the potential effects on the occupant perceptions of the palatability of the service water being delivered to their suites. In an open-loop HVAC system (Heating Ventilating, Air Conditioning System), heating water is subject to repeated thermal cycles and continuous recirculation, which creates the potential for chemical alterations of the materials present in the water or leaching of materials from the equipment and piping. Through the use of Flavor Profile Analysis (FPA) established by the American Water Works Association, and a multi-unit HVAC system constructed in a controlled environment, the palatability effects of the operational system were evaluated for a number of scenarios. The collected feedback from the study participants was then tabulated to quantify the impacts of using potable water as a recirculating heating medium on the perceptions of the occupants. The resulting observations led us to conclude that utilizing potable water as a heating medium has a negligible effect on the palatability of water in the system for average retention times under one day, and a non-objectionable, but noticeable, effect for higher average retention times. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Sediment Impact on the Risk of River Diversion during Dam Construction: A Simulation-Based Project Study on the Jing River, China
Water 2018, 10(2), 217; doi:10.3390/w10020217 -
Abstract
Dams are vital for water resource utilization, and river diversion is key for dam construction safety. As sandy river basins are important exploitation areas that have special diversion features, the impact of sediment on the risk of river diversion during dam construction should
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Dams are vital for water resource utilization, and river diversion is key for dam construction safety. As sandy river basins are important exploitation areas that have special diversion features, the impact of sediment on the risk of river diversion during dam construction should be assessed. Diversion uncertainty is the origin of diversion risk, and sediment uncertainty changes the storage and discharge patterns of the diversion system. Two Gumbel–Hougaard (GH) copula functions are adopted to couple the random variables of flood and sediment, so that the sediment impacts on diversion storage and discharge can be obtained by the sampling of flood peaks. Based on variable coupling and sediment amendment, a method of Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) with a water balance calculation can quantitatively assess the risk of sandy river diversion, by evaluating the probability of upstream cofferdam overtopping. By introducing one diversion project on the Jing River in China with a clear water contrast, the risk values of dam construction diversion with or without sediment impacts can be obtained. Results show that the MCS method is feasible for diversion risk assessment; sediment has a negative impact on the risk of river diversion during dam construction, and this degradation effect is more evident for high-assurance diversion schemes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effective Removal of Lead Ions from Aqueous Solution Using Nano Illite/Smectite Clay: Isotherm, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Modeling of Adsorption
Water 2018, 10(2), 210; doi:10.3390/w10020210 -
Abstract
Illite-smectite clay is a new mixed mineral of illite and montmorillonite. The ability of nano illite/smectite clay to remove Pb(II) from slightly polluted aqueous solutions has been investigated. The effects of pH, contact time, initial concentration of Pb(II), nano illite/smectite clay dosage, and
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Illite-smectite clay is a new mixed mineral of illite and montmorillonite. The ability of nano illite/smectite clay to remove Pb(II) from slightly polluted aqueous solutions has been investigated. The effects of pH, contact time, initial concentration of Pb(II), nano illite/smectite clay dosage, and temperature on the adsorption process were studied. The nano illite/smectite clay was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that Pb(II) was adsorbed efficiently by nano illite/smectite clay in aqueous solution. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model best described the kinetic of the adsorption, and the adsorption capacity of nano illite/smectite (I-Sm) clay was found to be 256.41 μg·g−1 for Pb(II). The adsorption patterns followed the Langmuir isotherm model. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS) changes, indicated that the present adsorption process was feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic in the temperature range of 298–333 K. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Integrated Assessment of Novel Urban Water Infrastructures in Frankfurt am Main and Hamburg, Germany
Water 2018, 10(2), 211; doi:10.3390/w10020211 -
Abstract
Existing urban water infrastructures need to be modified if they are to cope with such challenges as demographic change, energy sufficiency and resource efficiency. It is believed that less centralised and hence more flexible systems adapt better to changing conditions. The main goal
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Existing urban water infrastructures need to be modified if they are to cope with such challenges as demographic change, energy sufficiency and resource efficiency. It is believed that less centralised and hence more flexible systems adapt better to changing conditions. The main goal of this paper is to compare conventional and novel urban water infrastructures in five model areas in two German cities with regard to their sustainability. The novel technical options comprise modules such as blackwater and greywater separation, treatment and reuse as well as heat recovery, which are believed to be much more resource efficient than conventional systems. An assessment framework was developed which is able to comprehend corresponding transformation processes. An integrated assessment was conducted using multi-criteria decision analysis. The assessment results show that no particular technical option prevails over all the others and that the performance of the various options in the assessment is influenced by the general conditions found in the model areas. However, it can be concluded that novel water infrastructures can compete with or even perform better than conventional ones, especially when ecological and social criteria are emphasized. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Calibration of Spatially Distributed Hydrological Processes and Model Parameters in SWAT Using Remote Sensing Data and an Auto-Calibration Procedure: A Case Study in a Vietnamese River Basin
Water 2018, 10(2), 212; doi:10.3390/w10020212 -
Abstract
In this paper, evapotranspiration (ET) and leaf area index (LAI) were used to calibrate the SWAT model, whereas remotely sensed precipitation and other climatic parameters were used as forcing data for the 6300 km2 Day Basin, a tributary of the Red River
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In this paper, evapotranspiration (ET) and leaf area index (LAI) were used to calibrate the SWAT model, whereas remotely sensed precipitation and other climatic parameters were used as forcing data for the 6300 km2 Day Basin, a tributary of the Red River in Vietnam. The efficacy of the Sequential Uncertainty Fitting (SUFI-2) parameter sensitivity and optimization model was tested with area specific remote sensing input parameters for every Hydrological Response Units (HRU), rather than with measurements of river flow representing a large set of HRUs, i.e., a bulk calibration. Simulated monthly ET correlations with remote sensing estimates showed an R2 = 0.71, Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency NSE = 0.65, and Kling Gupta Efficiency KGE = 0.80 while monthly LAI showed correlations of R2 = 0.59, NSE = 0.57 and KGE = 0.83 over a five-year validation period. Accumulated modelled ET over the 5-year calibration period amounted to 5713 mm compared to 6015 mm of remotely sensed ET, yielding a difference of 302 mm (5.3%). The monthly flow at two flow measurement stations were adequately estimated (R2 = 0.78 and 0.55, NSE = 0.71 and 0.63, KGE = 0.59 and 0.75 for Phu Ly and Ninh Binh, respectively). This outcome demonstrates the capability of SWAT model to obtain spatial and accurate simulation of eco-hydrological processes, also when rivers are ungauged and the water withdrawal system is complex. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Validation of Satellite Estimates (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, TRMM) for Rainfall Variability over the Pacific Slope and Coast of Ecuador
Water 2018, 10(2), 213; doi:10.3390/w10020213 -
Abstract
A dense rain-gauge network within continental Ecuador was used to evaluate the quality of various products of rainfall data over the Pacific slope and coast of Ecuador (EPSC). A cokriging interpolation method is applied to the rain-gauge data yielding a gridded product at
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A dense rain-gauge network within continental Ecuador was used to evaluate the quality of various products of rainfall data over the Pacific slope and coast of Ecuador (EPSC). A cokriging interpolation method is applied to the rain-gauge data yielding a gridded product at 5-km resolution covering the period 1965–2015. This product is compared with the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) dataset, the Climatic Research Unit–University of East Anglia (CRU) dataset, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM/TMPA 3B43 Version 7) dataset and the ERA-Interim Reanalysis. The analysis reveals that TRMM data show the most realistic features. The relative bias index (Rbias) indicates that TRMM data is closer to the observations, mainly over lowlands (mean Rbias of 7%) but have more limitations in reproducing the rainfall variability over the Andes (mean Rbias of −28%). The average RMSE and Rbias of 68.7 and −2.8% of TRMM are comparable with the GPCC (69.8 and 5.7%) and CRU (102.3 and −2.3%) products. This study also focuses on the rainfall inter-annual variability over the study region which experiences floods that have caused high economic losses during extreme El Niño events. Finally, our analysis evaluates the ability of TRMM data to reproduce rainfall events during El Niño years over the study area and the large basins of Esmeraldas and Guayas rivers. The results show that TRMM estimates report reasonable levels of heavy rainfall detection (for the extreme 1998 El Niño event) over the EPSC and specifically towards the center-south of the EPSC (Guayas basin) but present underestimations for the moderate El Niño of 2002–2003 event and the weak 2009–2010 event. Generally, the rainfall seasonal features, quantity and long-term climatology patterns are relatively well estimated by TRMM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Economic Feasibility of Underwater Adduction of Rivers for Metropolises in Semiarid Coastal Environments: Case Studies
Water 2018, 10(2), 215; doi:10.3390/w10020215 -
Abstract
The supply of raw water to the inhabitants of metropolises is not a trivial problem, and involves many challenges, both in terms of the quantity and quality of this water. When these metropolises are located in semiarid regions, this challenge takes on enormous
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The supply of raw water to the inhabitants of metropolises is not a trivial problem, and involves many challenges, both in terms of the quantity and quality of this water. When these metropolises are located in semiarid regions, this challenge takes on enormous proportions, and in many situations, there are no sustainable solutions, especially in times of global climate change. One hypothesis to try to mitigate this problem in coastal cities is the underwater adduction of rivers. The objective of this paper was to make the abstraction of drinking water in the mouths of great rivers near semi-arid regions. This water would be led by a pipeline below the water level and would follow the route of the seacoast, where the energy to move the water would be supplied by an axial hydraulic pump embedded in the pipeline by water-cooled electric motors driven by the energy generated from offshore wind turbines. Estimates have been made for the four metropolises in semi-arid regions: Fortaleza-Brazil, Dalian-China, Tel Aviv-Israel, and Gaza-Palestine, where it was possible to calculate economic viability through the Present Worth Value, the internal rate of return, and payback. The results indicated that Fortaleza had economic viability under restrictions. Dalian proved the ideal result. Tel Aviv and Gaza both had great economic viability, but only if Egypt agreed to supply water from the Nile. This paper proved that the management of the water supply for human consumption through the underwater adduction of rivers could be achieved with real clearance for any deficits in the volume of water that due to global climate change are becoming more frequent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Skin Effect of Fresh Water Measured Using Distributed Temperature Sensing
Water 2018, 10(2), 214; doi:10.3390/w10020214 -
Abstract
A phenomenon known as the skin effect—a layer of surface water that is colder than the water beneath it—was previously described in oceanography and verified in lab measurements. Only a few measurements have been done on the skin effect in field conditions, and
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A phenomenon known as the skin effect—a layer of surface water that is colder than the water beneath it—was previously described in oceanography and verified in lab measurements. Only a few measurements have been done on the skin effect in field conditions, and therefore this phenomenon is relatively unknown. This paper presents measurements of the skin effect for three fresh water bodies in the Netherlands, Israel and Ghana. Using Distributed Temperature Sensing, high temporal and spatial resolution measurements were made below, at and above the air–water surface. Measurements presented in this study suggest that the skin effect of fresh water bodies is predominantly a daytime phenomenon and only occurs during low to zero wind speeds. The thickness of the skin effect was measured to be an order of magnitude larger than the previously assumed less than 1 mm. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Filtering Capability of Porous Asphalt Pavements
Water 2018, 10(2), 206; doi:10.3390/w10020206 -
Abstract
The objective of this study is to assess the filtering capability of porous asphalt pavement models and the quality of rainwater filtered by such models. Three slabs of porous asphalt mixtures and two models composed of porous layers that resulted in porous pavement
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The objective of this study is to assess the filtering capability of porous asphalt pavement models and the quality of rainwater filtered by such models. Three slabs of porous asphalt mixtures and two models composed of porous layers that resulted in porous pavement structures were produced. Data were collected in two phases: using rainwater directly from the sky and then using stormwater runoff collected from a street. Parameters such as pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, phosphorus, nitrite, aluminium, chromium, copper, zinc, and iron were measured. For both rainwater and stormwater runoff quality analyses, there was an increase in the concentration of the following parameters: phosphorus, iron, aluminium, zinc, nitrite, chromium, copper, and pH; there was no significant variation in the concentration of dissolved oxygen; and there was a decrease in ammonia in one of the models. However, the concentrations of only phosphorus and aluminium exceeded the limits established by the Brazilian National Environmental Council and National Water Agency for the use of non-potable water. The models were capable of filtering rainwater and stormwater runoff, and reducing the concentration of ammonia. It can be concluded that it is possible to collect stormwater runoff from porous asphalt surfaces and porous asphalt pavements. Porous asphalt pavements are able to filter out certain pollutants from stormwater runoff and rainwater, and were shown to be an alternative to supply rainwater for non-potable uses and to recharge the water table. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Redrawing Soil Salinity Innovation-Focused Stakeholder Interaction for Sustainable Land Management in Khorezm Province, Uzbekistan
Water 2018, 10(2), 208; doi:10.3390/w10020208 -
Abstract
Addressing soil salinity in irrigated drylands is tightly linked with water and land management decisions thus requiring interdisciplinary engagement. The salinity mapping approaches in Central Asia are undertaken through field sampling and laboratory analysis, which is a time consuming process. As a consequence,
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Addressing soil salinity in irrigated drylands is tightly linked with water and land management decisions thus requiring interdisciplinary engagement. The salinity mapping approaches in Central Asia are undertaken through field sampling and laboratory analysis, which is a time consuming process. As a consequence, salinity maps are not available on time to estimate water requirements to cope with varying levels of soil salinity. Reducing the time lag between assessment and delivery of such maps would enable authorities to determine in advance appropriate water volumes for leaching the salts before and during the growing season. Research initiated in Uzbekistan context explored transdisciplinary and participatory approach to innovation development with local stakeholders. As one of the innovations, an electromagnetic induction meter (EM), a tool for rapid salinity assessment, was chosen and jointly with local salinity mapping related institutions tested, validated, and local capacities for its use developed. This paper redraws this process of innovation-focused stakeholder interaction and transdisciplinary research and discusses it with reference to ongoing debates on participatory and/or transdisciplinary innovation research. The existence of strong path dependencies within implementation oriented organizations could be observed, meaning that the innovation demands many changes to the existing system. Furthermore, the encountered challenges of participatory, transdisciplinary research in the hierarchically shaped setting of post-soviet Uzbekistan are illustrated in selected qualitative field notes and assessed. For improved joint learning and research in a transdisciplinary team, feedback cycles of mutual learning and critical reflection of how to theoretically and practically work in a transdisciplinary manner turned out to be crucial and not to be underestimated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Irrigated Agriculture Vulnerability under Climate Change in Southern Italy
Water 2018, 10(2), 209; doi:10.3390/w10020209 -
Abstract
Climate change in Mediterranean countries is anticipated to have a strong impact on water availability by exacerbating drought conditions and water scarcity. In this context, efficient irrigation practices are becoming essential for sustaining crop production. This work assesses vulnerability of irrigated agriculture for
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Climate change in Mediterranean countries is anticipated to have a strong impact on water availability by exacerbating drought conditions and water scarcity. In this context, efficient irrigation practices are becoming essential for sustaining crop production. This work assesses vulnerability of irrigated agriculture for six irrigation districts and their associated reservoirs in Mediterranean areas across Italy under climate change (1976–2005 versus 2036–2065; RCP 4.5 and 8.5), evaluating changes in irrigation requirements, evaporation from reservoirs, and the availability of freshwater supplies. Irrigation requirements are estimated through a crop water model (SIMETAW_R) integrated into a GIS platform, while inflows to reservoirs are hydrologically modelled as partitioning of precipitation contributing to runoff. Results are aggregated into indicators that show the general decreasing resilience and increasing vulnerability of irrigated agriculture under climate change conditions in each case study. The highest percentage of allowable water losses for irrigation is estimated in the Cuga-Alto Temo system, during the prolonged drought period, to be able to satisfy irrigation demand for less than a year. Climate change may only partially affect irrigation in resilient systems, in which storage capacity and the water level entering into the reservoir are considerably higher than the water distribution volumes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Significance of the Spatial Variability of Rainfall on the Numerical Simulation of Urban Floods
Water 2018, 10(2), 207; doi:10.3390/w10020207 -
Abstract
The growth of urban population, combined with an increase of extreme events due to climate change call for a better understanding and representation of urban floods. The uncertainty in rainfall distribution is one of the most important factors that affects the watershed response
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The growth of urban population, combined with an increase of extreme events due to climate change call for a better understanding and representation of urban floods. The uncertainty in rainfall distribution is one of the most important factors that affects the watershed response to a given precipitation event. However, most of the investigations on this topic have considered theoretical scenarios, with little reference to case studies in the real world. This paper incorporates the use of spatially-variable precipitation data from a long-range radar in the simulation of the severe floods that impacted the city of Hull, U.K., in June 2007. This radar-based rainfall field is merged with rain gauge data using a ked interpolation technique. The utility of this spatially-variable information is investigated through the comparison of computed flooded areas (uniform and radar) against those registered by public authorities. Both results show similar skills at reproducing the real event, but differences in the total precipitated volumes, water depths and flooded areas are illustrated. It is envisaged that in urban areas and with the advent of higher resolution radars, these differences will be more important and call for further investigation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Floating Photocatalysts for Passive Solar Degradation of Naphthenic Acids in Oil Sands Process-Affected Water
Water 2018, 10(2), 202; doi:10.3390/w10020202 -
Abstract
Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), generated from bitumen extraction in the Canadian oil sands, may require treatment to enable safe discharge to receiving watersheds, as dissolved naphthenic acids (NAs) and other acid extractable organics (AEO), identified as the primary toxic components of OSPW,
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Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), generated from bitumen extraction in the Canadian oil sands, may require treatment to enable safe discharge to receiving watersheds, as dissolved naphthenic acids (NAs) and other acid extractable organics (AEO), identified as the primary toxic components of OSPW, are environmentally persistent and poorly biodegradable. However, conventional advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are impractically expensive to treat the volumes of OSPW stockpiled in the Athabasca region. Here we prepared floating photocatalysts (FPCs) by immobilizing TiO2 on glass microbubbles, such that the composite particles float at the air-water interface for passive solar photocatalysis. The FPCs were demonstrated to outperform P25 TiO2 nanoparticles in degrading AEO in raw OSPW under natural sunlight and gentle mixing conditions. The FPCs were also found to be recyclable for multiple uses through simple flotation and skimming. This paper thus demonstrates the concept of a fully passive AOP that may be scalable to oil sands water treatment challenges, achieving efficient NA reduction solely through the energy provided by sunlight and natural mixing processes (wind and waves). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Distribution Properties of a Measurement Series of River Water Temperature at Different Time Resolution Levels (Based on the Example of the Lowland River Noteć, Poland)
Water 2018, 10(2), 203; doi:10.3390/w10020203 -
Abstract
The paper investigates the distribution properties of measurement series of river water temperatures for the lowland River Noteć and its tributaries (Western Poland), as well as air temperatures at different data time resolution levels (1987–2013). The aspect of distribution normality was examined in
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The paper investigates the distribution properties of measurement series of river water temperatures for the lowland River Noteć and its tributaries (Western Poland), as well as air temperatures at different data time resolution levels (1987–2013). The aspect of distribution normality was examined in quantile plots, the series’ stationarity was assessed with an augmented Dickey-Fuller test, while autocorrelation was studied using an Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model. It was demonstrated that distributions of river water and air temperature series at different levels of analyses are generally close to normal but also display a certain skewness. Both daily temperature measurement series are stationary series. The periodic component accounts for about 93% (water temperature) and 77% (air temperature) of the daily variability of the variable, while the random factor equals 6–7% and 22%, respectively. The Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model confirmed a clear annual seasonality in temperature distribution and indicated the long memory of the autoregressive process AR (2–4). The temperature prediction performed on the basis of a 4th-order Fourier series is consistent with the course of historical data. In the multiannual period 1987–2013, particularly high maximum temperatures were recorded for the Upper Noteć in the summer half-years (28.4 °C); these are related to anthropogenic factors and increase the threat to the existence of cyprinids and salmonids. The thermal anomalies identified in the River Noteć clearly point to the necessity of intensifying the monitoring of its waters. Full article
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