Water2015, 7(12), 6719-6735; doi:10.3390/w7126652 - published 26 November 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Selecting an optimum number of calibration sites for hydrological modeling is challenging. Modelers often spend a lot of time and effort on trial and error because there is no guide. We propose a novel entropy method to automate the selection of the optimum combination of calibration sites. To illustrate, the proposed entropy method is applied using discharge data from one river basin in Korea. First, different combinations of discharge-gauging sites were grouped based on the maximum information estimated by the entropy method. Then, a hydrological model was set up for the study basin and was calibrated by estimating optimal parameters using a genetic algorithm at the discharge-gauging sites. The calibration result confirmed that the model’s performance was best when it was calibrated using the site number and combination suggested by the entropy method. In addition, the entropy method was useful in reducing the time and effort of model calibration. Therefore, we suggest and confirm the applicability of the entropy method in selecting calibration sites for hydrological modeling.
Water2015, 7(12), 6702-6718; doi:10.3390/w7126656 - published 26 November 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This study explores the relationships between environmental factors and the distribution of epilithic diatoms in 161 estuaries of three coastal areas on the Korean peninsula. We investigated epilithic diatoms, water quality, and land use in the vicinities of the estuaries during the months of May 2012, 2013 and 2014, because Korea is relatively free from the influences of rainfall at that time of year. We recorded 327 diatom taxa from the study sites, and the assemblage was dominated by members of the Naviculaceae. Bacillariaceae accounted for the largest proportion of diatoms, and Nitzschia inconspicua (18%) and N. frustulum (9.6%) were the most dominant species. A cluster analysis based on epilithic diatom abundance suggested that the epilithic diatom communities of Korean estuaries can be classified into four large groups (G) according to geography, as follows: Ia—the East Sea watershed, Ib—the eastern watershed of the South Sea, IIa—the West Sea watershed, and IIb—the western watershed of the South Sea. The former two groups, Ia and Ib, showed higher proportions of forest land cover and use, higher species occurrence, lower salinity, lower turbidity, and lower concentrations of nutrients than the latter two groups, while the latter groups, IIa and IIb, had higher proportions of agricultural land cover and use, higher electrical conductivity, higher turbidity, higher concentrations of nutrients, and lower species occurrence. The environmental factors underlying the distribution of epilithic diatoms, representative of each region, are as follows: dissolved oxygen and forest land cover and use for Reimeria sinuate and Rhoicosphenia abbreviate of the East Sea (ES), salinity and turbidity for Tabularia fasciculate of the West Sea (WS), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nutrients for Cyclotella meneghiniana of the WS. On the other hand, the most influential environmental factors affecting the occurrence of indicator species showing the highest indicator values (>60%) of each group were electrical conductivity for Navicula saprophila and Reimeria sinuate of Ia, and turbidity for Encyonema minutum of IIa. Collectively, the distribution of epilithic diatom communities inhabiting Korean estuaries are determined by geographical factors and water quality, which are in turn influenced by land cover and use, and which differ from east to west.
Water2015, 7(12), 6689-6701; doi:10.3390/w7126655 - published 26 November 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The ongoing debate on water policies in Spain is characterised by a traditional paradigm —dominated by the intervention on hydrological systems through the construction and management of infrastructure, which is progressively being abandoned but is currently still strong while the emergence of new management approaches. Climate change and the Water Framework Directive (WFD) are, in addition, the background to increasing challenges to traditional perspectives on drought, and important steps have been taken towards their replacement. This work analyzes the evolution of the normative structure and management models to identify recent shifts. The analysis is based on a fundamental conceptual change that places drought in the framework of risk, rather than that of crisis. I argue for the need to advance new prevention policies that can finally overcome productivist inertia and undertake essential tasks such as reallocating water flows, revising and controlling the water-concession system, and reinforcing and guaranteeing public participation.
Water2015, 7(12), 6673-6688; doi:10.3390/w7126653 - published 26 November 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Reliably estimating the turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat at the Earth’s surface by remote sensing is important for research on the terrestrial hydrological cycle. This paper presents a practical approach for mapping surface energy fluxes using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images from an improved two-source energy balance (TSEB) model. The original TSEB approach may overestimate latent heat flux under vegetative stress conditions, as has also been reported in recent research. We replaced the Priestley-Taylor equation used in the original TSEB model with one that uses plant moisture and temperature constraints based on the PT-JPL model to obtain a more accurate canopy latent heat flux for model solving. The collected ASTER data and field observations employed in this study are over corn fields in arid regions of the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) area, China. The results were validated by measurements from eddy covariance (EC) systems, and the surface energy flux estimates of the improved TSEB model are similar to the ground truth. A comparison of the results from the original and improved TSEB models indicates that the improved method more accurately estimates the sensible and latent heat fluxes, generating more precise daily evapotranspiration (ET) estimate under vegetative stress conditions.
Water2015, 7(11), 6651-6672; doi:10.3390/w7116651 - published 23 November 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: For improving water scarcity and groundwater pollution from agriculture, two-year experiments (2011–2013) with three water levels (0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 evaporation (E) in 20-cm-diameter pans) and four nitrogen (N) levels (120, 140 and 190 kg·ha−1 in 2012 and 120, 190 and 290 kg·ha−1 in 2013) were conducted to study effects of water and N availability on water movement and N transport for a wheat crop under drip irrigation in the North China Plain. The results indicated that under drip irrigation, deep percolation at 1-m depth was stable at 0.5–0.8 E with the same N rate for winter wheat. At 0.5–0.8 E, deep percolation was also relatively stable with increasing N rate from 120 to 140 kg·ha−1 or from 190 to 290 kg·ha−1. The irrigation schedule and N rates only affected N leaching below the root zone of winter wheat (60-cm depth), while the N residual in the soil layer presented more risk to the environment than N leaching. In general, the 290-kg-ha−1 N level was not recommended using drip fertigation for winter wheat in the North China Plain. The empirical equation given by the Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources was also not recommended for estimating the drainage under drip irrigation.
Water2015, 7(11), 6634-6650; doi:10.3390/w7116634 - published 20 November 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: An indirect simulation-optimization model framework with enhanced computational efficiency and risk-based decision-making capability was developed to determine optimal total maximum daily load (TMDL) allocation under uncertainty. To convert the traditional direct simulation-optimization model into our indirect equivalent model framework, we proposed a two-step strategy: (1) application of interval regression equations derived by a Bayesian recursive regression tree (BRRT v2) algorithm, which approximates the original hydrodynamic and water-quality simulation models and accurately quantifies the inherent nonlinear relationship between nutrient load reductions and the credible interval of algal biomass with a given confidence interval; and (2) incorporation of the calibrated interval regression equations into an uncertain optimization framework, which is further converted to our indirect equivalent framework by the enhanced-interval linear programming (EILP) method and provides approximate-optimal solutions at various risk levels. The proposed strategy was applied to the Swift Creek Reservoir’s nutrient TMDL allocation (Chesterfield County, VA) to identify the minimum nutrient load allocations required from eight sub-watersheds to ensure compliance with user-specified chlorophyllcriteria. Our results indicated that the BRRT-EILP model could identify critical sub-watersheds faster than the traditional one and requires lower reduction of nutrient loadings compared to traditional stochastic simulation and trial-and-error (TAE) approaches. This suggests that our proposed framework performs better in optimal TMDL development compared to the traditional simulation-optimization models and provides extreme and non-extreme tradeoff analysis under uncertainty for risk-based decision making.