Abstract: Exposure to vehicle exhaust has been associated with cardiac and respiratory disease, lung cancer and greater overall mortality. We investigated whether amino-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (amino-PAH) metabolites of nitro-PAHs could be used as biomarkers of these exposures. Pre- and post-shift urine samples were collected at the beginning and end of a work week from 82 male U.S. trucking industry workers. We used repeated-measures analysis to examine associations of total 1- and 2-aminonaphthalene (1 & 2-AN) and 1-aminopyrene (1-AP) urinary concentrations with microenvironment exposures to particulate matter (PM2.5), elemental and organic carbon and between 1 & 2-AN and 1-AP with urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). There was an association between work week mean PM2.5 levels and post-shift 1 & 2-AN (141.8 pg/mL increase (95% CI: 53.3, 230.2) for each IQR increase (5.54 µg/m3) in PM2.5), but no associations with other exposure measures. There was a statistically significant increase in 8-OHdG concentrations with 1 & 2-AN (2.38 µg/mg creatinine (95% CI: 0.19, 4.58) per 242.85 pg/mg creatinine increase in 1 & 2-AN) and suggestive associations with all other exposure measures. Our findings suggest associations between urinary amino-PAHs with vehicle exhaust-related PM2.5, as well as with a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage.
Abstract: Metal poisoning is a global problem with humans being exposed to a wide range of metals in varying doses and varying time frames. Traditionally, treatment involves removal of the toxic source or chelation therapy. An intermediate approach is needed. This review outlines the argument for the use of essential metal supplementation as a strategy to induce metallothionein expression and displace the toxic metal from important biological systems, improving the metal burden of the patient. Specific recommendations are given for supplementation with calcium, zinc and vitamin E as a broad strategy to improve the status of those exposed to toxic metals.
Abstract: Environmental analysts are often hampered in communicating the risks of environmental contaminants due to the myriad of regulatory requirements that are applicable. The use of a qualitative, risk-based control banding strategy for assessment and control of potential environmental contaminants provides a standardized approach to improve risk communication. Presented is a model that provides an effective means for determining standardized responses and controls for common environmental issues based on the level of risk. The model is designed for integration within an occupational health and safety management system to provide a multidisciplinary environmental and occupational risk management approach. This environmental model, which utilizes multidisciplinary control banding strategies for delineating risk, complements the existing Risk Level Based Management System, a proven method in a highly regulated facility for occupational health and safety. A simplified environmental risk matrix is presented that is stratified over four risk levels. Examples of qualitative environmental control banding strategies are presented as they apply to United States regulations for construction, research activities, facility maintenance, and spill remediation that affect air, water, soil, and waste disposal. This approach offers a standardized risk communication language for multidisciplinary issues that will improve communications within and between environmental health and safety professionals, workers, and management.
Abstract: As a cofactor of proteins and enzymes involved in critical molecular pathways in mammals and low eukaryotes, copper is a transition metal essential for life. The intra-cellular and extra-cellular metabolism of copper is under tight control, in order to maintain free copper concentrations at very low levels. Copper is a critical element for major neuronal functions, and the central nervous system is a major target of disorders of copper metabolism. Both the accumulation of copper and copper deficiency are associated with brain dysfunction. The redox capacities of free copper, its ability to trigger the production of reactive oxygen species and the close relationships with the regulation of iron and zinc are remarkable features. Major advances in our understanding of the relationships between copper, neuronal functions and neurodegeneration have occurred these last two decades. The metabolism of copper and the current knowledge on the consequences of copper dysregulation on brain disorders are reviewed, with a focus on neurodegenerative diseases, such as Wilson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. In vitro studies, in vivo experiments and evidence from clinical observations of the neurotoxic effects of copper provide the basis for future therapies targeting copper homeostasis.
Abstract: This study addresses the individual decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) and other hazardous substances. The individual decontamination applies to contaminated body surfaces, protective clothing and objects immediately after contamination, performed individually or by mutual assistance using prescribed or improvised devices. The article evaluates the importance of individual decontamination, security level for Fire and Rescue Service Units of the Czech Republic (FRS CR) and demonstrates some of the devices. The decontamination efficiency of selected methods (sorbent, glove and sponge, two-chamber foam device and wiping with alcohol) was evaluated for protective clothing and painted steel plate contaminated with O-ethyl-S-(diisopropylaminoethyl)-methylthiophosphonate (VX), sulfur mustard, o-cresol and acrylonitrile. The methods were assessed from an economic point of view and with regard to specific user parameters, such as the decontamination of surfaces or materials with poor accessibility and vertical surfaces, the need for a water rinse as well as toxic waste and its disposal.
Abstract: The toxic chemical and heavy metals within wastewater can cause serious adverse impacts on human health. Health risk assessment (HRA) is an effective tool for supporting decision-making and corrective actions in water quality management. HRA can also help people understand the water quality and quantify the adverse effects of pollutants on human health. Due to the imprecision of data, measurement error and limited available information, uncertainty is inevitable in the HRA process. The purpose of this study is to integrate statistical and probabilistic methods to deal with censored and limited numbers of input data to improve the reliability of the non-cancer HRA of dermal contact exposure to contaminated river water by considering uncertainty. A case study in the Kelligrews River in St. John’s, Canada, was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and capacity of the proposed approach. Five heavy metals were selected to evaluate the risk level, including arsenic, molybdenum, zinc, uranium and manganese. The results showed that the probability of the total hazard index of dermal exposure exceeding 1 is very low, and there is no obvious evidence of risk in the study area.