Water2015, 7(2), 438-454; doi:10.3390/w7020438 (registering DOI) - published 30 January 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This study proposes a simplified model for non-riverine flood routing using a digital elevation model. The model has the advantage of running with only a few types of input, such as topographic data and cumulative rainfall. Given its ease of use, the model is stable and reliable for developing a real-time inundation forecasting system. This model uses two approaches to determine the collection of cells from which flooding is assumed to originate: (1) A traditional “lowest-elevation approach” that assumes flooding originates from the lowest elevations and that is only based on topographic data; and (2) a novel “D-infinity contributing area approach” that assumes flooding originates at the cells toward which the flow moves and that considers in situ topography and upslope information. The flood water is transferred based on the flat-water assumption that the water levels of adjacent cells are equalized. The performance was evaluated by comparing the simulated results with those from a complex inundation model. The simplified model with the lowest elevation assumption has limited applicability in flat areas and did not provide reasonable locations of the source of the flood. The D-infinity approach can improve the simplified inundation model and extend its application in various topographical areas.
Water2015, 7(2), 420-437; doi:10.3390/w7020420 - published 29 January 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Detailed modeling of floodplain flows and associated processes requires data on mixed, heterogeneous vegetation at river reach scale, though the collection of vegetation data is typically limited in resolution or lack spatial information. This study investigates physically-based characterization of mixed floodplain vegetation by means of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The work aimed at developing an approach for deriving the characteristic reference areas of herbaceous and foliated woody vegetation, and estimating the vertical distribution of woody vegetation. Detailed experimental data on vegetation properties were gathered both in a floodplain site for herbaceous vegetation, and under laboratory conditions for 2–3 m tall trees. The total plant area (Atot) of woody vegetation correlated linearly with the TLS-based voxel count, whereas the Atot of herbaceous vegetation showed a linear correlation with TLS-based vegetation mean height. For woody vegetation, 1 cm voxel size was found suitable for estimating both the Atot and its vertical distribution. A new concept was proposed for deriving Atot for larger areas from the point cloud attributes of small sub-areas. The results indicated that the relationships between the TLS attributes and Atot of the sub-areas can be derived either by mm resolution TLS or by manual vegetation sampling.
Water2015, 7(2), 398-419; doi:10.3390/w7020398 - published 23 January 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Hyporheic exchange carries reactive solutes, which may include biological oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO) and reactive dissolved inorganic nitrogen (Nr), into the sediment, where biochemical reactions consume DO. Here, we study the impact of streambed morphology, stream-reactive solute loads and their diel oscillations on the DO benthic uptake rate (BUR) due to hyporheic processes. Our model solves the hyporheic flow field and the solute transport equations analytically, within a Lagrangian framework, considering advection, longitudinal diffusion and reactions modeled as first order kinetics. The application of the model to DO field measurements over a gravel bar-pool sequence shows a good match with measured DO concentrations with an overall agreement of 58% and a kappa index of 0.46. We apply the model to investigate the effects of daily constant and sinusoidally time varying stream BOD, DO and Nr loads and of the morphodynamic parameters on BUR. Our modeling results show that BUR varies as a function of bedform size and of nutrient loads and that the hyporheic zone may consume up to 0.06% of the stream DO at the pool-riffle bedform scale. Daily oscillations of stream BOD and DO loads have small effects on BUR, but may have an important influence on local hyporheic processes and organisms’ distribution.
Water2015, 7(2), 377-397; doi:10.3390/w7020377 - published 23 January 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are now main stream wastewater treatment technologies. In recent times, novel pressure driven rotating membrane disc modules have been specially developed that induce high shear on the membrane surface, thereby reducing fouling. Previous research has produced dead-end filtration fouling model which combines all three classical mechanisms that was later used by another researcher as a starting point for a greatly refined model of a cross flow side-stream MBR that incorporated both hydrodynamics and soluble microbial products’ (SMP) effects. In this study, a comprehensive fouling model was created based on this earlier work that incorporated all three classical fouling mechanisms for a rotating MBR system. It was tested and validated for best fit using appropriate data sets. The initial model fit appeared good for all simulations, although it still needs to be calibrated using further appropriate data sets.
Water2015, 7(2), 362-376; doi:10.3390/w7020362 - published 22 January 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Land application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) is considered a promising low-cost practice for olive-oil producing countries. The objectives of this work were to investigate: (i) OMW treatment potential of a land treatment system (LTS), planted with a E. camaldulensis species, regarding N, P, C, and phenols; (ii) the effects of OMW on chemical properties of soil and soil solution characteristics; and (iii) the performance of E. camaldulensis in terms of biomass production and N and P recovery. E. camaldulensis received OMW for two growing seasons at rates based on maximum organic loading. These rates were almost equivalent to the reference evapotranspiration of the area. Soil solution and soil samples were collected from three different depths (15, 30 and 60 cm) at specified time intervals. -Also, samples of plant tissues were collected at the end of application periods. OMW land application resulted in significant reduction in inorganic and organic constituents of OMW. At 15 cm of soil profile, the average removal of COD, TKN, NH4+-N, TP, In-P, and total phenols approached 93%, 86%, 70%, 86%, 82%, and 85%, respectively, while an increase in soil depth (30 and 60 cm) did not improve significantly treatment efficiency. Furthermore, OMW increased soil organic matter (SOM), total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and available P, particularly in the upper soil layer. In contrast, low inorganic N content was observed in the soil throughout the study period caused probably by increased competition among soil microorganisms induced by the organic substrate supply and high C/N ratio. Also, electrical conductivity (EC) and SAR increased by OMW addition, but at levels that may do not pose severe risk for soil texture. Enhancement of soil fertility due to OMW application sustained eucalyptus trees and provided remarkable biomass yield. In conclusion, land application of OMW has a great potential for organic matter and phenol assimilation and can be effectively used for OMW detoxification.
Water2015, 7(1), 348-361; doi:10.3390/w7010348 - published 20 January 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Downscaled climate scenarios can be used to inform management decisions on investment in infrastructure or alternative water sources within water supply systems. Appropriate models of the system components, such as catchments, rivers, lakes and reservoirs, are required. The climatic sensitivity of the coupled hydrodynamic water quality model ELCOM-CAEDYM was investigated, by incrementally altering boundary conditions, to determine its suitability for evaluating climate change impacts. A series of simulations were run with altered boundary condition inputs for the reservoir. Air and inflowing water temperature (TEMP), wind speed (WIND) and reservoir inflow and outflow volumes (FLOW) were altered to investigate the sensitivity of these key drivers over relevant domains. The simulated water quality variables responded in broadly plausible ways to the altered boundary conditions; sensitivity of the simulated cyanobacteria population to increases in temperature was similar to published values. However the negative response of total chlorophyll-a suggested by the model was not supported by an empirical analysis of climatic sensitivity. This study demonstrated that ELCOM-CAEDYM is sensitive to climate drivers and may be suitable for use in climate impact studies. It is recommended that the influence of structural and parameter derived uncertainty on the results be evaluated. Important factors in determining phytoplankton growth were identified and the importance of inflowing water quality was emphasized.