Open AccessArticle
Shape Variation in the Craniomandibular System and Prevalence of Dental Problems in Domestic Rabbits: A Case Study in Evolutionary Veterinary Science
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 5; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010005 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In contrast to wild lagomorphs, pet rabbits exhibit a noticeably high frequency of dental problems. Although dietary habits are considered as a major factor contributing to acquired malocclusions, the exact causes and interrelationships are still under debate. In this regard, an important aspect
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In contrast to wild lagomorphs, pet rabbits exhibit a noticeably high frequency of dental problems. Although dietary habits are considered as a major factor contributing to acquired malocclusions, the exact causes and interrelationships are still under debate. In this regard, an important aspect that has not been considered thoroughly to date is the effect of diet-induced phenotypic plasticity in skull morphology. Therefore, we conducted a geometric morphometric analysis on skull radiological images of wild and pet rabbits in order to quantify intraspecific variation in craniomandibular morphology. The statistical analyses reveal a significant morphological differentiation of the craniomandibular system between both groups. Furthermore, the analysis of covariance shows that the force-generating modules (cranium and mandible) vary independently from the force-receiving module (hypselodont teeth) in pet rabbits, which is in contrast to their wild relatives. Our findings suggest that the phenotypic changes in domestic rabbits impact mastication performance and, consequently, oral health. An adequate close-to-nature nutrition throughout the whole life and especially beginning early parallel to weaning (phase of increased phenotypic plasticity) is necessary to ensure a normal strain on the teeth by promoting physiological lateral gliding movements and avoiding direct axial loads. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exposure to Photoperiod-Melatonin-Induced, Sexually-Activated Rams after Weaning Advances the Resumption of Sexual Activity in Post-Partum Mediterranean Ewes Lambing in January
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 4; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010004 -
Abstract
This study was aimed to determine whether the presence of sexually stimulated rams by photoperiodic and melatonin treatments can advance the resumption of post-partum sexual activity in Mediterranean ewes lambing in January and weaned at the end of the breeding season at 41°N,
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This study was aimed to determine whether the presence of sexually stimulated rams by photoperiodic and melatonin treatments can advance the resumption of post-partum sexual activity in Mediterranean ewes lambing in January and weaned at the end of the breeding season at 41°N, in March. Rams were exposed to two months of long days (16 h light/day) and given three melatonin implants at the end of the long days (sexually-activated rams; SAR). Control rams (CR) were exposed to the natural photoperiod. Thirty-six ewes weaned on 25 February were assigned to one of two groups. From 1 March to 30 June, one group was housed with four SAR males (SAR-treated; n = 18), and the other group (CR-treated; n = 18) was housed with four unstimulated rams. Ovulation was assessed once per week based on plasma progesterone concentrations. Estrus was monitored daily by marks left on ewes by rams’ harnesses. SAR-treated ewes had a shorter (p < 0.01) weaning–first estrus interval than CR-treated ewes (61 ± 17 days vs. 102 ± 47 days; mean date of first estrus after weaning on April 26 and June 6, respectively). The proportion of the ewes ovulating in April or May was higher (p < 0.05) in the SAR-treated group than in the CR-treated group. SAR-treated ewes resumed estrous activity sooner than CR-treated ewes such that, in April, May, and June, the proportion of females that exhibited estrus was higher (p < 0.01) in the SAR-treated group (72%, 89%, and 100%, respectively) than in the CR-treated group (17%, 44%, and 61%, respectively). In conclusion, the introduction at weaning of sexually activated rams advanced the resumption of estrous activity in ewes in spring. The practical implications of this work could be important in ewes adapted for intensive production and accelerated lambing systems. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Veterinary Sciences in 2016
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 3; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010003 -
Abstract The editors of Veterinary Sciences would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Detection of Leptospiral DNA in the Urine of Donkeys on the Caribbean Island of Saint Kitts
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 2; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010002 -
Abstract
Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis caused by pathogenic spirochetes classified within the genus Leptospira. Leptospires live in the proximal renal tubules of reservoir or chronic carrier animals, and are shed in the urine. Naïve animals acquire infection either when they come in
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Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis caused by pathogenic spirochetes classified within the genus Leptospira. Leptospires live in the proximal renal tubules of reservoir or chronic carrier animals, and are shed in the urine. Naïve animals acquire infection either when they come in direct contact with a reservoir or infected animals or by exposure to environmental surface water or soil that is contaminated with their urine. In this study, urine samples from a herd of donkeys on the Caribbean island of St. Kitts were screened using a TaqMan-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) targeting a pathogen-specific leptospiral gene, lipl32. Out of 124 clinically normal donkeys, 22 (18%) tested positive for leptospiral DNA in their urine. Water samples from two water troughs used by the donkeys were also tested, but were found to be free from leptospiral contamination. Detection of leptospiral DNA in the urine of clinically healthy donkeys may point to a role that these animals play in the maintenance of the bacteria on St. Kitts. Full article
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Open AccessReview
In Vitro Research Tools in the Field of Human Immediate Drug Hypersensitivity and Their Present Use in Small Animal Veterinary Medicine
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 1; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010001 -
Abstract
Drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHR) are immune-mediated idiosyncratic adverse drug events. Type I DHR are often referred to as “immediate” and involve B lymphocyte-secreted IgE that bind to the membrane of basophils and mast cells, inducing their degranulation. This review presents various in vitro
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Drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHR) are immune-mediated idiosyncratic adverse drug events. Type I DHR are often referred to as “immediate” and involve B lymphocyte-secreted IgE that bind to the membrane of basophils and mast cells, inducing their degranulation. This review presents various in vitro tests that were developed in the field of human type I HS and implemented as clinical diagnostic tools in human cases of immediate DHR. The respective strengths and weaknesses of each test will be discussed in parallel of validation data such as specificity and sensitivity whenever available. Some of them have also been used as diagnostic tools in veterinary medicine, but not in cases of immediate DHR. Most of these diagnostic tools can be categorized into humoral and cellular tests. The former tests measure serum concentrations of factors, such as histamine, tryptase, and drug-specific IgE. The latter assays quantify markers of drug-induced basophil activation or drug-specific lymphocyte proliferation. Pharmacogenetic markers have also been investigated in immediate DHR, but not as extensively as in non-immediate ones. Throughout, practical aspects and limitations of the tests, as well as sensitivity and specificity parameters, will be presented. In addition, the experience of veterinary medicine with these diagnostic tools will be summarized. However, to date, none of them has ever been reported in a veterinary case of type I DHR. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Using Bronson Equation to Accurately Predict the Dog Brain Weight Based on Body Weight Parameter
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 36; doi:10.3390/vetsci3040036 -
Abstract
The study used 69 brains (n = 69) from adult dog cadavers, divided by their skull type into three groups, brachi (B), dolicho (D) and mesaticephalic (M) (n = 23 each), and aimed: (1) to determine whether the Bronson equation may
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The study used 69 brains (n = 69) from adult dog cadavers, divided by their skull type into three groups, brachi (B), dolicho (D) and mesaticephalic (M) (n = 23 each), and aimed: (1) to determine whether the Bronson equation may be applied, without reservation, to estimate brain weight (BW) in brachy (B), dolicho (D), and mesaticephalic (M) dog breeds; and (2) to evaluate which breeds are more closely related to each other in an evolutionary scenario. All subjects were identified by sex, age, breed, and body weight (bw). An oscillating saw was used for a circumferential craniotomy to open the skulls; the brains were removed and weighed using a digital scale. For statistical analysis, p-values < 0.05 were considered significant. The work demonstrated a strong relationship between the observed and predicted BW by using the Bronson equation. It was possible to hypothesize that groups B and D present a greater encephalization level than M breeds, that B and D dog breeds are more closely related to each other than to M, and from the three groups, the D individuals presented the highest brain mass mean. Full article
Open AccessCommunication
Exfoliative Endometrial Cytology in Embryo Donor Cows—Comparison of Sampling Localizations for the Diagnosis of Subclinical Endometritis
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 35; doi:10.3390/vetsci3040035 -
Abstract
Subclinical endometritis has a major effect on the reproductive performance of dairy cows and also on the success of embryo collection. Thus it is important to minimize the number of false-negative diagnoses. In order to evaluate the question of whether or not a
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Subclinical endometritis has a major effect on the reproductive performance of dairy cows and also on the success of embryo collection. Thus it is important to minimize the number of false-negative diagnoses. In order to evaluate the question of whether or not a single cytobrush sample is representative of the whole endometrium, 53 German Holstein embryo donor cows in the northwest of Germany were examined via the cytobrush method at three different localizations of the uterus: the uterine body about 0.5 cm cranial of the cervical canal and both uterine horns about 1.5 cm cranial of the bifurcation. Although the mean percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils at the three locations is not significantly different (p = 0.64), the individual variations lead to the conclusion that more than one sample of the endometrium should be taken into account when diagnosing subclinical endometritis in embryo donor cows. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Fluorescent Protein Expressing Rickettsia buchneri and Rickettsia peacockii for Tracking Symbiont-Tick Cell Interactions
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 34; doi:10.3390/vetsci3040034 -
Abstract
Rickettsiae of indeterminate pathogenicity are widely associated with ticks. The presence of these endosymbionts can confound a One Health approach to combatting tick-borne diseases. Genomic analyses of symbiotic rickettsiae have revealed that they harbor mutations in gene coding for proteins involved in rickettsial
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Rickettsiae of indeterminate pathogenicity are widely associated with ticks. The presence of these endosymbionts can confound a One Health approach to combatting tick-borne diseases. Genomic analyses of symbiotic rickettsiae have revealed that they harbor mutations in gene coding for proteins involved in rickettsial pathogenicity and motility. We have isolated and characterized two rickettsial symbionts—Rickettsia peacockii and R. buchneri—both from ticks using tick cell cultures. To better track these enigmatic rickettsiae in ticks and at the tick-mammal interface we transformed the rickettsiae to express fluorescent proteins using shuttle vectors based on rickettsial plasmids or a transposition system driving insertional mutagenesis. Fluorescent protein expressing R. buchneri and R. peacockii will enable us to elucidate their interactions with tick and mammalian cells, and track their location and movement within individual cells, vector ticks, and host animals. Full article
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Open AccessComment
Regarding Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever in the Americas; Some Historical Aspects of a Forgotten Disease in Colombia
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 33; doi:10.3390/vetsci3040033 -
Abstract In the first decades of the 20th century, scientific papers were published suggesting the presence of Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever in Colombia. As a contribution, we present some historical aspects referring to this topic. Full article
Open AccessReview
The Use of Recombinant Feline Interferon Omega Therapy as an Immune-Modulator in Cats Naturally Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus: New Perspectives
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 32; doi:10.3390/vetsci3040032 -
Abstract
Type I interferons (IFNs) are well-known cytokines that, among their main functions, are key components of the host immune response against viral infections. Due to its immune modulation properties, they are commonly used in the therapeutic approach of various retroviral infections, namely human
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Type I interferons (IFNs) are well-known cytokines that, among their main functions, are key components of the host immune response against viral infections. Due to its immune modulation properties, they are commonly used in the therapeutic approach of various retroviral infections, namely human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). In HIV infection, it has been shown that IFN therapy limits early viral replication, particularly useful on post-exposure prophylaxis. In veterinary medicine, recombinant feline interferon omega (rFeIFN-ω) was the first interferon licensed for use in cats. Several studies have recently shown that this compound seems to stimulate the innate immunity, decreasing clinical signs and co-infections in naturally FIV-infected cats. More than summarizing the main conclusions about rFeIFN-ω in cats, this review emphasizes the immune-modulation properties of IFN therapy, opening new perspectives for its use in retroviral infections. Either in FIV-infected cats or in HIV individuals, type I IFNs seem to induce an innate immune-modulation and should not be overlooked as a therapeutic option in retroviral infections. Full article
Open AccessReview
Intestinal Organoids—Current and Future Applications
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 31; doi:10.3390/vetsci3040031 -
Abstract
Recent technical advances in the stem cell field have enabled the in vitro generation of complex structures resembling whole organs termed organoids. Most of these approaches employ culture systems that allow stem cell-derived or tissue progenitor cells to self-organize into three-dimensional (3D)-structures. Since
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Recent technical advances in the stem cell field have enabled the in vitro generation of complex structures resembling whole organs termed organoids. Most of these approaches employ culture systems that allow stem cell-derived or tissue progenitor cells to self-organize into three-dimensional (3D)-structures. Since organoids can be grown from different species (human, mouse, cat, dog), organs (intestine, kidney, brain, liver), and from patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells, they create significant prospects for modelling development and diseases, for toxicology and drug discovery studies, and in the field of regenerative medicine. Here, we report on intestinal stem cells, organoid culture, organoid disease modeling, transplantation, specifically covering the current and future uses of this exciting new insight model to the field of veterinary medicine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Assessment of Epidemiology Capacity in a One Health Team at the Provincial Level in Thailand
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 30; doi:10.3390/vetsci3040030 -
Abstract
A multi-sectoral core epidemiology capacity assessment was conducted in provinces that implemented One Health services in order to assess the efficacy of a One Health approach in Thailand. In order to conduct the assessment, four provinces were randomly selected as a study group
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A multi-sectoral core epidemiology capacity assessment was conducted in provinces that implemented One Health services in order to assess the efficacy of a One Health approach in Thailand. In order to conduct the assessment, four provinces were randomly selected as a study group from a total of 19 Thai provinces that are currently using a One Health approach. As a control group, four additional provinces that never implemented a One Health approach were also sampled. The provincial officers were interviewed on the epidemiologic capacity of their respective provinces. The average score of epidemiologic capacity in the provinces implementing the One Health approach was 66.45%, while the provinces that did not implement this approach earned a score of 54.61%. The epidemiologic capacity of surveillance systems in provinces that utilized the One Health approach earned higher scores in comparison to provinces that did not implement the approach (75.00% vs. 53.13%, p-value 0.13). Although none of the capacity evaluations showed significant differences between the two groups, we found evidence that provinces implementing the One Health approach gained higher scores in both surveillance and outbreak investigation capacities. This may be explained by more efficient capacity when using a One Health approach, specifically in preventing, protecting, and responding to threats in local communities. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Characterization of Haptoglobin Isotype in Milk of Mastitis-Affected Cows
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 29; doi:10.3390/vetsci3040029 -
Abstract
Haptoglobin is a major acute phase protein in bovines and reportedly increases in serum and milk whey during mastitis, highlighting its potential as a diagnostic biomarker. Since haptoglobin is known to undergo tissue specific glycosylation resulting in different isoforms, this study was undertaken
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Haptoglobin is a major acute phase protein in bovines and reportedly increases in serum and milk whey during mastitis, highlighting its potential as a diagnostic biomarker. Since haptoglobin is known to undergo tissue specific glycosylation resulting in different isoforms, this study was undertaken to characterize the isoforms of haptoglobin. Milk whey fraction and serum obtained from animals with or without clinical mastitis in Puducherry, India, were subjected to SDS-PAGE followed by western blot and immuno-detection of haptoglobin protein. All subunits (β, α1 and α2) of haptoglobin protein were detected in serum sample obtained from clinical cases. However, only the β-subunit was detected in milk whey fraction obtained from the respective animals. Similar results were observed with milk whey fractions from subclinical cases indicating difference in isoform of haptoglobin detected in milk whey from serum. This was further supported by RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis of haptoglobin gene (Hp) confirming the tissue specific origin of haptoglobin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microscopic Visualisation of Zoonotic Arbovirus Replication in Tick Cell and Organ Cultures Using Semliki Forest Virus Reporter Systems
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 28; doi:10.3390/vetsci3040028 -
Abstract
Ticks are vectors and reservoirs of many arboviruses pathogenic for humans or domestic animals; in addition, during bloodfeeding they can acquire and harbour pathogenic arboviruses normally transmitted by other arthropods such as mosquitoes. Tick cell and organ cultures provide convenient tools for propagation
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Ticks are vectors and reservoirs of many arboviruses pathogenic for humans or domestic animals; in addition, during bloodfeeding they can acquire and harbour pathogenic arboviruses normally transmitted by other arthropods such as mosquitoes. Tick cell and organ cultures provide convenient tools for propagation and study of arboviruses, both tick-borne and insect-borne, enabling elucidation of virus-tick cell interaction and yielding insight into the mechanisms behind vector competence and reservoir potential for different arbovirus species. The mosquito-borne zoonotic alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV), which replicates well in tick cells, has been isolated from Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, and Amblyomma spp. ticks removed from mammalian hosts in East Africa; however nothing is known about any possible role of ticks in SFV epidemiology. Here we present a light and electron microscopic study of SFV infecting cell lines and organ cultures derived from African Rhipicephalus spp. ticks. As well as demonstrating the applicability of these culture systems for studying virus-vector interactions, we provide preliminary evidence to support the hypothesis that SFV is not normally transmitted by ticks because the virus does not infect midgut cells. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Deviant Behavior: Tick-Borne Pathogens and Inflammasome Signaling
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 27; doi:10.3390/vetsci3040027 -
Abstract
In the face of an assault, host cells mount an immediate response orchestrated by innate immunity. Two of the best described innate immune signaling networks are the Toll- and the Nod-like receptor pathways. Extensive work has been done characterizing both signaling cascades with
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In the face of an assault, host cells mount an immediate response orchestrated by innate immunity. Two of the best described innate immune signaling networks are the Toll- and the Nod-like receptor pathways. Extensive work has been done characterizing both signaling cascades with several recent advances on the forefront of inflammasome biology. In this review, we will discuss how more commonly-studied pathogens differ from tick-transmitted microbes in the context of Nod-like receptor signaling and inflammasome formation. Because pathogens transmitted by ticks have unique characteristics, we offer the opinion that these microbes can be used to uncover novel principles of Nod-like receptor biology. Full article
Open AccessReview
Parallelisms and Contrasts in the Diverse Ecologies of the Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi Complexes of Bacteria in the Far Western United States
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 26; doi:10.3390/vetsci3040026 -
Abstract
Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi are two tick-borne bacteria that cause disease in people and animals. For each of these bacteria, there is a complex of closely related genospecies and/or strains that are genetically distinct and have been shown through both observational and
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Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi are two tick-borne bacteria that cause disease in people and animals. For each of these bacteria, there is a complex of closely related genospecies and/or strains that are genetically distinct and have been shown through both observational and experimental studies to have different host tropisms. In this review we compare the known ecologies of these two bacterial complexes in the far western USA and find remarkable similarities, which will help us understand evolutionary histories and coadaptation among vertebrate host, tick vector, and bacteria. For both complexes, sensu stricto genospecies (those that infect humans) share a similar geographic range, are vectored mainly by ticks in the Ixodes ricinus-complex, utilize mainly white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) as a reservoir in the eastern USA and tree squirrels in the far west, and tend to be generalists, infecting a wider variety of vertebrate host species. Other sensu lato genospecies within each complex are generally more specialized, occurring often in local enzootic cycles within a narrow range of vertebrate hosts and specialized vector species. We suggest that these similar ecologies may have arisen through utilization of a generalist tick species as a vector, resulting in a potentially more virulent generalist pathogen that spills over into humans, vs. utilization of a specialized tick vector on a particular vertebrate host species, promoting microbe specialization. Such tight host-vector-pathogen coupling could also facilitate high enzootic prevalence and the evolution of host immune-tolerance and bacterial avirulence. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Occupied Vacuole Interactions with the Host Cell Cytoskeleton
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(3), 25; doi:10.3390/vetsci3030025 -
Abstract
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen of humans and animals. The A. phagocytophium-occupied vacuole (ApV) is a critical host-pathogen interface. Here, we report that the intermediate filaments, keratin and vimentin, assemble on the ApV early and remain associated with the
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Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen of humans and animals. The A. phagocytophium-occupied vacuole (ApV) is a critical host-pathogen interface. Here, we report that the intermediate filaments, keratin and vimentin, assemble on the ApV early and remain associated with the ApV throughout infection. Microtubules localize to the ApV to a lesser extent. Vimentin, keratin-8, and keratin-18 but not tubulin expression is upregulated in A. phagocytophilum infected cells. SUMO-2/3 but not SUMO-1 colocalizes with vimentin filaments that surround ApVs. PolySUMOylation of vimentin by SUMO-2/3 but not SUMO-1 decreases vimentin solubility. Consistent with this, more vimentin exists in an insoluble state in A. phagocytophilum infected cells than in uninfected cells. Knocking down the SUMO-conjugating enzyme, Ubc9, abrogates vimentin assembly at the ApV but has no effect on the bacterial load. Bacterial protein synthesis is dispensable for maintaining vimentin and SUMO-2/3 at the ApV. Withaferin A, which inhibits soluble vimentin, reduces vimentin recruitment to the ApV, optimal ApV formation, and the bacterial load when administered prior to infection but is ineffective once vimentin has assembled on the ApV. Thus, A. phagocytophilum modulates cytoskeletal component expression and co-opts polySUMOylated vimentin to aid construction of its vacuolar niche and promote optimal survival. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Comparative Pathogenesis of Cancers in Animals and Humans
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(3), 24; doi:10.3390/vetsci3030024 -
Open AccessArticle
An Evaluation of Quantitative PCR Assays (TaqMan® and SYBR Green) for the Detection of Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis, and a Novel Fluorescent-ITS1-PCR Capillary Electrophoresis Method for Genotyping B. bovis Isolates
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(3), 23; doi:10.3390/vetsci3030023 -
Abstract
Babesia spp. are tick-transmitted haemoparasites causing tick fever in cattle. In Australia, economic losses to the cattle industry from tick fever are estimated at AUD$26 Million per annum. If animals recover from these infections, they become immune carriers. Here we describe a novel
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Babesia spp. are tick-transmitted haemoparasites causing tick fever in cattle. In Australia, economic losses to the cattle industry from tick fever are estimated at AUD$26 Million per annum. If animals recover from these infections, they become immune carriers. Here we describe a novel multiplex TaqMan qPCR targeting cytochrome b genes for the identification of Babesia spp. The assay shows high sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility, and allows quantification of parasite DNA from Babesia bovis and B. bigemina compared to standard PCR assays. A previously published cytochrome b SYBR Green qPCR was also tested in this study, showing slightly higher sensitivity than the Taqman qPCRs but requires melting curve analysis post-PCR to confirm specificity. The SYBR Green assays were further evaluated using both diagnostic submissions and vaccinated cattle (at 7, 9, 11 and 14 days post-inoculation) showed that B. bigemina can be detected more frequently than B. bovis. Due to fewer circulating parasites, B. bovis detection in carrier animals requires higher DNA input. Preliminary data for a novel fluorescent PCR genotyping based on the Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 region to detect vaccine and field alleles of B. bovis are described. This assay is capable of detecting vaccine and novel field isolate alleles in a single sample. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Forced-Air Warming Provides Better Control of Body Temperature in Porcine Surgical Patients
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(3), 22; doi:10.3390/vetsci3030022 -
Abstract
Background: Maintaining normothermia during porcine surgery is critical in ensuring subject welfare and recovery, reducing the risk of immune system compromise and surgical-site infection that can result from hypothermia. In humans, various methods of patient heating have been demonstrated to be useful, but
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Background: Maintaining normothermia during porcine surgery is critical in ensuring subject welfare and recovery, reducing the risk of immune system compromise and surgical-site infection that can result from hypothermia. In humans, various methods of patient heating have been demonstrated to be useful, but less evaluation has been performed in techniques to prevent hypothermia perioperatively in pigs. Methods: We compared body temperature regulation during surgery before and after modification of the ambient temperature of the operating laboratories. Three different methods of heating were then compared; a standard circulating water mattress, a resistive fabric blanket, and a forced hot air system. The primary measure was percentage of temperature readings outside a specification range of 36.7–40.0 °C. Results: Tighter control of the ambient temperature while using a circulating water mattress reduced the occurrence of out-of-specification body temperature readings from 20.8% to 5.0%, with most of these the result of hypothermia. Use of a resistive fabric blanket further reduced out-of-specification readings to 1.5%, with a slight increase in the occurrence of hyperthermia. Use of a forced air system reduced out-of-specification readings to less 0.1%. Conclusions: Maintenance of normothermia perioperatively in pig can be improved by tightly controlling ambient temperatures. Use of a resistive blanket or a forced air system can lead to better control than a circulating water mattress, with the forced air system providing a faster response to temperature variations and less chance of hyperthermia. Full article
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