Abstract: Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) are toxic metals with increasing interest due to their tendency to bioaccumulate in fish tissue which may pose a threat to human health via fish consumption. This review of the recent literature on Cd, Pb, Hg levels summarizes data of fish biomonitoring studies in the Mediterranean Sea in order to determine potential risks due to dietary intake of metals. The analytical methods applied are described, with Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy being the most popular. Most of the literature reviewed is focused on the Eastern Mediterranean. Results from the studies indicate that metals mostly accumulate in liver, followed by muscle. Although there are few studies reporting metal levels in fish exceeding the maximum residue levels (MRLs), the bulk of the studies cite levels below the MRLs. The hazard index (HI) of fish consumption, namely the ratio of estimated weekly intake to provisional tolerable weekly intake (EWI/PTWI) was estimated for adult consumers and no risk emerged. The EWI/PTWI ratios of lead and mercury for Italy (0.14 and 0.22 respectively) represent the highest HI levels estimated. In view of maximizing the benefits while minimizing the risks of fish consumption, a more detailed fish-specific database on intakes for consumers is required and extended bimonitoring in as many regions as possible.
Abstract: Most patients who receive unconventional testing for metals do not have any remarkable exposure history and typically lack symptoms or objective findings compatible with classic heavy metal intoxication. Unconventional tests results are usually promoted by alternative practitioners as the basis for recommending, promoting, and selling to the patient questionable and often inappropriate therapies/interventions supposedly aimed at “detoxification”. Most of these patients will have no evidence of overexposure to metals on the basis of a thorough history and will have levels of metals on conventional tests performed at reliable laboratories that are undetectable, within population background ranges or above population background, but well below levels associated with toxicity.
Abstract: This paper aims at explaining the lessons learned from the chemical attacks that took place in 2013 in the Syrian military conflict, especially the sarin attacks on the Ghouta area of Damascus on August 21. Despite the limitations the UN Mission found while investigating the use of chemical weapons (CW) in Syria, some interesting conclusions for the scientific and medical community can be obtained from its reports. These include the advantages of the Chemical Weapons Convention procedure for the investigation of alleged CW use, when compared with the United Nations mechanism for similar investigations, the difficulties of differential diagnosis based only on clinical signs and symptoms and the impact of secondary contamination when responding to a CW attack.
Abstract: Exposure to vehicle exhaust has been associated with cardiac and respiratory disease, lung cancer and greater overall mortality. We investigated whether amino-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (amino-PAH) metabolites of nitro-PAHs could be used as biomarkers of these exposures. Pre- and post-shift urine samples were collected at the beginning and end of a work week from 82 male U.S. trucking industry workers. We used repeated-measures analysis to examine associations of total 1- and 2-aminonaphthalene (1 & 2-AN) and 1-aminopyrene (1-AP) urinary concentrations with microenvironment exposures to particulate matter (PM2.5), elemental and organic carbon and between 1 & 2-AN and 1-AP with urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). There was an association between work week mean PM2.5 levels and post-shift 1 & 2-AN (141.8 pg/mL increase (95% CI: 53.3, 230.2) for each IQR increase (5.54 µg/m3) in PM2.5), but no associations with other exposure measures. There was a statistically significant increase in 8-OHdG concentrations with 1 & 2-AN (2.38 µg/mg creatinine (95% CI: 0.19, 4.58) per 242.85 pg/mg creatinine increase in 1 & 2-AN) and suggestive associations with all other exposure measures. Our findings suggest associations between urinary amino-PAHs with vehicle exhaust-related PM2.5, as well as with a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage.
Abstract: Metal poisoning is a global problem with humans being exposed to a wide range of metals in varying doses and varying time frames. Traditionally, treatment involves removal of the toxic source or chelation therapy. An intermediate approach is needed. This review outlines the argument for the use of essential metal supplementation as a strategy to induce metallothionein expression and displace the toxic metal from important biological systems, improving the metal burden of the patient. Specific recommendations are given for supplementation with calcium, zinc and vitamin E as a broad strategy to improve the status of those exposed to toxic metals.
Abstract: Environmental analysts are often hampered in communicating the risks of environmental contaminants due to the myriad of regulatory requirements that are applicable. The use of a qualitative, risk-based control banding strategy for assessment and control of potential environmental contaminants provides a standardized approach to improve risk communication. Presented is a model that provides an effective means for determining standardized responses and controls for common environmental issues based on the level of risk. The model is designed for integration within an occupational health and safety management system to provide a multidisciplinary environmental and occupational risk management approach. This environmental model, which utilizes multidisciplinary control banding strategies for delineating risk, complements the existing Risk Level Based Management System, a proven method in a highly regulated facility for occupational health and safety. A simplified environmental risk matrix is presented that is stratified over four risk levels. Examples of qualitative environmental control banding strategies are presented as they apply to United States regulations for construction, research activities, facility maintenance, and spill remediation that affect air, water, soil, and waste disposal. This approach offers a standardized risk communication language for multidisciplinary issues that will improve communications within and between environmental health and safety professionals, workers, and management.