Water2014, 6(10), 2898-2928; doi:10.3390/w6102898 (registering DOI) - published 29 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This article is a study of water scarcity in Cyprus, examining the implications on the demand and supply side of water under the transformations caused by economic development, urbanisation and environmental changes. Measures and actions taken by water stakeholders to tackle the water poverty issue are discussed and assessed, together with possible future solution methods. In the light of the success of global climate models to forecast future conditions and advances in integrated management tools, the suggestion here is the need for a global systems approach to help guide policy decisions.
Water2014, 6(10), 2862-2897; doi:10.3390/w6102862 (registering DOI) - published 29 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Over the past several decades, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in inland natural water systems has been a popular research topic to a variety of scientific disciplines. Part of the attention has been due to observed changes in DOC concentrations in many of the water systems of the Northern Hemisphere. Shifts in DOC levels, and changes in its composition, are of concern due to its significance in aquatic ecosystem functioning and its potential and realized negative effects on waters that might be treated for drinking purposes. While it may not be possible to establish sound cause and effect relationships using a limited number of drivers, through long-term DOC monitoring studies and a variety of laboratory/field experiments, several explanations for increasing DOC trends have been proposed, including two key mechanisms: decreased atmospheric acid deposition and the increasing impact of climate change agents. The purpose of this review is three-fold: to outline frequently discussed conceptual mechanisms used to explain DOC increases (especially under a changing climate), to discuss the structure of DOC and the impact of higher levels of DOC on drinking water resources, and to provide renewed/sustained interest in DOC research that can encourage interdisciplinary collaboration. Understanding the cycling of carbon from terrestrial ecosystems into natural waters is necessary in the face of a variable and changing climate, as climate change-related mechanisms may become increasingly responsible for variations in the inputs of allochthonous DOCconcentrations in water.
Water2014, 6(10), 2849-2861; doi:10.3390/w6102849 (registering DOI) - published 26 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In this study, the stable isotope values of oxygen and hydrogen were used to identify the seasonal contribution ratios of precipitation to groundwater recharge in the Hualien River basin of eastern Taiwan. The differences and correlations of isotopes in various water bodies were examined to evaluate the groundwater recharge sources for the Hualian River basin and the interrelations between groundwater and surface water. Proportions of recharge sources were calculated based on the results of the mass balance analysis of the isotope composition of hydrogen and oxygen in the basin. Mountain river water accounted for 83% and plain rainfall accounted for 17% of the groundwater recharge in the Huanlian River basin. Using the mean d-values, a comparison of d-values of precipitation and groundwater indicates the groundwater consists of 75.5% wet seasonal sources and 24.5% dry seasonal sources, representing a distinct seasonal variation of groundwater recharge in the study area. Comparisons between hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in rainwater showed that differences in the amount of rainfall resulted in depleted oxygen and hydrogen isotopes for precipitation in wet seasons as compared to dry seasons. The river water contained more depleted hydrogen and oxygen isotopes than was the case for precipitation, implying that the river water mainly came from the upstream catchment. In addition, the hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in the groundwater slightly deviated from the hydrogen and oxygen isotopic meteoric water line in Huanlian. Therefore, the groundwater in this basin might be a mixture of river water and precipitation, resulting in the effect of the river water recharge being greater than that of rainfall infiltration.
Water2014, 6(9), 2847-2848; doi:10.3390/w6092847 - published 25 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The authors wish to make the following correction to their paper . Due to an error, there are two repeated dotted lines in Figure 1. The former Figure 1 (labelled here as Previous Figure 1) should be replaced by a new version (labeled here as New Figure 1):[...]
Water2014, 6(9), 2830-2846; doi:10.3390/w6092830 - published 25 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: : Saturated soil culture is one of the water saving techniques that can improve water productivity. However, it is either less implemented or adopted because it consumes more time and energy. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effective water depth that can keep soil moisture close to saturation for a commonly practiced irrigation interval, combined with a rainfall pattern for increasing water productivity. The design was a randomized complete block with three replications and four water treatments representing 120% (T120), 180% (T180), 240% (T240), and 300% (T300) of soil saturation or the application of 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm water depth. The results showed that the application of 3 cm was the effective depth. It decreased plant height, tiller number, chlorophyll content, and panicle number per hill by 12.37%, 20.84%, 7.59%, and 70.98%, respectively. The decrease of these parameters is followed by total recovery due to effective rainfall contribution, which led to low yield sacrifice (6% of reduction) and 40% of water saving. We argue that weekly application of a 3 cm water depth and matching crop needed-water period with the onset of rainfall may be implemented and recommended as suitable saturated soil culture practice for rice production in high water demand conditions.
Water2014, 6(9), 2821-2829; doi:10.3390/w6092821 - published 23 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Attempts at flood management during the 20th century resulted in more flood disasters. To gain a better understanding of what went wrong, it is necessary to examine historical evidence, seek ancient wisdom and compare practices of flood management in different countries. This study examines flood management concepts and practices in China and Japan during different periods of time in history and the differences in the two countries’ current management of flood retarding basins. It reveals that during the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC–24 AD), China proposed to redirect a river course to gain sufficient flood retarding capacity, and this same concept was realized, either coincidentally or intentionally, during the Edo period of Japan (1603–1868). In modern times, however, the management of flood retarding basins differs fundamentally between China and Japan. In addition, this study investigates the differences in emergency evacuation practices between China and Japan. This is the first study to highlight the link between a Chinese concept and a Japanese practice that are separated by more than 1000 years.