Open AccessArticle
Water Temperature Ensemble Forecasts: Implementation Using the CEQUEAU Model on Two Contrasted River Systems
Water 2017, 9(7), 457; doi:10.3390/w9070457 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In some hydrological systems, mitigation strategies are applied based on short-range water temperature forecasts to reduce stress caused to aquatic organisms. While various uncertainty sources are known to affect thermal modeling, their impact on water temperature forecasts remain poorly understood. The objective of
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In some hydrological systems, mitigation strategies are applied based on short-range water temperature forecasts to reduce stress caused to aquatic organisms. While various uncertainty sources are known to affect thermal modeling, their impact on water temperature forecasts remain poorly understood. The objective of this paper is to characterize uncertainty induced to water temperature forecasts by meteorological inputs in two hydrological contexts. Daily ensemble water temperature forecasts were produced using the CEQUEAU model for the Nechako (regulated) and Southwest Miramichi (natural) Rivers for 1–5-day horizons. The results demonstrate that a larger uncertainty is propagated to the thermal forecast in the unregulated river (0.92–3.14 °C) than on the regulated river (0.73–2.29 °C). Better performances were observed on the Nechako with a mean continuous ranked probability score (MCRPS) <0.85 °C for all horizons compared to the Southwest Miramichi (MCRPS ≈ 1 °C). While informing the end-user on future thermal conditions, the ensemble forecasts provide an assessment of the associated uncertainty and offer an additional tool to river managers for decision-making. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Seepage Piping Evolution Characteristics in Bimsoils -An Experimental Study
Water 2017, 9(7), 458; doi:10.3390/w9070458 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Piping is a kind of seepage failure mode that commonly occurs under the influence of seepage force in soil materials. Many studies have been done to study the characteristics of piping for soil materials, however, the initiation and development mechanism of piping in
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Piping is a kind of seepage failure mode that commonly occurs under the influence of seepage force in soil materials. Many studies have been done to study the characteristics of piping for soil materials, however, the initiation and development mechanism of piping in bimsoils is poorly understood. In this work, an experimental program was set for investigating the evolution process of piping, in a self-developed servo-controlled flow–erosion–stress coupled testing system. All the studied samples with rock block percentage (RBP) of 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70%, were produced as a cylindrical shape(50 mm diameter and 100 mm height) by compaction tests with different hammer strike counts to roughly insure the same void ratio. The results show that the amount of rock blocks in bimsoil samples significantly influenced the initiation and development of piping. Furthermore, the stress state has a crucial influence on the critical hydraulic gradient, seepage velocity, permeability, erosion, and migration of soil particles. Moreover, interactions among soil matrix, rock blocks, and rock–soil interfaces control the seepage stability of the bimsoil sample. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Assessment of Mean Areal Precipitation Methods on Simulated Stream Flow: A SWAT Model Performance Assessment
Water 2017, 9(7), 459; doi:10.3390/w9070459 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Accurate mean areal precipitation (MAP) estimates are essential input forcings for hydrologic models. However, the selection of the most accurate method to estimate MAP can be daunting because there are numerous methods to choose from (e.g., proximate gauge, direct weighted average, surface-fitting, and
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Accurate mean areal precipitation (MAP) estimates are essential input forcings for hydrologic models. However, the selection of the most accurate method to estimate MAP can be daunting because there are numerous methods to choose from (e.g., proximate gauge, direct weighted average, surface-fitting, and remotely sensed methods). Multiple methods (n = 19) were used to estimate MAP with precipitation data from 11 distributed monitoring sites, and 4 remotely sensed data sets. Each method was validated against the hydrologic model simulated stream flow using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). SWAT was validated using a split-site method and the observed stream flow data from five nested-scale gauging sites in a mixed-land-use watershed of the central USA. Cross-validation results showed the error associated with surface-fitting and remotely sensed methods ranging from −4.5 to −5.1%, and −9.8 to −14.7%, respectively. Split-site validation results showed the percent bias (PBIAS) values that ranged from −4.5 to −160%. Second order polynomial functions especially overestimated precipitation and subsequent stream flow simulations (PBIAS = −160) in the headwaters. The results indicated that using an inverse-distance weighted, linear polynomial interpolation or multiquadric function method to estimate MAP may improve SWAT model simulations. Collectively, the results highlight the importance of spatially distributed observed hydroclimate data for precipitation and subsequent steam flow estimations. The MAP methods demonstrated in the current work can be used to reduce hydrologic model uncertainty caused by watershed physiographic differences. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Investigation into the Effects of Temperature Gradient on the Soil Water–Salt Transfer with Evaporation
Water 2017, 9(7), 456; doi:10.3390/w9070456 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Temperature gradients exist in the field under brackish water irrigation conditions, especially in northern semi–arid areas of China. Although there are many investigators dedicated to studying the mechanism of brackish water irrigation and the effect of brackish water irrigation on crops, there are
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Temperature gradients exist in the field under brackish water irrigation conditions, especially in northern semi–arid areas of China. Although there are many investigators dedicated to studying the mechanism of brackish water irrigation and the effect of brackish water irrigation on crops, there are fewer investigations of the effects of temperature gradient on the water–salt transport. Based on the combination of a physical experiment and a mathematical model, this study was conducted to: (a) build a physical model and observe the redistribution of soil water–heat–salt transfer; (b) develop a mathematical model focused on the influence of a temperature gradient on soil water and salt redistribution based on the physical model and validate the proposed model using the measured data; and (c) analyze the effects of the temperature gradient on the soil water–salt transport by comparing the proposed model with the traditional water–salt model in which the effects of temperature gradient on the soil water–salt transfer are neglected. Results show that the soil temperature gradient has a definite influence on the soil water–salt migration. Moreover, the effect of temperature gradient on salt migration was greater than that of water movement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling of Ozone Mass-Transfer through Non-Porous Membranes for Water Treatment
Water 2017, 9(7), 452; doi:10.3390/w9070452 -
Abstract
The mass transfer of ozone and oxygen into water through non-porous membranes was studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling and fundamental convection-diffusion theory. Ozone is a gaseous oxidant that is widely applied in drinking water treatment. Membrane contactors are an alternative to
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The mass transfer of ozone and oxygen into water through non-porous membranes was studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling and fundamental convection-diffusion theory. Ozone is a gaseous oxidant that is widely applied in drinking water treatment. Membrane contactors are an alternative to conventional gas dispersion methods for injection of ozone gas mixtures into water. Few studies have explored computational approaches for membrane based ozone transport. In this investigation, quantitative concentration profiles across a single polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) capillary membrane tube with internal gas flow and external liquid flow were obtained, including single mass transfer resistances and overall mass transfer coefficients for ozone and oxygen for varying membrane lengths, thicknesses, and laminar flow liquid side velocities. Both the influence of diffusivity and solubility of gases in the membrane were considered with the applied model. Previous studies have neglected the solubility of gases in the membranes in their analysis of ozone and oxygen gas fluxes. This work shows that the solubility has a significant impact of the overall mass transfer coefficients, in particular for oxygen. The main resistance for ozone was found in the liquid side, while for oxygen it was in the membrane. Mass transfer correlations based on heat transfer analogies revealed Sherwood (Sh) correlations for ozone and oxygen with good agreement to literature data, indicating that the applied computational model returns sensible results. The outcome of this study provides an initial basis for computational predictions of ozone and oxygen mass transfer for different membrane materials, flow conditions and reactor designs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Treated Greywater Reuse for Hydroponic Lettuce Production in a Green Wall System: Quantitative Health Risk Assessment
Water 2017, 9(7), 454; doi:10.3390/w9070454 -
Abstract
The scarcity and pollution of freshwater are extremely crucial issues today, and the expansion of water reuse has been considered as an option to reduce its impact. This study aims to assess the efficiency of an integrated greywater treatment system and hydroponic lettuce
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The scarcity and pollution of freshwater are extremely crucial issues today, and the expansion of water reuse has been considered as an option to reduce its impact. This study aims to assess the efficiency of an integrated greywater treatment system and hydroponic lettuce production as a part of a green wall structure, and to evaluate the health risk associated with the production and consumption of lettuce through a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) and a chemical health risk assessment. The study was conducted based on the unique configuration of a source separation system; an on-site greywater treatment system; a green wall structure as a polishing step; and hydroponic lettuce production in the green wall structure. The final effluent from the system was used to grow three lettuce varieties by adding urine as a nutrient solution. Both water samples and plant biomass were collected and tested for Escherichia coli (E. coli) and heavy metals contamination. The system has gained a cumulative 5.1 log10 reduction of E. coli in the final effluent and no E. coli found in the plant biomass. The estimated annual infection risk for Cryptosporidium, Campylobacter, and Norovirus was 10−6–10−8, 10−8–10−10, and 10−10–10−11 respectively. These results indicate that the system attained the health-based targets, 10−6 disability adjusted life years (DALYs) per person per year. Similarly, the health risk index (HRI) and targeted hazard quotient (THQ) results did not exceed the permissible level, thus the chemical health risk concern was insignificant. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Combined Impact of Acute Exposure to Ammonia and Temperature Stress on the Freshwater Mussel Unio pictorum
Water 2017, 9(7), 455; doi:10.3390/w9070455 -
Abstract
Nitrogen compounds, particularly ammonia, and temperature are suspected major stressors for aquatic organisms, but little is known about their impact on globally declining freshwater mussels (Unionoida). In this study, we tested the combined effects of ammonia and temperature stress on painter’s mussel (
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Nitrogen compounds, particularly ammonia, and temperature are suspected major stressors for aquatic organisms, but little is known about their impact on globally declining freshwater mussels (Unionoida). In this study, we tested the combined effects of ammonia and temperature stress on painter’s mussel (Unio pictorum) survival, filtration behavior, hemocyte abundance, hemocyte mortality and glycogen energy status, at concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 9.0 mg·L1 total ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) in 96 h acute exposures at two temperatures, 17 °C and 25 °C and a pH of 8.8. The results indicate a low sensitivity of U. pictorum to elevated ammonia concentrations after short-term exposure, although effects on cell morphology were evident and delayed mortality occurred at the highest test concentration. Most pronounced effects were observed for sublethal physiological endpoints due to elevated temperature, but no synergistic effects with ammonia were evident. Temperature increase resulted in significant effects on tissue glycogen, hyalinocyte mortality and clearance rates. Hemocyte mortalities showed a linear dependency on initial mussel activity as measured by their clearance rate. Since the main stressors tested in this study, ammonia and temperature, are predicted to increase in most freshwater ecosystems, their impact on other freshwater mussel species including different life-stages should be comprehensively assessed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Spatio-Temporal Variation and Controlling Factors of Water Quality in Yongding River Replenished by Reclaimed Water in Beijing, North China
Water 2017, 9(7), 453; doi:10.3390/w9070453 -
Abstract
Reclaimed water is useful for replenishing dried up rivers in North China, although changes in water quality could be an issue. Therefore, it is essential to understand the spatio-temporal variation and the controlling factors of water quality. Samples of Yongding River water were
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Reclaimed water is useful for replenishing dried up rivers in North China, although changes in water quality could be an issue. Therefore, it is essential to understand the spatio-temporal variation and the controlling factors of water quality. Samples of Yongding River water were collected seasonally, and 24 water quality parameters were analyzed in 2015. All waters were alkaline, and nitrate-nitrogen was the main form of nitrogen, while phosphorus was mostly below detection level. The water quality parameters varied in time and space. Cluster analysis showed a distinct difference between winter and the other seasons and between the natural river section and the section with reclaimed water. Based on the analysis of Gibbs plots, principal component analysis, and ionic relationships, the water chemistry was controlled by dissolution of rocks in natural river section, the quality of replenished water, the effects of dilution, and the reaction of aqueous chemistry in the reclaimed water section. The positive oxidation environment in most of the river water was conducive to the formation of nitrate-nitrogen by nitrification, and not conducive to denitrification. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stability Analysis of Hydrodynamic Pressure Landslides with Different Permeability Coefficients Affected by Reservoir Water Level Fluctuations and Rainstorms
Water 2017, 9(7), 450; doi:10.3390/w9070450 -
Abstract
It is significant to study the variations in the stability coefficients of hydrodynamic pressure landslides with different permeability coefficients affected by reservoir water level fluctuations and rainstorms. The Sifangbei landslide in Three Gorges Reservoir area is used as case study. Its stability coefficients
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It is significant to study the variations in the stability coefficients of hydrodynamic pressure landslides with different permeability coefficients affected by reservoir water level fluctuations and rainstorms. The Sifangbei landslide in Three Gorges Reservoir area is used as case study. Its stability coefficients are simulated based on saturated-unsaturated seepage theory and finite element analysis. The operating conditions of stability coefficients calculation are reservoir water level variations between 175 m and 145 m, different rates of reservoir water level fluctuations, and a three-day continuous rainstorm. Results show that the stability coefficient of the hydrodynamic pressure landslide decreases with the drawdown of the reservoir water level, and a rapid drawdown rate leads to a small stability coefficient when the permeability coefficient ranges from 1.16 × 10−6 m/s to 4.64 × 10−5 m/s. Additionally, the landslide stability coefficient increases as the reservoir water level increases, and a rapid increase in the water level leads to a high stability coefficient when the permeability coefficient ranges from 1.16 × 10−6 m/s to 4.64 × 10−5 m/s. The landslide stability coefficient initially decreases and then increases as the reservoir water level declines when the permeability coefficient is greater than 4.64 × 10−5 m/s. Moreover, for structures with the same landslide, the landslide stability coefficient is most sensitive to the change in the rate of reservoir water level drawdown when the permeability coefficient increases from 1.16 × 10−6 m/s to 1.16 × 10−4 m/s. Additionally, the rate of decrease in the stability coefficient increases as the permeability coefficient increases. Finally, the three-day rainstorm leads to a significant reduction in landslide stability, and the rate of decrease in the stability coefficient initially increases and then decreases as the permeability coefficient increases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling the Fate and Transport of Malathion in the Pagsanjan-Lumban Basin, Philippines
Water 2017, 9(7), 451; doi:10.3390/w9070451 -
Abstract
Exposure to highly toxic pesticides could potentially cause cancer and disrupt the development of vital systems. Monitoring activities were performed to assess the level of contamination; however, these were costly, laborious, and short-term leading to insufficient monitoring data. However, the performance of the
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Exposure to highly toxic pesticides could potentially cause cancer and disrupt the development of vital systems. Monitoring activities were performed to assess the level of contamination; however, these were costly, laborious, and short-term leading to insufficient monitoring data. However, the performance of the existing Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model) can be restricted by its two-phase partitioning approach, which is inadequate when it comes to simulating pesticides with limited dataset. This study developed a modified SWAT pesticide model to address these challenges. The modified model considered the three-phase partitioning model that classifies the pesticide into three forms: dissolved, particle-bound, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-associated pesticide. The addition of DOC-associated pesticide particles increases the scope of the pesticide model by also considering the adherence of pesticides to the organic carbon in the soil. The modified SWAT and original SWAT pesticide model was applied to the Pagsanjan-Lumban (PL) basin, a highly agricultural region. Malathion was chosen as the target pesticide since it is commonly used in the basin. The pesticide models simulated the fate and transport of malathion in the PL basin and showed the temporal pattern of selected subbasins. The sensitivity analyses revealed that application efficiency and settling velocity were the most sensitive parameters for the original and modified SWAT model, respectively. Degradation of particulate-phase malathion were also significant to both models. The rate of determination (R2) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values showed that the modified model (R2 = 0.52; NSE = 0.36) gave a slightly better performance compared to the original (R2 = 0.39; NSE = 0.18). Results from this study will be able to aid the government and private agriculture sectors to have an in-depth understanding in managing pesticide usage in agricultural watersheds. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Effects of Thinning on Flow Peaks in a Forested Headwater Catchment in Western Japan
Water 2017, 9(6), 446; doi:10.3390/w9060446 -
Abstract
This study examined the changes in rainfall-runoff characteristics in the year prior to and after intensive thinning of 50% in number in a steep headwater catchment, covered with 46-year-old Japanese cedar and cypress in western Japan. The magnitude of event peak flow, event
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This study examined the changes in rainfall-runoff characteristics in the year prior to and after intensive thinning of 50% in number in a steep headwater catchment, covered with 46-year-old Japanese cedar and cypress in western Japan. The magnitude of event peak flow, event quick flow, event water yield, and event response time did not change after thinning. Because 70% of rainfall events had multiple flow peaks, relationships between each flow peak and the rainfall just prior to that peak were also analyzed. The increases in accumulated quick flow, flow rise and flow drop were significant after thinning. The flow drop following each flow peak increased, and led to a lower initial flow in subsequent peaks, resulting in no increase in peak size. The flow peaks in events with over 30 mm rainfall amount and over 2 mm/h average rainfall intensity showed significant increases in flow peak, flow rise, flow drop, and accumulated quick flow, which suggests that the catchment exhibited more shallow flow paths during large rainfall amounts after thinning. No changes were identified using event-based analysis, but changes in flow peaks were detected, which indicates the importance of examining all flow peaks when investigating rainfall-runoff characteristics of headwater catchments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Beach Response to Wave Forcing from Event to Inter-Annual Time Scales at Grand Popo, Benin (Gulf of Guinea)
Water 2017, 9(6), 447; doi:10.3390/w9060447 -
Abstract
This paper assesses the morphological storm-event impact, seasonal cycles, trends of wave forcing, and beach’s response at the coastal area of Grand Popo, Benin. Three and a half years’ worth of data were collected from 2013 to 2016, using a video system calibrated
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This paper assesses the morphological storm-event impact, seasonal cycles, trends of wave forcing, and beach’s response at the coastal area of Grand Popo, Benin. Three and a half years’ worth of data were collected from 2013 to 2016, using a video system calibrated with field data collected during a 10 day experiment. A comparison was carried out with Wavewatch III IOWAGA wave hindcast data. The along-shore-averaged shoreline position exhibited a seasonal pattern, which was related more to the average wave height than the average storm intensity. Storms occur in austral winter (June, July, August, and September). Based on 12 storms, the results revealed that the average storm duration was 1.6 days, with a mean erosion of 3.1 m. The average post-storm beach recovery duration was 15 days, and the average recovery rate was 0.4 m/day. The impact of storms was more or less amplified depending on the eroding and accreting periods of the wave climate. There was an inter-annual eroding trend of about −1.6 m/year, but the causes of this trend could not be explained. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Urban Flood Simulation Using MODCEL—An Alternative Quasi-2D Conceptual Model
Water 2017, 9(6), 445; doi:10.3390/w9060445 -
Abstract
Urban flood modelling has been evolving in recent years, due to computational facilities as well as to the possibility of obtaining detailed terrain data. Flood control techniques have also been evolving to integrate both urban flood and urban planning issues. Land use control
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Urban flood modelling has been evolving in recent years, due to computational facilities as well as to the possibility of obtaining detailed terrain data. Flood control techniques have also been evolving to integrate both urban flood and urban planning issues. Land use control and flow generation concerns, as well as a set of possible distributed measures favouring storage and infiltration over the watershed, also gained importance in flood control projects, reinforcing the need to model the entire basin space. However, the use of 2D equations with highly detailed digital elevation models do not guarantee good results by their own. Urban geometry, including buildings shapes, walls, earth fills, and other structures may cause significant interference on flood paths. In this context, this paper presents an alternative urban flood model, focusing on the system behaviour and its conceptual interpretation. Urban Flood Cell Model-MODCEL is a hydrological-hydrodynamic model proposed to represent a complex flow network, with a set of relatively simple information, using average values to represent urban landscape through the flow-cell concept. In this work, to illustrate model capabilities, MODCEL is benchmarked in a test proposed by the British Environmental Agency. Then, its capability to represent storm drains is verified using measured data and a comparison with Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). Finally, it is applied in a lowland area of the Venetian continental plains, representing floods in a complex setup at the city of Noale and in its surroundings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Model of Suspended Solids Removal in the Primary Sedimentation Tanks for the Treatment of Urban Wastewater
Water 2017, 9(6), 448; doi:10.3390/w9060448 -
Abstract
Primary settling tanks are used to remove solids at wastewater treatment plants and are considered a fundamental part in their joint operation with the biological and sludge treatment processes. The aim of this study was to obtain a greater understanding of the influence
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Primary settling tanks are used to remove solids at wastewater treatment plants and are considered a fundamental part in their joint operation with the biological and sludge treatment processes. The aim of this study was to obtain a greater understanding of the influence of operational parameters, such as surface overflow rate, hydraulic retention time, and temperature, on the removal efficiency of suspended solids and organic matter by the measurement of chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand in the primary sedimentation process. The research was carried out in a semi-technical primary settling tank which was fed with real wastewater from a wastewater treatment plant. The physical process was strictly controlled and without the intervention of chemical additives. Three cycles of operation were tested in relation to the surface overflow rate, in order to check their influence on the different final concentrations. The results obtained show that the elimination efficiency can be increased by 11% for SS and 9% for chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand, for variations in the surface overflow rate of around ±0.6 m3/m2·h and variations in hydraulic retention time of around ±2 h. The results also show that current design criteria are quite conservative. An empirical mathematical model was developed in this paper relating SS removal efficiency to q, influent SS concentration, and sewage temperature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dissipation of Micropollutants in a Rewetted Fen Peatland: A Field Study Using Treated Wastewater
Water 2017, 9(6), 449; doi:10.3390/w9060449 -
Abstract
In the present study, a mixture of treated wastewater and surface water was used to rewet a degraded fen peatland site during a three-year rewetting experiment. We studied the behavior and effects of micropollutants by means of hydrological, physico-chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological monitoring.
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In the present study, a mixture of treated wastewater and surface water was used to rewet a degraded fen peatland site during a three-year rewetting experiment. We studied the behavior and effects of micropollutants by means of hydrological, physico-chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological monitoring. The highest concentrations of micropollutants in the treated wastewater were found for the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine and diclofenac, some metabolites, the sweetener acesulfame, tolyl- and benzotriazole and diatrizoate. In the underlying, shallow groundwater where treated wastewater application for rewetting had been expected to have the greatest impact due to seeping and evapotranspiration processes, only a sporadic occurrence of micropollutants was found. The influence of dilution by groundwater movements was examined by applying a geohydrological model. The sorption of micropollutants onto the peaty soil also played a role, as found for carbamazepine. Further processes such as photolysis, microbial decay under low redox conditions and plant uptake can be assumed to be relevant for the removal of many substances. Ecotoxicity tests with the soil before and after rewetting did not indicate any negative impact on the soil habitat quality by wastewater application, but clearly pointed at ecotoxicologically relevant geogenic arsenic concentrations at the study site. Although a positive effect on receiving surface water systems is expected if wastewater is applied on land instead of discharged to water bodies, the rewetted soil may turn into a sink for micropollutants in the long term. Hence, the findings of the present field study encourage further investigations in order to identify the governing processes in the elimination of micropollutants in rewetted peatlands flooded with treated wastewater. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Design of a Site-Calibrated Parker–Klingeman Gravel Transport Model
Water 2017, 9(6), 441; doi:10.3390/w9060441 -
Abstract
The use of site-calibrated models for predicting bedload transport in gravel-bed rivers remains relatively rare, despite advances in methodology and computing technology, and its notable advantages in terms of predictive accuracy. This article presents a new algorithm for site calibration of the Parker–Klingeman
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The use of site-calibrated models for predicting bedload transport in gravel-bed rivers remains relatively rare, despite advances in methodology and computing technology, and its notable advantages in terms of predictive accuracy. This article presents a new algorithm for site calibration of the Parker–Klingeman (1982) model, along with a detailed discussion of considerations that influence model selection and calibration methodology. New visualization techniques are explored to demystify the calibration process, using three examples with progressively more challenging calibration conditions. The new method is particularly well suited to streams with high sediment loads, or cases where extrapolation of transport function estimates is necessary. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Variation, Pollution Assessment and Source Identification of Major Nutrients in Surface Sediments of Nansi Lake, China
Water 2017, 9(6), 444; doi:10.3390/w9060444 -
Abstract
Nansi Lake has been seriously affected by intensive anthropogenic activities in recent years. In this study, an extensive survey on spatial variation, pollution assessment as well as the possible sources identification of major nutrients (Total phosphorus: TP, Total nitrogen: TN, and Total organic
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Nansi Lake has been seriously affected by intensive anthropogenic activities in recent years. In this study, an extensive survey on spatial variation, pollution assessment as well as the possible sources identification of major nutrients (Total phosphorus: TP, Total nitrogen: TN, and Total organic carbon: TOC) in the surface sediments of Nansi Lake was conducted. Results showed that the mean contents of TP, TN and TOC were 1.13-, 5.40- and 2.50- fold higher than their background values respectively. Most of the TN and TOC contents in the surface sediments of Nansi Lake were four times as high or higher and twice as high or higher than the background values except the Zhaoyang sub-lake, and the spatial distribution of TN and TOC contents were remarkably similar over a large area. Nearly all the TP contents in the surface sediments of Nansi Lake were all higher than its background values except most part of the Zhaoyang sub-lake. Based on the enrichment factor (EF) and the organic pollution evaluation index (Org-index), TP, TOC and TN showed minor enrichment (1.13), minor enrichment (2.50) and moderately severe enrichment (5.40), respectively, and most part of the Dushan sub-lake and the vicinity of the Weishan island were in moderate or heavy sediments organic pollution, while the other parts were clean. Moreover, according to the results of multivariate statistical analysis, we deduced that anthropogenic TN and TOC were mainly came from industrial sources including enterprises distributed in Jining, Yanzhou and Zoucheng along with iron and steel industries distributed in the southern of the Weishan sub-lake, whereas TP mainly originated from runoff and soil erosion coming from agricultural lands located in Heze city and Weishan island, the local aquacultural activities as well as the domestic sewage discharge of Jining city. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Transparency, Geomorphology and Mixing Regime Explain Variability in Trends in Lake Temperature and Stratification across Northeastern North America (1975–2014)
Water 2017, 9(6), 442; doi:10.3390/w9060442 -
Abstract
Lake surface water temperatures are warming worldwide, raising concerns about the future integrity of valuable lake ecosystem services. In contrast to surface water temperatures, we know far less about what is happening to water temperature beneath the surface, where most organisms live. Moreover,
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Lake surface water temperatures are warming worldwide, raising concerns about the future integrity of valuable lake ecosystem services. In contrast to surface water temperatures, we know far less about what is happening to water temperature beneath the surface, where most organisms live. Moreover, we know little about which characteristics make lakes more or less sensitive to climate change and other environmental stressors. We examined changes in lake thermal structure for 231 lakes across northeastern North America (NENA), a region with an exceptionally high density of lakes. We determined how lake thermal structure has changed in recent decades (1975–2012) and assessed which lake characteristics are related to changes in lake thermal structure. In general, NENA lakes had increasing near-surface temperatures and thermal stratification strength. On average, changes in deepwater temperatures for the 231 lakes were not significantly different than zero, but individually, half of the lakes experienced warming and half cooling deepwater temperature through time. More transparent lakes (Secchi transparency >5 m) tended to have higher near-surface warming and greater increases in strength of thermal stratification than less transparent lakes. Whole-lake warming was greatest in polymictic lakes, where frequent summer mixing distributed heat throughout the water column. Lakes often function as important sentinels of climate change, but lake characteristics within and across regions modify the magnitude of the signal with important implications for lake biology, ecology and chemistry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Groundwater Remediation Technologies Based on Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Approaches
Water 2017, 9(6), 443; doi:10.3390/w9060443 -
Abstract
Petroleum is an essential resource for the development of society and its production is huge. There is a great risk of leakage of oil during production, refining, and transportation. After entering the environment, the oil pollutants will be a great threat to the
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Petroleum is an essential resource for the development of society and its production is huge. There is a great risk of leakage of oil during production, refining, and transportation. After entering the environment, the oil pollutants will be a great threat to the environment and may endanger human health. Therefore, it is very important to remediate oil pollution in the subsurface. However, it is necessary to choose the appropriate remediation technology. In this paper, 18 technologies are evaluated through constructing a parameter matrix with each technology and seven performance indicators, and a comprehensive analysis model is presented. In this model, four MCDA methods are used. They are SWA (Simple Weighted Addition Method), WP (Weighted Product Method), CGT (Cooperative Game Theory), and TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution). Mean ranking and Borda ranking methods are used to integrate the results of SWA, WP, CGT, and TOPSIS. Then two selection priorities of each method (mean ranking and Borda ranking) are obtained. The model is proposed to help decide the best choice of remediation technologies. It can effectively reduce contingency, subjectivity, one-sidedness of the traditional methods and provide scientific reference for effective decision-making. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Advancing Water Footprint Assessment Research: Challenges in Monitoring Progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 6
Water 2017, 9(6), 438; doi:10.3390/w9060438 -
Abstract
This special issue is a collection of recent papers in the field of Water Footprint Assessment (WFA), an emerging area of research focused on the analysis of freshwater use, scarcity, and pollution in relation to consumption, production, and trade. As increasing freshwater scarcity
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This special issue is a collection of recent papers in the field of Water Footprint Assessment (WFA), an emerging area of research focused on the analysis of freshwater use, scarcity, and pollution in relation to consumption, production, and trade. As increasing freshwater scarcity forms a major risk to the global economy, sustainable management of water resources is a prerequisite to development. We introduce the papers in this special issue by relating them to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) number 6 of the United Nations, the goal on water. We will particularly articulate how each paper drives the understanding needed to achieve target 6.3 on water quality and pollution and target 6.4 on water-use efficiency and water scarcity. Regarding SDG 6, we conclude that it lacks any target on using green water more efficiently, and while addressing efficiency and sustainability of water use, it lacks a target on equitable sharing of water. The latter issue is receiving limited attention in research as well. By primarily focusing on water-use efficiency in farming and industries at the local level, to a lesser extent to using water sustainably at the level of total water systems (like drainage basins, aquifers), and largely ignoring issues around equitable water use, understanding of our water problems and proposed solutions will likely remain unbalanced. Full article
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