Symmetry2014, 6(3), 589-621; doi:10.3390/sym6030589 - published online 21 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Symmetry operations of layers periodic in two dimensions restrict the geometry the lattice according to the five two-dimensional Bravais types of lattices. In order-disorder (OD) structures, the operations relating equivalent layers generally leave invariant only a sublattice of the layers. The thus resulting restrictions can be expressed in terms of linear relations of the a2, b2 and a · b scalar products of the lattice basis vectors with rational coefficients. To characterize OD families and to check their validity, these lattice restrictions are expressed in the bases of different layers and combined. For a more familiar notation, they can be expressed in terms of the lattice parameters a, b and . Alternatively, the description of the lattice restrictions may be simplified by using centered lattices. The representation of the lattice restrictions in terms of scalar products is dependent on the chosen basis. A basis-independent classification of the lattice restrictions is outlined.
Symmetry2014, 6(3), 578-588; doi:10.3390/sym6030578 - published online 11 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Extensions of real numbers in more than two dimensions, in particular quaternions and octonions, are finding applications in physics due to the fact that they naturally capture symmetries of physical systems. However, in the conventional mathematical construction of complex and multicomplex numbers multiplication rules are postulated instead of being derived from a general principle. A more transparent and systematic approach is proposed here based on the concept of coset product from group theory. It is shown that extensions of real numbers in two or more dimensions follow naturally from the closure property of finite coset groups adding insight into the utility of multidimensional number systems in describing symmetries in nature.
Symmetry2014, 6(3), 566-577; doi:10.3390/sym6030566 - published online 7 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Gestalt Algebra gives a formal structure suitable for describing complex patterns in the image plain. This can be useful for recognizing hidden structure in images. The work at hand refers to the laws of perceptual psychology. A manifold called the Gestalt Domain is defined. Next to the position in 2D it also contains an orientation and a scale component. Algebraic operations on it are given for mirror symmetry as well as organization into rows. Additionally the Gestalt Domain contains an assessment component, and all the meaning of the operations implementing the Gestalt-laws is realized in the functions giving this component. The operation for mirror symmetry is binary, combining two parts into one aggregate as usual in standard algebra. The operation for organization into rows, however, combines n parts into an aggregate, where n may well be more than two. This is algebra in its more general sense. For recognition, primitives are extracted from digital raster images by Lowe’s Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT). Lowe’s key-point descriptors can also be utilized. Experiments are reported with a set of images put forth for the Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops (CVPR) 2013 symmetry contest.
Symmetry2014, 6(3), 551-565; doi:10.3390/sym6030551 - published online 4 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Autosolvation is an important factor in stabilizing the architecture of medium complicated molecules. It is a kind of “supramolecular force” acting in intramolecular manner, consisting of orbital-orbital interactions between polar groups, separated by more than one covalent bonds within the same molecule. This effect facilitates also the development of chiral conformations. Two typical alkylcobalt carbonyl type molecules are discussed here as examples of autosolvating intramolecular interactions, leading to dramatic selection of chiral conformers and indicating also to the limits of the effect. The conformers stabilized by autosolvation and their interconversion are excellent examples of a “molecular clockwork”. Operation mode of these molecular clockworks gives some insight into the intramolecular transfer of chiral information.
Symmetry2014, 6(3), 516-550; doi:10.3390/sym6030516 - published online 27 June 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Assur graphs are a tool originally developed by mechanical engineers to decompose mechanisms for simpler analysis and synthesis. Recent work has connected these graphs to strongly directed graphs and decompositions of the pinned rigidity matrix. Many mechanisms have initial configurations, which are symmetric, and other recent work has exploited the orbit matrix as a symmetry adapted form of the rigidity matrix. This paper explores how the decomposition and analysis of symmetric frameworks and their symmetric motions can be supported by the new symmetry adapted tools.
Symmetry2014, 6(3), 473-515; doi:10.3390/sym6030473 - published online 25 June 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The second-order differential equation for a damped harmonic oscillator can be converted to two coupled first-order equations, with two two-by-two matrices leading to the group Sp(2). It is shown that this oscillator system contains the essential features of Wigner’s little groups dictating the internal space-time symmetries of particles in the Lorentz-covariant world. The little groups are the subgroups of the Lorentz group whose transformations leave the four-momentum of a given particle invariant. It is shown that the damping modes of the oscillator correspond to the little groups for massive and imaginary-mass particles respectively. When the system makes the transition from the oscillation to damping mode, it corresponds to the little group for massless particles. Rotations around the momentum leave the four-momentum invariant. This degree of freedom extends the Sp(2) symmetry to that of SL(2, c) corresponding to the Lorentz group applicable to the four-dimensional Minkowski space. The Poincaré sphere contains the SL(2, c) symmetry. In addition, it has a non-Lorentzian parameter allowing us to reduce the mass continuously to zero. It is thus possible to construct the little group for massless particles from that of the massive particle by reducing its mass to zero. Spin-1/2 particles and spin-1 particles are discussed in detail.