Open AccessArticle
A Retrospective Cohort Study of an Outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis among Veterinary Students
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(2), 29; doi:10.3390/vetsci4020029 -
Abstract
An outbreak of gastrointestinal illness occurred among a cohort of 56 veterinary technology and 100 veterinary science students at Massey University over an eight-week period in 2013. This coincided with calving in New Zealand’s seasonal dairy farming system and a time when calves
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An outbreak of gastrointestinal illness occurred among a cohort of 56 veterinary technology and 100 veterinary science students at Massey University over an eight-week period in 2013. This coincided with calving in New Zealand’s seasonal dairy farming system and a time when calves with diarrhoea are commonly seen by veterinarians. Laboratory and epidemiological investigations were instigated by MidCentral Public Health Service (MCPHS) in conjunction with the Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences (IVABS) at Massey University. Eighty students responded to a questionnaire of which 19 met the case definition, a 24% attack rate. Faecal specimens from seven students contained Cryptosporidium oocysts and Cryptosporidium parvum IIa A18G3R1 was identified from one of the specimens. The inferred median incubation period was five days (range 1–12 days). All of the cases were self-limiting, characterized by diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, and in some cases vomiting, headache, and fever. Having contact with calves with diarrhoea was significantly associated with increased adjusted odds of being a case (OR 10.61, 95% CI 1.87–108.29 for one week of contact; OR 55.05, 95% CI 3.80–1931.18 for two weeks of contact). Outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis had occurred previously among veterinary students at Massey University, but the extremely high infectivity of C. parvum resulted in student illness despite enhanced hygiene precautions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Epidemiology of Q Fever in England and Wales 2000–2015
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(2), 28; doi:10.3390/vetsci4020028 -
Abstract
Between 2000 and 2015, 904 cases of acute Q fever were reported in England and Wales. The case dataset had a male to female ratio of 2.5:1, and a median age of 45 years. Two outbreaks were recognised during this time period, and
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Between 2000 and 2015, 904 cases of acute Q fever were reported in England and Wales. The case dataset had a male to female ratio of 2.5:1, and a median age of 45 years. Two outbreaks were recognised during this time period, and the incidence of sporadic cases was highest across the southwest of England, and Wales. There are limitations in the surveillance system for Q fever, including possible geographical differences in reporting and limited epidemiological data collection. The surveillance system needs to be strengthened in order to improve the quality and completeness of the epidemiological dataset. The authors conclude with recommendations on how to achieve this. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Big Pet Diabetes Survey: Perceived Frequency and Triggers for Euthanasia
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(2), 27; doi:10.3390/vetsci4020027 -
Abstract
Current pet diabetes mellitus (DM) treatment necessitates the active daily involvement of owners and can be costly. The current study aimed to investigate the owner population which opts for euthanasia instead of DM treatment. A survey was designed using multiple feedback steps and
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Current pet diabetes mellitus (DM) treatment necessitates the active daily involvement of owners and can be costly. The current study aimed to investigate the owner population which opts for euthanasia instead of DM treatment. A survey was designed using multiple feedback steps and made available online to veterinarians world-wide. A total of 1192 veterinarians completed the survey and suggested a median one in 10 diabetic pets are euthanased at diagnosis; a further median one in 10 within one year because of lack of success or compliance. Perceived most important motivating factors included “presence concurrent disease” (45% respondents); “costs” (44%); “animal age” (37%); “problems obtaining adequate control” (35%); “pet welfare” (35%); and “impact owner’s lifestyle” (32%). Cats in Canadian (odds ratio (OR) 2.7), Australian (OR 2.3), rural (OR 1.6) and mixed (OR 1.7) practices were more likely to be euthanased because of DM diagnosis, while cats presented to referral/university were less likely to be euthanased (OR 0.6). Dogs were more likely to be euthanased because of DM in Canadian (OR 1.8), rural (OR 1.8) and mixed (OR 1.6) practices. The survey results suggest that benefit exists in improved DM education with emphasis on offering a choice of treatment styles ranging from intense and expensive to hands-off and cheap. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence and Multilocus Genotyping Analysis of Cryptosporidium and Giardia Isolates from Dogs in Chiang Mai, Thailand
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(2), 26; doi:10.3390/vetsci4020026 -
Abstract
The occurrence and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis isolated from dogs in Chiang Mai, Thailand were determined. Fecal samples were collected from 109 dogs between July and August 2008. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was determined by immunofluorescent assay (IFA), PCR assays
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The occurrence and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis isolated from dogs in Chiang Mai, Thailand were determined. Fecal samples were collected from 109 dogs between July and August 2008. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was determined by immunofluorescent assay (IFA), PCR assays that amplify Cryptosporidium heat-shock protein 70 kDa (hsp70), and two PCR assays that amplify a small subunit-ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA). Giardiaduodenalis infection was identified using zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, IFA, and four PCR assays that amplify the Giardia glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), beta-giardin (bg), and generic and dog-specific assays of triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. Overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and G.duodenalis was 31.2% and 45.9%, respectively. Sequence analysis of 22 Cryptosporidium-positive samples and 21 Giardia-positive samples revealed the presence of C.canis in 15, and C. parvum in 7, G. duodenalis Assemblage C in 8, D in 11, and mixed of C and D in 2 dogs. Dogs in Chiang Mai were commonly exposed to Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis. Cryptosporidium parvum can be isolated from the feces of dogs, and all G. duodenalis assemblages were dog-specific. Dogs could be a reservoir for a zoonotic Cryptosporidium infection in humans, but further studies will be required to determine the clinical and zoonotic importance. Full article
Open AccessReview
Cutaneous Hypersensitivity Dermatoses in the Feline Patient: A Review of Allergic Skin Disease in Cats
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(2), 25; doi:10.3390/vetsci4020025 -
Abstract
Feline allergic skin disease presents a unique set of challenges to the veterinary practitioner. Although there is some similarity to what is seen in the allergic canine patient, cutaneous hypersensitivity dermatoses in cats can manifest with strikingly different clinical signs, treatment options and
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Feline allergic skin disease presents a unique set of challenges to the veterinary practitioner. Although there is some similarity to what is seen in the allergic canine patient, cutaneous hypersensitivity dermatoses in cats can manifest with strikingly different clinical signs, treatment options and outcomes, and secondary complications/disease entities. Additionally, less is known about the pathogenesis of feline allergic skin diseases, particularly “feline atopic syndrome” when compared to dogs or people. This article aims to review what is currently known in regards to allergic skin disease in the feline patient, with focus on non-flea, non-food hypersensitivity dermatitis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mapping Heart Development in Flies: Src42A Acts Non-Autonomously to Promote Heart Tube Formation in Drosophila
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(2), 23; doi:10.3390/vetsci4020023 -
Abstract
Congenital heart defects, clinically identified in both small and large animals, are multifactorial and complex. Although heritable factors are known to have a role in cardiovascular disease, the full genetic aetiology remains unclear. Model organism research has proven valuable in providing a deeper
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Congenital heart defects, clinically identified in both small and large animals, are multifactorial and complex. Although heritable factors are known to have a role in cardiovascular disease, the full genetic aetiology remains unclear. Model organism research has proven valuable in providing a deeper understanding of the essential factors in heart development. For example, mouse knock-out studies reveal a role for the Integrin adhesion receptor in cardiac tissue. Recent research in Drosophila melanogaster (the fruit fly), a powerful experimental model, has demonstrated that the link between the extracellular matrix and the cell, mediated by Integrins, is required for multiple aspects of cardiogenesis. Here we test the hypothesis that Integrins signal to the heart cells through Src42A kinase. Using the powerful genetics and cell biology analysis possible in Drosophila, we demonstrate that Src42A acts in early events of heart tube development. Careful examination of mutant heart tissue and genetic interaction data suggests that Src42A’s role is independent of Integrin and the Integrin-related Focal Adhesion Kinase. Rather, Src42A acts non-autonomously by promoting programmed cell death of the amnioserosa, a transient tissue that neighbors the developing heart. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Dissecting the Role of the Extracellular Matrix in Heart Disease: Lessons from the Drosophila Genetic Model
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(2), 24; doi:10.3390/vetsci4020024 -
Abstract
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic scaffold within organs and tissues that enables cell morphogenesis and provides structural support. Changes in the composition and organisation of the cardiac ECM are required for normal development. Congenital and age-related cardiac diseases can arise from
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The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic scaffold within organs and tissues that enables cell morphogenesis and provides structural support. Changes in the composition and organisation of the cardiac ECM are required for normal development. Congenital and age-related cardiac diseases can arise from mis-regulation of structural ECM proteins (Collagen, Laminin) or their receptors (Integrin). Key regulators of ECM turnover include matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). MMP expression is increased in mice, pigs, and dogs with cardiomyopathy. The complexity and longevity of vertebrate animals makes a short-lived, genetically tractable model organism, such as Drosophila melanogaster, an attractive candidate for study. We survey ECM macromolecules and their role in heart development and growth, which are conserved between Drosophila and vertebrates, with focus upon the consequences of altered expression or distribution. The Drosophila heart resembles that of vertebrates during early development, and is amenable to in vivo analysis. Experimental manipulation of gene function in a tissue- or temporally-regulated manner can reveal the function of adhesion or ECM genes in the heart. Perturbation of the function of ECM proteins, or of the MMPs that facilitate ECM remodelling, induces cardiomyopathies in Drosophila, including cardiodilation, arrhythmia, and cardia bifida, that provide mechanistic insight into cardiac disease in mammals. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Animal Models of Cancer-Associated Hypercalcemia
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(2), 21; doi:10.3390/vetsci4020021 -
Abstract
Cancer-associated hypercalcemia (CAH) is a frequently-occurring paraneoplastic syndrome that contributes to substantial patient morbidity and occurs in both humans and animals. Patients with CAH are often characterized by markedly elevated serum calcium concentrations that result in a range of clinical symptoms involving the
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Cancer-associated hypercalcemia (CAH) is a frequently-occurring paraneoplastic syndrome that contributes to substantial patient morbidity and occurs in both humans and animals. Patients with CAH are often characterized by markedly elevated serum calcium concentrations that result in a range of clinical symptoms involving the nervous, gastrointestinal and urinary systems. CAH is caused by two principle mechanisms; humorally-mediated and/or through local osteolytic bone metastasis resulting in excessive calcium release from resorbed bone. Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) is the most common mechanism and is due to the production and release of tumor-associated cytokines and humoral factors, such as parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), that act at distant sites to increase serum calcium concentrations. Local osteolytic hypercalcemia (LOH) occurs when primary or metastatic bone tumors act locally by releasing factors that stimulate osteoclast activity and bone resorption. LOH is a less frequent cause of CAH and in some cases can induce hypercalcemia in concert with HHM. Rarely, ectopic production of parathyroid hormone has been described. PTHrP-mediated hypercalcemia is the most common mechanism of CAH in human and canine malignancies and is recognized in other domestic species. Spontaneous and experimentally-induced animal models have been developed to study the mechanisms of CAH. These models have been essential for the evaluation of novel approaches and adjuvant therapies to manage CAH. This review will highlight the comparative aspects of CAH in humans and animals with a discussion of the available animal models used to study the pathogenesis of this important clinical syndrome. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Minimising Stress for Patients in the Veterinary Hospital: Why It Is Important and What Can Be Done about It
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(2), 22; doi:10.3390/vetsci4020022 -
Abstract
Minimising stress for patients should always be a priority in the veterinary hospital. However, this is often overlooked. While a “no stress” environment is not possible, understanding how to create a “low stress” (sometimes called “fear-free”) environment and how to handle animals in
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Minimising stress for patients should always be a priority in the veterinary hospital. However, this is often overlooked. While a “no stress” environment is not possible, understanding how to create a “low stress” (sometimes called “fear-free”) environment and how to handle animals in a less stressful manner benefits patients, staff and the hospital alike. Many veterinary practitioners believe creating a low stress environment is too hard and too time consuming, but this need not be the case. With some simple approaches, minimising patient, and hence staff, stress is achievable in all veterinary practices. This article provides a background on why minimising stress is important and outlines some practical steps that can be taken by staff to minimise stress for presenting and hospitalised patients. Useful resources on recognising signs of stress in dogs and cats, handling, restraint, behaviour modification, medications, and hospital design are provided. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Coronary Artery Anomalies in Animals
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(2), 20; doi:10.3390/vetsci4020020 -
Abstract
Coronary artery anomalies represent a disease spectrum from incidental to life-threatening. Anomalies of coronary artery origin and course are well-recognized in human medicine, but have received limited attention in veterinary medicine. Coronary artery anomalies are best described in the dog, hamster, and cow
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Coronary artery anomalies represent a disease spectrum from incidental to life-threatening. Anomalies of coronary artery origin and course are well-recognized in human medicine, but have received limited attention in veterinary medicine. Coronary artery anomalies are best described in the dog, hamster, and cow though reports also exist in the horse and pig. The most well-known anomaly in veterinary medicine is anomalous coronary artery origin with a prepulmonary course in dogs, which limits treatment of pulmonary valve stenosis. A categorization scheme for coronary artery anomalies in animals is suggested, dividing these anomalies into those of major or minor clinical significance. A review of coronary artery development, anatomy, and reported anomalies in domesticated species is provided and four novel canine examples of anomalous coronary artery origin are described: an English bulldog with single left coronary ostium and a retroaortic right coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and transseptal left coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and absent left coronary artery with a prepulmonary paraconal interventricular branch and an interarterial circumflex branch; and a mixed-breed dog with tetralogy of Fallot and anomalous origin of all coronary branches from the brachiocephalic trunk. Coronary arterial fistulae are also described including a coronary cameral fistula in a llama cria and an English bulldog with coronary artery aneurysm and anomalous shunting vessels from the right coronary artery to the pulmonary trunk. These examples are provided with the intent to raise awareness and improve understanding of such defects. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Genomic Insights into Cardiomyopathies: A Comparative Cross-Species Review
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 19; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010019 -
Abstract
In the global human population, the leading cause of non-communicable death is cardiovascular disease. It is predicted that by 2030, deaths attributable to cardiovascular disease will have risen to over 20 million per year. This review compares the cardiomyopathies in both human and
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In the global human population, the leading cause of non-communicable death is cardiovascular disease. It is predicted that by 2030, deaths attributable to cardiovascular disease will have risen to over 20 million per year. This review compares the cardiomyopathies in both human and non-human animals and identifies the genetic associations for each disorder in each species/taxonomic group. Despite differences between species, advances in human medicine can be gained by utilising animal models of cardiac disease; likewise, gains can be made in animal medicine from human genomic insights. Advances could include undertaking regular clinical checks in individuals susceptible to cardiomyopathy, genetic testing prior to breeding, and careful administration of breeding programmes (in non-human animals), further development of treatment regimes, and drugs and diagnostic techniques. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Oral Alpha Lipoic Acid in Preventing the Genesis of Canine Diabetic Cataract: A Preliminary Study
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 18; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010018 -
Abstract
Blinding cataract is a significant effect of canine diabetes with 75% of animals affected two years after diagnosis. Lens opacification occurs primarily through the generation of sorbitol, a sugar alcohol, through the action of aldose reductase (AR). The osmotic effect of sorbitol draws
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Blinding cataract is a significant effect of canine diabetes with 75% of animals affected two years after diagnosis. Lens opacification occurs primarily through the generation of sorbitol, a sugar alcohol, through the action of aldose reductase (AR). The osmotic effect of sorbitol draws water into the lens, causing opacification. Inhibition of AR should thus prevent the generation of cataracts. A topical AR inhibitor has been shown to have this effect, as has the commercially available neutraceutical OcuGLO, containing the AR inhibitor alpha lipoic acid (ALA) together with other plant-based antioxidants. Here a comparison is made between the number of diabetic dogs developing cataracts when given oral ALA alone and those given a mix containing ascorbic acid and tocopherol. Animals given ALA developed significantly fewer lens opacities than those given conventional antioxidants. Cataracts which formed occurred at a significantly greater duration after the commencement of treatment than those on the antioxidant mix. Although this is a small study conducted over a short period, the significant benefit of ALA in diabetic dogs is a reason to evaluate these effects in larger trials. As AR is involved in diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy, this enzyme inhibitor may be worthy of evaluation in preventing these conditions in human diabetics also. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Serum Fructosamine Concentration in Uncontrolled Hyperthyroid Diabetic Cats Is within the Population Reference Interval
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 17; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010017 -
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy of cats that is characterized by persistent fasting hyperglycemia. However, stress induces substantial hyperglycemia in cats that poses a challenge to the veterinarian who may wrongly interpret the high serum concentration of blood glucose as evidence of
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Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy of cats that is characterized by persistent fasting hyperglycemia. However, stress induces substantial hyperglycemia in cats that poses a challenge to the veterinarian who may wrongly interpret the high serum concentration of blood glucose as evidence of diabetes mellitus. Fructosamine is a glycated serum protein that serves as an index of glycemic control in cats and is useful because it is not affected by stress hyperglycemia. However, factors such as body weight, hypoproteinemia, and increased serum thyroid hormone concentration can alter fructosamine concentration. The goal of this retrospective study was to compare the fructosamine concentrations in diabetic and nondiabetic cats with and without uncontrolled hyperthyroidism. A secondary goal was to determine the effect of sex, age, different populations of cats, and diabetes on the variability of fructosamine. We found that the mean (±SE) serum fructosamine of hyperthyroid diabetic cats (332 ± 24 µmol/L, 95% CI 291–379 µmol/L) was within the population-based reference interval (200–360 µmol/L) and significantly lower in comparison to euthyroid diabetic cats (527 ± 10 µmol/L, 95% CI 515–553 µmol/L). Additionally, in this study, diabetes accounted only for approximately 50% of the variance in serum fructosamine, while age, sex, and population made a minor contribution to this variance. In conclusion, finding serum fructosamine that is within the population-based reference interval in an uncontrolled diabetic cat should alert the veterinarian to the possibility of concurrent hyperthyroidism. Additionally, the veterinary clinician should consider that serum fructosamine might be substantially affected by factors other than diabetes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Felis Catus Gammaherpesvirus 1 DNAemia in Whole Blood from Therapeutically Immunosuppressed or Retrovirus-Infected Cats
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 16; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010016 -
Abstract
Gammaherpesviruses are major co-pathogens of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, making the interactions between feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1) pertinent to both human and veterinary medical research. FIV-infected cats are at increased risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia and consistently
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Gammaherpesviruses are major co-pathogens of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, making the interactions between feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1) pertinent to both human and veterinary medical research. FIV-infected cats are at increased risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia and consistently harbor higher FcaGHV1 loads than FIV-uninfected cats. Whether immune deficiencies unrelated to FIV are associated with similar risks is unknown. Using whole blood FcaGHV1 qPCR, we found no difference in the frequency of DNAemia or DNA load in therapeutically immunosuppressed (P1, n = 18) or feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-infected (P2, n = 57) patients compared with age- and sex-matched controls (C1, n = 58; C2, n = 57). In contrast, FIV/FeLV-co-infected cats (P3, n = 5) were at increased risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia compared to retrovirus uninfected controls (C3, n = 39; p = 0.0068), and had a higher median FcaGHV1 DNA load, although the latter was not significant. FIV/FeLV-co-infected cats (P3) had a similar frequency of FcaGHV1 DNAemia reported compared to FIV-infected controls (C4). In conclusion, we found no evidence that cats with therapeutic immunosuppression or FeLV infection were at greater risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia or had higher FcaGHV1 DNA load in whole blood. The risk of DNAemia in FIV/FeLV-co-infected cats was similar to that documented previously in cats infected with FIV alone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Awareness of the International Veterinary Profession of Evidence-Based Veterinary Medicine and Preferred Methods of Training
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 15; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010015 -
Abstract
Evidence-based veterinary medicine (EVM) is an evolving discipline in veterinary medicine so it is important to periodically “benchmark” opinion about EVM across the profession. An international survey to assess veterinarians’ awareness of EVM was conducted. Veterinarians were surveyed via an online questionnaire (all
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Evidence-based veterinary medicine (EVM) is an evolving discipline in veterinary medicine so it is important to periodically “benchmark” opinion about EVM across the profession. An international survey to assess veterinarians’ awareness of EVM was conducted. Veterinarians were surveyed via an online questionnaire (all countries) or a postal questionnaire (UK only). Participants were asked whether they had heard of EVM, where they had first heard the term, and their preferences of method for receiving continuing professional development (CPD). There were 6310 respondents, of which 4579 (72.5%) worked in the UK and 5384 (85.3%) were clinicians. Veterinarians that had heard of EVM (n = 5420, 85.9%) were most likely to be clinicians (OR = 4.00; 95% CI: 3.37, 4.75), respondents working in the UK (OR = 1.32; CI: 1.13, 1.54), or respondents with a postgraduate degree or qualification (OR = 1.77; CI: 1.51, 2.08). The most common sources from which respondents had heard of EVM were at vet school or university (n = 1207, 29.8%), via literature (peer-reviewed papers or other publications) (n = 1074, 26.5%), and via CPD courses (n = 564, 13.9%). Most respondents were interested in finding out more about EVM (n = 4256 of 6173, 69%). The preferred methods of CPD were day or evening seminars (n = 2992 of 6017, 49.7%), conferences (n = 1409, 23.4%), and online courses (n = 524, 8.7%), although the order of preference differed slightly between groups. There appears to be substantial awareness of EVM amongst veterinarians internationally. However, it appears that further training in EVM would be welcomed. Preferences on how CPD in general is received differs between groups, so this should be borne in mind by training providers when formulating a strategy for the dissemination of EVM training across the global profession. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Neuropathogenesis: A Model for HIV-Induced CNS Inflammation and Neurodegeneration
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 14; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010014 -
Abstract
Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV), similar to its human analog human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), enters the central nervous system (CNS) soon after infection and establishes a protected viral reservoir. The ensuing inflammation and damage give rise to varying degrees of cognitive decline collectively known
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Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV), similar to its human analog human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), enters the central nervous system (CNS) soon after infection and establishes a protected viral reservoir. The ensuing inflammation and damage give rise to varying degrees of cognitive decline collectively known as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Because of the similarities to HIV infection and disease, FIV has provided a useful model for both in vitro and in vivo studies of CNS infection, inflammation and pathology. This mini review summarizes insights gained from studies of early infection, immune cell trafficking, inflammation and the mechanisms of neuropathogenesis. Advances in our understanding of these processes have contributed to the development of therapeutic interventions designed to protect neurons and regulate inflammatory activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Immuno-Detection of C3a, a C3 Complement Activated Product in Mastitis Milk, a Potential Diagnostic Marker
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 13; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010013 -
Abstract
The sub-clinical form of mastitis is difficult to detect and causes huge economic loss to the dairy industry. It has become a threat to public health at large, thus there is a need for definite diagnosis of the disease. Therefore, this study was
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The sub-clinical form of mastitis is difficult to detect and causes huge economic loss to the dairy industry. It has become a threat to public health at large, thus there is a need for definite diagnosis of the disease. Therefore, this study was undertaken to identify the novel diagnostic marker for the detection of the sub-clinical form of mastitis. Two-dimensional gel analysis of the whey protein fraction of normal and mastitis milk samples revealed the presence of proteose peptone component 3 precursor, Trypsin precursor, complement component-C3, Ig heavy chain precursors and a C-type lectin domain as differentially expressed protein during the early stage of mastitis. Of these proteins identified, complement component-C3 was tested for its diagnostic potential. Western blot analysis of the milk whey of sub-clinical mastitis cases (M+, M++ & M+++) identified the accumulation of C3a, an activated product of complement component-C3. Further, the hemolytic activity of the above milk whey samples positively correlated with the somatic cell count. As C3a is already reported as an anaphylotoxic agent, it chemo tactically attracts lymphocytes at the site of inflammation, the detection of which in the milk whey can be of diagnostic importance for sub-clinical mastitis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Micro-RNA 10a Is Increased in Feline T Regulatory Cells and Increases Foxp3 Protein Expression Following In Vitro Transfection
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 12; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010012 -
Abstract
CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells are activated during the course of lentiviral infection and exhibit heightened suppressor function when compared to Treg cells from uninfected controls. Foxp3 is essential to Treg cell function and multiple studies have documented
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CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells are activated during the course of lentiviral infection and exhibit heightened suppressor function when compared to Treg cells from uninfected controls. Foxp3 is essential to Treg cell function and multiple studies have documented that lentivirus-activated Treg cells exhibit heightened Foxp3 expression when compared to Treg cells from uninfected controls. Our hypothesis was that lentivirus-induced micro-RNAs (miRNAs) contribute to heightened Treg cell suppressor function by stabilizing Foxp3 expression. We demonstrated that CD4+CD25+ T cells from both feline immunodeficiency virus infected (FIV+) cats and uninfected control cats exhibit increased miRNA 10a and 21 levels compared to autologous CD4+CD25 T cells but there was no difference in the levels of these miRNAs when Treg cells from FIV+ cats were compared to Treg cells from uninfected controls. Further, there was no increase in Foxp3 mRNA following transfection of miRNA 10a or 21 into a feline cell line. However, transfection with miRNA 10a resulted in increased Foxp3 protein expression. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Protein Composition of the Bovine Herpesvirus 1.1 Virion
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 11; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010011 -
Abstract
Bovine herpesvirus (BoHV) type 1 is an important agricultural pathogen that infects cattle and other ruminants worldwide. Acute infection of the oro-respiratory tract leads to immune suppression and allows commensal bacteria to infect an otherwise healthy lower respiratory tract. This condition is known
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Bovine herpesvirus (BoHV) type 1 is an important agricultural pathogen that infects cattle and other ruminants worldwide. Acute infection of the oro-respiratory tract leads to immune suppression and allows commensal bacteria to infect an otherwise healthy lower respiratory tract. This condition is known as the Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). BoHV-1 latently infects the host for life and periodical stress events re-initiate BRD, translating into high morbidity and large economic losses. To gain a better understanding of the biology of BoHV-1 and the disease it causes, we elucidated the protein composition of extracellular virions using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. We detected 33 viral proteins, including the expected proteins of the nucleocapsid and envelope as well as other regulatory proteins present in the viral tegument. In addition to viral proteins, we have also identified packaged proteins of host origin. This constitutes the first proteomic characterization of the BoHV virion. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Northern Brown Bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus)
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 10; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010010 -
Abstract
Aside from a handful of notable exceptions, neoplasia is not reported as a major cause of mortality in wild animal populations and often goes undetected. For northern brown bandicoots specifically, there are few reported tumors in the literature and on file in the
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Aside from a handful of notable exceptions, neoplasia is not reported as a major cause of mortality in wild animal populations and often goes undetected. For northern brown bandicoots specifically, there are few reported tumors in the literature and on file in the Australian Registry of Wildlife Health. This report describes a case of squamous cell carcinoma in a northern brown bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus), with metastases to the draining lymph nodes and lung. This neoplasm consisted predominantly of well-differentiated squamous cells and multifocal keratin pearls, with areas possibly consistent with epithelial to mesenchymal transition, as identified by positive immunohistochemical staining by both pancytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and vimentin. Additional investigations were negative for bandicoot papillomatosis carcinomatosis viruses. Full article
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