Open AccessArticle
The Impacts of Climate Variability and Land Use Change on Streamflow in the Hailiutu River Basin
Water 2018, 10(6), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060814 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The Hailiutu River basin is a typical semi-arid wind sandy grass shoal watershed in northwest China. Climate and land use have changed significantly during the period 1970–2014. These changes are expected to impact hydrological processes in the basin. The Mann–Kendall (MK) test and
[...] Read more.
The Hailiutu River basin is a typical semi-arid wind sandy grass shoal watershed in northwest China. Climate and land use have changed significantly during the period 1970–2014. These changes are expected to impact hydrological processes in the basin. The Mann–Kendall (MK) test and sequential t-test analysis of the regime shift method were used to detect the trend and shifts of the hydrometeorological time series. Based on the analyzed results, seven scenarios were developed by combining different land use and/or climate situations. The Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied to analyze the impacts of climate variability and land use change on the values of the hydrological components. The China Meteorological Assimilation Driving Datasets for the SWAT model (CMADS) was applied to enhance the spatial expressiveness of precipitation data in the study area during the period 2008–2014. Rather than solely using observed precipitation or CMADS precipitation, the precipitation values of CMADS and the observed precipitation values were combined to drive the SWAT model for better simulation results. From the trend analysis, the annual streamflow and wind speed showed a significant downward trend. No significant trend was found for the annual precipitation series; however, the temperature series showed upward trends. With the change point analysis, the whole study period was divided into three sub-periods (1970–1985, 1986–2000, and 2001–2014). The annual precipitation, mean wind speed, and average temperature values were 316 mm, 2.62 m/s, and 7.9 °C, respectively, for the sub-period 1970–1985, 272 mm, 2.58 m/s, and 8.4 °C, respectively, for the sub-period 1986–2000, and 391 mm, 2.2 m/s, and 9.35 °C, respectively, for the sub-period 2001–2014. The simulated mean annual streamflow was 35.09 mm/year during the period 1970–1985. Considering the impact of the climate variability, the simulated mean annual streamflow values were 32.94 mm/year (1986–2000) and 36.78 mm/year (2001–2014). Compared to the period 1970–1985, the simulated mean annual streamflow reduced by 2.15 mm/year for the period 1986–2000 and increased by 1.69 mm/year for the period 2001–2014. The main variations of land use from 1970 to 2014 were the increased area of shrub and grass land and decreased area of sandy land. In the simulation it was shown that these changes caused the mean annual streamflow to decrease by 0.23 mm/year and 0.68 mm/year during the periods 1986–2000 and 2001–2014, respectively. Thus, the impact of climate variability on the streamflow was more profound than that of land use change. Under the impact of coupled climate variability and land use change, the mean annual streamflow decreased by 2.45 mm/year during the period 1986–2000, and the contribution of this variation to the decrease in observed streamflow was 27.8%. For the period 2001–2014, the combined climate variability and land use change resulted in an increase of 0.84 mm/year in annual streamflow. The results obtained in this study could provide guidance for water resource management and planning in the Erdos plateau. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Extrapolation of Leaf Measurements to Obtain the Whole-Canopy Transpiration of C3 and C4 Xerophytic Shrubs
Water 2018, 10(6), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060813 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Quantifying the water balance within areas with sparse vegetation requires frequent measurement of transpiration in water-limited, arid, desert ecosystems. Field experiments were conducted in Shapotou, northwestern China, to examine the feasibility of up-scaling the transpiration of C3 and C4 xerophytic shrubs
[...] Read more.
Quantifying the water balance within areas with sparse vegetation requires frequent measurement of transpiration in water-limited, arid, desert ecosystems. Field experiments were conducted in Shapotou, northwestern China, to examine the feasibility of up-scaling the transpiration of C3 and C4 xerophytic shrubs (Reaumuria soongorica and Salsola passerina, respectively) from the leaf to the canopy level throughout the growing season in 2015. The large weighing lysimeter method and LI-6400XT portable photosynthesis system were used to make relatively long-term measurements of transpiration. The results indicated that meteorological factors coupled with stomatal conductance affected the transpiration rate of the two shrubs at the leaf level, and that the vapor pressure deficit other than net radiation and the air temperature affected the transpiration rate of S. passerina at the canopy level. Precipitation and vegetation characteristics determined the transpiration amount of the C3 and C4 xerophytic shrubs. The leaf gas exchange measurements were arithmetically scaled up to the canopy level based on the leaf area. The validity of the extrapolation was evaluated by comparing the upscale values of transpiration with the calculated values obtained from lysimeter measurement. The up-scaling approach accurately (±0.005 mm h−1, RMSE = 35%) obtained canopy transpiration from the leaf measurements. Our study suggests that the up-scaling method based on leaf area can be adopted to determine the canopy transpiration of C3 and C4 xerophytic shrubs in arid desert environments. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An Improved Approach for Evapotranspiration Estimation Using Water Balance Equation: Case Study of Yangtze River Basin
Water 2018, 10(6), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060812 -
Abstract
Evapotranspiration (ET) is a critical component of the water cycle, and it plays an important role in global water exchange and energy flow. However, accurate estimation and numerical simulation of regional ET remain difficult. In this work, based on the water balance equation,
[...] Read more.
Evapotranspiration (ET) is a critical component of the water cycle, and it plays an important role in global water exchange and energy flow. However, accurate estimation and numerical simulation of regional ET remain difficult. In this work, based on the water balance equation, an improved regional ET estimating approach was developed by using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), daily precipitation, and discharge data. Firstly, the method and algorithm were validated by simulation study. Compared with ET estimated from previous methods, the result derived from our method present significant improvement, with the correlation coefficient great than 0.9. Secondly, using our improved method, the spatially averaged ET over the Yangtze River Basin (YRB) was computed for the period 2003–2013. The ET estimations were in good consistency with different ET products, and the mean annual value of ET estimation over the YRB was close to the difference between precipitation and discharge over the YRB. Thirdly, the comparison between ET estimation and independent estimates of meteorological factors and soil moisture over the entire YRB were conducted through the entire YRB. The analysis indicated that near-surface temperature, as responsive to atmospheric demand, was the limiting factor of time variation of ET, with the correlation coefficients of 0.69. We also analyzed the relationship between the mean annual ET and atmospheric demand for seven subcatchments of the YRB, which indicated that the spatial distribution characteristics of ET estimated by our method were in accord with atmospheric conditions. These results indicated the good performance of our improved approach in estimating ET variations over the YRB. It also demonstrates the applicability of GRACE to the analysis of hydrological features such as regional ET. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Simulation of Fluid and Complex Obstacle Coupling Based on Narrow Band FLIP Method
Water 2018, 10(6), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060811 -
Abstract
With the continuous development of fluid simulation theory and technology, there are increasingly higher requirements for simulation of complex fluid interaction. Fluid simulation based on the Eulerian method is limited by the grid resolution, and the sawtooth phenomenon occurs near the obstacle boundary.
[...] Read more.
With the continuous development of fluid simulation theory and technology, there are increasingly higher requirements for simulation of complex fluid interaction. Fluid simulation based on the Eulerian method is limited by the grid resolution, and the sawtooth phenomenon occurs near the obstacle boundary. To enhance the fluid interaction performance with complex obstacle, an advanced fluid interaction method was proposed based on NBFLIP. Improved from FLIP method, the NBFLIP method combines the advantages of Euler method and Lagrangian method. The SDF method is proposed in complex obstacle discretion, with an expectation to facilitate the processing with obstacle boundary and efficiency improvement. Compared with FLIP method, particle number in NBFLIP method is reduced by 86.2% and the average running time per frame is reduced by 36.1%. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
End Use Level Water and Energy Interactions: A Large Non-Residential Building Case Study
Water 2018, 10(6), 810; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060810 -
Abstract
Within the European Union, buildings account for around 40% of the energy use and 36% of CO2 emissions, thus representing a significant challenge in the context of recent EU directives that require all new buildings to be nearly zero-energy by 2020. Reduced
[...] Read more.
Within the European Union, buildings account for around 40% of the energy use and 36% of CO2 emissions, thus representing a significant challenge in the context of recent EU directives that require all new buildings to be nearly zero-energy by 2020. Reduced consumption of water, and hot water in particular, provides a significant opportunity to reduce energy consumption. While there have been numerous studies pertaining to the water-energy nexus of residential buildings, the complexity of water networks in larger buildings has meant that this area has been relatively unexplored. The paper presents a comprehensive investigation of the hot water use profile, associated energy use, on-site pumping energy use, carbon emissions, and solar energy harvesting potential in an Irish university building over periods before and after water conservation efforts. Total water-related energy consumption (including the heating and pumping losses) were analysed using the WHAM model and modified pumping energy expressions. The results revealed that water heating including losses contributed to as high as 30% of total building energy consumption, and stringent water conservation measures reduced the average hot water use rate by 8.5 m3/day. It was found that 10% of the total pumping energy was constituted by pump start-ups. Simulation results for solar harvesting potential in the study site found that around 60% of water heating energy demand could be met by solar energy in the new water demand scenario. The study results can act as a benchmark for similar buildings, and the model combination can be emulated in future studies. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Multi-Source Uncertainty Analysis in Simulating Floodplain Inundation under Climate Change
Water 2018, 10(6), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060809 -
Abstract
Floodplains are highly complex and dynamic systems in terms of their hydrology. Thus, they harbor highly specialized floodplain plant species depending on different inundation characteristics. Climate change will most likely alter those characteristics. This study investigates the potential impact of climate change on
[...] Read more.
Floodplains are highly complex and dynamic systems in terms of their hydrology. Thus, they harbor highly specialized floodplain plant species depending on different inundation characteristics. Climate change will most likely alter those characteristics. This study investigates the potential impact of climate change on the inundation characteristics of a floodplain of the Rhine River in Hesse, Germany. We report on the cascading uncertainty introduced through climate projections, climate model structure, and parameter uncertainty. The established modeling framework integrates projections of two general circulation models (GCMs), three emission scenarios, a rainfall–runoff model, and a coupled surface water–groundwater model. Our results indicate large spatial and quantitative uncertainties in the simulated inundation characteristics, which are mainly attributed to the GCMs. Overall, a shift in the inundation pattern, possible in both directions, and an increase in inundation extent are simulated. This can cause significant changes in the habitats of species adapted to these highly-endangered ecosystems. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Research on Cascade Reservoirs’ Short-Term Optimal Operation under the Effect of Reverse Regulation
Water 2018, 10(6), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060808 -
Abstract
Currently research on joint operation of a large reservoir and its re-regulating reservoir focuses on either water quantity regulation or water head regulation. The accuracy of relevant models is in need of improvement if the influence of factors such as water flow hysteresis
[...] Read more.
Currently research on joint operation of a large reservoir and its re-regulating reservoir focuses on either water quantity regulation or water head regulation. The accuracy of relevant models is in need of improvement if the influence of factors such as water flow hysteresis and the aftereffect of tail water level variation are taken into consideration. In this paper, given the actual production of Pankou-Xiaoxuan cascade hydropower stations that combines two operation modes (‘electricity to water’ and ‘water to electricity’), a coupling model of their short-term optimal operation is developed, which considers Xiaoxuan reservoir’s regulating effect on Pankou reservoir’s outflow volume and water head. Factors such as water flow hysteresis and the aftereffect of tail water level variation are also considered to enhance the model’s accuracy. The Backward Propagation (BP) neural network is employed for precise calculation of the downstream reservoir’s inflow and the upstream reservoir’s tail water level. Besides, we put forth Accompanying Progressive Optimality Algorithm (APOA) to solve the coupling model with aftereffect. An example is given to verify the scientificity of the proposed model and the advantages of APOA. Through analysis of the model calculation results, the optimal operation rules of the cascade reservoirs are obtained in terms of water quantity regulation and water head regulation, which can provide scientific reference for cascade reservoirs’ optimal operation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Improving the Muskingum Flood Routing Method Using a Hybrid of Particle Swarm Optimization and Bat Algorithm
Water 2018, 10(6), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060807 -
Abstract
Flood prediction and control are among the major tools for decision makers and water resources planners to avoid flood disasters. The Muskingum model is one of the most widely used methods for flood routing prediction. The Muskingum model contains four parameters that must
[...] Read more.
Flood prediction and control are among the major tools for decision makers and water resources planners to avoid flood disasters. The Muskingum model is one of the most widely used methods for flood routing prediction. The Muskingum model contains four parameters that must be determined for accurate flood routing. In this context, an optimization process that self-searches for the optimal values of these four parameters might improve the traditional Muskingum model. In this study, a hybrid of the bat algorithm (BA) and the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, i.e., the hybrid bat-swarm algorithm (HBSA), was developed for the optimal determination of these four parameters. Data for the three different case studies from the USA and the UK were utilized to examine the suitability of the proposed HBSA for flood routing. Comparative analyses based on the sum of squared deviations (SSD), sum of absolute deviations (SAD), error of peak discharge, and error of time to peak showed that the proposed HBSA based on the Muskingum model achieved excellent flood routing accuracy compared to that of other methods while requiring less computational time. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Water Quality Prediction Model of a Water Diversion Project Based on the Improved Artificial Bee Colony–Backpropagation Neural Network
Water 2018, 10(6), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060806 -
Abstract
Prediction of water quality which can ensure the water supply and prevent water pollution is essential for a successful water transfer project. In recent years, with the development of artificial intelligence, the backpropagation (BP) neural network has been increasingly applied for the prediction
[...] Read more.
Prediction of water quality which can ensure the water supply and prevent water pollution is essential for a successful water transfer project. In recent years, with the development of artificial intelligence, the backpropagation (BP) neural network has been increasingly applied for the prediction and forecasting field. However, the BP neural network frame cannot satisfy the demand of higher accuracy. In this study, we extracted monitoring data from the water transfer channel of both the water resource and the intake area as training samples and selected some distinct indices as input factors to establish a BP neural network whose connection weight values between network layers and the threshold of each layer had already been optimized by an improved artificial bee colony (IABC) algorithm. Compared with the traditional BP and ABC-BP neural network model, it was shown that the IABC-BP neural network has a greater ability for forecasting and could achieve much better accuracy, nearly 25% more precise than the BP neural network. The new model is particularly practical for the water quality prediction of a water diversion project and could be readily applied in this field. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Presence of Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents Utilized as Water Reuse for Irrigation
Water 2018, 10(6), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060805 -
Abstract
Providing safe water through water reuse is becoming a global necessity. One concern with water reuse is the introduction of unregulated contaminants to the environment that cannot be easily removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The occurrence of ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and
[...] Read more.
Providing safe water through water reuse is becoming a global necessity. One concern with water reuse is the introduction of unregulated contaminants to the environment that cannot be easily removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The occurrence of ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli through the treatment stages of a WWTP (raw sewage, post-secondary, post-UV and post-chlorination) was investigated from January to May 2016. The highest concentrations of antibiotic resistant E. coli in the effluent were detected in April after rainfall. Ampicillin-resistant E. coli was the most common at the post UV and chlorination stages comprising 63% of the total E. coli population. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) analysis showed that one in five isolates was resistant to three or more antibiotics, and the majority of these E. coli were resistant to ampicillin, followed by sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin. The highest MIC was detected at the finished water after application of multiple disinfection methods. Tetracycline resistance was the least observed among others, indicating that certain drug families may respond to wastewater treatment differently. Currently, there are no policies to enforce the monitoring of antibiotic-resistant pathogen removal in WWTP. Better guidelines are needed to better regulate reuse water and prevent health risk upon exposure to antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Delineation of Suitable Zones for the Application of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) in Coastal Aquifers Using Quantitative Parameters and the Analytical Hierarchy Process
Water 2018, 10(6), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060804 -
Abstract
Coastal aquifer salinization is usually related to groundwater overexploitation and water table decline. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) can be applied as a measure to reverse and prevent this phenomenon. A detailed literature review was performed to identify the various methods and parameters commonly
[...] Read more.
Coastal aquifer salinization is usually related to groundwater overexploitation and water table decline. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) can be applied as a measure to reverse and prevent this phenomenon. A detailed literature review was performed to identify the various methods and parameters commonly used to determine suitable sites of MAR application. Based on the review results, a new multi-criteria index (SuSAM) that is compatible to coastal aquifers was developed to delineate suitable zones for MAR application. New parameters were introduced into the index, such as distance from the shore and hydraulic resistance of the vadose zone, while factor weights were determined using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and single sensitivity analysis. The applicability of the new index was examined in the coastal aquifer of the Anthemountas basin located in northern Greece. The most suitable areas for MAR application cover 28% of the aquifer’s surface area, while 16% of the area was characterized as non-suitable for MAR application. The new method constitutes the first step of the managed aquifer recharge concept for the delineation of MAR-suitable zones in coastal aquifers. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Modeling the Spatial and Seasonal Variations of Groundwater Head in an Urbanized Area under Low Impact Development
Water 2018, 10(6), 803; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060803 -
Abstract
Increasing impervious land cover has great impacts on groundwater regimes in urbanized areas. Low impact development (LID) is generally regarded as a sustainable solution for groundwater conservation. However, the effects of LID on the spatial-temporal distribution of groundwater are not yet fully understood.
[...] Read more.
Increasing impervious land cover has great impacts on groundwater regimes in urbanized areas. Low impact development (LID) is generally regarded as a sustainable solution for groundwater conservation. However, the effects of LID on the spatial-temporal distribution of groundwater are not yet fully understood. In this case study, a coupled Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) and Finite Element Subsurface FLOW system (FEFLOW) model was used to simulate surface and groundwater flow in an urbanized area in Shenzhen, China. After verification, the model was used to analyze the spatial-seasonal variations of groundwater head and hydrological processes under different LID scenarios. The results indicate that if the runoff from 7.5% and 15% of impervious area is treated by LID facilities, the annual surface runoff decreases by 5% and 9%, respectively, and the spatial average groundwater head relative to sea level pressure increases by 0.9 m and 1.7 m in the study area, respectively. The rise in groundwater head generally decreases from the recharge zones to the discharge zones surrounded by the streams and coastal waters. However, the groundwater head change is determined not only by the location in the catchment, but also by the hydraulic conductivity of underlying aquifer and LID infiltration intensity. Moreover, LID significantly enhances groundwater recharge and aquifer storage in the wet seasons; in turn it increases aquifer release and groundwater discharge in the dry seasons. However, LID has the potential to increase the risk of groundwater flooding during wet seasons in areas with poor aquifer drainage capacity and shallow groundwater depth. The findings from this study provide the basis for further assessing the benefit and risk of LID infiltration for groundwater supplementation in the urbanized areas. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
The Impact of Climate on Hydrological Extremes
Water 2018, 10(6), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060802 -
Abstract
High and low flows and associated floods and droughts are extreme hydrological phenomena mainly caused by meteorological anomalies and modified by catchment processes and human activities. They exert increasing on human, economic, and natural environmental systems around the world. In this context, global
[...] Read more.
High and low flows and associated floods and droughts are extreme hydrological phenomena mainly caused by meteorological anomalies and modified by catchment processes and human activities. They exert increasing on human, economic, and natural environmental systems around the world. In this context, global climate change along with local fluctuations may eventually trigger a disproportionate response in hydrological extremes. This special issue focuses on observed extreme events in the recent past, how these extremes are linked to a changing global/regional climate, and the manner in which they may shift in the coming years. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effects of the Notch Angle, Notch Length and Injection Rate on Hydraulic Fracturing under True Triaxial Stress: An Experimental Study
Water 2018, 10(6), 801; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060801 -
Abstract
This study focused on the effects of the notch angle, notch length, and injection rate on hydraulic fracturing. True triaxial hydraulic fracturing experiments were conducted with 300 × 300 × 300 mm cement mortar blocks. The test results showed that the fracture initiation
[...] Read more.
This study focused on the effects of the notch angle, notch length, and injection rate on hydraulic fracturing. True triaxial hydraulic fracturing experiments were conducted with 300 × 300 × 300 mm cement mortar blocks. The test results showed that the fracture initiation pressure decreased as the notch length and injection rate increased, whereas, the fracture initiation pressure decreased as the notch angle decreased. Furthermore, the direction of the hydraulic fracture was always along the direction of the maximum principle stress. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Quantification of Seasonal Precipitation over the upper Chao Phraya River Basin in the Past Fifty Years Based on Monsoon and El Niño/Southern Oscillation Related Climate Indices
Water 2018, 10(6), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060800 -
Abstract
For better water resources management, we proposed a method to estimate basin-scale seasonal rainfall over selected areas of the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand, from existing climate indices that represent variations in the Asian summer monsoon, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, and sea surface
[...] Read more.
For better water resources management, we proposed a method to estimate basin-scale seasonal rainfall over selected areas of the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand, from existing climate indices that represent variations in the Asian summer monsoon, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, and sea surface temperatures (SST) in the Pacific Ocean. The basin-scale seasonal rainfall between 1965 and 2015 was calculated for the upper Ping River Basin (PRB) and the upper Nan River Basin (NRB) from a gridded rainfall dataset and rainfall data collected at several gauging stations. The corresponding climate indices, i.e., the Equatorial-Southern Oscillation Index (EQ-SOI), Indian Monsoon Index (IMI), and SST-related indices, were examined to quantify seasonal rainfall. Based on variations in the rainfall anomaly and each climate index, we found that IMI is the primary variable that can explain variations in seasonal rainfall when EQ-SOI is negative. Through a multiple regression analysis, we found that EQ-SOI and two SST-related indices, i.e., Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index (PDO) and SST anomalies in the tropical western Pacific (SSTNW), can quantify the seasonal rainfall for years with positive EQ-SOI. The seasonal rainfall calculated for 1975 to 2015 based on the proposed method was highly correlated with the observed rainfall, with correlation coefficients of 0.8 and 0.86 for PRB and NRB, respectively. These results suggest that the existing indices are useful for quantifying basin-scale seasonal rainfall, provided a proper classification and combination of the climate indices are introduced. The developed method could forecast seasonal rainfall over the target basins if well-forecasted climate indices are provided with sufficient leading time. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Research on Characteristics of Groundwater Recharge in the Weishan Irrigated District Based on a Bromide Tracer
Water 2018, 10(6), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060799 -
Abstract
Bromide was used as tracer in the Weishan Irrigated District to determine the groundwater recharge as well as to evaluate the impacts of different irrigation basin locations, irrigation regimes, and crop types on the recharge. The comprehensive recharge coefficient and the Kriging Spatial
[...] Read more.
Bromide was used as tracer in the Weishan Irrigated District to determine the groundwater recharge as well as to evaluate the impacts of different irrigation basin locations, irrigation regimes, and crop types on the recharge. The comprehensive recharge coefficient and the Kriging Spatial Interpolation methods were used to distinguish the effects of precipitation and surface water irrigation on the groundwater recharge rate. The results show that the recharge rates ranged from 85.8 to 243 mm/a, with an average of 168 mm/a. The average recharge rate in the upstream district is greater in the downstream and the average recharge rate of irrigated land (193 mm/a) is greater than non-irrigated land (110 mm/a). The recharge rates in fields of winter wheat-summer maize and cotton with irrigation are 210 mm/a and 140 mm/a, respectively, while they are 115 mm/a and 94.1 mm/a under no irrigation conditions. The comprehensive recharge coefficient of groundwater in the upstream irrigation area is larger than that in the downstream. By comparing the spatial distribution of the groundwater level and the comprehensive recharge coefficient, it is found that there is a positive relationship between the groundwater level and the comprehensive recharge coefficient. The results of this study can provide reference and guidance to a water resources analysis of the Weishan Irrigated District. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Assessment of Green Water Based on the SWAT Model: A Case Study in the Hai River Basin, China
Water 2018, 10(6), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060798 -
Abstract
Green water accounts for two-thirds of precipitation, and the proportion could be even higher in dry years. Conflicts between water supply and demand have gradually become severe in the Hai River Basin (HRB) due to the socio-economic development. Thus, the exploitation and the
[...] Read more.
Green water accounts for two-thirds of precipitation, and the proportion could be even higher in dry years. Conflicts between water supply and demand have gradually become severe in the Hai River Basin (HRB) due to the socio-economic development. Thus, the exploitation and the utilization of green water have attracted increasing attention. By gathering the related hydrological, meteorological, and geographic data, the spatiotemporal distribution of green water in HRB and the impacts of land use types on green water are analyzed based on the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model in this study. Furthermore, three new indices are proposed for evaluation, including the maximum possible storage of green water (MSGW), the consumed green water (CGW), and the utilizable green water (UGW). The results show that (1) the MSGW is relatively low in plain areas and its spatial distribution is significantly associated with the soil type; (2) according to the evaluation results of CGW and UGW in HRB, a further improvement of utilization efficiency of green water could be achieved; (3) in general, the utilization efficiency of precipitation in farmlands is higher than other land use types, which means that the planting of appropriate plants could be helpful to enhance the utilization efficiency of green water. Our results summarize the spatiotemporal distribution of green water resource and provide a reference for water resources management in other water-short agricultural areas. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Disinfection Methods for Swimming Pool Water: Byproduct Formation and Control
Water 2018, 10(6), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060797 -
Abstract
This paper presents a comprehensive and critical comparison of 10 disinfection methods of swimming pool water: chlorination, electrochemically generated mixed oxidants (EGMO), ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, UV/chlorine, UV/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), UV/H2O2/chlorine, ozone (O3)/chlorine, O
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a comprehensive and critical comparison of 10 disinfection methods of swimming pool water: chlorination, electrochemically generated mixed oxidants (EGMO), ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, UV/chlorine, UV/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), UV/H2O2/chlorine, ozone (O3)/chlorine, O3/H2O2/chlorine, O3/UV and O3/UV/chlorine for the formation, control and elimination of potentially toxic disinfection byproducts (DBPs): trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), trihaloacetaldehydes (THAs) and chloramines (CAMs). The statistical comparison is carried out using data on 32 swimming pools accumulated from the reviewed studies. The results indicate that O3/UV and O3/UV/chlorine are the most promising methods, as the concentration of the studied DBPs (THMs and HANs) with these methods was reduced considerably compared with chlorination, EGMO, UV irradiation, UV/chlorine and O3/chlorine. However, the concentration of the studied DBPs including HAAs and CAMs remained much higher with O3/chlorine compared with the limits set by the WHO for drinking water quality. Moreover, the enhancement in the formation of THMs, HANs and CH with UV/chlorine compared with UV irradiation and the increase in the level of HANs with O3/UV/chlorine compared with O3/UV indicate the complexity of the combined processes, which should be optimized to control the toxicity and improve the quality of swimming pool water. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Recent Glacier Mass Balance and Area Changes from DEMs and Landsat Images in Upper Reach of Shule River Basin, Northeastern Edge of Tibetan Plateau during 2000 to 2015
Water 2018, 10(6), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060796 -
Abstract
Glacier changes in the Upper Reach of the Shule River Basin (URSRB) serve as a good indicator of climate change in the western part of the Qilian Mountains, located on the northeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau. However, information on recent glacier changes
[...] Read more.
Glacier changes in the Upper Reach of the Shule River Basin (URSRB) serve as a good indicator of climate change in the western part of the Qilian Mountains, located on the northeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau. However, information on recent glacier changes in the URSRB is limited. In this study, the changes in ice surface elevation were determined using geodetic methods based on digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) (2000), and from pairs of Third Resources Satellite (ZY-3) of China (taken around 2013). In addition, glacier area changes from 2000–2015, were derived from Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI images. The results suggest that 478 glaciers with an area of 375.1 ± 2.68 km2 remained in the URSRB in 2015. Ice cover diminished by 57.5 ± 2.68 km2 (11.9 ± 0.60%), or 0.79 ± 0.04% a−1 and 35 small glaciers disappeared from 2000 to 2015 in the URSRB. The most pronounced glacier shrinkage occurred during 2004 to 2009. The average ice surface elevation of the URSRB from 1999 to 2013 reduced by about 4.98 ± 0.6 m, which is equal to a mass loss of 0.383 ± 0.046 m·a−1. This reduction indicates that the ice storage loss has accelerated since 1999, compared to a mass loss of 0.21 ± 0.04 m·a−1 around Tuanjiefeng from 1966 to 1999, as reported by Xu et al. (2013). Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Variability of Short-Term Diel Water Temperature Amplitudes in a Mountain Lake
Water 2018, 10(6), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060795 -
Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of the variability of short-term water temperature amplitudes in Lake Morskie Oko, situated in the Tatra Mountains National Park, which makes the human impact on the lake very limited. The objective of the study was to determine to
[...] Read more.
This paper presents an analysis of the variability of short-term water temperature amplitudes in Lake Morskie Oko, situated in the Tatra Mountains National Park, which makes the human impact on the lake very limited. The objective of the study was to determine to what extent an increase in depth contributes to suppressing daily water temperature amplitudes. It was shown, among other things, that water temperature amplitudes were the lowest in the period of occurrence of the ice cover, higher in the period of occurrence of other (than ice cover) ice phenomena, and the highest in the case of their lack. The analysis of profiles of water temperature amplitudes (in the case of lack of ice phenomena) resulted in determination of their six types. A strong correlation was observed in which the effect of mean daily air temperature and the effect of wind on water level amplitudes are considerably lower during the occurrence of ice phenomena in comparison to the period when the water surface is free from such phenomena. It was demonstrated that the near-bottom waters in Lake Morskie Oko are very stable in terms of temperature. The short transition period from ice cover to free water surface was determined to be very important, because it constitutes a threshold in the effect of air temperature and wind on changes in thermal dynamics of water (in this case expressed in amplitude values). Finally, proposals are presented for future expansion of the scope of research on water temperature amplitudes. This work is important, because the amplitudes were investigated not only at the surface of the lake, but also at its bottom, and also during the ice cover period, when the lake was isolated from the atmospheric influences. This study may contribute to better understanding of the lake water temperature responses to climate change and thus to more accurate prediction these patterns in lake globally. Moreover, understanding of changes in water temperature is closely related to the variability of its heat resources, and these in the future may be used on a large scale. In the case of a mountain lake such as Morskie Oko, the heat of water may be used, for example, for heating tourist shelters. Full article
Figures

Figure 1