Open AccessArticle
Mapping Heart Development in Flies: Src42A Acts Non-Autonomously to Promote Heart Tube Formation in Drosophila
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(2), 23; doi:10.3390/vetsci4020023 -
Abstract
Congenital heart defects, clinically identified in both small and large animals, are multifactorial and complex. Although heritable factors are known to have a role in cardiovascular disease, the full genetic aetiology remains unclear. Model organism research has proven valuable in providing a deeper
[...] Read more.
Congenital heart defects, clinically identified in both small and large animals, are multifactorial and complex. Although heritable factors are known to have a role in cardiovascular disease, the full genetic aetiology remains unclear. Model organism research has proven valuable in providing a deeper understanding of the essential factors in heart development. For example, mouse knock-out studies reveal a role for the Integrin adhesion receptor in cardiac tissue. Recent research in Drosophila melanogaster (the fruit fly), a powerful experimental model, has demonstrated that the link between the extracellular matrix and the cell, mediated by Integrins, is required for multiple aspects of cardiogenesis. Here we test the hypothesis that Integrins signal to the heart cells through Src42A kinase. Using the powerful genetics and cell biology analysis possible in Drosophila, we demonstrate that Src42A acts in early events of heart tube development. Careful examination of mutant heart tissue and genetic interaction data suggests that Src42A’s role is independent of Integrin and the Integrin-related Focal Adhesion Kinase. Rather, Src42A acts non-autonomously by promoting programmed cell death of the amnioserosa, a transient tissue that neighbors the developing heart. Full article
Figures

Open AccessReview
Dissecting the Role of the Extracellular Matrix in Heart Disease: Lessons from the Drosophila Genetic Model
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(2), 24; doi:10.3390/vetsci4020024 -
Abstract
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic scaffold within organs and tissues that enables cell morphogenesis and provides structural support. Changes in the composition and organisation of the cardiac ECM are required for normal development. Congenital and age-related cardiac diseases can arise from
[...] Read more.
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic scaffold within organs and tissues that enables cell morphogenesis and provides structural support. Changes in the composition and organisation of the cardiac ECM are required for normal development. Congenital and age-related cardiac diseases can arise from mis-regulation of structural ECM proteins (Collagen, Laminin) or their receptors (Integrin). Key regulators of ECM turnover include matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). MMP expression is increased in mice, pigs, and dogs with cardiomyopathy. The complexity and longevity of vertebrate animals makes a short-lived, genetically tractable model organism, such as Drosophila melanogaster, an attractive candidate for study. We survey ECM macromolecules and their role in heart development and growth, which are conserved between Drosophila and vertebrates, with focus upon the consequences of altered expression or distribution. The Drosophila heart resembles that of vertebrates during early development, and is amenable to in vivo analysis. Experimental manipulation of gene function in a tissue- or temporally-regulated manner can reveal the function of adhesion or ECM genes in the heart. Perturbation of the function of ECM proteins, or of the MMPs that facilitate ECM remodelling, induces cardiomyopathies in Drosophila, including cardiodilation, arrhythmia, and cardia bifida, that provide mechanistic insight into cardiac disease in mammals. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Animal Models of Cancer-Associated Hypercalcemia
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(2), 21; doi:10.3390/vetsci4020021 -
Abstract
Cancer-associated hypercalcemia (CAH) is a frequently-occurring paraneoplastic syndrome that contributes to substantial patient morbidity and occurs in both humans and animals. Patients with CAH are often characterized by markedly elevated serum calcium concentrations that result in a range of clinical symptoms involving the
[...] Read more.
Cancer-associated hypercalcemia (CAH) is a frequently-occurring paraneoplastic syndrome that contributes to substantial patient morbidity and occurs in both humans and animals. Patients with CAH are often characterized by markedly elevated serum calcium concentrations that result in a range of clinical symptoms involving the nervous, gastrointestinal and urinary systems. CAH is caused by two principle mechanisms; humorally-mediated and/or through local osteolytic bone metastasis resulting in excessive calcium release from resorbed bone. Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) is the most common mechanism and is due to the production and release of tumor-associated cytokines and humoral factors, such as parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), that act at distant sites to increase serum calcium concentrations. Local osteolytic hypercalcemia (LOH) occurs when primary or metastatic bone tumors act locally by releasing factors that stimulate osteoclast activity and bone resorption. LOH is a less frequent cause of CAH and in some cases can induce hypercalcemia in concert with HHM. Rarely, ectopic production of parathyroid hormone has been described. PTHrP-mediated hypercalcemia is the most common mechanism of CAH in human and canine malignancies and is recognized in other domestic species. Spontaneous and experimentally-induced animal models have been developed to study the mechanisms of CAH. These models have been essential for the evaluation of novel approaches and adjuvant therapies to manage CAH. This review will highlight the comparative aspects of CAH in humans and animals with a discussion of the available animal models used to study the pathogenesis of this important clinical syndrome. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Minimising Stress for Patients in the Veterinary Hospital: Why It Is Important and What Can Be Done about It
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(2), 22; doi:10.3390/vetsci4020022 -
Abstract
Minimising stress for patients should always be a priority in the veterinary hospital. However, this is often overlooked. While a “no stress” environment is not possible, understanding how to create a “low stress” (sometimes called “fear-free”) environment and how to handle animals in
[...] Read more.
Minimising stress for patients should always be a priority in the veterinary hospital. However, this is often overlooked. While a “no stress” environment is not possible, understanding how to create a “low stress” (sometimes called “fear-free”) environment and how to handle animals in a less stressful manner benefits patients, staff and the hospital alike. Many veterinary practitioners believe creating a low stress environment is too hard and too time consuming, but this need not be the case. With some simple approaches, minimising patient, and hence staff, stress is achievable in all veterinary practices. This article provides a background on why minimising stress is important and outlines some practical steps that can be taken by staff to minimise stress for presenting and hospitalised patients. Useful resources on recognising signs of stress in dogs and cats, handling, restraint, behaviour modification, medications, and hospital design are provided. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Coronary Artery Anomalies in Animals
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(2), 20; doi:10.3390/vetsci4020020 -
Abstract
Coronary artery anomalies represent a disease spectrum from incidental to life-threatening. Anomalies of coronary artery origin and course are well-recognized in human medicine, but have received limited attention in veterinary medicine. Coronary artery anomalies are best described in the dog, hamster, and cow
[...] Read more.
Coronary artery anomalies represent a disease spectrum from incidental to life-threatening. Anomalies of coronary artery origin and course are well-recognized in human medicine, but have received limited attention in veterinary medicine. Coronary artery anomalies are best described in the dog, hamster, and cow though reports also exist in the horse and pig. The most well-known anomaly in veterinary medicine is anomalous coronary artery origin with a prepulmonary course in dogs, which limits treatment of pulmonary valve stenosis. A categorization scheme for coronary artery anomalies in animals is suggested, dividing these anomalies into those of major or minor clinical significance. A review of coronary artery development, anatomy, and reported anomalies in domesticated species is provided and four novel canine examples of anomalous coronary artery origin are described: an English bulldog with single left coronary ostium and a retroaortic right coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and transseptal left coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and absent left coronary artery with a prepulmonary paraconal interventricular branch and an interarterial circumflex branch; and a mixed-breed dog with tetralogy of Fallot and anomalous origin of all coronary branches from the brachiocephalic trunk. Coronary arterial fistulae are also described including a coronary cameral fistula in a llama cria and an English bulldog with coronary artery aneurysm and anomalous shunting vessels from the right coronary artery to the pulmonary trunk. These examples are provided with the intent to raise awareness and improve understanding of such defects. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Genomic Insights into Cardiomyopathies: A Comparative Cross-Species Review
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 19; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010019 -
Abstract
In the global human population, the leading cause of non-communicable death is cardiovascular disease. It is predicted that by 2030, deaths attributable to cardiovascular disease will have risen to over 20 million per year. This review compares the cardiomyopathies in both human and
[...] Read more.
In the global human population, the leading cause of non-communicable death is cardiovascular disease. It is predicted that by 2030, deaths attributable to cardiovascular disease will have risen to over 20 million per year. This review compares the cardiomyopathies in both human and non-human animals and identifies the genetic associations for each disorder in each species/taxonomic group. Despite differences between species, advances in human medicine can be gained by utilising animal models of cardiac disease; likewise, gains can be made in animal medicine from human genomic insights. Advances could include undertaking regular clinical checks in individuals susceptible to cardiomyopathy, genetic testing prior to breeding, and careful administration of breeding programmes (in non-human animals), further development of treatment regimes, and drugs and diagnostic techniques. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Oral Alpha Lipoic Acid in Preventing the Genesis of Canine Diabetic Cataract: A Preliminary Study
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 18; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010018 -
Abstract
Blinding cataract is a significant effect of canine diabetes with 75% of animals affected two years after diagnosis. Lens opacification occurs primarily through the generation of sorbitol, a sugar alcohol, through the action of aldose reductase (AR). The osmotic effect of sorbitol draws
[...] Read more.
Blinding cataract is a significant effect of canine diabetes with 75% of animals affected two years after diagnosis. Lens opacification occurs primarily through the generation of sorbitol, a sugar alcohol, through the action of aldose reductase (AR). The osmotic effect of sorbitol draws water into the lens, causing opacification. Inhibition of AR should thus prevent the generation of cataracts. A topical AR inhibitor has been shown to have this effect, as has the commercially available neutraceutical OcuGLO, containing the AR inhibitor alpha lipoic acid (ALA) together with other plant-based antioxidants. Here a comparison is made between the number of diabetic dogs developing cataracts when given oral ALA alone and those given a mix containing ascorbic acid and tocopherol. Animals given ALA developed significantly fewer lens opacities than those given conventional antioxidants. Cataracts which formed occurred at a significantly greater duration after the commencement of treatment than those on the antioxidant mix. Although this is a small study conducted over a short period, the significant benefit of ALA in diabetic dogs is a reason to evaluate these effects in larger trials. As AR is involved in diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy, this enzyme inhibitor may be worthy of evaluation in preventing these conditions in human diabetics also. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Serum Fructosamine Concentration in Uncontrolled Hyperthyroid Diabetic Cats Is within the Population Reference Interval
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 17; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010017 -
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy of cats that is characterized by persistent fasting hyperglycemia. However, stress induces substantial hyperglycemia in cats that poses a challenge to the veterinarian who may wrongly interpret the high serum concentration of blood glucose as evidence of
[...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy of cats that is characterized by persistent fasting hyperglycemia. However, stress induces substantial hyperglycemia in cats that poses a challenge to the veterinarian who may wrongly interpret the high serum concentration of blood glucose as evidence of diabetes mellitus. Fructosamine is a glycated serum protein that serves as an index of glycemic control in cats and is useful because it is not affected by stress hyperglycemia. However, factors such as body weight, hypoproteinemia, and increased serum thyroid hormone concentration can alter fructosamine concentration. The goal of this retrospective study was to compare the fructosamine concentrations in diabetic and nondiabetic cats with and without uncontrolled hyperthyroidism. A secondary goal was to determine the effect of sex, age, different populations of cats, and diabetes on the variability of fructosamine. We found that the mean (±SE) serum fructosamine of hyperthyroid diabetic cats (332 ± 24 µmol/L, 95% CI 291–379 µmol/L) was within the population-based reference interval (200–360 µmol/L) and significantly lower in comparison to euthyroid diabetic cats (527 ± 10 µmol/L, 95% CI 515–553 µmol/L). Additionally, in this study, diabetes accounted only for approximately 50% of the variance in serum fructosamine, while age, sex, and population made a minor contribution to this variance. In conclusion, finding serum fructosamine that is within the population-based reference interval in an uncontrolled diabetic cat should alert the veterinarian to the possibility of concurrent hyperthyroidism. Additionally, the veterinary clinician should consider that serum fructosamine might be substantially affected by factors other than diabetes. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Felis Catus Gammaherpesvirus 1 DNAemia in Whole Blood from Therapeutically Immunosuppressed or Retrovirus-Infected Cats
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 16; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010016 -
Abstract
Gammaherpesviruses are major co-pathogens of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, making the interactions between feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1) pertinent to both human and veterinary medical research. FIV-infected cats are at increased risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia and consistently
[...] Read more.
Gammaherpesviruses are major co-pathogens of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, making the interactions between feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1) pertinent to both human and veterinary medical research. FIV-infected cats are at increased risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia and consistently harbor higher FcaGHV1 loads than FIV-uninfected cats. Whether immune deficiencies unrelated to FIV are associated with similar risks is unknown. Using whole blood FcaGHV1 qPCR, we found no difference in the frequency of DNAemia or DNA load in therapeutically immunosuppressed (P1, n = 18) or feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-infected (P2, n = 57) patients compared with age- and sex-matched controls (C1, n = 58; C2, n = 57). In contrast, FIV/FeLV-co-infected cats (P3, n = 5) were at increased risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia compared to retrovirus uninfected controls (C3, n = 39; p = 0.0068), and had a higher median FcaGHV1 DNA load, although the latter was not significant. FIV/FeLV-co-infected cats (P3) had a similar frequency of FcaGHV1 DNAemia reported compared to FIV-infected controls (C4). In conclusion, we found no evidence that cats with therapeutic immunosuppression or FeLV infection were at greater risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia or had higher FcaGHV1 DNA load in whole blood. The risk of DNAemia in FIV/FeLV-co-infected cats was similar to that documented previously in cats infected with FIV alone. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Awareness of the International Veterinary Profession of Evidence-Based Veterinary Medicine and Preferred Methods of Training
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 15; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010015 -
Abstract
Evidence-based veterinary medicine (EVM) is an evolving discipline in veterinary medicine so it is important to periodically “benchmark” opinion about EVM across the profession. An international survey to assess veterinarians’ awareness of EVM was conducted. Veterinarians were surveyed via an online questionnaire (all
[...] Read more.
Evidence-based veterinary medicine (EVM) is an evolving discipline in veterinary medicine so it is important to periodically “benchmark” opinion about EVM across the profession. An international survey to assess veterinarians’ awareness of EVM was conducted. Veterinarians were surveyed via an online questionnaire (all countries) or a postal questionnaire (UK only). Participants were asked whether they had heard of EVM, where they had first heard the term, and their preferences of method for receiving continuing professional development (CPD). There were 6310 respondents, of which 4579 (72.5%) worked in the UK and 5384 (85.3%) were clinicians. Veterinarians that had heard of EVM (n = 5420, 85.9%) were most likely to be clinicians (OR = 4.00; 95% CI: 3.37, 4.75), respondents working in the UK (OR = 1.32; CI: 1.13, 1.54), or respondents with a postgraduate degree or qualification (OR = 1.77; CI: 1.51, 2.08). The most common sources from which respondents had heard of EVM were at vet school or university (n = 1207, 29.8%), via literature (peer-reviewed papers or other publications) (n = 1074, 26.5%), and via CPD courses (n = 564, 13.9%). Most respondents were interested in finding out more about EVM (n = 4256 of 6173, 69%). The preferred methods of CPD were day or evening seminars (n = 2992 of 6017, 49.7%), conferences (n = 1409, 23.4%), and online courses (n = 524, 8.7%), although the order of preference differed slightly between groups. There appears to be substantial awareness of EVM amongst veterinarians internationally. However, it appears that further training in EVM would be welcomed. Preferences on how CPD in general is received differs between groups, so this should be borne in mind by training providers when formulating a strategy for the dissemination of EVM training across the global profession. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Neuropathogenesis: A Model for HIV-Induced CNS Inflammation and Neurodegeneration
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 14; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010014 -
Abstract
Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV), similar to its human analog human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), enters the central nervous system (CNS) soon after infection and establishes a protected viral reservoir. The ensuing inflammation and damage give rise to varying degrees of cognitive decline collectively known
[...] Read more.
Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV), similar to its human analog human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), enters the central nervous system (CNS) soon after infection and establishes a protected viral reservoir. The ensuing inflammation and damage give rise to varying degrees of cognitive decline collectively known as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Because of the similarities to HIV infection and disease, FIV has provided a useful model for both in vitro and in vivo studies of CNS infection, inflammation and pathology. This mini review summarizes insights gained from studies of early infection, immune cell trafficking, inflammation and the mechanisms of neuropathogenesis. Advances in our understanding of these processes have contributed to the development of therapeutic interventions designed to protect neurons and regulate inflammatory activity. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Immuno-Detection of C3a, a C3 Complement Activated Product in Mastitis Milk, a Potential Diagnostic Marker
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 13; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010013 -
Abstract
The sub-clinical form of mastitis is difficult to detect and causes huge economic loss to the dairy industry. It has become a threat to public health at large, thus there is a need for definite diagnosis of the disease. Therefore, this study was
[...] Read more.
The sub-clinical form of mastitis is difficult to detect and causes huge economic loss to the dairy industry. It has become a threat to public health at large, thus there is a need for definite diagnosis of the disease. Therefore, this study was undertaken to identify the novel diagnostic marker for the detection of the sub-clinical form of mastitis. Two-dimensional gel analysis of the whey protein fraction of normal and mastitis milk samples revealed the presence of proteose peptone component 3 precursor, Trypsin precursor, complement component-C3, Ig heavy chain precursors and a C-type lectin domain as differentially expressed protein during the early stage of mastitis. Of these proteins identified, complement component-C3 was tested for its diagnostic potential. Western blot analysis of the milk whey of sub-clinical mastitis cases (M+, M++ & M+++) identified the accumulation of C3a, an activated product of complement component-C3. Further, the hemolytic activity of the above milk whey samples positively correlated with the somatic cell count. As C3a is already reported as an anaphylotoxic agent, it chemo tactically attracts lymphocytes at the site of inflammation, the detection of which in the milk whey can be of diagnostic importance for sub-clinical mastitis. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Micro-RNA 10a Is Increased in Feline T Regulatory Cells and Increases Foxp3 Protein Expression Following In Vitro Transfection
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 12; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010012 -
Abstract
CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells are activated during the course of lentiviral infection and exhibit heightened suppressor function when compared to Treg cells from uninfected controls. Foxp3 is essential to Treg cell function and multiple studies have documented
[...] Read more.
CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells are activated during the course of lentiviral infection and exhibit heightened suppressor function when compared to Treg cells from uninfected controls. Foxp3 is essential to Treg cell function and multiple studies have documented that lentivirus-activated Treg cells exhibit heightened Foxp3 expression when compared to Treg cells from uninfected controls. Our hypothesis was that lentivirus-induced micro-RNAs (miRNAs) contribute to heightened Treg cell suppressor function by stabilizing Foxp3 expression. We demonstrated that CD4+CD25+ T cells from both feline immunodeficiency virus infected (FIV+) cats and uninfected control cats exhibit increased miRNA 10a and 21 levels compared to autologous CD4+CD25 T cells but there was no difference in the levels of these miRNAs when Treg cells from FIV+ cats were compared to Treg cells from uninfected controls. Further, there was no increase in Foxp3 mRNA following transfection of miRNA 10a or 21 into a feline cell line. However, transfection with miRNA 10a resulted in increased Foxp3 protein expression. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Protein Composition of the Bovine Herpesvirus 1.1 Virion
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 11; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010011 -
Abstract
Bovine herpesvirus (BoHV) type 1 is an important agricultural pathogen that infects cattle and other ruminants worldwide. Acute infection of the oro-respiratory tract leads to immune suppression and allows commensal bacteria to infect an otherwise healthy lower respiratory tract. This condition is known
[...] Read more.
Bovine herpesvirus (BoHV) type 1 is an important agricultural pathogen that infects cattle and other ruminants worldwide. Acute infection of the oro-respiratory tract leads to immune suppression and allows commensal bacteria to infect an otherwise healthy lower respiratory tract. This condition is known as the Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). BoHV-1 latently infects the host for life and periodical stress events re-initiate BRD, translating into high morbidity and large economic losses. To gain a better understanding of the biology of BoHV-1 and the disease it causes, we elucidated the protein composition of extracellular virions using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. We detected 33 viral proteins, including the expected proteins of the nucleocapsid and envelope as well as other regulatory proteins present in the viral tegument. In addition to viral proteins, we have also identified packaged proteins of host origin. This constitutes the first proteomic characterization of the BoHV virion. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCase Report
Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Northern Brown Bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus)
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 10; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010010 -
Abstract
Aside from a handful of notable exceptions, neoplasia is not reported as a major cause of mortality in wild animal populations and often goes undetected. For northern brown bandicoots specifically, there are few reported tumors in the literature and on file in the
[...] Read more.
Aside from a handful of notable exceptions, neoplasia is not reported as a major cause of mortality in wild animal populations and often goes undetected. For northern brown bandicoots specifically, there are few reported tumors in the literature and on file in the Australian Registry of Wildlife Health. This report describes a case of squamous cell carcinoma in a northern brown bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus), with metastases to the draining lymph nodes and lung. This neoplasm consisted predominantly of well-differentiated squamous cells and multifocal keratin pearls, with areas possibly consistent with epithelial to mesenchymal transition, as identified by positive immunohistochemical staining by both pancytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and vimentin. Additional investigations were negative for bandicoot papillomatosis carcinomatosis viruses. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Exercise-Induced Cardiac Remodeling: Lessons from Humans, Horses, and Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 9; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010009 -
Abstract
Physical activity is dependent upon the cardiovascular system adequately delivering blood to meet the metabolic and thermoregulatory demands of exercise. Animals who regularly exercise therefore require a well-adapted heart to support this delivery. The purpose of this review is to examine cardiac structure,
[...] Read more.
Physical activity is dependent upon the cardiovascular system adequately delivering blood to meet the metabolic and thermoregulatory demands of exercise. Animals who regularly exercise therefore require a well-adapted heart to support this delivery. The purpose of this review is to examine cardiac structure, and the potential for exercise-induced cardiac remodeling, in animals that regularly engage in strenuous activity. Specifically, we draw upon the literature that has studied the “athlete’s heart” in humans, horses, and dogs, to enable the reader to compare and contrast cardiac remodeling in these three athletic species. The available literature provides compelling evidence for exercise-induced cardiac remodeling in all three species. However, more work is required to understand the influence of species/breed specific genetics and exercise-related hemodynamics, in order to fully understand the impact of exercise on cardiac structure. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCase Report
Hyponatremia as the Presenting Feature of a Pituitary Abscess in a Calf
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 8; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010008 -
Abstract
A 2-month-old Simmental heifer presented for acute onset of neurological behavior. Laboratory tests confirmed the presence of hyponatremia, hypochloremia, and hypokalemia that improved with intravenous fluid therapy. Despite an initial cessation of neurological signs, symptoms re-emerged, and the heifer was euthanized due to
[...] Read more.
A 2-month-old Simmental heifer presented for acute onset of neurological behavior. Laboratory tests confirmed the presence of hyponatremia, hypochloremia, and hypokalemia that improved with intravenous fluid therapy. Despite an initial cessation of neurological signs, symptoms re-emerged, and the heifer was euthanized due to poor prognosis. A pituitary abscess (Trueperella pyogenes) was observed on gross necropsy, suggesting that the effects of panhypopituitarism (inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and/or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion) may have resulted in the clinical findings. Pituitary abscess syndrome carries a poor prognosis due to the inability to penetrate the area with systemic antibiotic therapy. These findings highlight the unusual clinical presentations that may occur following pituitary abscess syndrome in cattle that practitioners need to consider when determining prognosis. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
The Comparative Value of Feline Virology Research: Can Findings from the Feline Lentiviral Vaccine Be Translated to Humans?
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 7; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010007 -
Abstract
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus of domestic cats that shares several similarities with its human counterpart, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Their analogies include genomic organization, lymphocyte tropism, viral persistence and induction of immunodeficiency. FIV is the only lentivirus for which a
[...] Read more.
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus of domestic cats that shares several similarities with its human counterpart, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Their analogies include genomic organization, lymphocyte tropism, viral persistence and induction of immunodeficiency. FIV is the only lentivirus for which a commercial vaccine is registered for prevention in either human or veterinary medicine. This provides a unique opportunity to investigate the mechanisms of protection induced by lentivirus vaccines at the population level and might contribute to the development of efficacious HIV vaccines. As well as having comparative value for vaccine studies, FIV research has shed some light on the relationship between lentiviral tropism and pathogenesis. Recent studies in our laboratory demonstrated that the interaction between FIV and its primary receptor changes as disease progresses, reminiscent of the receptor switch observed as disease progresses in HIV infected individuals. Here we summarise findings illustrating that, in addition to its veterinary significance, FIV has comparative value, providing a useful model to explore lentivirus–host interactions and to examine potential immune correlates of protection against HIV infection. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Review on Usage of Vancomycin in Livestock and Humans: Maintaining Its Efficacy, Prevention of Resistance and Alternative Therapy
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 6; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010006 -
Abstract
Vancomycin is one of the “last-line” classes of antibiotics used in the treatment of life-threatening infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Even though vancomycin was discovered in the 1950s, it was widely used after the 1980s for the treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant
[...] Read more.
Vancomycin is one of the “last-line” classes of antibiotics used in the treatment of life-threatening infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Even though vancomycin was discovered in the 1950s, it was widely used after the 1980s for the treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococci, as the prevalence of these strains were increased. However, it is currently evident that vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci have developed for various reasons, including the use of avaparcin—an analog of vancomycin—as a feed additive in livestock. Therefore, prophylactic and empiric use of antibiotics and their analogues need to be minimized. Herein we discuss the rational use of vancomycin in treating humans, horses, farm animals, and pet animals such as dogs, cats, and rabbits. In present day context, more attention should be paid to the prevention of the emergence of resistance to antibiotics in order to maintain their efficacy. In order to prevent emergence of resistance, proper guidance for the responsible use of antimicrobials is indispensable. Therefore, almost all stakeholders who use antibiotics should have an in-depth understanding of the antibiotic that they use. As such, it is imperative to be aware of the important aspects of vancomycin. In the present review, efforts have been made to discuss the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, indications, emergence of resistance, control of resistance, adverse effects, and alternative therapy for vancomycin. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Shape Variation in the Craniomandibular System and Prevalence of Dental Problems in Domestic Rabbits: A Case Study in Evolutionary Veterinary Science
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 5; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010005 -
Abstract
In contrast to wild lagomorphs, pet rabbits exhibit a noticeably high frequency of dental problems. Although dietary habits are considered as a major factor contributing to acquired malocclusions, the exact causes and interrelationships are still under debate. In this regard, an important aspect
[...] Read more.
In contrast to wild lagomorphs, pet rabbits exhibit a noticeably high frequency of dental problems. Although dietary habits are considered as a major factor contributing to acquired malocclusions, the exact causes and interrelationships are still under debate. In this regard, an important aspect that has not been considered thoroughly to date is the effect of diet-induced phenotypic plasticity in skull morphology. Therefore, we conducted a geometric morphometric analysis on skull radiological images of wild and pet rabbits in order to quantify intraspecific variation in craniomandibular morphology. The statistical analyses reveal a significant morphological differentiation of the craniomandibular system between both groups. Furthermore, the analysis of covariance shows that the force-generating modules (cranium and mandible) vary independently from the force-receiving module (hypselodont teeth) in pet rabbits, which is in contrast to their wild relatives. Our findings suggest that the phenotypic changes in domestic rabbits impact mastication performance and, consequently, oral health. An adequate close-to-nature nutrition throughout the whole life and especially beginning early parallel to weaning (phase of increased phenotypic plasticity) is necessary to ensure a normal strain on the teeth by promoting physiological lateral gliding movements and avoiding direct axial loads. Full article
Figures