Open AccessArticle
Stability of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus on Fomite Materials at Different Temperatures
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 21; doi:10.3390/vetsci5010021 -
Abstract
Indirect transmission of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) ensues when susceptible animals contact PEDV-contaminated fomite materials. Although the survival of PEDV under various pHs and temperatures has been studied, virus stability on different fomite surfaces under varying temperature conditions has not been explored.
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Indirect transmission of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) ensues when susceptible animals contact PEDV-contaminated fomite materials. Although the survival of PEDV under various pHs and temperatures has been studied, virus stability on different fomite surfaces under varying temperature conditions has not been explored. Hence, we evaluated the survival of PEDV on inanimate objects routinely used on swine farms such as styrofoam, rubber, plastic, coveralls, and other equipment. The titer of infectious PEDV at 4 °C decreased by only 1 to 2 log during the first 5 days, and the virus was recoverable for up to 15 days on Styrofoam, aluminum, Tyvek® coverall, cloth, and plastic. However, viral titers decreased precipitously when stored at room temperature; no virus was detectable after one day on all materials tested. A more sensitive immunoplaque assay was able to detect virus from Styrofoam, metal, and plastic at 20 days post application, representing a 3-log loss of input virus on fomite materials. Recovery of infectious PEDV from Tyvek® coverall and rubber was above detection limit at 20 days. Our findings indicate that the type of fomite material and temperatures impact PEDV stability, which is important in understanding the nuances of indirect transmission and epidemiology of PEDV. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
“I Always Feel Like I Have to Rush…” Pet Owner and Small Animal Veterinary Surgeons’ Reflections on Time during Preventative Healthcare Consultations in the United Kingdom
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 20; doi:10.3390/vetsci5010020 -
Abstract
Canine and feline preventative healthcare consultations can be more complex than other consultation types, but they are typically not allocated additional time in the United Kingdom (UK). Impacts of the perceived length of UK preventative healthcare consultations have not previously been described. The
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Canine and feline preventative healthcare consultations can be more complex than other consultation types, but they are typically not allocated additional time in the United Kingdom (UK). Impacts of the perceived length of UK preventative healthcare consultations have not previously been described. The aim of this novel study was to provide the first qualitative description of owner and veterinary surgeon reflections on time during preventative healthcare consultations. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 14 veterinary surgeons and 15 owners about all aspects of canine and feline preventative healthcare consultations. These qualitative data were thematically analysed, and four key themes identified. This paper describes the theme relating to time and consultation length. Patient, owner, veterinary surgeon and practice variables were recalled to impact the actual, versus allocated, length of a preventative healthcare consultation. Preventative healthcare consultations involving young, old and multi-morbid animals and new veterinary surgeon-owner partnerships appear particularly susceptible to time pressures. Owners and veterinary surgeons recalled rushing and minimizing discussions to keep consultations within their allocated time. The impact of the pace, content and duration of a preventative healthcare consultation may be influential factors in consultation satisfaction. These interviews provide an important insight into the complex nature of preventative healthcare consultations and the behaviour of participants under different perceived time pressures. These data may be of interest and relevance to all stakeholders in dog and cat preventative healthcare. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Knowledge, Awareness and Practices Regarding Cystic Echinococcosis among Livestock Farmers in Basrah Province, Iraq
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 17; doi:10.3390/vetsci5010017 -
Abstract
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an endemic neglected parasitic zoonosis in many of the countries of the Middle East. The disease poses a remarkable economic burden for both animals and humans. In this study, we conducted a questionnaire survey among livestock farmers in Basrah
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Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an endemic neglected parasitic zoonosis in many of the countries of the Middle East. The disease poses a remarkable economic burden for both animals and humans. In this study, we conducted a questionnaire survey among livestock farmers in Basrah province, southern Iraq, in order to evaluate their knowledge and awareness about CE, and to understand some of the risky practices that could contribute to spread and persistence of such disease. Of the interviewed participants (N = 314), 27.4% owned dogs on their farms. Among farmers owning dogs, 76.7% (66/86) never tied up their dogs, and 43% (37/86) indicated feeding uncooked animal viscera to their dogs. The majority (96.5%) of the farmers indicated that they did not de-worm their dogs at all. Only 9.8% (31/314) of the respondents indicated eating raw leafy vegetables without washing. Added to that, 32% of the interviewees indicated that they source water for domestic use from a river; meanwhile 94.3% (296/314) of them do not boil water before using it for domestic purposes. Half of the interviewed livestock farmers in Basrah were not aware about how humans get infected with CE disease, and 41.4% (130/314) did not even realize that CE is a dangerous disease to human health. Almost one in three of the respondents who owned dogs on their farms viewed de-worming of their dogs as a low priority practice. This study highlights the gap in knowledge and awareness about CE among the study population. Risky practices associated with dog keeping management and food and water handling practices were identified. The insight from this research could be used to improve the delivery of a health education message relevant to cystic echinococcosis control at the human-animal interface in Iraq. Full article
Open AccessCommunication
Qualitative Evaluation of the Five-Year ‘Red Collar’ Campaign to End Inhumane Culling of Dogs as a Method of Rabies Control
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 18; doi:10.3390/vetsci5010018 -
Abstract
Dog-mediated human rabies can be eliminated through mass dog vaccination. Despite leading authorities in human and animal health uniting to advance effective and humane rabies control, some governments resort to lethal methods, which are unethical, often inhumane and ineffective. To end the inhumane
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Dog-mediated human rabies can be eliminated through mass dog vaccination. Despite leading authorities in human and animal health uniting to advance effective and humane rabies control, some governments resort to lethal methods, which are unethical, often inhumane and ineffective. To end the inhumane culling of dogs in response to rabies, World Animal Protection launched ‘Red Collar’; a five-year campaign (2011–2016) that worked with governments to promote the implementation of mass dog vaccination for rabies control. We present the findings from a qualitative evaluation of ‘Red Collar’, conducted both regionally and with national focus on Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, the Philippines and Zanzibar, Tanzania. Through semi-structured interviews and written contributions from stakeholders (n = 54), we compared perceptions of changes with stated campaign goals to capture recommendations for future work. The campaign successfully generated momentum for implementation of mass dog vaccination by targeted governments. Lessons learned were established: Value of a consistent animal welfare ‘voice’; the need to explore the motivations behind culling; the need to capacity build; time required for the ‘ripple effect’ to inspire humane control in other countries; importance of monitoring and evaluation of indicators; time and effort required for exit strategies and prior preparation for a robust response to culling. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Impact of RNA Degradation on Viral Diagnosis: An Understated but Essential Step for the Successful Establishment of a Diagnosis Network
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 19; doi:10.3390/vetsci5010019 -
Abstract
The current global conditions, which include intensive globalization, climate changes, and viral evolution among other factors, have led to an increased emergence of viruses and new viral diseases; RNA viruses are key drivers of this evolution. Laboratory networks that are linked to central
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The current global conditions, which include intensive globalization, climate changes, and viral evolution among other factors, have led to an increased emergence of viruses and new viral diseases; RNA viruses are key drivers of this evolution. Laboratory networks that are linked to central reference laboratories are required to conduct both active and passive environmental surveillance of this complicated global viral environment. These tasks require a continuous exchange of strains or field samples between different diagnostic laboratories. The shipment of these samples on dry ice represents both a biological hazard and a general health risk. Moreover, the requirement to ship on dry ice could be hampered by high costs, particularly in underdeveloped countries or regions located far from each other. To solve these issues, the shipment of RNA isolated from viral suspensions or directly from field samples could be a useful way to share viral genetic material. However, extracted RNA stored in aqueous solutions, even at −70 °C, is highly prone to degradation. The current study evaluated different RNA storage conditions for safety and feasibility for future use in molecular diagnostics. The in vitro RNA-transcripts obtained from an inactivated highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus was used as a model. The role of secondary structures in the protection of the RNA was also explored. Of the conditions evaluated, the dry pellet matrix was best able to protect viral RNA under extreme storage conditions. This method is safe, cost-effective and assures the integrity of RNA samples for reliable molecular diagnosis. This study aligns with the globally significant “Global One Health” paradigm, especially with respect to the diagnosis of emerging diseases that require confirmation by reference laboratories. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Economic Cost of Ovine Johne’s Disease in Clinically Affected New Zealand Flocks and Benefit-Cost of Vaccination
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 16; doi:10.3390/vetsci5010016 -
Abstract
The aims of this study were to estimate the on-fam economic cost of ovine Johne’s disease (OJD) based on collected incidence and mortality data, and the benefit-cost of OJD vaccination in typical OJD affected flocks in New Zealand after having vaccinated for a
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The aims of this study were to estimate the on-fam economic cost of ovine Johne’s disease (OJD) based on collected incidence and mortality data, and the benefit-cost of OJD vaccination in typical OJD affected flocks in New Zealand after having vaccinated for a number of years. Owners of 20 sheep breeding and finishing farms known to be clinically affected by ovine Johne’s disease in New Zealand participated in the study and were monitored for up to two years. Farms were categorized as fine-wool (Merino, Half-Bred, Corriedale, n = 15), and other breeds (Romney, composite breeds, n = 5). Ovine JD was confirmed by gross- and histo-pathology in 358 ewes culled due to chronic progressive wasting. An additional 228 ewes with low body condition score (BCS), but not targeted for culling, were tested with ELISA to estimate the proportion of OJD in ewes in the lower 5% BCS of the flock. Calculations were done separately for fine-wool and other breeds. Based on the data, mortality due to OJD, its associated cost and the benefit-cost of vaccination were evaluated for a hypothetical farm with 2000 ewes by stochastic simulation. Total ewe mortality was similar in fine-wool and other breeds, but the estimated mortality due to OJD was 2.7 times as high in fine-wool (median 1.8%, interquartile range IQR 1.2–2.7%) than other breeds (median 0.69%, IQR 0.3–1.2%), but with large variation between farms. ELISA results demonstrated fine-wool sheep had a higher seroprevalence than other breeds (39%, 95% CI 18–61% vs. 9%, 95% CI 0–22%). Stochastic modelling indicated that the average annual cost of mortality due to OJD in a flock of 2000 ewes was NZD 13,100 (IQR 8900–18,600) in fine-wool and NZD 4300 (IQR 2200–7600) in other breeds. Vaccinating replacement lambs against OJD may be cost-effective in most flocks when the pre-vaccination annual ewe mortality due to OJD is >1%. To make the best-informed decision about vaccination it is therefore essential for farmers to accurately diagnose OJD to establish incidence. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Genetic Regions Associated with Scrotal Hernias in a Commercial Swine Herd
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 15; doi:10.3390/vetsci5010015 -
Abstract
In this paper, we have used two approaches to detect genetic associations with scrotal hernias in commercial pigs. Firstly, we have investigated the effects of runs of homozygosity (ROH) with the appearance of scrotal hernias, followed by a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS).
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In this paper, we have used two approaches to detect genetic associations with scrotal hernias in commercial pigs. Firstly, we have investigated the effects of runs of homozygosity (ROH) with the appearance of scrotal hernias, followed by a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS). The phenotype classification was based on visual appearance of scrotal hernias. Each affected animal was matched to a healthy control from the same pen. In the total, 68 animals were genotyped using the Porcine SNP60 Beadchip, out of those, 41 animals had the presence of hernias and 27 were healthy animals. Fifteen animals were removed from the analysis due to differences in genetic background, leaving 18 healthy animals and 35 piglets with scrotal hernia. Further, the detection of extended haplotypes shared ROH were conducted for health (control) and affected (case) animals and a permutation test was used to test whether the ROH segments were more frequent in case/case pairs than non-case/case pairs. Using the ROH, we have identified an association (p = 0.019) on chromosome 2(SSC2) being segregated on animals with the presence of scrotal hernias. Using a GWAS, a region composed by 3 SNPs on the sexual chromosome X (SSCX) were associated with scrotal hernias (p < 1.6 × 10−5), this region harbors the Androgen Receptor Gene (AR). Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Review of Eight High-Priority, Economically Important Viral Pathogens of Poultry within the Caribbean Region
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 14; doi:10.3390/vetsci5010014 -
Abstract
Viral pathogens cause devastating economic losses in poultry industries worldwide. The Caribbean region, which boasts some of the highest rates of poultry consumption in the world, is no exception. This review summarizes evidence for the circulation and spread of eight high-priority, economically important
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Viral pathogens cause devastating economic losses in poultry industries worldwide. The Caribbean region, which boasts some of the highest rates of poultry consumption in the world, is no exception. This review summarizes evidence for the circulation and spread of eight high-priority, economically important poultry viruses across the Caribbean region. Avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), fowl adenovirus group 1 (FADV Gp1), and egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) were selected for review. This review of serological, molecular, and phylogenetic studies across Caribbean countries reveals evidence for sporadic outbreaks of respiratory disease caused by notifiable viral pathogens (AIV, IBV, NDV, and ILTV), as well as outbreaks of diseases caused by immunosuppressive viral pathogens (IBDV and FADV Gp1). This review highlights the need to strengthen current levels of surveillance and reporting for poultry diseases in domestic and wild bird populations across the Caribbean, as well as the need to strengthen the diagnostic capacity and capability of Caribbean national veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Development of an Indirect ELISA Based on a Recombinant Chimeric Protein for the Detection of Antibodies against Bovine Babesiosis
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 13; doi:10.3390/vetsci5010013 -
Abstract
The current method for Babesia spp. serodiagnosis based on a crude merozoite antigen is a complex and time-consuming procedure. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) based on a recombinant multi-antigen of Babesia bovis (rMABbO) was developed for detection of antibodies in bovines suspected
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The current method for Babesia spp. serodiagnosis based on a crude merozoite antigen is a complex and time-consuming procedure. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) based on a recombinant multi-antigen of Babesia bovis (rMABbO) was developed for detection of antibodies in bovines suspected of infection with this parasite. The multi-antigen comprises gene fragments of three previously characterized B. bovis antigens: MSA-2c, RAP-1 and the Heat Shock protein 20 that are well-conserved among geographically distant strains. The cutoff value for the new rMABbo-iELISA was determined using 75 known—positive and 300 known—negative bovine sera previously tested for antibodies to B. bovis by the gold-standard ELISA which uses a merozoite lysate. A cutoff value of ≥35% was determined in these samples by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, showing a sensitivity of 95.9% and a specificity of 94.3%. The rMABbo-iELISA was further tested in a blind trial using an additional set of 263 field bovine sera from enzootic and tick-free regions of Argentina. Results showed a good agreement with the gold standard test with a Cohen’s kappa value of 0.76. Finally, the prevalence of bovine babesiosis in different tick enzootic regions of Argentina was analyzed where seropositivity values among 68–80% were obtained. A certain level of cross reaction was observed when samples from B. bigemina infected cattle were analyzed with the new test, which can be attributed to shared epitopes between 2 of the 3 antigens. This new rMABbo-iELISA could be considered a simpler alternative to detect anti Babesia spp. antibodies and appears to be well suited to perform epidemiological surveys at the herd level in regions where ticks are present. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Molecular Identification of Eimeria Species in Broiler Chickens in Trinidad, West Indies
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 12; doi:10.3390/vetsci5010012 -
Abstract
Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease of chickens of major economic importance to broiler industries worldwide. Species of coccidia found in chickens include Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria brunetti, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria praecox, and Eimeria tenella. In recent years, polymerase
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Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease of chickens of major economic importance to broiler industries worldwide. Species of coccidia found in chickens include Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria brunetti, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria praecox, and Eimeria tenella. In recent years, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been developed to provide accurate and rapid identification of the seven known Eimeria species of chickens. The aim of this study was to use species-specific real-time PCR (qPCR) to identify which of the seven Eimeria species are present in Trinidad poultry. Seventeen pooled fecal samples were collected from 6 broiler farms (2–5 pens per farm) across Trinidad. Feces were also collected from birds showing clinical signs of coccidiosis in two live bird markets (pluck shops). qPCR revealed the presence of five species of Eimeria (E. acervulina, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. necatrix, and E. tenella), but not E. brunetti or E. praecox. Mixed infections were detected on all broiler farms, and DNA of two highly pathogenic Eimeria species (E. tenella and E.necatrix) was detected in feces taken from clinically sick birds sampled from the two pluck shops. Full article
Open AccessCommunication
Detection of Antibodies to Seven Priority Pathogens in Backyard Poultry in Trinidad, West Indies
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 11; doi:10.3390/vetsci5010011 -
Abstract
Backyard poultry farms in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) play a vital role in providing food and income for rural communities. There is currently no information on the presence and circulation of pathogens in backyard poultry farms in T&T, and little is known in
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Backyard poultry farms in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) play a vital role in providing food and income for rural communities. There is currently no information on the presence and circulation of pathogens in backyard poultry farms in T&T, and little is known in relation to the potential risks of spread of these pathogens to the commercial poultry sector. In order to address this, serum samples were collected from 41 chickens on five backyard farms taken from selected locations in Trinidad. Samples were tested for antibodies to seven priority pathogens of poultry by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies were detected in 65% (CI 95%: 50–78%) of the sampled birds for Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), 67.5% (CI 95%: 52–80%) for Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), 10% (CI 95%: 4–23%) for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), 0% (CI 95%: 0–0%) for Avian influenza virus (AIV), 0% (CI 95%: 0–0%) for West Nile virus (WNV), 31.7% (CI 95%: 20–47%) for Mycoplasm gallisepticum/synoviae and 0% (CI 95%: 0–0%) for Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. These results reveal the presence and circulation of important pathogens of poultry in selected backyard farms in Trinidad. The results provide important information which should be taken into consideration when assessing the risks of pathogen transmission between commercial and backyard poultry farms, as well as between poultry and wild birds. Full article
Open AccessCase Report
A Multicentric T-Cell Lymphoma with a Plasmacytoid Morphology in a Dog
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 10; doi:10.3390/vetsci5010010 -
Abstract
An 8-year-old male (neutered) Labrador with a history of erythematous skin lesions and exercise intolerance for a prolonged period was suddenly found dead. Necropsy findings revealed an infiltrative, focally extensive mass which occupied 25% of the cardiac interventricular septum. Severe endocardiosis was also
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An 8-year-old male (neutered) Labrador with a history of erythematous skin lesions and exercise intolerance for a prolonged period was suddenly found dead. Necropsy findings revealed an infiltrative, focally extensive mass which occupied 25% of the cardiac interventricular septum. Severe endocardiosis was also found on the bicuspid and tricuspid valves. The submandibular lymph nodes and kidneys were bilaterally enlarged, and the pre-hepatic lymph node and spleen were also enlarged. Multiple dermal pustules were present around the mouth and on the ear, and small ulcers were present on the tongue. Histopathological examination detected the presence of neoplastic lymphocytes with a plasmacytoid morphology in these tissues as well as in the tongue and skin lesions. Immunohistochemical (CD3+/CD18+) evaluation was consistent with a T-cell lymphoma, which could be classified as a peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
A Case Report of Disseminated Canine Histiocytic Sarcoma in Trinidad and Tobago
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 9; doi:10.3390/vetsci5010009 -
Abstract
Ocular histiocytic sarcomas (as a presenting part of disseminated histiocytic sarcoma) are not commonly diagnosed. A 10-year-old female intact Rottweiler presented to the School of Veterinary Medicine, Trinidad with buphthalmia and pain in the left eye. The cornea of the left eye appeared
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Ocular histiocytic sarcomas (as a presenting part of disseminated histiocytic sarcoma) are not commonly diagnosed. A 10-year-old female intact Rottweiler presented to the School of Veterinary Medicine, Trinidad with buphthalmia and pain in the left eye. The cornea of the left eye appeared diffusely opaque with a conjunctival mucopurulent ocular discharge. A thorough ophthalmic assessment identified an intraocular proliferative tumor to which a unilateral enucleation was performed, however the animal died soon after. Post mortem examination and light microscopy revealed that the intraocular lesion with visceral macro-metastases was in fact a histiocytic sarcoma. Further to this, immune-phenotyping was performed to confirm the diagnosis of disseminated histiocytic sarcoma. This is the first time such a tumor has been diagnosed in Trinidad and Tobago. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Biofilm-Forming Potential of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in New Zealand
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 8; doi:10.3390/vetsci5010008 -
Abstract
Biofilm formation is of growing concern in human and animal health. However, it is still unclear how biofilms are related to mastitis infections in dairy cattle. In this study, a comparison between two tests for biofilm formation and the association between biofilm and
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Biofilm formation is of growing concern in human and animal health. However, it is still unclear how biofilms are related to mastitis infections in dairy cattle. In this study, a comparison between two tests for biofilm formation and the association between biofilm and the presence of genes associated with biofilm formation were investigated for 92 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from intramammary infections. Congo red agar (CRA) and microtitre test assay (MTA) in vitro phenotypic tests were used to evaluate biofilm formation. The presence of icaA, icaD, and bap genes associated with biofilm formation was confirmed using the polymerase chain reaction. Results show that most of the S. aureus isolates, though not possessing one of the biofilm-forming genes, were able to produce biofilms. MTA was more frequently positive in identifying biofilm-forming isolates than CRA. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Owners and Veterinary Surgeons in the United Kingdom Disagree about What Should Happen during a Small Animal Vaccination Consultation
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 7; doi:10.3390/vetsci5010007 -
Abstract
Dog and cat vaccination consultations are a common part of small animal practice in the United Kingdom. Few data are available describing what happens during those consultations or what participants think about their content. The aim of this novel study was to investigate
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Dog and cat vaccination consultations are a common part of small animal practice in the United Kingdom. Few data are available describing what happens during those consultations or what participants think about their content. The aim of this novel study was to investigate the attitudes of dog and cat owners and veterinary surgeons towards the content of small animal vaccination consultations. Telephone interviews with veterinary surgeons and pet owners captured rich qualitative data. Thematic analysis was performed to identify key themes. This study reports the theme describing attitudes towards the content of the consultation. Diverse preferences exist for what should be prioritised during vaccination consultations, and mismatched expectations may lead to negative experiences. Vaccination consultations for puppies and kittens were described to have a relatively standardised structure with an educational and preventative healthcare focus. In contrast, adult pet vaccination consultations were described to focus on current physical health problems with only limited discussion of preventative healthcare topics. This first qualitative exploration of UK vaccination consultation expectations suggests that the content and consistency of adult pet vaccination consultations may not meet the needs or expectations of all participants. Redefining preventative healthcare to include all preventable conditions may benefit owners, pets and veterinary surgeons, and may help to provide a clearer structure for adult pet vaccination consultations. This study represents a significant advance our understanding of this consultation type. Full article
Open AccessErratum
Erratum: Lavergne, S.N. In Vitro Research Tools in the Field of Human Immediate Drug Hypersensitivity and Their Present Use in Small Animal Veterinary Medicine Vet. Sci. 2017, 4, 1
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 6; doi:10.3390/vetsci5010006 -
Abstract
Due to an error during production, the author, Lavergne S. Lavergne’s name in the published paper [1] was incorrect.[...] Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Allergies in Animals and Humans
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 5; doi:10.3390/vetsci5010005 -
Abstract
Allergy to inhalant and food allergens affects many patients worldwide [...] Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Veterinary Sciences in 2017
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 4; doi:10.3390/vetsci5010004 -
Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Veterinary Sciences maintains high quality standards for its published papers[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Pilot Qualitative Investigation of Stakeholders’ Experiences and Opinions of Equine Insect Bite Hypersensitivity in England
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 3; doi:10.3390/vetsci5010003 -
Abstract
Equine insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH), commonly known as sweet itch or summer eczema, is a frustrating recurrent skin disease in the equine industry involving an immune reaction to the bites of Culicoides spp. midges. To investigate the impact of IBH in the field,
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Equine insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH), commonly known as sweet itch or summer eczema, is a frustrating recurrent skin disease in the equine industry involving an immune reaction to the bites of Culicoides spp. midges. To investigate the impact of IBH in the field, an exploratory pilot study was conducted with equine stakeholders in one region of central England. Nine semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with horse owners and an equine veterinarian. The aim was to gain an understanding of experiences with IBH, and to gauge opinions on the value of the various management strategies horse owners use to control IBH. Awareness of IBH was generally high, particularly in those individuals who had previous experience with the condition. Those with previous experience of IBH commented on the significant effect on daily routines, and the associated cost implications. Most participants supported an integrated approach to hypersensitivity management, and this most commonly involved a combination of physical barriers and chemical repellents, but sometimes included feed supplementation. Overall, attitudes towards IBH suggested that the condition is a notable welfare and economic concern for stakeholders, but veterinary involvement tended to only be in more severe cases. Further research is required in the future to improve understanding, management and potential treatment of this condition. Full article
Open AccessArticle
When Veterinarians Support Canine Therapy: Bidirectional Benefits for Clinics and Therapy Programs
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 2; doi:10.3390/vetsci5010002 -
Abstract
This paper proposes a mutually beneficial model of collaboration between veterinarians and canine therapy programs. Veterinarians and the clinics for whom they work routinely establish collaborations with multiple and varied stakeholders. This might include a laboratory for processing samples and the corresponding courier
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This paper proposes a mutually beneficial model of collaboration between veterinarians and canine therapy programs. Veterinarians and the clinics for whom they work routinely establish collaborations with multiple and varied stakeholders. This might include a laboratory for processing samples and the corresponding courier company needed to deliver samples to the lab or a partnership with a local dog rescue organization for whom discounted rates are offered. One community partnership that stands to benefit both the clinic and the community agency, is for veterinarians to work in tandem with a local canine-assisted therapy program. The benefits to such an alliance are multifold and address aspects of veterinary medicine including client recruitment, community education, and access to a network of devoted dog enthusiasts. Full article