Open AccessReview
Repurposing Plant Virus Nanoparticles
Vaccines 2018, 6(1), 11; doi:10.3390/vaccines6010011 -
Abstract
Plants have been explored for many years as inexpensive and versatile platforms for the generation of vaccines and other biopharmaceuticals. Plant viruses have also been engineered to either express subunit vaccines or act as epitope presentation systems. Both icosahedral and helical, filamentous-shaped plant
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Plants have been explored for many years as inexpensive and versatile platforms for the generation of vaccines and other biopharmaceuticals. Plant viruses have also been engineered to either express subunit vaccines or act as epitope presentation systems. Both icosahedral and helical, filamentous-shaped plant viruses have been used for these purposes. More recently, plant viruses have been utilized as nanoparticles to transport drugs and active molecules into cancer cells. The following review describes the use of both icosahedral and helical plant viruses in a variety of new functions against cancer. The review illustrates the breadth of variation among different plant virus nanoparticles and how this impacts the immune response. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Virus-Like-Vaccines against HIV
Vaccines 2018, 6(1), 10; doi:10.3390/vaccines6010010 -
Abstract
Protection against chronic infections has necessitated the development of ever-more potent vaccination tools. HIV seems to be the most challenging foe, with a remarkable, poorly immunogenic and fragile surface glycoprotein and the ability to overpower the cell immune system. Virus-like-particle (VLP) vaccines have
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Protection against chronic infections has necessitated the development of ever-more potent vaccination tools. HIV seems to be the most challenging foe, with a remarkable, poorly immunogenic and fragile surface glycoprotein and the ability to overpower the cell immune system. Virus-like-particle (VLP) vaccines have emerged as potent inducers of antibody and helper T cell responses, while replication-deficient viral vectors have yielded potent cytotoxic T cell responses. Here, we review the emerging concept of merging these two technologies into virus-like-vaccines (VLVs) for the targeting of HIV. Such vaccines are immunologically perceived as viruses, as they infect cells and produce VLPs in situ, but they only resemble viruses, as the replication defective vectors and VLPs cannot propagate an infection. The inherent safety of such a platform, despite robust particle production, is a distinct advantage over live-attenuated vaccines that must balance safety and immunogenicity. Previous studies have delivered VLVs encoded in modified Vaccinia Ankara vectors and we have developed the concept into a single-reading adenovirus-based technology capable of eliciting robust CD8+ and CD4+ T cells responses and trimer binding antibody responses. Such vaccines offer the potential to display the naturally produced immunogen directly and induce an integrated humoral and cellular immune response. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Radiation and Anti-Cancer Vaccines: A Winning Combination
Vaccines 2018, 6(1), 9; doi:10.3390/vaccines6010009 -
Abstract
The emerging combination of radiation therapy with vaccines is a promising new treatment plan in the fight against cancer. While many cancer vaccines such as MUC1, p53 CpG oligodeoxynucleotide, and SOX2 may be great candidates for antitumor vaccination, there still remain many investigations
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The emerging combination of radiation therapy with vaccines is a promising new treatment plan in the fight against cancer. While many cancer vaccines such as MUC1, p53 CpG oligodeoxynucleotide, and SOX2 may be great candidates for antitumor vaccination, there still remain many investigations to be done into possible vaccine combinations. One fruitful partnership that has emerged are anti-tumor vaccines in combination with radiation. Radiation therapy was previously thought to be only a tool for directly or indirectly damaging DNA and therefore causing cancer cell death. Now, with much preclinical and clinical data, radiation has taken on the role of an in situ vaccine. With both cancer vaccines and radiation at our disposal, more and more studies are looking to combining vaccine types such as toll-like receptors, viral components, dendritic-cell-based, and subunit vaccines with radiation. While the outcomes of these combinatory efforts are promising, there is still much work to be covered. This review sheds light on the current state of affairs in cancer vaccines and how radiation will bring its story into the future. Full article
Open AccessReview
Challenges and Achievements in Prevention and Treatment of Smallpox
Vaccines 2018, 6(1), 8; doi:10.3390/vaccines6010008 -
Abstract
Declaration of smallpox eradication by the WHO in 1980 led to discontinuation of the worldwide vaccination campaign. The increasing percentage of unvaccinated individuals, the existence of its causative infectious agent variola virus (VARV), and the recent synthetic achievements increase the threat of intentional
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Declaration of smallpox eradication by the WHO in 1980 led to discontinuation of the worldwide vaccination campaign. The increasing percentage of unvaccinated individuals, the existence of its causative infectious agent variola virus (VARV), and the recent synthetic achievements increase the threat of intentional or accidental release and reemergence of smallpox. Control of smallpox would require an emergency vaccination campaign, as no other protective measure has been approved to achieve eradication and ensure worldwide protection. Experimental data in surrogate animal models support the assumption, based on anecdotal, uncontrolled historical data, that vaccination up to 4 days postexposure confers effective protection. The long incubation period, and the uncertainty of the exposure status in the surrounding population, call for the development and evaluation of safe and effective methods enabling extension of the therapeutic window, and to reduce the disease manifestations and vaccine adverse reactions. To achieve these goals, we need to evaluate the efficacy of novel and already licensed vaccines as a sole treatment, or in conjunction with immune modulators and antiviral drugs. In this review, we address the available data, recent achievements, and open questions. Full article
Open AccessReview
Development of Zika Virus Vaccines
Vaccines 2018, 6(1), 7; doi:10.3390/vaccines6010007 -
Abstract
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged as a global threat following the most recent outbreak in Brazil in 2015. ZIKV infection of pregnant women is associated with fetal abnormalities such as microcephaly, and infection of adults can lead to Guillain–Barré
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Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged as a global threat following the most recent outbreak in Brazil in 2015. ZIKV infection of pregnant women is associated with fetal abnormalities such as microcephaly, and infection of adults can lead to Guillain–Barré syndrome, an autoimmune disease characterized by neurological deficits. Although there are currently licensed vaccines for other flaviviruses, there remains an urgent need for preventative vaccines against ZIKV infection. Herein we describe the current efforts to accelerate the development of ZIKV vaccines using various platforms, including live attenuated virus, inactivated virus, DNA and RNA, viral vectors, and in silico-predicted immunogenic viral epitopes. Many of these approaches have leveraged lessons learned from past experience with Dengue and other flavivirus vaccines. Full article
Open AccessReview
Interaction between Hepatitis B Virus and Toll-Like Receptors: Current Status and Potential Therapeutic Use for Chronic Hepatitis B
Vaccines 2018, 6(1), 6; doi:10.3390/vaccines6010006 -
Abstract
Immune defense against infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is complex and involves both host innate and adaptive immune systems. It is well accepted that the development of sufficient HBV-specific T cell and B cell responses are required for controlling an HBV
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Immune defense against infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is complex and involves both host innate and adaptive immune systems. It is well accepted that the development of sufficient HBV-specific T cell and B cell responses are required for controlling an HBV infection. However, the contribution of innate immunity to removing HBV has been explored in recent years. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are recognized as the first line of antiviral immunity because they initiate intracellular signaling pathways to induce antiviral mediators such as interferons (IFNs) and other cytokines. Recent studies show that the activation of TLR-mediated signaling pathways results in a suppression of HBV replication in vitro and in vivo. However, HBV has also evolved strategies to counter TLR responses including the suppression of TLR expression and the blockage of downstream signaling pathways. Antiviral treatment in chronic HBV-infected patients leads to an upregulation of TLR expression and the restoration of its innate antiviral functions. Thus, TLR activation may serve as an additional immunotherapeutic option for treating chronic HBV infection in combination with antiviral treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccines from Biosafe Surrogates Prevent Acute Lethal Glanders in Mice
Vaccines 2018, 6(1), 5; doi:10.3390/vaccines6010005 -
Abstract
Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted Gram-negative mammalian pathogen that causes the severe disease glanders. Glanders can manifest as a rapid acute progression or a chronic debilitating syndrome primarily affecting solipeds and humans in close association with infected animals. In USA, B. mallei is
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Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted Gram-negative mammalian pathogen that causes the severe disease glanders. Glanders can manifest as a rapid acute progression or a chronic debilitating syndrome primarily affecting solipeds and humans in close association with infected animals. In USA, B. mallei is classified as one of the most important bacterial biothreat agents. Presently, there is no licensed glanders vaccine available for humans or animals. In this work, outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) were isolated from three attenuated biosafe bacterial strains, Burkholderia pseudomallei Bp82, B. thailandensis E555, and B. thailandensis TxDOH and used to vaccinate mice. B. thailandensis OMVs induced significantly higher antibody responses that were investigated. B. mallei specific serum antibody responses were of higher magnitude in mice vaccinated with B. thailandensis OMVs compared to levels in mice vaccinated with B. pseudomallei OMVs. OMVs derived from biosafe strains protected mice from acute lethal glanders with vesicles from the two B. thailandensis strains affording significant protection (>90%) up to 35 days post-infection with some up to 60 days. Organ loads from 35-day survivors indicated bacteria colonization of the lungs, liver, and spleen while those from 60 days had high CFUs in the spleens. The highest antibody producing vaccine (B. thailandensis E555 OMVs) also protected C57BL/6 mice from acute inhalational glanders with evidence of full protection. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Vaccines in 2017
Vaccines 2018, 6(1), 4; doi:10.3390/vaccines6010004 -
Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Vaccines maintains high quality standards for its published papers.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Influenza Vaccination Rates Among Parents and Health Care Personnel in a German Neonatology Department
Vaccines 2018, 6(1), 3; doi:10.3390/vaccines6010003 -
Abstract
The influenza vaccination is recommended for all German pregnant women and health care personnel (HCP). We are the first to publish vaccination rates of mothers of hospitalized newborns and HCP in neonatal units. Between September 2016 and March 2017, data were collected in
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The influenza vaccination is recommended for all German pregnant women and health care personnel (HCP). We are the first to publish vaccination rates of mothers of hospitalized newborns and HCP in neonatal units. Between September 2016 and March 2017, data were collected in our level-III neonatology department in this descriptive multidisciplinary study, using an anonymous questionnaire. As a result, 513 persons were asked to participate, including 330 parents and 183 HCP. We received an 80.3% (412/513) response rate, 87.3% (288/330), and 67.8% (124/183) from parents and HCP, respectively. Ten percent (16/160) of mothers and 4.7% (6/127) of fathers had been vaccinated in 2016–2017 and 54.4% (87/160) mothers and 52.2% (66/127) fathers ever in their lifetime. In 2016–2017, 51.2% (21/41) of physicians had been vaccinated, 25.5% (14/55) of nurses, and 50.0% (14/28) of other staff members. When comparing those who had more than five influenza vaccinations in their life time, physicians were at 43.9% (18/41) versus nurses at 10.9% (6/55) (p < 0.01), and other HCP at 7.4% (2/27) (p < 0.01). The influenza vaccine uptake rate of 10% in mothers of hospitalized neonates is disappointingly low, resulting in 90% of hospitalized neonates being potentially vulnerable to influenza infection at a time where the risk for influenza-related complication can be severe. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Structural Analysis and Epitope Prediction of MHC Class-1-Chain Related Protein-A for Cancer Vaccine Development
Vaccines 2018, 6(1), 1; doi:10.3390/vaccines6010001 -
Abstract
Major histocompatibility complex class 1 chain-related gene sequence A is a polymorphic gene found at about 46.6 kb centromeric to HLA-B. It encodes a transmembrane protein, which is a non-classical human leukocyte antigen whose expression is normally induced by stress conditions like cancer
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Major histocompatibility complex class 1 chain-related gene sequence A is a polymorphic gene found at about 46.6 kb centromeric to HLA-B. It encodes a transmembrane protein, which is a non-classical human leukocyte antigen whose expression is normally induced by stress conditions like cancer and viral infections. The expression of MIC-A leads to the activation of NKG2D receptors of natural killer and T cells, leading to the generation of innate immune response that can easily eliminate/cleanse tumour cells and other cells that express the protein. Several bioinformatics and immunoinformatics tools were used to analyse the sequence and structure of the MIC-A protein. These tools were used in building and evaluating modelled structure of MIC-A, and to predict several antigenic determinant sites on the protein. The MIC-A protein structure generated an average antigenic propensity of 1.0289. Additionally, the hydrophilic regions on the surface of the MIC-A protein where antibodies can be attached were revealed. A total of fourteen antigenic epitopes were predicted, with six found in the transmembrane protein topology, and are predicted to play a role in the development of vaccines that can reactivate the functionalities of the MIC-A protein on the surface of cancer cells in order to elicit a desired immune response. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Structural and Immunological Characterization of Novel Recombinant MOMP-Based Chlamydial Antigens
Vaccines 2018, 6(1), 2; doi:10.3390/vaccines6010002 -
Abstract
Chlamydia is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections worldwide. While infections resolve with antibiotic treatment, this is often neglected in women due to frequent asymptomatic infections, leading to disease progression and severe sequelae (pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, infertility). Development
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Chlamydia is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections worldwide. While infections resolve with antibiotic treatment, this is often neglected in women due to frequent asymptomatic infections, leading to disease progression and severe sequelae (pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, infertility). Development of a vaccine against Chlamydia is crucial. Whole organism-based vaccines have short-lived activity, serovar/subgroup-specific immunity and can cause adverse reactions in vaccinated subjects. The Chlamydia major outer membrane protein (MOMP) is a prime candidate for a subunit vaccine. MOMP contains four regions of sequence variability (variable domains, VDs) with B-cell and T-cell epitopes that elicit protective immunity. However, barriers for developing a MOMP-based vaccine include solubility, yield and refolding. We have engineered novel recombinant antigens in which the VDs are expressed into a carrier protein structurally similar to MOMP and suitable for recombinant expression at a high yield in a correctly folded and detergent-free form. Using a carrier such as the PorB porin from the human commensal organism N. lactamica, we show that PorB/VD chimeric proteins are immunogenic, antigenic and cross-reactive with MOMP. VDs are unique for each serovar but if combined in a single vaccine, a broad coverage against the major Chlamydia serovars can be ensured. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vaccination with Combination DNA and Virus-Like Particles Enhances Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses upon Boost with Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Expressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Proteins
Vaccines 2017, 5(4), 52; doi:10.3390/vaccines5040052 -
Abstract
Heterologous prime boost with DNA and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA) vaccines is considered as a promising vaccination approach against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). To further enhance the efficacy of DNA-rMVA vaccination, we investigated humoral and cellular immune responses in mice after
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Heterologous prime boost with DNA and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA) vaccines is considered as a promising vaccination approach against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). To further enhance the efficacy of DNA-rMVA vaccination, we investigated humoral and cellular immune responses in mice after three sequential immunizations with DNA, a combination of DNA and virus-like particles (VLP), and rMVA expressing HIV-1 89.6 gp120 envelope proteins (Env). DNA prime and boost with a combination of VLP and DNA vaccines followed by an rMVA boost induced over a 100-fold increase in Env-specific IgG antibody titers compared to three sequential immunizations with DNA and rMVA. Cellular immune responses were induced by VLP-DNA and rMVA vaccinations at high levels in CD8 T cells, CD4 T cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells secreting interferon (IFN)-γ, and spleen cells producing interleukin (IL)-2, 4, 5 cytokines. This study suggests that a DNA and VLP combination vaccine with MVA is a promising strategy in enhancing the efficacy of DNA-rMVA vaccination against HIV-1. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Portrait of the Sialyl Glycan Receptor Specificity of the H10 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin—A Picture of an Avian Virus on the Verge of Becoming a Pandemic?
Vaccines 2017, 5(4), 51; doi:10.3390/vaccines5040051 -
Abstract
Pandemic influenza is a constant global threat to human health. In particular, the pandemic potential of novel avian influenza viruses such as the H10N7 and H10N8 avian strains, which recently managed to cross the species barrier from birds to humans, are always of
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Pandemic influenza is a constant global threat to human health. In particular, the pandemic potential of novel avian influenza viruses such as the H10N7 and H10N8 avian strains, which recently managed to cross the species barrier from birds to humans, are always of great concern as we are unlikely to have any prior immunity. Human and avian isolates of H10 influenza display the ability to rapidly adapt to replication in mammalian hosts. Fortunately, so far there is no evidence of efficient human-to-human transmission of any avian influenza virus. This review examines all of the available clinical and biological data for H10 influenza viruses with an emphasis on hemagglutinin as it is a major viral antigen that determines host range and immunity. The available glycan binding data on the influenza H10 hemagglutinin are discussed in a structure-recognition perspective. Importantly, this review raises the question of whether the emerging novel avian H10 influenza viruses truly represents a threat to global health that warrants close monitoring. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Adjuvant Probiotics and the Intestinal Microbiome: Enhancing Vaccines and Immunotherapy Outcomes
Vaccines 2017, 5(4), 50; doi:10.3390/vaccines5040050 -
Abstract
Immune defence against pathogenic agents comprises the basic premise for the administration of vaccines. Vaccinations have hence prevented millions of infectious illnesses, hospitalizations and mortality. Acquired immunity comprises antibody and cell mediated responses and is characterized by its specificity and memory. Along a
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Immune defence against pathogenic agents comprises the basic premise for the administration of vaccines. Vaccinations have hence prevented millions of infectious illnesses, hospitalizations and mortality. Acquired immunity comprises antibody and cell mediated responses and is characterized by its specificity and memory. Along a similar congruent yet diverse mode of disease prevention, the human host has negotiated from in utero and at birth with the intestinal commensal bacterial cohort to maintain local homeostasis in order to achieve immunological tolerance in the new born. The advent of the Human Microbiome Project has redefined an appreciation of the interactions between the host and bacteria in the intestines from one of a collection of toxic waste to one of a symbiotic existence. Probiotics comprise bacterial genera thought to provide a health benefit to the host. The intestinal microbiota has profound effects on local and extra-intestinal end organ physiology. As such, we further posit that the adjuvant administration of dedicated probiotic formulations can encourage the intestinal commensal cohort to beneficially participate in the intestinal microbiome-intestinal epithelia-innate-cell mediated immunity axes and cell mediated cellular immunity with vaccines aimed at preventing infectious diseases whilst conserving immunological tolerance. The strength of evidence for the positive effect of probiotic administration on acquired immune responses has come from various studies with viral and bacterial vaccines. We posit that the introduction early of probiotics may provide significant beneficial immune outcomes in neonates prior to commencing a vaccination schedule or in elderly adults prior to the administration of vaccinations against influenza viruses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Burkholderia pseudomallei Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine Provides Cross Protection against Inhalational Glanders in Mice and Non-Human Primates
Vaccines 2017, 5(4), 49; doi:10.3390/vaccines5040049 -
Abstract
Burkholderia mallei is a Gram-negative, non-motile, facultative intracellular bacillus and the causative agent of glanders, a highly contagious zoonotic disease. B. mallei is naturally resistant to multiple antibiotics and there is concern for its potential use as a bioweapon, making the development of
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Burkholderia mallei is a Gram-negative, non-motile, facultative intracellular bacillus and the causative agent of glanders, a highly contagious zoonotic disease. B. mallei is naturally resistant to multiple antibiotics and there is concern for its potential use as a bioweapon, making the development of a vaccine against B. mallei of critical importance. We have previously demonstrated that immunization with multivalent outer membrane vesicles (OMV) derived from B. pseudomallei provide significant protection against pneumonic melioidosis. Given that many virulence determinants are highly conserved between the two species, we sought to determine if the B. pseudomallei OMV vaccine could cross-protect against B. mallei. We immunized C57Bl/6 mice and rhesus macaques with B. pseudomallei OMVs and subsequently challenged animals with aerosolized B. mallei. Immunization with B. pseudomallei OMVs significantly protected mice against B. mallei and the protection observed was comparable to that achieved with a live attenuated vaccine. OMV immunization induced the production of B.mallei-specific serum IgG and a mixed Th1/Th17 CD4 and CD8 T cell response in mice. Additionally, immunization of rhesus macaques with B. pseudomallei OMVs provided protection against glanders and induced B.mallei-specific serum IgG in non-human primates. These results demonstrate the ability of the multivalent OMV vaccine platform to elicit cross-protection against closely-related intracellular pathogens and to induce robust humoral and cellular immune responses against shared protective antigens. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Maternal Vaccination. Immunization of Sows during Pregnancy against ETEC Infections
Vaccines 2017, 5(4), 48; doi:10.3390/vaccines5040048 -
Abstract
The immunology of pregnancy is an evolving consequence of multiple reciprocal interactions between the maternal and the fetal-placental systems. The immune response must warrant the pregnancy outcome (including tolerance to paternal antigens), but at the same time, efficiently respond to pathogenic challenges. Enterotoxigenic
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The immunology of pregnancy is an evolving consequence of multiple reciprocal interactions between the maternal and the fetal-placental systems. The immune response must warrant the pregnancy outcome (including tolerance to paternal antigens), but at the same time, efficiently respond to pathogenic challenges. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of illness and death in neonatal and recently weaned pigs. This review aims to give an overview of the current rationale on the maternal vaccination strategies for the protection of the newborn pig against ETEC. Newborn piglets are immunodeficient and naturally dependent on the maternal immunity transferred by colostrum for protection—a maternal immunity that can be obtained by vaccinating the sow during pregnancy. Our current knowledge of the interactions between the pathogen strategies, virulence factors, and the host immune system is aiding the better design of vaccination strategies in this particular and challenging host status. Challenges include the need for better induction of immunity at the mucosal level with the appropriate use of adjuvants, able to induce the most appropriate and long-lasting protective immune response. These include nanoparticle-based adjuvants for oral immunization. Experiences can be extrapolated to other species, including humans. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Prophylactic Sublingual Immunization with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Subunit Vaccine Incorporating the Natural Killer T Cell Agonist Alpha-Galactosylceramide Enhances Protective Immunity to Limit Pulmonary and Extra-Pulmonary Bacterial Burden in Mice
Vaccines 2017, 5(4), 47; doi:10.3390/vaccines5040047 -
Abstract
Infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains a major global concern and the available Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is poorly efficacious in adults. Therefore, alternative vaccines and delivery strategies focusing on Mtb antigens and appropriate immune stimulating adjuvants are needed to induce protective immunity
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Infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains a major global concern and the available Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is poorly efficacious in adults. Therefore, alternative vaccines and delivery strategies focusing on Mtb antigens and appropriate immune stimulating adjuvants are needed to induce protective immunity targeted to the lungs, the primary sites of infections and pathology. We present here evidence in support of mucosal vaccination by the sublingual route in mice using the subunit Mtb antigens Ag85B and ESAT-6 adjuvanted with the glycolipid alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), a potent natural killer T (NKT) cell agonist. Vaccinated animals exhibited strong antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells responses in the spleen, cervical lymph nodes and lungs. In general, inclusion of the α-GalCer adjuvant significantly enhanced these responses that persisted over 50 days. Furthermore, aerosolized Mtb infection of vaccinated mice resulted in a significant reduction of bacterial load of the lungs and spleens as compared to levels seen in naïve controls or those vaccinated with subunit proteins, adjuvant , or BCG alone. The protection induced by the Mtb antigens and-GalCer vaccine through sublingual route correlated with a TH1-type immunity mediated by antigen-specific IFN-γ and IL-2 producing T cells. Full article
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Open AccessMeeting Report
Equine Vaccines: How, When and Why? Report of the Vaccinology Session, French Equine Veterinarians Association, 2016, Reims
Vaccines 2017, 5(4), 46; doi:10.3390/vaccines5040046 -
Abstract
To date, vaccination is one of the most efficient methods of prevention against equine infectious diseases. The vaccinology session, which was organised during the annual meeting of the French Equine Veterinarians Association (AVEF) at Reims (France) in 2016, aimed to approach three subjects
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To date, vaccination is one of the most efficient methods of prevention against equine infectious diseases. The vaccinology session, which was organised during the annual meeting of the French Equine Veterinarians Association (AVEF) at Reims (France) in 2016, aimed to approach three subjects of importance for the equine industry. Vaccination against three major equine diseases were used as examples: equine influenza (equine influenza virus), rhinopneumonitis (equine herpes virus 1/4), and tetanus (Clostridium tetani neuro-toxin). (1) Emergency vaccination: while it has been very successful to reduce the impact of equine influenza epizooties and it is also recommended for tetanus in case of surgery and accident, the benefit of emergency vaccination against equine herpes virus 1/4 remains arguable; (2) Compatibility of equine vaccines from different brands: despite being a frequent concerns for equine veterinarians, little information is available about the compatibility of equine vaccines from different commercial origins. The consequence of mixing different equine vaccines targeting the same disease is believed to be limited but scientific evidences are sparse; and, (3) Laps vaccination and vaccine shortage: they could have serious consequences in terms of protection and their impact should be evaluated on a case by case basis, taking into account the risk of contact with the pathogen and the effect on herd immunity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Detection of Nuclear Protein Profile Changes by Human Metapneumovirus M2-2 Protein Using Quantitative Differential Proteomics
Vaccines 2017, 5(4), 45; doi:10.3390/vaccines5040045 -
Abstract
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory infection in pediatric populations globally. This study examined proteomic profile changes in A549 cells infected with hMPV and two attenuated mutants with deleted PDZ domain-binding motif(s) in the M2-2 protein. These motifs are
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Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory infection in pediatric populations globally. This study examined proteomic profile changes in A549 cells infected with hMPV and two attenuated mutants with deleted PDZ domain-binding motif(s) in the M2-2 protein. These motifs are involved in the interruption of antiviral signaling, namely the interaction between the TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF) and mitochondrial antiviral-signaling (MAVS) proteins. The aim of this study was to provide insight into the overall and novel impact of M2-2 motifs on cellular responses via an unbiased comparison. Tandem mass tagging, stable isotope labeling, and high-resolution mass spectrometry were used for quantitative proteomic analysis. Using quantitative proteomics and Venn analysis, 1248 common proteins were detected in all infected samples of both technical sets. Hierarchical clustering of the differentiated proteome displayed distinct proteomic signatures that were controlled by the motif(s). Bioinformatics and experimental analysis confirmed the differentiated proteomes, revealed novel cellular biological events, and implicated key pathways controlled by hMPV M2-2 PDZ domain-binding motif(s). This provides further insight for evaluating M2-2 mutants as potent vaccine candidates. Full article
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Open AccessLetter
A New Whooping Cough Vaccine That May Prevent Colonization and Transmission
Vaccines 2017, 5(4), 43; doi:10.3390/vaccines5040043 -
Abstract
This article is a Letter to the Editor. The major purpose of this Letter is to highlight the development of a new genetically altered whooping cough vaccine. Recently a baboon model has been used to show that this next generation pertussis vaccine can
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This article is a Letter to the Editor. The major purpose of this Letter is to highlight the development of a new genetically altered whooping cough vaccine. Recently a baboon model has been used to show that this next generation pertussis vaccine can prevent colonization, as well as disease, and elicit antibodies against major pertussis antigens. Two phase I clinical trials have been performed, showing that this new vaccine is safe in humans, and a phase II trial will be performed in the US in 2018. Full article