Open AccessConcept Paper
How to Disable Mortal Loops of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Implementation: A System Dynamics Analysis
Systems 2018, 6(1), 3; doi:10.3390/systems6010003 -
Abstract
Successful Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) implementation depends upon various factors known as critical success factors (CSFs). This study developed a system dynamics model of ERP implementation based on CSFs to discuss ERP implementation complexities, which identifies the effect of CSF interrelations on different
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Successful Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) implementation depends upon various factors known as critical success factors (CSFs). This study developed a system dynamics model of ERP implementation based on CSFs to discuss ERP implementation complexities, which identifies the effect of CSF interrelations on different aspects of ERP project failure. Based on the model hypothesis, CSF interrelations include many causal loop dependencies. Some of these causal loops are called mortal loops, because they may cause the failure of risk reduction efforts to a more severe failure in effect of lack of system thinking on CSFs interrelations. This study discusses how system thinking works as a leverage point for overcoming ERP implementation challenges. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Compositional Approach to Distributed System Behavior Modeling and Formal Validation of Infrastructure Operations with Finite State Automata: Application to Viewpoint-Driven Verification of Functionality in Waterways
Systems 2018, 6(1), 2; doi:10.3390/systems6010002 -
Abstract
Now that modern infrastructure systems are moving toward an increased use of automation in their day-to-day operations, there is an emerging need for new approaches to the formal analysis and validation of system functionality with respect to correctness of operations. This paper describes
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Now that modern infrastructure systems are moving toward an increased use of automation in their day-to-day operations, there is an emerging need for new approaches to the formal analysis and validation of system functionality with respect to correctness of operations. This paper describes a compositional approach to the multi-level behavior modeling and formal validation of large-scale distributed system operations with hierarchies and networks of finite state automata. To avoid the well-known state explosion problem, we develop a new procedure for viewpoint-action-process traceability, thereby allowing parts of a behavior model not relevant to a specific decision to be removed from consideration. Key features of the methodology are illustrated through the development of behavior models and validation procedures for polite conversation between two individuals, and lockset- and system-level concerns for ships traversing a large-scale waterway system. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Systems in 2017
Systems 2018, 6(1), 1; doi:10.3390/systems6010001 -
Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Systems maintains high quality standards for its published papers. In 2017, a total of 53 papers were published in the journal.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Using Agent-Based Modeling to Assess Liquidity Mismatch in Open-End Bond Funds
Systems 2017, 5(4), 54; doi:10.3390/systems5040054 -
Abstract
In this paper, we introduce a small-scale heterogeneous agent-based model of the US corporate bond market. The model includes a realistic micro-grounded ecology of investors that trade a set of bonds through dealers. Using the model, we simulate market dynamics that emerge from
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In this paper, we introduce a small-scale heterogeneous agent-based model of the US corporate bond market. The model includes a realistic micro-grounded ecology of investors that trade a set of bonds through dealers. Using the model, we simulate market dynamics that emerge from agent behaviors in response to basic exogenous factors (such as interest rate shocks) and the introduction of regulatory policies and constraints. A first experiment focuses on the liquidity transformation provided by mutual funds and investigates the conditions under which redemption-driven bond sales may trigger market instability. We simulate the effects of increasing mutual fund market shares in the presence of market-wide repricing of risk (in the form of a 100 basis point increase in the expected returns). The simulations highlight robust-yet-fragile aspects of the growing liquidity transformation provided by mutual funds, with an inflection point beyond which redemption-driven negative feedback loops trigger market instability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Conceptual Design of Spatio-Temporal Agent-Based Model for Volcanic Evacuation
Systems 2017, 5(4), 53; doi:10.3390/systems5040053 -
Abstract
The understanding of evacuation processes is important for improving the effectiveness of evacuation plans in the event of volcanic disasters. In terms of social processes, the enactment of evacuations in volcanic crises depends on the variability of individual/household responses. This variability of population
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The understanding of evacuation processes is important for improving the effectiveness of evacuation plans in the event of volcanic disasters. In terms of social processes, the enactment of evacuations in volcanic crises depends on the variability of individual/household responses. This variability of population response is related to the uncertainty and unpredictability of the hazard characteristics of volcanoes—specifically, the exact moment at which the eruption occurs (temporal), the magnitude of the eruption and which locations are impacted (spatial). In order to provide enhanced evacuation planning, it is important to recognise the potential problems that emerge during evacuation processes due to such variability. Evacuation simulations are one approach to understanding these processes. However, experimenting with volcanic evacuations in the real world is risky and challenging, and so an agent-based model is proposed to simulate volcanic evacuation. This paper highlights the literature gap for this topic and provides the conceptual design for a simulation using an agent-based model. As an implementation, an initial evacuation model is presented for Mount Merapi in Indonesia, together with potential applications of the model for supporting volcanic evacuation management, discussion of the initial outcomes and suggestions for future work. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Integral Model to Provide Reactive and Proactive Services in an Academic CSIRT Based on Business Intelligence
Systems 2017, 5(4), 52; doi:10.3390/systems5040052 -
Abstract
Cyber-attacks have increased in severity and complexity. That requires, that the CERT/CSIRT research and develops new security tools. Therefore, our study focuses on the design of an integral model based on Business Intelligence (BI), which provides reactive and proactive services in a CSIRT,
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Cyber-attacks have increased in severity and complexity. That requires, that the CERT/CSIRT research and develops new security tools. Therefore, our study focuses on the design of an integral model based on Business Intelligence (BI), which provides reactive and proactive services in a CSIRT, in order to alert and reduce any suspicious or malicious activity on information systems and data networks. To achieve this purpose, a solution has been assembled, that generates information stores, being compiled from a continuous network transmission of several internal and external sources of an organization. However, it contemplates a data warehouse, which is focused like a correlator of logs, being formed by the information of feeds with diverse formats. Furthermore, it analyzed attack detection and port scanning, obtained from sensors such as Snort and Passive Vulnerability Scanner, which are stored in a database, where the logs have been generated by the systems. With such inputs, we designed and implemented BI systems using the phases of the Ralph Kimball methodology, ETL and OLAP processes. In addition, a software application has been implemented using the SCRUM methodology, which allowed to link the obtained logs to the BI system for visualization in dynamic dashboards, with the purpose of generating early alerts and constructing complex queries using the user interface through objects structures. The results demonstrate, that this solution has generated early warnings based on the level of criticality and level of sensitivity of malware and vulnerabilities as well as monitoring efficiency, increasing the level of security of member institutions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Social Systems: Resources and Strategies
Systems 2017, 5(4), 51; doi:10.3390/systems5040051 -
Abstract
This theoretical article reviews the model describing processes in social systems based on the analysis of their resource base. Application of the system theory can help to explain why some systems are aimed at prevention of type I errors, while others seek to
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This theoretical article reviews the model describing processes in social systems based on the analysis of their resource base. Application of the system theory can help to explain why some systems are aimed at prevention of type I errors, while others seek to decrease the quantity of type II errors. Such differences are manifested in investment of resources either into deep interaction or into wide coverage. Some examples of such strategies in economic, market and production systems are provided in the article. The article introduces some provisions of the system theory in the context of the resource flows. The main indicators that are considered in this article are the characteristics of the sources of the exchanging flows of resources. Their relative frequency and quality are investigated; on the basis of which the most effective strategy of the system is derived; as a mechanism for redistribution of resources. The rigor of the system’s strategy depends on the magnitude of the difference in characteristics. It is explained how exactly it influences the exchange processes, that in reality systems do not interact simultaneously and one of the opposite resource flows is always delayed. It is shown how the system strategy depends on the risks linked with interactions. Also, there are grounds for the need to accumulate resources, including in the situation of their surplus. The model helps also explain shift of economic centers throughout history. Additionally, there is an analogy between systems strategies and the competitive strategies described by M. Porter and outsourcing versus integration. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Complementary Perspective of System of Systems in Collaboration, Integration, and Logistics: A Value-Chain Based Paradigm of Supply Chain Management
Systems 2017, 5(4), 50; doi:10.3390/systems5040050 -
Abstract
The importance and complexity of the problems associated with coordinating multiple organizations to configure value propositions for customers has drawn the attention of multiple disciplines. In an effort to clarify and consolidate terms, this conceptual research examines both supply chain management (SCM) and
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The importance and complexity of the problems associated with coordinating multiple organizations to configure value propositions for customers has drawn the attention of multiple disciplines. In an effort to clarify and consolidate terms, this conceptual research examines both supply chain management (SCM) and system of systems (SoS) literature to postulate, from a value-chain perspective, what roles integration and collaboration play in helping supply chains satisfy customer requirements. A literature review analysis was used to identify the commonalities and differences between supply chain management and system of systems approaches to examining interfirm coordination of value creation efforts. Although a framework of integration and collaboration roles in value creation is proposed, further empirical testing of the concept is required to substantiate initial conclusions. The concepts proposed may help clarify where strategic and operational managers need to focus their efforts in coordinating supply chain member firms. The incorporation of SoS engineering into the supply chain field will draw the linkage between the constituent principles, and concepts of Systems Theory as appropriate for the supply chain management field. This is the first effort to reconcile two separate but parallel scholarship streams examining the coordination of multiple organizations in value creation. This research shows that there are some methodologies, principles, and methods from the SoS field that can supplement supply chain management research. Mainly due to a unit of analysis issue, systems based approaches have not been in the mainstream of supply chain management field development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Measure of the Non-Determinacy of a Dynamic Neighborhood Model
Systems 2017, 5(4), 49; doi:10.3390/systems5040049 -
Abstract
In this paper we define a non-deterministic dynamic neighborhood model. As a special case, a linear neighborhood model is considered. When a non-deterministic neighborhood model functions, it is possible to introduce a restriction on the number of active layers, which will allow the
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In this paper we define a non-deterministic dynamic neighborhood model. As a special case, a linear neighborhood model is considered. When a non-deterministic neighborhood model functions, it is possible to introduce a restriction on the number of active layers, which will allow the variation of the non-determinism of the model at each moment of time. We give the notion of the non-determinacy measure and prove that it has the properties of a probability measure. We formulate the problem of reachability with partially specified parameters, layer priorities, and the non-determinacy measure. An algorithm for solving the attainability problem for a neighborhood model with variable indeterminacy and layer priorities is presented. An example of its solution is shown, which shows that when the priorities are compared and the measure of non-determinism is used, the solution of the problem can be obtained more quickly than by a method that does not use priorities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Packageability as an ‘Ility’ for Systems Engineering
Systems 2017, 5(4), 48; doi:10.3390/systems5040048 -
Abstract
The usefulness of packageability as one of the ‘ilities’ for systems engineering was investigated. It was found that packageability plays an important role in a multitude of systems, and it was investigated in several ways. First, a brief analysis showed that at least
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The usefulness of packageability as one of the ‘ilities’ for systems engineering was investigated. It was found that packageability plays an important role in a multitude of systems, and it was investigated in several ways. First, a brief analysis showed that at least two criteria must be met for something to be considered an ility. These criteria are that the ility often manifests itself after the system is deployed, and that the potential ility must not simply be a persistent physical characteristic. It was shown that packageability meets both requirements. Second, six different systems were examined, revealing nine general ways packageability is used. They provide a way for system engineers to recognize packageability as a non-functional system property. The usefulness of packageability as a top-level non-functional system property is shown, as well as for sub-systems and components. A working definition of packageability is then proposed. Finally, a detailed treatment of packageability is presented for radar systems with transmit–receive modules. Packageability was shown to be a useful ility category that can add value to stakeholders, and that captures real system features that are not captured by other ilities. This work demonstrates that packageability should be considered as an ility for systems engineers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On Using Ilities of Non-Functional Properties for Subsystems and Components
Systems 2017, 5(3), 47; doi:10.3390/systems5030047 -
Abstract
The use of ilities for systems engineering of subsystems and components is investigated. Prior work on ilities has emphasized or restricted their application to system level, non-functional properties. The premise of this work is that ilities can be applied with benefit, and in
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The use of ilities for systems engineering of subsystems and components is investigated. Prior work on ilities has emphasized or restricted their application to system level, non-functional properties. The premise of this work is that ilities can be applied with benefit, and in some cases out of necessity, to lower levels of systems as well. The veracity of this premise is established by providing examples that demonstrate how some ilities are passed and used as a non-functional property of electrical and structural subsystems in aircraft. It is further demonstrated that flowing ilities down to the subsystem level is not only a useful practice for systems engineers, it can also be an essential step to ensure that customer needs are actually met by the system under design or service. Systems engineers often lack the detailed knowledge of the subsystems or components required to translate ilities into functional requirements. Thus, the system ilities are passed down and translated from non-functional to functional requirements by subject matter experts. We first discuss the definition, characteristics and scope of ilities. Then, we formulate the application of ilities at a subsystem level. Next, we show aircraft engineering examples for ilities applications. The application process is formalized with diagrams, and ilities’ relation to system architecture engineering is discussed. The work concludes with a summary and suggestions for future work. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Method for Simplification of Complex Group Causal Loop Diagrams Based on Endogenisation, Encapsulation and Order-Oriented Reduction
Systems 2017, 5(3), 46; doi:10.3390/systems5030046 -
Abstract
Growing complexity represents an issue that can be identified in various disciplines. In system dynamics, causal loop diagrams are used for capturing dynamic nature of modelled systems. Increasing complexity of developed diagrams is associated with the tendency to include more variables into a
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Growing complexity represents an issue that can be identified in various disciplines. In system dynamics, causal loop diagrams are used for capturing dynamic nature of modelled systems. Increasing complexity of developed diagrams is associated with the tendency to include more variables into a model and thus make it more realistic and improve its value. This is even multiplied during group modelling workshops where several perspectives are articulated, shared and complex diagrams developed. This process easily generates complex diagrams that are difficult or even impossible to be comprehended by individuals. As there is a lack of available methods that would help users to cope with growing complexity, this manuscript suggests an original method. The proposed method systematically helps to simplify the complex causal loop diagrams. It is based on three activities iteratively applied during particular steps: endogenisation, encapsulation and order-oriented reduction. Two case studies are used to explain method details, prove its applicability and highlight added value. Case studies include the simplification of both original group causal loop diagram, and group diagram adapted from a study already published in a prestigious journal. Although the presented method has its own limitations, meaningfulness of its application in practice is verified. The method can help to cope with the complexity in any domain, in which causal loop diagrams are used. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ontology-Based Big Data Management
Systems 2017, 5(3), 45; doi:10.3390/systems5030045 -
Abstract
Big data management is no longer an issue for large enterprises only; it has also become a challenge for small and middle-sized enterprises, too. Today, enterprises have to handle business data and processes of increasing complexity that are almost entirely electronic in nature,
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Big data management is no longer an issue for large enterprises only; it has also become a challenge for small and middle-sized enterprises, too. Today, enterprises have to handle business data and processes of increasing complexity that are almost entirely electronic in nature, regardless of enterprises’ size. Enterprises’ information systems need functions based on specific technologies to be able to reduce and interpret the complexity of business data and processes. This paper pursues the question: how can state-of-the-art information systems be improved by the use of semantic technologies, and particularly ontologies? For this purpose, three use cases of information systems that could be improved are described, and approaches based on semantic technologies and ontologies are proposed. The selected use cases relate to data integration, data quality, and business process integration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Systems-Based Framework for Design and Analysis of an R and D Structure
Systems 2017, 5(3), 44; doi:10.3390/systems5030044 -
Abstract
A critical challenge for managerial effectiveness and competitive advantage in research and development (R and D) organizations is developing an appropriate structural configuration. However, in finding an appropriate structural configuration, R and D managers are faced with unprecedented levels of uncertainty, ambiguity, and
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A critical challenge for managerial effectiveness and competitive advantage in research and development (R and D) organizations is developing an appropriate structural configuration. However, in finding an appropriate structural configuration, R and D managers are faced with unprecedented levels of uncertainty, ambiguity, and accelerating complexity, coupled with demands for increased productivity. This paper develops a systems-based framework to support rigorous design, analysis, and transformation of the structure for R and D organizations. The framework development includes: (1) a review of the literature for the nature and role of the structure in R and D management; (2) setting of the R and D structure problem from a systems perspective; (3) establishing a systems view of R and D structure; (4) articulation of a systems-based framework for R and D structure drawing on management cybernetics and systems theory; and (5) an application of the framework to design the structure for a multidisciplinary R and D center. The paper concludes with implications and utility of the framework for practicing R and D managers challenged with structuring an R and D organization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Examining the Use of Systemic Approach for Adoption of Systems Thinking in Organizations
Systems 2017, 5(3), 43; doi:10.3390/systems5030043 -
Abstract
The need for systems thinking (ST) in organizations is being increasingly felt, and sustained effort towards nurturing ST in organizations is still rare. Some companies that tried it earlier were not so successful. One of the reasons for this problem is that the
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The need for systems thinking (ST) in organizations is being increasingly felt, and sustained effort towards nurturing ST in organizations is still rare. Some companies that tried it earlier were not so successful. One of the reasons for this problem is that the implementation is done more with a reductionist mindset rather than a systemic mindset. It is no doubt challenging for managers so accustomed to reductionist thinking to cultivate the habits of systems thinking. This paper examines the use of a systemic approach for the successful adoption of systems thinking in organizations. The systemic approach needs a good system model for the systematic guidance of the implementation. The systemic model used in this study is a spirit, mind, and body model (SMB)—a holistic model taken from the spiritual lore which emphasizes the need for the alignment of spirit, mind, and body in order to achieve human excellence. We extended this model for use in an organizational context, and defined the systems of the spirit, systems of the mind, and systems of the body for an organization. Systems of the spirit are related to the leadership system, systems of the mind to the learning and change management systems, and systems of the body to the supporting systems such as tools and technology. We used such a model earlier to explain the suboptimal results in the implementation of capability maturity models (CMM) in software companies in India. In this paper, we used this model to explain the rather unsatisfactory results in the implementation of ST in companies like Ford and the satisfactory results in the implementation of “work out” at GE. “Work out” is a five-step process in which ST is a prominent step. We argued whether “work out” can be a good warm-up step that can prepare the organization for successful ST implementation. The study shows that the SMB framework is helpful in conducting an intelligent discourse about the implementation of ST-like initiatives in companies and has excellent potential for use as a guide for ST implementation in organizations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Sustainability Key Factors Based on Capturing Dominant Feedbacks of Behavioural Stereotypes in Socio-Economic Systems
Systems 2017, 5(2), 42; doi:10.3390/systems5020042 -
Abstract
Sustainability represents a system attribute that is widely investigated in many disciplines. System dynamics is mostly used for modelling specific issues. Not only can this methodology be used for this purpose, it can also be applied for the identification of behavioural stereotypes and
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Sustainability represents a system attribute that is widely investigated in many disciplines. System dynamics is mostly used for modelling specific issues. Not only can this methodology be used for this purpose, it can also be applied for the identification of behavioural stereotypes and consequent designation of variables that shape sustainability of the system. Based on the set of interviews with a sample of socio-economic system representatives, stereotypes are captured and modelled with the help of causal loop diagrams. After several modelling iterations that synchronised the acquired models with the obtained responses, four main key stereotypes were identified-quality, ego, competence, and motivation. Both dominant feedback loops and important multi-input and multi-output variables are used for their description. Thus, the models provide an endogenous explanation of their importance for sustainability and help to identify its key factors. Full article
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Open AccessConcept Paper
A Systems Model to Make, Market, and Lead Your Way towards Sustained Growth
Systems 2017, 5(2), 41; doi:10.3390/systems5020041 -
Abstract
Business enterprises exist in a world that is fiercely competitive, tied with huge global uncertainties. They always encounter increasing pressure on prices and margins. Hence, irrespective of their domain of operations and industry, businesses are naturally concerned about their growth, specifically sustained profitable
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Business enterprises exist in a world that is fiercely competitive, tied with huge global uncertainties. They always encounter increasing pressure on prices and margins. Hence, irrespective of their domain of operations and industry, businesses are naturally concerned about their growth, specifically sustained profitable growth, in today’s world. Marketing is a key business function to market and lead a business towards sustained profitable growth but the problem is it lacks a systems perspective in its operations, strategy, and practice. Further, given the confluence and systemic interactions of various economic, digital, and competitive forces; the challenge for different business functions—including marketing—increases tremendously. In this context, it is important for business enterprises to have a systems perspective to find their ways to growth that will be sustained. This calls for a holistic approach to assimilate and steer the business functions in any enterprise. The present conceptual paper focuses on an important business function for sustained growth in a holistic way and presents a systems model, called ‘Value Based Business Approach (VBBA)-marketing’, which has potential to guide and steer companies and business enterprises to create a path for their sustained profitable growth. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Multi-Methodological Approach to Complex Problem Solving: The Case of Serbian Enterprise
Systems 2017, 5(2), 40; doi:10.3390/systems5020040 -
Abstract
Increasing complexity and diversity of management problems in modern enterprises requires the increasing diversity of models, methods, and methodologies. In creatively dealing with these complex, changeable and multidimensional management problems, i.e., problem situations, different systems methodologies for problem situations, structuring have been developed.
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Increasing complexity and diversity of management problems in modern enterprises requires the increasing diversity of models, methods, and methodologies. In creatively dealing with these complex, changeable and multidimensional management problems, i.e., problem situations, different systems methodologies for problem situations, structuring have been developed. Since no methodology is able to explore all aspects of the complex problems in enterprises, the topic of this paper is a multi-methodology approach that implies combining selected systems methodologies (Strategic Assumptions Surfacing and Testing, Team Syntegrity and Organizational Cybernetics) within a particular intervention. Therefore, research in the paper is relied on Critical Systems Thinking as a conceptual framework for combined use of systems methodologies. The paper aims to demonstrate how mixing the selected systems methodologies and tools can help managers in solving complex problems, such as the issues of strategy formulation and implementation in enterprises. Accordingly, combining these methodologies to support strategy formulation and implementation is applied to a Serbian enterprise. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Communities of Practice as Systems: The Case of TEALEAF
Systems 2017, 5(2), 39; doi:10.3390/systems5020039 -
Abstract
This work provides an update to the Erasmus Plus TEALEAF project. The outcomes of a week-long EU-funded/Irish Government-recognized teacher course in July 2016 is described within the context of a qualitative small-scale study investigating teachers’ progress in the course. The explicit aim of
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This work provides an update to the Erasmus Plus TEALEAF project. The outcomes of a week-long EU-funded/Irish Government-recognized teacher course in July 2016 is described within the context of a qualitative small-scale study investigating teachers’ progress in the course. The explicit aim of the teacher course was to equip a diverse group of teachers with the initial tools to work to produce simple digital apps for learning about biodiversity in their respective domains. A community of practice seeks to establish a new concept of the pre-existing generalised collective conscience through triangulated conversation between the generalised and particularised collective and individual consciences; in particular, to revise the generalised collective conscience that teachers can program apps for learning about biodiversity. A number of features of teaching and learning were selected in general and their relationship to constructivism delineated. The teachers were prompted for their responses to each day of the course through a self-evaluation tool and the responses were ranked according to the rubric. The data was analyzed using multidimensional scaling—ASCAL procedure—in SPSS 23TM and within the repertory grid domain according to the RepSocio tool in Rep 5TM. The plots show a gradual development throughout the week in terms of specific features becoming ‘stronger’ or exerting more influence towards the middle of the course and fragmenting after that. Analyses were able to show which participants correlated most closely with the hypothetical ideal within the community of practice. Concerning this community of practice, the interrelationships within the community are determined using a social mapping exercise moving from the individual consciences to a particularised collective conscience. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Actor: The Key Determinator in Service Ecosystems
Systems 2017, 5(2), 38; doi:10.3390/systems5020038 -
Abstract
Most descriptions of service ecosystems, which provide the foundations for value co-creation, focus on resource integration. In contrast, this article emphasizes the actor’s key role as the foundation resource for value co-creation by looking at both societal- and individual-focused realms, which include the
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Most descriptions of service ecosystems, which provide the foundations for value co-creation, focus on resource integration. In contrast, this article emphasizes the actor’s key role as the foundation resource for value co-creation by looking at both societal- and individual-focused realms, which include the different social aspects of service ecosystems. Institutional arrangements, positions, schemas as mental models, and practices constitute the basis realms influencing the actor in his or her value creation. Societal- and individual-focused realms are dual structures that are in constant interaction. The interdependency of the realms is made apparent through the service ecosystem’s ability to define how resources are understood, assessed, and applied. A thorough examination of the realms that influence the actors embedded in service ecosystems suggests that social forces guide and are guided by actors. This article offers six guidelines for understanding the vital role of actors in service ecosystems. Full article
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