Symmetry2014, 6(4), 1037-1057; doi:10.3390/sym6041037 - published 15 December 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Fundamental problems of quantum field theory related to the representation problem of canonical commutation relations are discussed within a gauge field version of a van Hove-type model. The Coulomb field generated by a static charge distribution is described as a formal superposition of time-like pseudo-photons in Fock space with a Krein structure. In this context, a generalization of operator gauge transformations is introduced to generate coherent states of Abelian gauge fields interacting with a charged background.
Symmetry2014, 6(4), 1026-1036; doi:10.3390/sym6041026 - published 15 December 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This paper aims to construct conservation laws for a Benjamin–Bona–Mahony equation with variable coefficients, which is a third-order partial differential equation. This equation does not have a Lagrangian and so we transform it to a fourth-order partial differential equation, which has a Lagrangian. The Noether approach is then employed to construct the conservation laws. It so happens that the derived conserved quantities fail to satisfy the divergence criterion and so one needs to make adjustments to the derived conserved quantities in order to satisfy the divergence condition. The conservation laws are then expressed in the original variable. Finally, a conservation law is used to obtain exact solution of a special case of the Benjamin–Bona–Mahony equation.
Symmetry2014, 6(4), 1011-1025; doi:10.3390/sym6041011 - published 12 December 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is a fourth-generation mobile communication technology implemented throughout the world. It is the communication means of smartphones that send and receive all of the private date of individuals. M2M, IOT, etc., are the base technologies of mobile communication that will be used in the future cyber world. However, identification parameters, such as International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI), Radio Network Temporary Identities (RNTI), etc., in the initial attach section for accessing the LTE network are presented with the vulnerability of being exposed as clear text. Such vulnerability does not end in a mere identification parameter, but can lead to a secondary attack using the identification parameter, such as replication of the smartphone, illegal use of the mobile communication network, etc. This paper proposes a security protocol to safely transmit identification parameters in different cases of the initial attach. The proposed security protocol solves the exposed vulnerability by encrypting the parameters in transmission. Using an OPNET simulator, it is shown that the average rate of delay and processing ratio are efficient in comparison to the existing process.
Symmetry2014, 6(4), 997-1010; doi:10.3390/sym6040997 - published 3 December 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Here we report on the issue of Advanced Persistent Threats (APT), which use malware for the purpose of leaking the data of large corporations and government agencies. APT attacks target systems continuously by utilizing intelligent and complex technologies. To overthrow the elaborate security network of target systems, it conducts an attack after undergoing a pre-reconnaissance phase. An APT attack causes financial loss, information leakage, etc. They can easily bypass the antivirus system of a target system. In this paper, we propose a Multi-Layer Defense System (MLDS) that can defend against APT. This system applies a reinforced defense system by collecting and analyzing log information and various information from devices, by installing the agent on the network appliance, server and end-user. It also discusses how to detect an APT attack when one cannot block the initial intrusion while continuing to conduct other activities. Thus, this system is able to minimize the possibility of initial intrusion and damages of the system by promptly responding through rapid detection of an attack when the target system is attacked.
Symmetry2014, 6(4), 975-996; doi:10.3390/sym6040975 - published 2 December 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A number of studies have explored visual symmetry processing by measuring event related potentials and neural oscillatory activity. There is a sustained posterior negativity (SPN) related to the presence of symmetry. There is also functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) activity in extrastriate visual areas and in the lateral occipital complex. We summarise the evidence by answering six questions. (1) Is there an automatic and sustained response to symmetry in visual areas? Answer: Yes, and this suggests automatic processing of symmetry. (2) Which brain areas are involved in symmetry perception? Answer: There is an extended network from extrastriate areas to higher areas. (3) Is reflection special? Answer: Reflection is the optimal stimulus for a more general regularity-sensitive network. (4) Is the response to symmetry independent of view angle? Answer: When people classify patterns as symmetrical or random, the response to symmetry is view-invariant. When people attend to other dimensions, the network responds to residual regularity in the image. (5) How are brain rhythms in the two hemispheres altered during symmetry perception? Answer: Symmetry processing (rather than presence) produces more alpha desynchronization in the right posterior regions. Finally, (6) does symmetry processing produce positive affect? Answer: Not in the strongest sense, but behavioural measures reveal implicit positive evaluation of abstract symmetry.
Symmetry2014, 6(4), 954-974; doi:10.3390/sym6040954 - published 18 November 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In this article, we study necessary and sufficient conditions for the self-mobility of point symmetric hexapods (PSHs). Specifically, we investigate orthogonal PSHs and equiform PSHs. For the latter ones, we can show that they can have non-translational self-motions only if they are architecturally singular or congruent. In the case of congruency, we are even able to classify all types of existing self-motions. Finally, we determine a new set of PSHs, which have so-called generalized Dietmaier self-motions. We close the paper with some comments on the self-mobility of hexapods with global/local symmetries.