Water2015, 7(7), 3599-3612; doi:10.3390/w7073599 (registering DOI) - published 7 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Background: Obtaining safe drinking water can be a challenge in Nepal. By training potters and setting up production sites for Colloidal Silver Filters, several non-governmental organizations have tried to provide local people with a low-cost option for household water treatment. Out of 19 trained entrepreneurs, only four are currently producing filters. The goal of this evaluation was to find out what conditions lead to the successful continuation of the production and the reasons for failure. Methods: The evaluation of the potters was based on a Qualitative Comparative Analysis and the conditions looked at were: “Production”, “Collaboration”, “Market” and “Potter”. Results: Analysis showed that production problems and insufficient demand led to the termination of ceramic filter production and that both trouble-free production and high demand are necessary for a sustainable business.
Water2015, 7(7), 3579-3598; doi:10.3390/w7073579 (registering DOI) - published 7 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Recent studies by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) indicate that Vietnam is one of the countries most affected by climate change. The variability of climate in this region, characterized by large fluctuations in precipitation and temperature, has caused significant changes in surface water resources. This study aims to project the impact of climate change on the seasonal availability of surface water of the Huong River in Central Vietnam in the twenty-first century through hydrologic simulations driven by climate model projections. To calibrate and validate the hydrologic model, the model was forced by the rain gage-based gridded Asian Precipitation–Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of water resources (APHRODITE) V1003R1 Monsoon Asia precipitation data along with observed temperature, humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation data from local weather stations. The simulated discharge was compared to observations for the period from 1951 until present. Three Global Climate Models (GCMs) ECHAM5-OM, HadCM3 and GFDL-CM2.1 integrated into Long Ashton Research Station-Weather Generator (LARS-WG) stochastic weather generator were run for three IPCC–Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC-SRES) emissions scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 to simulate future climate conditions. The hydrologic model simulated the Huong River discharge for each IPCC-SRES scenario. Simulation results under the three GCMs generally indicate an increase in summer and fall river discharge during the twenty-first century in A2 and B1 scenarios. For A1B scenario, HadCM3 and GFDL-CM2.1 models project a decrease in river discharge from present to the 2051–2080 period and then increase until the 2071–2100 period while ECHAM5-OM model produces opposite projection that discharge will increase until the 2051–2080 period and then decrease for the rest of the century. Water management impacts, such as irrigation or dam regulation, were not considered in this study. However, the results provide local policy makers with quantitative data to consider possible adjustment of future dam capacities for development of flood control policies.
Water2015, 7(7), 3565-3578; doi:10.3390/w7073565 (registering DOI) - published 7 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Evaluation of water balance at the watershed scale is a fundamental step for estimating streamflow in watersheds. Mean annual water balance of 17 watersheds across Michigan were evaluated by comparing observed streamflow with simulated streamflow estimated using Fu’s Equation, which is based on the Budyko Hypothesis. The Budyko Hypothesis describes mean annual water balance as a function of available water and energy. Impact of long-term climatic controls (e.g., precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (ETP)) on mean annual water balance was also investigated with Fu’s Equation. Results indicated that observed streamflow ranged from 237 to 529 mm per year, with an average of 363 mm per year in the study watersheds during 1967–2011. On average, 40% of long-term precipitation in the study watersheds was converted into surface runoff. The performance of Fu’s Equation in estimating mean annual streamflow resulted in Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value of 64.1 mm/year. Mean annual streamflow was sensitive to changes in mean annual precipitation, and less sensitive to changes in mean annual ETp in the watersheds. With the increase of baseflow index (BFI), mean annual streamflow was less sensitive to climate change. Overall, different contributions of baseflow to streamflow modified the impact of climate controls on mean annual water balance in the baseflow-dominated watersheds.
Water2015, 7(7), 3531-3564; doi:10.3390/w7073531 - published 6 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Robust risk assessment requires accurate flood intensity area mapping to allow for the identification of populations and elements at risk. However, available flood maps in West Africa lack spatial variability while global datasets have resolutions too coarse to be relevant for local scale risk assessment. Consequently, local disaster managers are forced to use traditional methods such as watermarks on buildings and media reports to identify flood hazard areas. In this study, remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were combined with hydrological and statistical models to delineate the spatial limits of flood hazard zones in selected communities in Ghana, Burkina Faso and Benin. The approach involves estimating peak runoff concentrations at different elevations and then applying statistical methods to develop a Flood Hazard Index (FHI). Results show that about half of the study areas fall into high intensity flood zones. Empirical validation using statistical confusion matrix and the principles of Participatory GIS show that flood hazard areas could be mapped at an accuracy ranging from 77% to 81%. This was supported with local expert knowledge which accurately classified 79% of communities deemed to be highly susceptible to flood hazard. The results will assist disaster managers to reduce the risk to flood disasters at the community level where risk outcomes are first materialized.
Water2015, 7(7), 3515-3530; doi:10.3390/w7073515 - published 2 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Waters from natural sources of the São Miguel Island in the Azores archipelago have been investigated regarding their corrosive action on metallic materials. The corrosive and encrusting characteristics of the waters have been established in terms of relevant chemical parameters (namely pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), and concentrations of bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, chloride, and sulfate ions) and their temperature by using Langelier, Ryznar, Puckorius and Larson–Skold indexes. The validity of this methodology has been tested by measuring the corrosion rates of various metals exposed to various waters using electrochemical methods. The materials of industrial interest under investigation were carbon and galvanized steel, zinc, 304 and 316L grade stainless steels, brass, and Cr–Ni alloys. The greater aggressiveness of these waters was found for the less noble materials, and they experienced high corrosion rates.
Water2015, 7(7), 3486-3514; doi:10.3390/w7073486 - published 1 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Mongolia is not only a water-scarce but also a data-scarce country with regard to environmental information. At the same time, regional effects of global climate change, major land use changes, a booming mining sector, and growing cities with insufficient and decaying water and wastewater infrastructures result in an increasingly unsustainable exploitation and contamination of ground and surface water resources putting at risk both aquatic ecosystems and human health. For the mesoscale (≈15,000 km2) model region of the Kharaa River Basin (KRB), we investigated (1) the current state of aquatic ecosystems, water availability and quality; (2) past and expected future trends in these fields and their drivers; (3) water governance structures and their recent reforms; and (4) technical and non-technical interventions as potential components of an integrated water resources management (IWRM). By now, the KRB is recognized as one of the most intensively studied river basins of the country, and considered a model region for science-based water resources management by the Mongolian government which recently adopted the IWRM concept in its National Water Program. Based on the scientific results and practical experiences from a six-year project in the KRB, the potentials and limitations of IWRM implementation under the conditions of data-scarcity are discussed.