Water2016, 8(7), 273; doi:10.3390/w8070273 (registering DOI) - published 29 June 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The benefits of public participation in water management are recognized by governments, scholars, and stakeholders. These benefits, however, do not result from all engagement endeavors. This leads to the question: What are the determinants for effective public participation? Given a list of criteria for achieving the transformational capacity of participation, we analyze the benefits (including the influence on public policies) gained through public participation and the determinant factors for obtaining these benefits in the Ebro River Basin in Spain and in the Tucson Basin in Arizona (U.S.). Furthermore, and considering that droughts and floods are major water management challenges in both case studies, we focus on the potential of participation to build adaptive capacity. Our analysis of these case studies concludes that influence on public policies is determined more by the context of the participatory process, i.e., legal framework, political leadership, and social awareness, whereas influence on adaptive capacity building depends more on the characteristics of the participatory process, particularly the existence of active on-site consultation and deliberation.
Water2016, 8(7), 269; doi:10.3390/w8070269 - published 28 June 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Channel-forming discharges typically are associated with recurrence intervals less than five years and usually less than two years. However, the actual frequency of occurrence of these discharges is often several times more frequent than the statistical expectation. This result was confirmed by using the Log-Pearson Type 3 statistical method to analyze measured annual series of instantaneous peaks and peak daily means for 150 catchments in six states in the North Central Region of the United States. Discharge records ranged from 39 to 102 years and catchment sizes ranged from 29 to 6475 km2. For each state, mean values of the ratio of the calculated to the expected occurrences exceeded 1.0, for recurrence intervals from two years to 100 years with R-squared values varying from 0.64 to 0.97, respectively. However, catchment-by-catchment variability was too large for the relationships for each state to be useful. We propose a method, called Full Daily Distribution (FDD), which used all of the daily values for the available period of records. The approach provided ratios of calculated to expected occurrences that were approximately 1.0. For recurrence intervals less than five years, the FDD calculated discharges were much greater than those obtained by using the Log-Pearson Type 3 approach with annual series of instantaneous peaks or peak daily means. The method can also calculate discharges for recurrence intervals less than one year. The study indicates a need to enhance the Log-Pearson Type 3 method to provide better estimates of channel-forming discharges and that the proposed FDD could be a useful tool to this purpose.
Water2016, 8(7), 268; doi:10.3390/w8070268 - published 28 June 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Recently, urban areas have experienced frequent, large-scale flooding, a situation that has been aggravated by climate change. This study aims to improve the urban drainage system to facilitate climate change adaptation. A methodology and a series of mitigation strategies are presented to efficiently improve the urban drainage system in light of climate change. In addition, we assess the impact of climate change and predict the scale of potential future flood damage by applying the methodology and mitigation strategies to urban areas. Based on the methodology presented, urban flood prevention measures for Gyeyang-gu (Province), Incheon, Korea, was established. The validity of the proposed alternatives is verified by assessing the economic feasibility of the projects to reduce flood damage. We expect that the methodology presented will aid the decision-making process and assist in the development of reasonable strategies to improve the urban drainage system for adaptation to climate change.
Water2016, 8(7), 270; doi:10.3390/w8070270 - published 28 June 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This study focused on landslide susceptibility analysis mapping of the Xulong hydropower station reservoir, which is located in the upstream of Jinsha River, a rapidly uplifting region of the Tibetan Plateau region. Nine factors were employed as landslide conditioning factors in landslide susceptibility mapping. These factors included the slope angle, slope aspect, curvature, geology, distance-to-fault, distance-to-river, vegetation, bedrock uplift and annual precipitation. The rapid bedrock uplift factor was represented by the slope angle. The eight factors were processed with the information content model. Since this area has a significant vertical distribution law of precipitation, the annual precipitation factor was analyzed separately. The analytic hierarchy process weighting method was used to calculate the weights of nine factors. Thus, this study proposed a component approach to combine the normalized eight-factor results with the normalized annual precipitation distribution results. Subsequently, the results were plotted in geographic information system (GIS) and a landslide susceptibility map was produced. The evaluation accuracy analysis method was used as a validation approach. The landslide susceptibility classes were divided into four classes, including low, moderate, high and very high. The results show that the four susceptibility class ratios are 12.9%, 35.06%, 34.11%and 17.92% of the study area, respectively. The red belt in the high elevation area represents the very high susceptibility zones, which followed the vertical distribution law of precipitation. The prediction accuracy was 85.74%, which meant that the susceptibility map was confirmed to be reliable and reasonable. This susceptibility map may contribute to averting the landslide risk in the future construction of the Xulong hydropower station.
Water2016, 8(7), 272; doi:10.3390/w8070272 - published 28 June 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Large scale centralised water, wastewater and stormwater systems have been implemented for over 100 years. These systems have provided a safe drinking water supply, efficient collection and disposal of wastewater to protect human health, and the mitigation of urban flood risk. The sustainability of current urban water systems is under pressure from a range of challenges which include: rapid population growth and resulting urbanisation, climate change impacts, and infrastructure that is ageing and reaching capacity constraints. To address these issues, urban water services are now being implemented with Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) and Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) approaches. WSUD systems can deliver multiple benefits including water conservation, stormwater quality improvement, flood control, landscape amenity and a healthy living environment. These systems can be provided as stand-alone systems or in combination with centralised systems. These systems are still novel and thus face knowledge gaps that are impeding their mainstream uptake. Knowledge gaps cover technical, economic, social, and institutional aspects of their implementation. This paper is based on the outcomes of a comprehensive study conducted in South Australia which investigated impediments for mainstream uptake of WSUD, community perceptions of WSUD and potential of WSUD to achieve water conservation through the application of alternative resources, and in flood management. The outcomes are discussed in this paper for the benefit of water professionals engaged with WSUD planning, implementation, community consultation and regulation. Although the paper is based on a study conducted in South Australia, the comprehensive framework developed to conduct this detailed study and investigation can be adopted in any part of the world.
Water2016, 8(7), 271; doi:10.3390/w8070271 - published 28 June 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A conceptual model related to a mountain aquifer that is characterized by a lack of data of hydrogeological parameters and boundary conditions, which were based on a single available observational dataset used for calibration, was studied using numerical models. For the first time, a preliminary spatial-temporal analysis has been applied to the study area in order to evaluate the real extension of the aquifer studied. The analysis was based on four models that were characterized by an increasing degree of complexity using a minimum of two zones and a maximum of five zones, which consequently increased the number of adjustable parameters from a minimum of 10 to a maximum of 22, calibrated using the parameter estimation code PEST. Statistical index and information criteria were calculated for each model, which showed comparable results; the information criteria indicated that the model with the low number of adjustable parameters was the optimal model. A comparison of the simulated and observed spring hydrographs showed a good shape correspondence but a general overestimation of the discharge, which indicated a good fit with the rainfall time series and a probably incorrect extension of the aquifer structure: the recharge contributes more than half of the total outflow at the springs but is not able to completely feed the springs.