Open AccessArticle
Using Bronson Equation to Accurately Predict the Dog Brain Weight Based on Body Weight Parameter
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 36; doi:10.3390/vetsci3040036 -
Abstract
The study used 69 brains (n = 69) from adult dog cadavers, divided by their skull type into three groups, brachi (B), dolicho (D) and mesaticephalic (M) (n = 23 each), and aimed: (1) to determine whether the Bronson equation may
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The study used 69 brains (n = 69) from adult dog cadavers, divided by their skull type into three groups, brachi (B), dolicho (D) and mesaticephalic (M) (n = 23 each), and aimed: (1) to determine whether the Bronson equation may be applied, without reservation, to estimate brain weight (BW) in brachy (B), dolicho (D), and mesaticephalic (M) dog breeds; and (2) to evaluate which breeds are more closely related to each other in an evolutionary scenario. All subjects were identified by sex, age, breed, and body weight (bw). An oscillating saw was used for a circumferential craniotomy to open the skulls; the brains were removed and weighed using a digital scale. For statistical analysis, p-values < 0.05 were considered significant. The work demonstrated a strong relationship between the observed and predicted BW by using the Bronson equation. It was possible to hypothesize that groups B and D present a greater encephalization level than M breeds, that B and D dog breeds are more closely related to each other than to M, and from the three groups, the D individuals presented the highest brain mass mean. Full article
Open AccessCommunication
Exfoliative Endometrial Cytology in Embryo Donor Cows—Comparison of Sampling Localizations for the Diagnosis of Subclinical Endometritis
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 35; doi:10.3390/vetsci3040035 -
Abstract
Subclinical endometritis has a major effect on the reproductive performance of dairy cows and also on the success of embryo collection. Thus it is important to minimize the number of false-negative diagnoses. In order to evaluate the question of whether or not a
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Subclinical endometritis has a major effect on the reproductive performance of dairy cows and also on the success of embryo collection. Thus it is important to minimize the number of false-negative diagnoses. In order to evaluate the question of whether or not a single cytobrush sample is representative of the whole endometrium, 53 German Holstein embryo donor cows in the northwest of Germany were examined via the cytobrush method at three different localizations of the uterus: the uterine body about 0.5 cm cranial of the cervical canal and both uterine horns about 1.5 cm cranial of the bifurcation. Although the mean percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils at the three locations is not significantly different (p = 0.64), the individual variations lead to the conclusion that more than one sample of the endometrium should be taken into account when diagnosing subclinical endometritis in embryo donor cows. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Fluorescent Protein Expressing Rickettsia buchneri and Rickettsia peacockii for Tracking Symbiont-Tick Cell Interactions
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 34; doi:10.3390/vetsci3040034 -
Abstract
Rickettsiae of indeterminate pathogenicity are widely associated with ticks. The presence of these endosymbionts can confound a One Health approach to combatting tick-borne diseases. Genomic analyses of symbiotic rickettsiae have revealed that they harbor mutations in gene coding for proteins involved in rickettsial
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Rickettsiae of indeterminate pathogenicity are widely associated with ticks. The presence of these endosymbionts can confound a One Health approach to combatting tick-borne diseases. Genomic analyses of symbiotic rickettsiae have revealed that they harbor mutations in gene coding for proteins involved in rickettsial pathogenicity and motility. We have isolated and characterized two rickettsial symbionts—Rickettsia peacockii and R. buchneri—both from ticks using tick cell cultures. To better track these enigmatic rickettsiae in ticks and at the tick-mammal interface we transformed the rickettsiae to express fluorescent proteins using shuttle vectors based on rickettsial plasmids or a transposition system driving insertional mutagenesis. Fluorescent protein expressing R. buchneri and R. peacockii will enable us to elucidate their interactions with tick and mammalian cells, and track their location and movement within individual cells, vector ticks, and host animals. Full article
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Open AccessComment
Regarding Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever in the Americas; Some Historical Aspects of a Forgotten Disease in Colombia
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 33; doi:10.3390/vetsci3040033 -
Abstract In the first decades of the 20th century, scientific papers were published suggesting the presence of Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever in Colombia. As a contribution, we present some historical aspects referring to this topic. Full article
Open AccessReview
The Use of Recombinant Feline Interferon Omega Therapy as an Immune-Modulator in Cats Naturally Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus: New Perspectives
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 32; doi:10.3390/vetsci3040032 -
Abstract
Type I interferons (IFNs) are well-known cytokines that, among their main functions, are key components of the host immune response against viral infections. Due to its immune modulation properties, they are commonly used in the therapeutic approach of various retroviral infections, namely human
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Type I interferons (IFNs) are well-known cytokines that, among their main functions, are key components of the host immune response against viral infections. Due to its immune modulation properties, they are commonly used in the therapeutic approach of various retroviral infections, namely human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). In HIV infection, it has been shown that IFN therapy limits early viral replication, particularly useful on post-exposure prophylaxis. In veterinary medicine, recombinant feline interferon omega (rFeIFN-ω) was the first interferon licensed for use in cats. Several studies have recently shown that this compound seems to stimulate the innate immunity, decreasing clinical signs and co-infections in naturally FIV-infected cats. More than summarizing the main conclusions about rFeIFN-ω in cats, this review emphasizes the immune-modulation properties of IFN therapy, opening new perspectives for its use in retroviral infections. Either in FIV-infected cats or in HIV individuals, type I IFNs seem to induce an innate immune-modulation and should not be overlooked as a therapeutic option in retroviral infections. Full article
Open AccessReview
Intestinal Organoids—Current and Future Applications
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 31; doi:10.3390/vetsci3040031 -
Abstract
Recent technical advances in the stem cell field have enabled the in vitro generation of complex structures resembling whole organs termed organoids. Most of these approaches employ culture systems that allow stem cell-derived or tissue progenitor cells to self-organize into three-dimensional (3D)-structures. Since
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Recent technical advances in the stem cell field have enabled the in vitro generation of complex structures resembling whole organs termed organoids. Most of these approaches employ culture systems that allow stem cell-derived or tissue progenitor cells to self-organize into three-dimensional (3D)-structures. Since organoids can be grown from different species (human, mouse, cat, dog), organs (intestine, kidney, brain, liver), and from patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells, they create significant prospects for modelling development and diseases, for toxicology and drug discovery studies, and in the field of regenerative medicine. Here, we report on intestinal stem cells, organoid culture, organoid disease modeling, transplantation, specifically covering the current and future uses of this exciting new insight model to the field of veterinary medicine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Assessment of Epidemiology Capacity in a One Health Team at the Provincial Level in Thailand
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 30; doi:10.3390/vetsci3040030 -
Abstract
A multi-sectoral core epidemiology capacity assessment was conducted in provinces that implemented One Health services in order to assess the efficacy of a One Health approach in Thailand. In order to conduct the assessment, four provinces were randomly selected as a study group
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A multi-sectoral core epidemiology capacity assessment was conducted in provinces that implemented One Health services in order to assess the efficacy of a One Health approach in Thailand. In order to conduct the assessment, four provinces were randomly selected as a study group from a total of 19 Thai provinces that are currently using a One Health approach. As a control group, four additional provinces that never implemented a One Health approach were also sampled. The provincial officers were interviewed on the epidemiologic capacity of their respective provinces. The average score of epidemiologic capacity in the provinces implementing the One Health approach was 66.45%, while the provinces that did not implement this approach earned a score of 54.61%. The epidemiologic capacity of surveillance systems in provinces that utilized the One Health approach earned higher scores in comparison to provinces that did not implement the approach (75.00% vs. 53.13%, p-value 0.13). Although none of the capacity evaluations showed significant differences between the two groups, we found evidence that provinces implementing the One Health approach gained higher scores in both surveillance and outbreak investigation capacities. This may be explained by more efficient capacity when using a One Health approach, specifically in preventing, protecting, and responding to threats in local communities. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Characterization of Haptoglobin Isotype in Milk of Mastitis-Affected Cows
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 29; doi:10.3390/vetsci3040029 -
Abstract
Haptoglobin is a major acute phase protein in bovines and reportedly increases in serum and milk whey during mastitis, highlighting its potential as a diagnostic biomarker. Since haptoglobin is known to undergo tissue specific glycosylation resulting in different isoforms, this study was undertaken
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Haptoglobin is a major acute phase protein in bovines and reportedly increases in serum and milk whey during mastitis, highlighting its potential as a diagnostic biomarker. Since haptoglobin is known to undergo tissue specific glycosylation resulting in different isoforms, this study was undertaken to characterize the isoforms of haptoglobin. Milk whey fraction and serum obtained from animals with or without clinical mastitis in Puducherry, India, were subjected to SDS-PAGE followed by western blot and immuno-detection of haptoglobin protein. All subunits (β, α1 and α2) of haptoglobin protein were detected in serum sample obtained from clinical cases. However, only the β-subunit was detected in milk whey fraction obtained from the respective animals. Similar results were observed with milk whey fractions from subclinical cases indicating difference in isoform of haptoglobin detected in milk whey from serum. This was further supported by RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis of haptoglobin gene (Hp) confirming the tissue specific origin of haptoglobin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microscopic Visualisation of Zoonotic Arbovirus Replication in Tick Cell and Organ Cultures Using Semliki Forest Virus Reporter Systems
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 28; doi:10.3390/vetsci3040028 -
Abstract
Ticks are vectors and reservoirs of many arboviruses pathogenic for humans or domestic animals; in addition, during bloodfeeding they can acquire and harbour pathogenic arboviruses normally transmitted by other arthropods such as mosquitoes. Tick cell and organ cultures provide convenient tools for propagation
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Ticks are vectors and reservoirs of many arboviruses pathogenic for humans or domestic animals; in addition, during bloodfeeding they can acquire and harbour pathogenic arboviruses normally transmitted by other arthropods such as mosquitoes. Tick cell and organ cultures provide convenient tools for propagation and study of arboviruses, both tick-borne and insect-borne, enabling elucidation of virus-tick cell interaction and yielding insight into the mechanisms behind vector competence and reservoir potential for different arbovirus species. The mosquito-borne zoonotic alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV), which replicates well in tick cells, has been isolated from Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, and Amblyomma spp. ticks removed from mammalian hosts in East Africa; however nothing is known about any possible role of ticks in SFV epidemiology. Here we present a light and electron microscopic study of SFV infecting cell lines and organ cultures derived from African Rhipicephalus spp. ticks. As well as demonstrating the applicability of these culture systems for studying virus-vector interactions, we provide preliminary evidence to support the hypothesis that SFV is not normally transmitted by ticks because the virus does not infect midgut cells. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Deviant Behavior: Tick-Borne Pathogens and Inflammasome Signaling
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 27; doi:10.3390/vetsci3040027 -
Abstract
In the face of an assault, host cells mount an immediate response orchestrated by innate immunity. Two of the best described innate immune signaling networks are the Toll- and the Nod-like receptor pathways. Extensive work has been done characterizing both signaling cascades with
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In the face of an assault, host cells mount an immediate response orchestrated by innate immunity. Two of the best described innate immune signaling networks are the Toll- and the Nod-like receptor pathways. Extensive work has been done characterizing both signaling cascades with several recent advances on the forefront of inflammasome biology. In this review, we will discuss how more commonly-studied pathogens differ from tick-transmitted microbes in the context of Nod-like receptor signaling and inflammasome formation. Because pathogens transmitted by ticks have unique characteristics, we offer the opinion that these microbes can be used to uncover novel principles of Nod-like receptor biology. Full article
Open AccessReview
Parallelisms and Contrasts in the Diverse Ecologies of the Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi Complexes of Bacteria in the Far Western United States
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 26; doi:10.3390/vetsci3040026 -
Abstract
Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi are two tick-borne bacteria that cause disease in people and animals. For each of these bacteria, there is a complex of closely related genospecies and/or strains that are genetically distinct and have been shown through both observational and
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Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi are two tick-borne bacteria that cause disease in people and animals. For each of these bacteria, there is a complex of closely related genospecies and/or strains that are genetically distinct and have been shown through both observational and experimental studies to have different host tropisms. In this review we compare the known ecologies of these two bacterial complexes in the far western USA and find remarkable similarities, which will help us understand evolutionary histories and coadaptation among vertebrate host, tick vector, and bacteria. For both complexes, sensu stricto genospecies (those that infect humans) share a similar geographic range, are vectored mainly by ticks in the Ixodes ricinus-complex, utilize mainly white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) as a reservoir in the eastern USA and tree squirrels in the far west, and tend to be generalists, infecting a wider variety of vertebrate host species. Other sensu lato genospecies within each complex are generally more specialized, occurring often in local enzootic cycles within a narrow range of vertebrate hosts and specialized vector species. We suggest that these similar ecologies may have arisen through utilization of a generalist tick species as a vector, resulting in a potentially more virulent generalist pathogen that spills over into humans, vs. utilization of a specialized tick vector on a particular vertebrate host species, promoting microbe specialization. Such tight host-vector-pathogen coupling could also facilitate high enzootic prevalence and the evolution of host immune-tolerance and bacterial avirulence. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Occupied Vacuole Interactions with the Host Cell Cytoskeleton
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(3), 25; doi:10.3390/vetsci3030025 -
Abstract
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen of humans and animals. The A. phagocytophium-occupied vacuole (ApV) is a critical host-pathogen interface. Here, we report that the intermediate filaments, keratin and vimentin, assemble on the ApV early and remain associated with the
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Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen of humans and animals. The A. phagocytophium-occupied vacuole (ApV) is a critical host-pathogen interface. Here, we report that the intermediate filaments, keratin and vimentin, assemble on the ApV early and remain associated with the ApV throughout infection. Microtubules localize to the ApV to a lesser extent. Vimentin, keratin-8, and keratin-18 but not tubulin expression is upregulated in A. phagocytophilum infected cells. SUMO-2/3 but not SUMO-1 colocalizes with vimentin filaments that surround ApVs. PolySUMOylation of vimentin by SUMO-2/3 but not SUMO-1 decreases vimentin solubility. Consistent with this, more vimentin exists in an insoluble state in A. phagocytophilum infected cells than in uninfected cells. Knocking down the SUMO-conjugating enzyme, Ubc9, abrogates vimentin assembly at the ApV but has no effect on the bacterial load. Bacterial protein synthesis is dispensable for maintaining vimentin and SUMO-2/3 at the ApV. Withaferin A, which inhibits soluble vimentin, reduces vimentin recruitment to the ApV, optimal ApV formation, and the bacterial load when administered prior to infection but is ineffective once vimentin has assembled on the ApV. Thus, A. phagocytophilum modulates cytoskeletal component expression and co-opts polySUMOylated vimentin to aid construction of its vacuolar niche and promote optimal survival. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Comparative Pathogenesis of Cancers in Animals and Humans
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(3), 24; doi:10.3390/vetsci3030024 -
Open AccessArticle
An Evaluation of Quantitative PCR Assays (TaqMan® and SYBR Green) for the Detection of Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis, and a Novel Fluorescent-ITS1-PCR Capillary Electrophoresis Method for Genotyping B. bovis Isolates
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(3), 23; doi:10.3390/vetsci3030023 -
Abstract
Babesia spp. are tick-transmitted haemoparasites causing tick fever in cattle. In Australia, economic losses to the cattle industry from tick fever are estimated at AUD$26 Million per annum. If animals recover from these infections, they become immune carriers. Here we describe a novel
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Babesia spp. are tick-transmitted haemoparasites causing tick fever in cattle. In Australia, economic losses to the cattle industry from tick fever are estimated at AUD$26 Million per annum. If animals recover from these infections, they become immune carriers. Here we describe a novel multiplex TaqMan qPCR targeting cytochrome b genes for the identification of Babesia spp. The assay shows high sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility, and allows quantification of parasite DNA from Babesia bovis and B. bigemina compared to standard PCR assays. A previously published cytochrome b SYBR Green qPCR was also tested in this study, showing slightly higher sensitivity than the Taqman qPCRs but requires melting curve analysis post-PCR to confirm specificity. The SYBR Green assays were further evaluated using both diagnostic submissions and vaccinated cattle (at 7, 9, 11 and 14 days post-inoculation) showed that B. bigemina can be detected more frequently than B. bovis. Due to fewer circulating parasites, B. bovis detection in carrier animals requires higher DNA input. Preliminary data for a novel fluorescent PCR genotyping based on the Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 region to detect vaccine and field alleles of B. bovis are described. This assay is capable of detecting vaccine and novel field isolate alleles in a single sample. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Forced-Air Warming Provides Better Control of Body Temperature in Porcine Surgical Patients
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(3), 22; doi:10.3390/vetsci3030022 -
Abstract
Background: Maintaining normothermia during porcine surgery is critical in ensuring subject welfare and recovery, reducing the risk of immune system compromise and surgical-site infection that can result from hypothermia. In humans, various methods of patient heating have been demonstrated to be useful, but
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Background: Maintaining normothermia during porcine surgery is critical in ensuring subject welfare and recovery, reducing the risk of immune system compromise and surgical-site infection that can result from hypothermia. In humans, various methods of patient heating have been demonstrated to be useful, but less evaluation has been performed in techniques to prevent hypothermia perioperatively in pigs. Methods: We compared body temperature regulation during surgery before and after modification of the ambient temperature of the operating laboratories. Three different methods of heating were then compared; a standard circulating water mattress, a resistive fabric blanket, and a forced hot air system. The primary measure was percentage of temperature readings outside a specification range of 36.7–40.0 °C. Results: Tighter control of the ambient temperature while using a circulating water mattress reduced the occurrence of out-of-specification body temperature readings from 20.8% to 5.0%, with most of these the result of hypothermia. Use of a resistive fabric blanket further reduced out-of-specification readings to 1.5%, with a slight increase in the occurrence of hyperthermia. Use of a forced air system reduced out-of-specification readings to less 0.1%. Conclusions: Maintenance of normothermia perioperatively in pig can be improved by tightly controlling ambient temperatures. Use of a resistive blanket or a forced air system can lead to better control than a circulating water mattress, with the forced air system providing a faster response to temperature variations and less chance of hyperthermia. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Genomic Tools and Animal Health
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(3), 21; doi:10.3390/vetsci3030021 -
Abstract
Animals have been selected to improve their productivity in order to increase the profitability to the producer. In this scenario, not much attention was given to health traits. As a consequence of that, selection was made for animals with higher production and a
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Animals have been selected to improve their productivity in order to increase the profitability to the producer. In this scenario, not much attention was given to health traits. As a consequence of that, selection was made for animals with higher production and a shortened productive life. In addition to that, the intense production system used in livestock has forced animals to be exposed to higher pathogen loads, therefore predisposing them to infections. Infectious diseases are known to be caused by micro-organisms that are able to infect and colonize the host, affecting their physiological functions and causing problems in their production and on animal welfare. Even with the best management practices, diseases are still the most important cause of economic losses in the animal industry. In this review article we have addressed the new tools that could be used to select animals to better cope with diseases and pathogens. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Ehrlichioses: An Important One Health Opportunity
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(3), 20; doi:10.3390/vetsci3030020 -
Abstract
Ehrlichioses are caused by obligately intracellular bacteria that are maintained subclinically in a persistently infected vertebrate host and a tick vector. The most severe life-threatening illnesses, such as human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis and heartwater, occur in incidental hosts. Ehrlichia have a developmental cycle involving
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Ehrlichioses are caused by obligately intracellular bacteria that are maintained subclinically in a persistently infected vertebrate host and a tick vector. The most severe life-threatening illnesses, such as human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis and heartwater, occur in incidental hosts. Ehrlichia have a developmental cycle involving an infectious, nonreplicating, dense core cell and a noninfectious, replicating reticulate cell. Ehrlichiae secrete proteins that bind to host cytoplasmic proteins and nuclear chromatin, manipulating the host cell environment to their advantage. Severe disease in immunocompetent hosts is mediated in large part by immunologic and inflammatory mechanisms, including overproduction of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), which is produced by CD8 T lymphocytes, and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Immune components that contribute to control of ehrlichial infection include CD4 and CD8 T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-12, and antibodies. Some immune components, such as TNF-α, perforin, and CD8 T cells, play both pathogenic and protective roles. In contrast with the immunocompetent host, which may die with few detectable organisms owing to the overly strong immune response, immunodeficient hosts die with overwhelming infection and large quantities of organisms in the tissues. Vaccine development is challenging because of antigenic diversity of E. ruminantium, the necessity of avoiding an immunopathologic response, and incomplete knowledge of the protective antigens. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Pathogen and Host Response Dynamics in a Mouse Model of Borrelia hermsii Relapsing Fever
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(3), 19; doi:10.3390/vetsci3030019 -
Abstract
Most Borrelia species that cause tick-borne relapsing fever utilize rodents as their natural reservoirs, and for decades laboratory-bred rodents have served as informative experimental models for the disease. However, while there has much progress in understanding the pathogenetic mechanisms, including antigenic variation, of
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Most Borrelia species that cause tick-borne relapsing fever utilize rodents as their natural reservoirs, and for decades laboratory-bred rodents have served as informative experimental models for the disease. However, while there has much progress in understanding the pathogenetic mechanisms, including antigenic variation, of the pathogen, the host side of the equation has been neglected. Using different approaches, we studied, in immunocompetent inbred mice, the dynamics of infection with and host responses to North American relapsing fever agent B. hermsii. The spirochete’s generation time in blood of infected mice was between 4–5 h and, after a delay, was matched in rate by the increase of specific agglutinating antibodies in response to the infection. After initiating serotype cells were cleared by antibodies, the surviving spirochetes were a different serotype and, as a population, grew more slowly. The retardation was attributable to the host response and not an inherently slower growth rate. The innate responses at infection peak and immediate aftermath were characterized by elevations of both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Immunodeficient mice had higher spirochete burdens and severe anemia, which was accounted for by aggregation of erythrocytes by spirochetes and their partially reversible sequestration in greatly enlarged spleens and elsewhere. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
p16, pRb, and p53 in Feline Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(3), 18; doi:10.3390/vetsci3030018 -
Abstract
Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC) is a highly aggressive head and neck cancer in cats, but the molecular pathogenesis of this cancer is still uncertain. In this study, p16, p53, and pRb proteins were detected and quantified by immunohistochemistry in forty-three FOSCC
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Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC) is a highly aggressive head and neck cancer in cats, but the molecular pathogenesis of this cancer is still uncertain. In this study, p16, p53, and pRb proteins were detected and quantified by immunohistochemistry in forty-three FOSCC primary tumors and three FOSCC xenografts. p16 mRNA levels were also measured in three FOSCC cell lines (SCCF1, F2, and F3), which were consistent with their p16 immunoreactivity. Feline SCCF1 cells had very high levels of p16 protein and mRNA (55-fold greater) compared to SCCF2 and F3. A partial feline p16 cDNA sequence was amplified and sequenced. The average age of cats with FOSCC with high p16 immunoreactivity was significantly lower than the average age in the low p16 group. Eighteen of 43 (42%) FOSCCs had low p16 intensity, while 6/43 (14%) had high p16 immunoreactivity. Feline papillomavirus L1 (major capsid) DNA was not detected in the SCC cell lines or the FOSCCs with high p16 immunostaining. Five of 6 (83%) of the high p16 FOSCC had low p53, but only 1/6 (17%) had low pRb immunoreactivity. In summary, the staining pattern of p16, p53, and pRb in FOSCC was different from human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. The majority of FOSCCs have low p16 immunostaining intensity, therefore, inactivation of CDKN2A is suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis of FOSCC. A subset of FOSCCs had increased p16 protein, which supports an alternate pathogenesis of cancer in these cats. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Cat Mammary Tumors: Genetic Models for the Human Counterpart
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(3), 17; doi:10.3390/vetsci3030017 -
Abstract
The records are not clear, but Man has been sheltering the cat inside his home for over 12,000 years. The close proximity of this companion animal, however, goes beyond sharing the same roof; it extends to the great similarity found at the cellular
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The records are not clear, but Man has been sheltering the cat inside his home for over 12,000 years. The close proximity of this companion animal, however, goes beyond sharing the same roof; it extends to the great similarity found at the cellular and molecular levels. Researchers have found a striking resemblance between subtypes of feline mammary tumors and their human counterparts that goes from the genes to the pathways involved in cancer initiation and progression. Spontaneous cat mammary pre-invasive intraepithelial lesions (hyperplasias and neoplasias) and malignant lesions seem to share a wide repertoire of molecular features with their human counterparts. In the present review, we tried to compile all the genetics aspects published (i.e., chromosomal alterations, critical cancer genes and their expression) regarding cat mammary tumors, which support the cat as a valuable alternative in vitro cell and animal model (i.e., cat mammary cell lines and the spontaneous tumors, respectively), but also to present a critical point of view of some of the issues that really need to be investigated in future research. Full article