Abstract: This paper proposes a novel approach to analyze potential accessibility to ambulance services by combining the demand-covered-ratio and potential serviceability with the ambulance-covering-ratio. A Geographic Information System (GIS)-based spatial analysis will assist ambulance service planners and designers to assess and provide rational service coverage based on simulated random incidents. The proposed analytical model is compared to the gravity-based two-step floating catchment area method. The study found that the proposed model could efficiently identify under-covered and overlapped ambulance service coverage to improve service quality, timeliness, and efficiency. The spatial accessibility and serviceability identified with geospatial random events show that the model is able to plan rational ambulance service coverage in consideration of households and travel time. The model can be applied to both regional and statewide coverage plans to aid the interpretation of those plans.
Abstract: The process of collective education in an organization that has the capacity to impact an organization’s operations, performance and outcomes is called organizational learning. In health care organizations, patient care is provided through one or more visible and invisible teams. These teams are composed of experts and novices from diverse backgrounds working together to provide coordinated care. The number of teams involved in providing care and the possibility of breakdowns in communication and coordinated care increases in direct proportion to sophisticated technology and treatment strategies of complex disease processes. Safe patient care is facilitated by individual professional learning; inter-professional team learning and system based organizational learning, which encompass modified context specific learning by multiple teams and team members in a health care organization. Organizational learning in health care systems is central to managing the learning requirements in complex interconnected dynamic systems where all have to know common background knowledge along with shared meta-knowledge of roles and responsibilities to execute their assigned functions, communicate and transfer the flow of pertinent information and collectively provide safe patient care. Organizational learning in health care is not a onetime intervention, but a continuing organizational phenomenon that occurs through formal and informal learning which has reciprocal association with organizational change. As such, organizational changes elicit organizational learning and organizational learning implements new knowledge and practices to create organizational changes.
Abstract: This paper first reviews research linked to the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction focusing on “child-centred disaster risk reduction” (CC-DRR), highlighting systemic aspects of disaster prevention and preparedness educational programming to date. However, it is also pointed out that education evaluated to date largely assumes a linear, mechanistic approach to preparedness and related resiliency outcomes. Thus, the main thrust of this paper is to elucidate means by which hazards and disaster preparedness education programs for children can shift to systems-based models, those that incorporate both systemic epistemologies but also more systems-based, and interconnected, curricula. This includes curricula that help children connect the physical world and science with the social world and human factors. It also includes the more systemic idea that natural hazards are but one example of a larger category of problems in life related to risk and uncertainty. Thus, a main aim of a systems educational approach is to help children equip themselves with knowledge, skills, motivation and confidence that they can increasingly manage a range of risks in life. This includes an increasing understanding of the added value that can be gained from approaching problems with systemic tools, including producing increasingly effective and sustainable solutions to what public policy refers to as wicked problems.
Abstract: We face a global crisis of un-sustainability—we need to change trajectory, but have so far displayed a collective inability to do so. This article suggests that one reason for this is our entrenched approach to change, which has inappropriately applied mechanistic Newtonian assumptions to “living” systems. Applying what has been learned about the behaviour of complex adaptive systems, we develop a pragmatic model for students of sustainability, who want to facilitate profound organizational and community change towards sustainability on the ground. Our model, “one way forward”, does not purport to be the only way but one possibility, grounded in a different understanding of the nature and dynamic of change as seen through the lens of complexity. In this way, it challenges more conventional change management practices. One way forward is a model facilitating evolutionary change in a social ecology—one possible expression of a “culture of community self-design” as expressed by Banathy. Its theoretical foundations and its practical application (it is designed for practice) both have their source in a systemic view and in the principles that reflect the paradigm of complexity. Four central components of this new model—envisioning, core messages (values), indicators of progress, and experimentation—are explored in more detail.
Abstract: We propose here a formal approach to study collective behaviors intended as coherent sequences of spatial configurations, adopted by agents through various corresponding structures over time. Multiple, simultaneous structures over time and their sequences are called Meta-Structures and establish sequences of spatial configurations considered as emergent on the basis of coherent criteria chosen and detected by an observer. This coherence is represented by patterns of values of the proper mesoscopic variables adopted, i.e., meta-structural properties. We introduce a formal tool, i.e., the family of mesoscopic general vectors, defined by the observer, able to detect coherent behaviors like ergodic or quasi-ergodic ones. Such approach aims to provide a general framework to study intrinsically stochastic processes where the “universal evolution laws” fail. However, at the same, the system is structured enough to show significant clusters of collective behaviors “invisible to” simple statistics.
Abstract: A circular thermodynamics of organisms and sustainable systems is presented based on dynamic closures in nested space-time domains that enable the system to approach the ideal of zero entropy production simultaneously at equilibrium and far from equilibrium conditions.