Open AccessReview
A Systematic Review of the Natural Virome of Anopheles Mosquitoes
Viruses 2018, 10(5), 222; doi:10.3390/v10050222 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Anopheles mosquitoes are vectors of human malaria, but they also harbor viruses, collectively termed the virome. The Anopheles virome is relatively poorly studied, and the number and function of viruses are unknown. Only the o’nyong-nyong arbovirus (ONNV) is known to be consistently transmitted
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Anopheles mosquitoes are vectors of human malaria, but they also harbor viruses, collectively termed the virome. The Anopheles virome is relatively poorly studied, and the number and function of viruses are unknown. Only the o’nyong-nyong arbovirus (ONNV) is known to be consistently transmitted to vertebrates by Anopheles mosquitoes. A systematic literature review searched four databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Lissa. In addition, online and print resources were searched manually. The searches yielded 259 records. After screening for eligibility criteria, we found at least 51 viruses reported in Anopheles, including viruses with potential to cause febrile disease if transmitted to humans or other vertebrates. Studies to date have not provided evidence that Anopheles consistently transmit and maintain arboviruses other than ONNV. However, anthropophilic Anopheles vectors of malaria are constantly exposed to arboviruses in human bloodmeals. It is possible that in malaria-endemic zones, febrile symptoms may be commonly misdiagnosed. It is also possible that anophelines may be inherently less competent arbovirus vectors than culicines, but if true, the biological basis would warrant further study. This systematic review contributes a context to characterize the biology, knowledge gaps, and potential public health risk of Anopheles viruses. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Within-Host Recombination in the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Genome
Viruses 2018, 10(5), 221; doi:10.3390/v10050221 -
Abstract
Recombination is one of the determinants of genetic diversity in the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). FMDV sequences have a mosaic structure caused by extensive intra- and inter-serotype recombination, with the exception of the capsid-encoding region. While these genome-wide patterns of broad-scale recombination are
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Recombination is one of the determinants of genetic diversity in the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). FMDV sequences have a mosaic structure caused by extensive intra- and inter-serotype recombination, with the exception of the capsid-encoding region. While these genome-wide patterns of broad-scale recombination are well studied, not much is known about the patterns of recombination that may exist within infected hosts. In addition, detection of recombination among viruses evolving at the within-host level is challenging due to the similarity of the sequences and the limitations in differentiating recombination from point mutations. Here, we present the first analysis of recombination events between closely related FMDV sequences occurring within buffalo hosts. The detection of these events was made possible by the occurrence of co-infection of two viral swarms with about 1% nucleotide divergence. We found more than 15 recombination events, unequally distributed across eight samples from different animals. The distribution of these events along the FMDV genome was neither uniform nor related to the phylogenetic distribution of recombination breakpoints, suggesting a mismatch between within-host evolutionary pressures and long-term selection for infectivity and transmissibility. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A New Approach to Assessing HSV-1 Recombination during Intercellular Spread
Viruses 2018, 10(5), 220; doi:10.3390/v10050220 -
Abstract
The neuroinvasive Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) utilizes intergenomic recombination in order to diversify viral populations. Research efforts to assess HSV-1 recombination are often complicated by the use of attenuating mutations, which differentiate viral progeny but unduly influence the replication and spread.
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The neuroinvasive Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) utilizes intergenomic recombination in order to diversify viral populations. Research efforts to assess HSV-1 recombination are often complicated by the use of attenuating mutations, which differentiate viral progeny but unduly influence the replication and spread. In this work, we generated viruses with markers that allowed for classification of viral progeny with limited attenuation of viral replication. We isolated viruses, harboring either a cyan (C) or yellow (Y) fluorescent protein (FP) expression cassette inserted in two different locations within the viral genome, in order to visually quantify the recombinant progeny based on plaque fluorescence. We found that the FP marked genomes had a limited negative affect on the viral replication and production of progeny virions. A co-infection of the two viruses resulted in recombinant progeny that was dependent on the multiplicity of infection and independent of the time post infection, at a rate that was similar to previous reports. The sequential passage of mixed viral populations revealed a limited change in the distribution of the parental and recombinant progeny. Interestingly, the neuroinvasive spread within neuronal cultures and an in vivo mouse model, revealed large, random shifts in the parental and recombinant distributions in viral populations. In conclusion, our approach highlights the utility of FP expressing viruses in order to provide new insights into mechanisms of HSV-1 recombination. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Relative Contribution of Cellular Complement Inhibitors CD59, CD46, and CD55 to Parainfluenza Virus 5 Inhibition of Complement-Mediated Neutralization
Viruses 2018, 10(5), 219; doi:10.3390/v10050219 -
Abstract
The complement system is a part of the innate immune system that viruses need to face during infections. Many viruses incorporate cellular regulators of complement activation (RCA) to block complement pathways and our prior work has shown that Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) incorporates
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The complement system is a part of the innate immune system that viruses need to face during infections. Many viruses incorporate cellular regulators of complement activation (RCA) to block complement pathways and our prior work has shown that Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) incorporates CD55 and CD46 to delay complement-mediated neutralization. In this paper, we tested the role of a third individual RCA inhibitor CD59 in PIV5 interactions with complement pathways. Using a cell line engineered to express CD59, we show that small levels of functional CD59 are associated with progeny PIV5, which is capable of blocking assembly of the C5b-C9 membrane attack complex (MAC). PIV5 containing CD59 (PIV5-CD59) showed increased resistance to complement-mediated neutralization in vitro comparing to PIV5 lacking regulators. Infection of A549 cells with PIV5 and RSV upregulated CD59 expression. TGF-beta treatment of PIV5-infected cells also increased cell surface CD59 expression and progeny virions were more resistant to complement-mediated neutralization. A comparison of individual viruses containing only CD55, CD46, or CD59 showed a potency of inhibiting complement-mediated neutralization, which followed a pattern of CD55 > CD46 > CD59. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Framing the Future with Bacteriophages in Agriculture
Viruses 2018, 10(5), 218; doi:10.3390/v10050218 -
Abstract
The ability of agriculture to continually provide food to a growing world population is of crucial importance. Bacterial diseases of plants and animals have continually reduced production since the advent of crop cultivation and animal husbandry practices. Antibiotics have been used extensively to
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The ability of agriculture to continually provide food to a growing world population is of crucial importance. Bacterial diseases of plants and animals have continually reduced production since the advent of crop cultivation and animal husbandry practices. Antibiotics have been used extensively to mitigate these losses. The rise of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria, however, together with consumers’ calls for antibiotic-free products, presents problems that threaten sustainable agriculture. Bacteriophages (phages) are proposed as bacterial population control alternatives to antibiotics. Their unique properties make them highly promising but challenging antimicrobials. The use of phages in agriculture also presents a number of unique challenges. This mini-review summarizes recent development and perspectives of phages used as antimicrobial agents in plant and animal agriculture at the farm level. The main pathogens and their adjoining phage therapies are discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Sequence of Two Bacteriophages with Hypermodified Bases Reveals Novel Phage-Host Interactions
Viruses 2018, 10(5), 217; doi:10.3390/v10050217 -
Abstract
Bacteriophages SP-15 and ΦW-14 are members of the Myoviridae infecting Bacillus subtilis and Delftia (formerly Pseudomonas) acidovorans, respectively. What links them is that in both cases, approximately 50% of the thymine residues are replaced by hypermodified bases. The consequence of this
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Bacteriophages SP-15 and ΦW-14 are members of the Myoviridae infecting Bacillus subtilis and Delftia (formerly Pseudomonas) acidovorans, respectively. What links them is that in both cases, approximately 50% of the thymine residues are replaced by hypermodified bases. The consequence of this is that the physico-chemical properties of the DNA are radically altered (melting temperature (Tm), buoyant density and susceptibility to restriction endonucleases). Using 454 pyrosequencing technology, we sequenced the genomes of both viruses. Phage ΦW-14 possesses a 157-kb genome (56.3% GC) specifying 236 proteins, while SP-15 is larger at 222 kb (38.6 mol % G + C) and encodes 318 proteins. In both cases, the phages can be considered genomic singletons since they do not possess BLASTn homologs. While no obvious genes were identified as being responsible for the modified base in ΦW-14, SP-15 contains a cluster of genes obviously involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Efficient Protein Expression and Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Plants Using a Crinivirus-Derived Vector
Viruses 2018, 10(5), 216; doi:10.3390/v10050216 -
Abstract
Plant virus-based vectors are valuable tools for recombinant gene expression and functional genomics for both basic and applied research. In this study, Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) of the genus Crinivirus was engineered into a virus vector that is applicable for efficient protein
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Plant virus-based vectors are valuable tools for recombinant gene expression and functional genomics for both basic and applied research. In this study, Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) of the genus Crinivirus was engineered into a virus vector that is applicable for efficient protein expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in plants. We examined gene replacement and “add a gene” strategies to develop LIYV-derived vectors for transient expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. The latter yielded higher GFP expression and was further examined by testing the effects of heterologous controller elements (CEs). A series of five vector constructs with progressively extended LIYV CP sgRNA CEs were tested, the longest CE gave the highest GFP expression but lower virus accumulation. The whitefly transmissibility of the optimized vector construct to other host plants, and the capability to accommodate and express a larger gene, a 1.8 kb β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene, were confirmed. Furthermore, the LIYV vector was also validated VIGS by silencing the endogenous gene, phytoene desaturase (PDS) in N. benthamiana plants, and the transgene GFP in N. benthamiana line 16c plants. Therefore, LIYV-derived vectors could provide a technical reference for developing vectors of other economically important criniviruses. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Natural Immunity to HIV: A Template for Vaccine Strategies
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 215; doi:10.3390/v10040215 -
Abstract
Africa accounts for the majority of global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, most of which affect women through heterosexual intercourse. Currently, there is no cure for HIV and the development of vaccines and microbicides remains the best solution to eradicate the pandemic. We
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Africa accounts for the majority of global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, most of which affect women through heterosexual intercourse. Currently, there is no cure for HIV and the development of vaccines and microbicides remains the best solution to eradicate the pandemic. We and others have identified HIV highly-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals among African female commercial sex workers (CSWs). Analyses of genital samples from HESNs have demonstrated potent innate and anti-inflammatory conditions, HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells as well as immunoglobulins (Igs), and increased regulatory cell populations, all of which support a delicate balance between strength and control against HIV intrusion. Moreover, we have recently shown that frequencies of innate marginal zone (MZ) B-cells are decreased in the blood of HESNs when compared to HIV-uninfected non-CSW women, suggesting their recruitment to peripheral sites. This coincides with the fact that levels of B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS/BAFF), known to shape the MZ pool and whose overexpression leads to MZ deregulation in HIV-infected progressors, are significantly lower in the blood of HESNs when compared to both HIV-infected CSWs and HIV-uninfected non-CSW women. Interestingly, MZ B-cells can bind HIV gp120 and produce specific IgG and IgA, and have a propensity for B regulatory potential, which could help both the fight against HIV and maintenance of low inflammatory conditions in HESNs. HESN individuals provide an exceptional opportunity to identify important clues for the development of protective devices, and efforts should aim at soliciting immune responses observed in the context of their natural immunity to HIV. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mycoviruses as Triggers and Targets of RNA Silencing in White Mold Fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 214; doi:10.3390/v10040214 -
Abstract
This study aimed to demonstrate the existence of antiviral RNA silencing mechanisms in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by infecting wild-type and RNA-silencing-deficient strains of the fungus with an RNA virus and a DNA virus. Key silencing-related genes were disrupted to dissect the RNA silencing pathway.
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This study aimed to demonstrate the existence of antiviral RNA silencing mechanisms in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by infecting wild-type and RNA-silencing-deficient strains of the fungus with an RNA virus and a DNA virus. Key silencing-related genes were disrupted to dissect the RNA silencing pathway. Specifically, dicer genes (dcl-1, dcl-2, and both dcl-1/dcl-2) were displaced by selective marker(s). Disruption mutants were then compared for changes in phenotype, virulence, and susceptibility to virus infections. Wild-type and mutant strains were transfected with a single-stranded RNA virus, SsHV2-L, and copies of a single-stranded DNA mycovirus, SsHADV-1, as a synthetic virus constructed in this study. Disruption of dcl-1 or dcl-2 resulted in no changes in phenotype compared to wild-type S. sclerotiorum; however, the double dicer mutant strain exhibited significantly slower growth. Furthermore, the Δdcl-1/dcl-2 double mutant, which was slow growing without virus infection, exhibited much more severe debilitation following virus infections including phenotypic changes such as slower growth, reduced pigmentation, and delayed sclerotial formation. These phenotypic changes were absent in the single mutants, Δdcl-1 and Δdcl-2. Complementation of a single dicer in the double disruption mutant reversed viral susceptibility to the wild-type state. Virus-derived small RNAs were accumulated from virus-infected wild-type strains with strand bias towards the negative sense. The findings of these studies indicate that S. sclerotiorum has robust RNA silencing mechanisms that process both DNA and RNA mycoviruses and that, when both dicers are silenced, invasive nucleic acids can greatly debilitate the virulence of this fungus. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
piRNA Profiling of Dengue Virus Type 2-Infected Asian Tiger Mosquito and Midgut Tissues
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 213; doi:10.3390/v10040213 -
Abstract
The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a competent vector for the majority of arboviruses. The mosquito innate immune response is a primary determinant for arthropod-borne virus transmission, and the midgut is the first barrier to pathogen transmission. Mosquito antiviral immunity is
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The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a competent vector for the majority of arboviruses. The mosquito innate immune response is a primary determinant for arthropod-borne virus transmission, and the midgut is the first barrier to pathogen transmission. Mosquito antiviral immunity is primarily mediated by the small interfering RNA pathway. However, the roles that the P-element induced wimpy testis (PIWI)-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway play in antiviral immunity in Ae. albopictus and its midgut still need further exploration. This study aimed to explore the profiles of both viral-derived and host-originated piRNAs in the whole body and midgut infected with Dengue virus 2 (DENV-2) in Ae. albopictus, and to elucidate gene expression profile differences of the PIWI protein family between adult females and their midguts. A deep sequencing-based method was used to identify and analyze small non-coding RNAs, especially the piRNA profiles in DENV-2-infected Ae. albopictus and its midgut. The top-ranked, differentially-expressed piRNAs were further validated using Stem-loop qRT-PCR. Bioinformatics analyses and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) methods were used to detect PIWI protein family members, and their expression profiles. DENV-2 derived piRNAs (vpiRNA, 24–30 nts) were observed in both infected Ae. albopictus and its midgut; however, only vpiRNA in the whole-body library had a weak preference for adenine at position 10 (10A) in the sense molecules as a feature of secondary piRNA. These vpiRNAs were not equally distributed, instead they were derived from a few specific regions of the genome, especially several hot spots, and displayed an obvious positive strand bias. We refer to the differentially expressed host piRNAs after DENV infection as virus-induced host endogenous piRNAs (vepiRNAs). However, we found that vepiRNAs were abundant in mosquito whole-body tissue, but deficient in the midgut. A total of eleven PIWI family genes were identified in Ae. albopictus; however, only AalPiwi5–7 and AalAgo3(1–2) were readily detected in the midgut. The characteristics of piRNAs in DENV-2-infected Ae. albopictus adult females were similar to those previously described for flavivirus infections but were not observed in the midgut. The reduced levels of vepiRNAs and incomplete expression of PIWI pathway genes in midgut samples from DENV-2-infected Ae. albopictus suggests that viral regulation of host piRNAs may not be an important factor in the midgut. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Does BCA3 Play a Role in the HIV-1 Replication Cycle?
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 212; doi:10.3390/v10040212 -
Abstract
The cellular role of breast carcinoma-associated protein (BCA3), also known as A-kinase-interacting protein 1 (AKIP-1), is not fully understood. Recently, we reported that full-length, but not C-terminally truncated, BCA3 is incorporated into virions of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, and that BCA3 enhances HIV-1 protease-induced
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The cellular role of breast carcinoma-associated protein (BCA3), also known as A-kinase-interacting protein 1 (AKIP-1), is not fully understood. Recently, we reported that full-length, but not C-terminally truncated, BCA3 is incorporated into virions of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, and that BCA3 enhances HIV-1 protease-induced apoptosis. In the present study, we report that BCA3 is associated with purified and subtilisin-treated HIV particles. Using a combination of immune-based methods and confocal microscopy, we show that the C-terminus of BCA3 is required for packaging into HIV-1 particles. However, we were unable to identify an HIV-1 binding domain for BCA3, and we did not observe any effect of incorporated BCA3 on HIV-1 infectivity. Interestingly, the BCA3 C-terminus was previously identified as a binding site for the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKAc), a cellular protein that is specifically packaged into HIV-1 particles. Based on our analysis of PKAc–BCA3 interactions, we suggest that BCA3 incorporation into HIV-1 particles is mediated by its ability to interact with PKAc. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Gemcitabine and Nucleos(t)ide Synthesis Inhibitors Are Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Drugs that Activate Innate Immunity
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 211; doi:10.3390/v10040211 -
Abstract
Nucleoside analogs have been frequently identified as antiviral agents. In recent years, gemcitabine, a cytidine analog in clinical use for the treatment of many solid tumors, was also shown to have antiviral activity against a broad range of viruses. Nucleoside analogs generally interfere
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Nucleoside analogs have been frequently identified as antiviral agents. In recent years, gemcitabine, a cytidine analog in clinical use for the treatment of many solid tumors, was also shown to have antiviral activity against a broad range of viruses. Nucleoside analogs generally interfere with cellular nucleos(t)ide synthesis pathways, resulting in the depletion or imbalance of (d)NTP pools. Intriguingly, a few recent reports have shown that some nucleoside analogs, including gemcitabine, activated innate immunity, inducing the expression of interferon-stimulated genes, through nucleos(t)ide synthesis inhibition. The precise crosstalk between these two independent processes remains to be determined. Nonetheless, we summarize the current knowledge of nucleos(t)ide synthesis inhibition-related innate immunity and propose it as a newly emerging antiviral mechanism of nucleoside analogs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Prior Puma Lentivirus Infection Modifies Early Immune Responses and Attenuates Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Cats
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 210; doi:10.3390/v10040210 -
Abstract
We previously showed that cats that were infected with non-pathogenic Puma lentivirus (PLV) and then infected with pathogenic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) (co-infection with the host adapted/pathogenic virus) had delayed FIV proviral and RNA viral loads in blood, with viral set-points that were
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We previously showed that cats that were infected with non-pathogenic Puma lentivirus (PLV) and then infected with pathogenic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) (co-infection with the host adapted/pathogenic virus) had delayed FIV proviral and RNA viral loads in blood, with viral set-points that were lower than cats infected solely with FIV. This difference was associated with global CD4+ T cell preservation, greater interferon gamma (IFN-γ) mRNA expression, and no cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in co-infected cats relative to cats with a single FIV infection. In this study, we reinforced previous observations that prior exposure to an apathogenic lentivirus infection can diminish the effects of acute infection with a second, more virulent, viral exposure. In addition, we investigated whether the viral load differences that were observed between PLV/FIV and FIV infected cats were associated with different immunocyte phenotypes and cytokines. We found that the immune landscape at the time of FIV infection influences the infection outcome. The novel findings in this study advance our knowledge about early immune correlates and documents an immune state that is associated with PLV/FIV co-infection that has positive outcomes for lentiviral diseases. Full article
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Open AccessComment
Phages Make for Jolly Good Stories
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 209; doi:10.3390/v10040209 -
Abstract
Phage therapy has an intriguing history. It was widely used from the 1920s until the 1940s. After this period, it was nearly completely forgotten in the Western world, while it continued to be used in the Soviet part of the globe. The study
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Phage therapy has an intriguing history. It was widely used from the 1920s until the 1940s. After this period, it was nearly completely forgotten in the Western world, while it continued to be used in the Soviet part of the globe. The study of the history of phage therapy provides valuable input into the present development of the field. Science journalists uncovered much of this history and played an important role in the communication of phage therapy after the fall of the Soviet Union, when it came to the attention of Western researchers and doctors. This interest was fueled by the antibiotic resistance crisis. At this time, communication about phage therapy had a wide potential audience, that encompassed medical experts and researchers, as well as the public, because knowledge about this forgotten therapy was very limited. In such a situation, good communication had and still has the potential to catalyze important discussions among different groups; whereas, bad communication could have considerably hindered and still can hinder the possible renaissance of phage therapy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Cytoplasmic Translocation of Nucleolar Protein NOP53 Promotes Viral Replication by Suppressing Host Defense
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 208; doi:10.3390/v10040208 -
Abstract
NOP53 is a tumor suppressor protein located in the nucleolus and is translocated to the cytoplasm during infection by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), as shown in our previous study. Cytoplasmic NOP53 interacts with the retinoic acid-inducible
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NOP53 is a tumor suppressor protein located in the nucleolus and is translocated to the cytoplasm during infection by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), as shown in our previous study. Cytoplasmic NOP53 interacts with the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) to remove its K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to attenuation of type I interferon IFN-β. In the present study, we found no obvious translocation of NOP53 in infection by a mutant virus lacking ICP4 (HSV-1/d120, replication inadequate). Blocking cytoplasmic translocation of NOP53 by the deletion of its nuclear export sequence (NES) abrogated its ability to support viral replication. These results demonstrated that NOP53 redistribution is related to viral replication. It is interesting that treatment with poly (I:C) or RIG-I-N (a constitutively-active variant) directly induced NOP53 cytoplasmic translocation. To better assess the function of cytoplasmic NOP53 in viral replication, the NOP53-derived protein N3-T, which contains a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-derived cell-penetrating Tat peptide at the C-terminal region of N3 (residues 330–432), was constructed and expressed. The recombinant N3-T protein formed trimers, attenuated the expression of IFN-β and IFN-stimulated genes, as well as decreased the phosphorylation level of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). Furthermore, N3-T promoted the efficient replication of enveloped and non-enveloped DNA and RNA viruses belonging to 5 families. Our findings expand the understanding of the mechanism by which viruses utilize the nucleolar protein NOP53 for optimal viral replication. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
CD81 Receptor Regions outside the Large Extracellular Loop Determine Hepatitis C Virus Entry into Hepatoma Cells
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 207; doi:10.3390/v10040207 -
Abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters human hepatocytes using four essential entry factors, one of which is human CD81 (hCD81). The tetraspanin hCD81 contains a large extracellular loop (LEL), which interacts with the E2 glycoprotein of HCV. The role of the non-LEL regions of
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters human hepatocytes using four essential entry factors, one of which is human CD81 (hCD81). The tetraspanin hCD81 contains a large extracellular loop (LEL), which interacts with the E2 glycoprotein of HCV. The role of the non-LEL regions of hCD81 (intracellular tails, four transmembrane domains, small extracellular loop and intracellular loop) is poorly understood. Here, we studied the contribution of these domains to HCV susceptibility of hepatoma cells by generating chimeras of related tetraspanins with the hCD81 LEL. Our results show that non-LEL regions in addition to the LEL determine susceptibility of cells to HCV. While closely related tetraspanins (X. tropicalis CD81 and D. rerio CD81) functionally complement hCD81 non-LEL regions, distantly related tetraspanins (C. elegans TSP9 amd D. melanogaster TSP96F) do not and tetraspanins with intermediate homology (hCD9) show an intermediate phenotype. Tetraspanin homology and susceptibility to HCV correlate positively. For some chimeras, infectivity correlates with surface expression. In contrast, the hCD9 chimera is fully surface expressed, binds HCV E2 glycoprotein but is impaired in HCV receptor function. We demonstrate that a cholesterol-coordinating glutamate residue in CD81, which hCD9 lacks, promotes HCV infection. This work highlights the hCD81 non-LEL regions as additional HCV susceptibility-determining factors. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Applications of the FIV Model to Study HIV Pathogenesis
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 206; doi:10.3390/v10040206 -
Abstract
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a naturally-occurring retrovirus that infects domestic and non-domestic feline species, producing progressive immune depletion that results in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Much has been learned about FIV since it was first described in 1987, particularly in regard
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Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a naturally-occurring retrovirus that infects domestic and non-domestic feline species, producing progressive immune depletion that results in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Much has been learned about FIV since it was first described in 1987, particularly in regard to its application as a model to study the closely related lentivirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In particular, FIV and HIV share remarkable structure and sequence organization, utilize parallel modes of receptor-mediated entry, and result in a similar spectrum of immunodeficiency-related diseases due to analogous modes of immune dysfunction. This review summarizes current knowledge of FIV infection kinetics and the mechanisms of immune dysfunction in relation to opportunistic disease, specifically in regard to studying HIV pathogenesis. Furthermore, we present data that highlight changes in the oral microbiota and oral immune system during FIV infection, and outline the potential for the feline model of oral AIDS manifestations to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms of HIV-induced oral disease. Finally, we discuss advances in molecular biology, vaccine development, neurologic dysfunction, and the ability to apply pharmacologic interventions and sophisticated imaging technologies to study experimental and naturally occurring FIV, which provide an excellent, but often overlooked, resource for advancing therapies and the management of HIV/AIDS. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Bacteriophage Applications for Food Production and Processing
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 205; doi:10.3390/v10040205 -
Abstract
Foodborne illnesses remain a major cause of hospitalization and death worldwide despite many advances in food sanitation techniques and pathogen surveillance. Traditional antimicrobial methods, such as pasteurization, high pressure processing, irradiation, and chemical disinfectants are capable of reducing microbial populations in foods to
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Foodborne illnesses remain a major cause of hospitalization and death worldwide despite many advances in food sanitation techniques and pathogen surveillance. Traditional antimicrobial methods, such as pasteurization, high pressure processing, irradiation, and chemical disinfectants are capable of reducing microbial populations in foods to varying degrees, but they also have considerable drawbacks, such as a large initial investment, potential damage to processing equipment due to their corrosive nature, and a deleterious impact on organoleptic qualities (and possibly the nutritional value) of foods. Perhaps most importantly, these decontamination strategies kill indiscriminately, including many—often beneficial—bacteria that are naturally present in foods. One promising technique that addresses several of these shortcomings is bacteriophage biocontrol, a green and natural method that uses lytic bacteriophages isolated from the environment to specifically target pathogenic bacteria and eliminate them from (or significantly reduce their levels in) foods. Since the initial conception of using bacteriophages on foods, a substantial number of research reports have described the use of bacteriophage biocontrol to target a variety of bacterial pathogens in various foods, ranging from ready-to-eat deli meats to fresh fruits and vegetables, and the number of commercially available products containing bacteriophages approved for use in food safety applications has also been steadily increasing. Though some challenges remain, bacteriophage biocontrol is increasingly recognized as an attractive modality in our arsenal of tools for safely and naturally eliminating pathogenic bacteria from foods. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Variability Studies of Two Prunus-Infecting Fabaviruses with the Aid of High-Throughput Sequencing
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 204; doi:10.3390/v10040204 -
Abstract
During their lifetime, perennial woody plants are expected to face multiple infection events. Furthermore, multiple genotypes of individual virus species may co-infect the same host. This may eventually lead to a situation where plants harbor complex communities of viral species/strains. Using high-throughput sequencing,
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During their lifetime, perennial woody plants are expected to face multiple infection events. Furthermore, multiple genotypes of individual virus species may co-infect the same host. This may eventually lead to a situation where plants harbor complex communities of viral species/strains. Using high-throughput sequencing, we describe co-infection of sweet and sour cherry trees with diverse genomic variants of two closely related viruses, namely prunus virus F (PrVF) and cherry virus F (CVF). Both viruses are most homologous to members of the Fabavirus genus (Secoviridae family). The comparison of CVF and PrVF RNA2 genomic sequences suggests that the two viruses may significantly differ in their expression strategy. Indeed, similar to comoviruses, the smaller genomic segment of PrVF, RNA2, may be translated in two collinear proteins while CVF likely expresses only the shorter of these two proteins. Linked with the observation that identity levels between the coat proteins of these two viruses are significantly below the family species demarcation cut-off, these findings support the idea that CVF and PrVF represent two separate Fabavirus species. Full article
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Open AccessPerspective
Remembering Jan Svoboda: A Personal Reflection
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 203; doi:10.3390/v10040203 -
Abstract
The Czech scientist Jan Svoboda was a pioneer of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). In the 1960s, before the discovery of reverse transcriptase, he demonstrated the long-term persistence of the viral genome in non-productive mammalian cells, and he supported the DNA provirus hypothesis of
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The Czech scientist Jan Svoboda was a pioneer of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). In the 1960s, before the discovery of reverse transcriptase, he demonstrated the long-term persistence of the viral genome in non-productive mammalian cells, and he supported the DNA provirus hypothesis of Howard Temin. He showed how the virus can be rescued in the infectious form and elucidated the replication-competent nature of the Prague strain of RSV later used for the identification of the src oncogene. His studies straddled molecular oncology and virology, and he remained an active contributor to the field until his death last year. Throughout the 50 years that I was privileged to know Svoboda as my mentor and friend, I admired his depth of scientific inquiry and his steadfast integrity in the face of political oppression. Full article
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