Open AccessArticle
An Automated Vulnerability Detection and Remediation Method for Software Security
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1652; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051652 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
As hacking techniques become more sophisticated, vulnerabilities have been gradually increasing. Between 2010 and 2015, around 80,000 vulnerabilities were newly registered in the CVE (Common Vulnerability Enumeration), and the number of vulnerabilities has continued to rise. While the number of vulnerabilities is increasing
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As hacking techniques become more sophisticated, vulnerabilities have been gradually increasing. Between 2010 and 2015, around 80,000 vulnerabilities were newly registered in the CVE (Common Vulnerability Enumeration), and the number of vulnerabilities has continued to rise. While the number of vulnerabilities is increasing rapidly, the response to them relies on manual analysis, resulting in a slow response speed. It is necessary to develop techniques that can detect and patch vulnerabilities automatically. This paper introduces a trend of techniques and tools related to automated vulnerability detection and remediation. We propose an automated vulnerability detection method based on binary complexity analysis to prevent a zero-day attack. We also introduce an automatic patch generation method through PLT/GOT table modification to respond to zero-day vulnerabilities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Examining Vulnerability Factors to Natural Disasters with a Spatial Autoregressive Model: The Case of South Korea
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1651; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051651 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Socially and economically marginalized people and environmentally vulnerable areas are disproportionately affected by natural hazards. Identifying populations and places vulnerable to disasters is important for disaster management, and crucial for mitigating their economic consequences. From the fields of geography, emergency management, and urban
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Socially and economically marginalized people and environmentally vulnerable areas are disproportionately affected by natural hazards. Identifying populations and places vulnerable to disasters is important for disaster management, and crucial for mitigating their economic consequences. From the fields of geography, emergency management, and urban planning, several approaches and methodologies have been used to identify significant vulnerability factors affecting the incidence and impact of disasters. This study performs a regression analysis to examine several factors associated with disaster damage in 230 local communities in South Korea, using ten vulnerability indicators for social, economic, and environmental aspects, and a single indicator for disaster characteristics. A Lagrange Multiplier diagnostic test-based spatial autoregressive model (SAM) was applied to assess the potential spatial autocorrelation in the ordinary least squares (OLS) residuals. This study compared the OLS regression results with those of a spatial autoregressive model, for both presence of spatial autocorrelation, and model performance. The conclusion of this study is that Korean communities with a higher vulnerability to disasters, as a result of their socioeconomic and environmental characteristics, are more likely to experience economic losses from natural disasters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Fit between Employees’ Perception and the Organization’s Behavior in Terms of Corporate Social Responsibility
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1650; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051650 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) refers to the set of behaviors that businesses ought to or are expected to perform in a society. Many companies expect to increase profits through CSR behavior. However, it is a reasonable question to consider whether employees commit to
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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) refers to the set of behaviors that businesses ought to or are expected to perform in a society. Many companies expect to increase profits through CSR behavior. However, it is a reasonable question to consider whether employees commit to an organization when they do not agree with the organizations’ CSR behavior. Therefore, this study explores the effect of fit between employees’ perceptions of CSR and organizations’ CSR behavior on organization commitment. This study found that the fit between employees’ perceptions and organizations’ CSR behavior has a positive effect on commitment. Among the four CSR dimensions of economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic social responsibility, all dimensions excluding philanthropic responsibility are positively related to organizational commitment. Finally, comparing the effects of fit in Korea and China the effect of fit for ethical social responsibility differed between the two countries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Role of Creative Industries as a Regional Growth Factor
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1649; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051649 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of employment in creative industries on the regional and national economic growth of Ecuador. The methodology used is a panel econometric model in which the temporary and structural dimensions considered to meet the
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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of employment in creative industries on the regional and national economic growth of Ecuador. The methodology used is a panel econometric model in which the temporary and structural dimensions considered to meet the proposed objective are addressed. The inputs of a basic production function were considered and the influence of creative employment was estimated as a proxy indicator of the work factor and of tax collections as a proxy of the capital factor on regional production for the years 2009 and 2014. Noteworthy is that in the main findings of this research, the analysis of the correspondence of the variables used and the growth show a significant influence of creative employment on regional production and development. The concentration and heterogeneity of employment indicators in the territory is also significant, with the most favoured regions being the same ones whose participation in national production is significant, where the three most important urban axes of the country are also found, which are the leading territories regarding these indicators. Special situations are shown for the rest of the provinces. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditorial
The Politics of Agribusiness and the Business of Sustainability
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1648; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051648 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The sustainability and the prospects of contemporary agribusiness are discussed taking into account trends, controversies, ideologies, practices and pending demands. The growing hegemony of agribusiness in the world today is analyzed making use of a conceptual framework of agro-neoliberalism that embraces three main
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The sustainability and the prospects of contemporary agribusiness are discussed taking into account trends, controversies, ideologies, practices and pending demands. The growing hegemony of agribusiness in the world today is analyzed making use of a conceptual framework of agro-neoliberalism that embraces three main areas of interaction, namely, renewed public–private alliances, novel techno-economic strategies that intensify socio-ecological exploitation and the containment of critical reactions. The critical importance of export-led agribusiness for the Brazilian economy provides a paradigmatic opportunity to apply this conceptual framework and investigate the foundations and geographical specificities of agro-neoliberalism. The article also discusses recent politico-economic adjustments and early signs of the exhaustion of Brazilian agro-neoliberalism, despite its undisputed hegemony. Neoliberal agricultural policies in Brazil have enabled the mobilization of agricultural resources, not for the purpose of domestic food security, but primarily for capital accumulation and the reinforcement of long-term social and economic trends that, ultimately, undermine prospects for sustained agricultural growth and broader sustainable development. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Decision Making of Non-Agricultural Work by Rural Residents in Weifang, China
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1647; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051647 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Since the 1990s, the rapid urbanization of China has been fueled by the massive movement of workers from the countryside to cities. Using descriptive statistics and binary regression analysis, we investigate the factors underlying rural residents’ decision making to seek non-agricultural work, their
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Since the 1990s, the rapid urbanization of China has been fueled by the massive movement of workers from the countryside to cities. Using descriptive statistics and binary regression analysis, we investigate the factors underlying rural residents’ decision making to seek non-agricultural work, their work time, and work location based on data collected in Weifang, a city in the Shandong Province of China. The results show that economic factors play a pivotal role in rural residents’ decision making to seek non-agricultural employment, full-time non-agricultural employment, or employment outside of their home county. Non-economic factors such as age, gender, social ties, education, access to arable land, geographical location, neighborhood effects, and self-perception are also significant factors in the decision-making process. The findings of this study shed light on future research regarding the impact of urbanization on rural residents. It also provides knowledge for future policy making on rural development and management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Framework for Tracing Social–Ecological Trajectories and Traps in Intensive Agricultural Landscapes
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1646; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051646 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Charting trajectories toward sustainable agricultural development is an important goal at the food–energy–water–ecosystem services (FEWES) nexus of agricultural landscapes. Social–ecological adaptation and transformation are two broad strategies for adjusting and resetting the trajectories of productive FEWES nexuses toward sustainable futures. In some cases,
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Charting trajectories toward sustainable agricultural development is an important goal at the food–energy–water–ecosystem services (FEWES) nexus of agricultural landscapes. Social–ecological adaptation and transformation are two broad strategies for adjusting and resetting the trajectories of productive FEWES nexuses toward sustainable futures. In some cases, financial incentives, technological innovations, and/or subsidies associated with the short-term optimization of a small number of resources create and strengthen unsustainable feedbacks between social and ecological entities at the FEWES nexus. These feedbacks form the basis of rigidity traps, which impede adaptation and transformation by locking FEWES nexuses into unsustainable trajectories characterized by control, stability, and efficiency, but also an inability to adapt to disturbances or changing conditions. To escape and avoid rigidity traps and enable sustainability-focused adaptation and transformation, a foundational understanding of FEWES nexuses and their unique trajectories and traps is required. We present a framework for tracing trajectories and traps at the FEWES nexuses of intensive agricultural landscapes. Framework implementation in a case study reveals feedbacks characteristic of rigidity traps, as well as opportunities for modifying and dissolving them. Such place-based understanding could inform sustainable agricultural development at the FEWES nexus of intensive agricultural landscapes worldwide. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fuzzy Logic Control of a Battery Energy Storage System for Stability Improvement in an Islanded Microgrid
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1645; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051645 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In this study, the active and reactive power control of a battery energy storage system (BESS) using fuzzy logic control to maintain the voltage and frequency stability of the islanded Mae Sariang microgrid is presented. The main scope of the presented study is
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In this study, the active and reactive power control of a battery energy storage system (BESS) using fuzzy logic control to maintain the voltage and frequency stability of the islanded Mae Sariang microgrid is presented. The main scope of the presented study is to cogitate the effectiveness of the BESS controller in view of fluctuations of frequency/voltage subjected to a disturbance occurring in the islanded microgrid. In the Mae Sariang microgrid system, the electricity is produced from two renewable energy resources (RESs), i.e., hydro and solar PV. The use of these clean energy sources has become a main problem, envisaging the output power uncertainties from RESs. Further, such power uncertainty raises power quality problems and leads to power failure. To overcome such problems, the proposed fuzzy logic control (FLC) approach is applied for the BESS controller to improve the stability of the islanded Mae Sariang microgrid. The proposed FLC is intended to provide the BESS with well-established attributes of dynamical response to disturbance, which is analyzed by a predictive model. The proposed FLC has been investigated and compared with the robust control method, which is analyzed by a mathematical model using the system identification technique. The modeling of the microgrid system with BESS is implemented and verified on the DIgSILENT PowerFactory software. The simulation result illustrates that both of the control approaches allow the dynamic stability of the microgrid and the maintenance of frequency and voltage within acceptable ranges. However, the proposed BESS fuzzy logic control is less prone to uncertainty than the BESS robust control. Furthermore, in the proposed BESS fuzzy logic control, the microgrid frequency and voltage rapidly return to their normal steady-state condition and the size of the BESS is smaller than the BESS robust control. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Women on Boards and Financial Performance: Evidence from a European Emerging Market
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1644; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051644 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This paper examines the association between gender diversity on corporate boards and firm performance for a European emerging market, which lags behind in terms of both corporate governance quality and social cohesion indicators. In a sample of Romanian companies listed on BSE (Bucharest
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This paper examines the association between gender diversity on corporate boards and firm performance for a European emerging market, which lags behind in terms of both corporate governance quality and social cohesion indicators. In a sample of Romanian companies listed on BSE (Bucharest Stock Exchange) during 2012–2016, this study confirms previous concerns related to the endogeneity of gender diversity variables in firm performance regression analysis and shows that, on average, diversity has no significant impact on firm-performance. However, based on a sub-sample analysis, results show a robust association in the case of profit-firms and those listed on the Standard tier. As losses can be construed as a distortion factor and Standard tier companies are the smallest and less well governed on the market, the results could be taken to suggest that Romanian listed companies do benefit from increasing gender diversity in the boardrooms, which could complement their rather poor corporate governance practices. Overall, the paper concludes that, in the context of an emerging market, policies aimed at increasing gender diversity in the boards appear to be financially viable and even beneficial for the major part of listed companies, balancing successfully the social cohesion and economic components of sustainable development. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Characterizing Drought Effects on Vegetation Productivity in the Four Corners Region of the US Southwest
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1643; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051643 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The droughts striking the Colorado Plateau, where the Hopi Tribe and Navajo Nation Native American reservation lands are located, and their impacts have appeared slowly and relatively unnoticed in conventional national drought monitoring efforts like the National Drought Monitor. To understand the effect
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The droughts striking the Colorado Plateau, where the Hopi Tribe and Navajo Nation Native American reservation lands are located, and their impacts have appeared slowly and relatively unnoticed in conventional national drought monitoring efforts like the National Drought Monitor. To understand the effect of drought-based drivers on vegetation productivity in the Hopi Tribe and Navajo Nation reservation lands, an assessment approach was developed integrating climate, land cover types, and topographical data with annual geospatially explicit normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)-related productivity from 1989 to 2014 derived from 15-day composite multi-sensor NDVI time series data. We studied vegetation–environment relationships by conducting multiple linear regression analysis to explain the driver of vegetation productivity changes. Our results suggest that the interannual change of vegetation productivity showed high variability in middle elevations where needleleaf forest is the dominant vegetation cover type. Our analysis also shows that the spatial variation in interannual variability of vegetation productivity was more driven by climate drivers than by topography ones. Specifically, the interannual variability in spring precipitation and fall temperature seems to be the most significant factor that correlated with the interannual variability in vegetation productivity during the last two and a half decades. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Do Customers Value CSR Disclosure? Evidence from Italian Family and Non-Family Firms
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1642; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051642 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
CSR reporting is a relevant part of a firm’s dialogue with stakeholders, therefore it is of interest to study whether this form of communication is an effective tool for gaining customers’ support. This paper addresses this issue by comparing the effect of CSR
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CSR reporting is a relevant part of a firm’s dialogue with stakeholders, therefore it is of interest to study whether this form of communication is an effective tool for gaining customers’ support. This paper addresses this issue by comparing the effect of CSR disclosure on family and non-family firms’ revenues. In doing so, we analyze a sample of Italian non-financial listed firms and we control for the effect of visibility to stakeholders, governance characteristics, risk, and several accounting variables. We find that CSR reporting has a significant effect on revenues when a company is characterized by consumer proximity, in terms of product or services visibility for consumers, but that the effect is positive for family firms and negative for non-family companies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Toward a Socially Desirable EU Research and Innovation Agenda on Urban Waste: A Transnational EU Citizen Consultation
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1641; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051641 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Growing waste production has become a global sustainability challenge that is in need of innovative solutions. It has been argued that greater public engagement in science and technology policy could stimulate new directions for innovation and provide orientation for the development of more
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Growing waste production has become a global sustainability challenge that is in need of innovative solutions. It has been argued that greater public engagement in science and technology policy could stimulate new directions for innovation and provide orientation for the development of more acceptable, sustainable, and desirable innovations that address societal needs. In 2013, the European Commission (EC) piloted a EU-wide study to engage citizens in setting the research and innovation (R&I) agenda on urban waste. This yielded the question: ‘To what extent are the proposed ideas considered innovative, feasible, and meaningful for the EC R&I agenda?’ This article addresses the outcomes of 100 focus group discussions held in 27 European Union (EU) countries in which 992 citizens were consulted. Citizens discussed a number of (self-experienced) barriers and concerns regarding waste management, and proposed and prioritized over 350 ideas to realize a (near) zero-waste society. Although citizens found it complex to propose innovative and feasible ideas, their priorities were consistent with current EU research policy areas of importance (e.g., reduce packaging, stimulate recycling), and in addition, citizens proposed various new ways to strengthen current waste management (e.g., innovations to enhance convenience in household waste management). We argue that citizen involvement in EC R&I agenda-setting across the EU is feasible, and leads to meaningful input. However, in making sense of this input, it is essential to take contextual differences into account. Various recommendations are given for future agenda-setting activities at the EU level. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Coarse Woody Debris as a Land Reclamation Amendment at an Oil Sands Mining Operation in Boreal Alberta, Canada
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1640; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051640 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important component of natural forests and is now being used in reclaiming oil sands land to control erosion, enhance diversity, and function as longer term storage of organic matter. However, the impact of woody debris on reclaimed
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Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important component of natural forests and is now being used in reclaiming oil sands land to control erosion, enhance diversity, and function as longer term storage of organic matter. However, the impact of woody debris on reclaimed ecosystems may vary depending on the amount applied and the soil it is applied to. We studied the impact on the plant community (including tree regeneration and understory plants) and soil properties of four levels of CWD cover (None, Low, Moderate, High) on two reclamation soils (forest floor-mineral mix and peat-mineral mix) and natural post-fire soils. Significant differences were observed among soil types in terms of the plant community and soil properties but fewer differences were attributable to CWD. However, overall native plant species’ diversity and abundance decreased with High CWD while cover of non-native species on the reclaimed soils greatly decreased with Low CWD. Natural seedling regeneration density of trembling aspen was unaffected by CWD on both reclamation soil types. The soil nutrient supply rates and soil moisture were significantly different among soil types but there were no differences among debris treatments while soil temperature decreased with CWD. Overall, a Low (up to 30% ground cover) woody debris application appears to be optimal for maintaining native plant species diversity and abundance while controlling undesirable plant species. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of an Energy Use Paradigm Shift on Carbon Emissions: A Simulation Study
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1639; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051639 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries are closely tied to their economy and play a crucial role in the world’s future emissions. In this paper, we put forward an alternative energy use paradigm shift of low-carbon emissions from operational, governance, institutional, and cultural
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Carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries are closely tied to their economy and play a crucial role in the world’s future emissions. In this paper, we put forward an alternative energy use paradigm shift of low-carbon emissions from operational, governance, institutional, and cultural viewpoints (OGIC). An urbanization factor is introduced into the Kaya identity, and three simulations are conducted to forecast the carbon footprint and to explore the effects of the energy use paradigm shift policy. The simulation results show that, in the context of the energy use paradigm shift, the years 2015 and 2024 are the two inflection points that separate the carbon footprint into three periods of extensive consumption (2000–2015), early energy transition (2016–2023), and late energy transition (2024–2030). Overall, the peak carbon emission value is forecasted to appear during the third stage. The findings are expected to demonstrate the effects of the energy use paradigm shift on carbon emissions and assist policy makers formulate a scientific policy framework for low carbon development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainability and Ethics in the Process of Price Determination in Financial Markets: A Conceptual Analysis
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1638; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051638 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This paper explores how financial markets can support the practical applicability of Sustainability Development Goals (SDGs) principles and why ethics has a central role in this process. The efficient market hypothesis holds that a financial market is efficient when prices equate value. Extending
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This paper explores how financial markets can support the practical applicability of Sustainability Development Goals (SDGs) principles and why ethics has a central role in this process. The efficient market hypothesis holds that a financial market is efficient when prices equate value. Extending this assertion to sustainability, it can be said that prices should become equal to sustainable value. Prices can be regarded as the addition of the present value of future expectations and the impact of short-term volatility. This property parallels the existence of two different types of shareholders: long-run shareholders, who are often involved in the management of the corporation, and short-run shareholders, who usually apply speculative strategies to the choice of their investments. The SGDs’ principles are logically thought for a long-run horizon. Their impact on corporate value stems mainly from the changes they introduce in environmental and social risk, apart from becoming a potential source of innovation. Nevertheless, their effects on the short-run perspective can be very small unless either market traders assume sustainability as a goal of their own or the sustainability effects are incorporated into prices. We hold that the second issue is safer and preferable. Both involve ethics: the former would require that investors perform any trade from an ethical perspective. The latter needs that the ethical emphasis is placed on the process of price determination. The achievement of this goal demands a wide display of information on sustainability, placed together with financial information, and appropriate regulation. Its analysis considers the principles of behavioral finance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Classification of Economic Regions with Regards to Selected Factors Characterizing the Construction Industry
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1637; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051637 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This article presents the methodology for classifying economic regions with regards to selected factors that characterize a region, such as: the economic structure of the region and share of individual sectors in the economy; employment; the dynamics of the development of individual sectors
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This article presents the methodology for classifying economic regions with regards to selected factors that characterize a region, such as: the economic structure of the region and share of individual sectors in the economy; employment; the dynamics of the development of individual sectors expressed as an increase or decrease in production value; population density, and the level of occupational safety. Cluster analysis, which is a method of multidimensional statistical analysis available in Statistica software, was used to solve the task. The proposed methodology was used to group Polish voivodeships with regards to the speed of economic development and occupational safety in the construction industry. Data published by the Central Statistical Office was used for this purpose, such as the value of construction and assembly production, the number of people employed in the construction industry, the population of an individual region, and the number of people injured in occupational accidents. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Prediction of the Heights of the Water-Conducting Fracture Zone in the Overlying Strata of Shortwall Block Mining Beneath Aquifers in Western China
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1636; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051636 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Longwall mining leaves pillars and irregular blocks of coal behind in its aftermath. In this study, a shortwall block mining (SBM) technique for recovering these coal resources has been proposed. A mechanical analysis model for calculating the heights of the water-conducting fracture zone
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Longwall mining leaves pillars and irregular blocks of coal behind in its aftermath. In this study, a shortwall block mining (SBM) technique for recovering these coal resources has been proposed. A mechanical analysis model for calculating the heights of the water-conducting fracture zone (HWFZ) in overlying strata of SBM was established based on the theory of beams on elastic foundations. Using this model and the data acquired from a working face in the experimental area, a height of 50.30 m was calculated for HWFZ corresponding to this working face. This observation indicates that the equation for predicting HWFZ in working faces specified by the Hydrogeological Procedures for Mines (HPM) standard is not suitable for application in SBM. For this reason, the Universal Distinct Element Code (UDEC) modeling program was used to analyze the developmental behavior of the water-conducting fracture zone under various determining factors in SBM. The UDEC simulations indicated that the HWFZ increase linearly with an increase in mining height, decrease linearly with an increase in the width of the protective coal pillars, and increase logarithmically with block length. A nonlinear regression analysis of HWFZ was performed using the SPSS software suite, from which a model for predicting HWFZ in SBM was constructed. This model predicted that the HWFZ was 52.58 m in the experimental area, while field measurements yielded HWFZ values varying from 47.98 to 50.06 m, which was basically consistent with the results of the prediction model and the mechanical model, thus confirming the accuracy of the mechanical model and the reliability of the regression model. The results of this study will provide critical practical references for the enhancement of coal recovery rates in mining areas and enhance theories on aquifer protection during mining operations. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A New Group Decision Model Based on Grey-Intuitionistic Fuzzy-ELECTRE and VIKOR for Contractor Assessment Problem
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1635; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051635 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This study introduces a new decision model with multi-criteria analysis by a group of decision makers (DMs) with intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFSs). The presented model depends on a new integration of IFSs theory, ELECTRE and VIKOR along with grey relational analysis (GRA). To
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This study introduces a new decision model with multi-criteria analysis by a group of decision makers (DMs) with intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFSs). The presented model depends on a new integration of IFSs theory, ELECTRE and VIKOR along with grey relational analysis (GRA). To portray uncertain real-life situations and take account of complex decision problem, multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM) model by totally unknown importance are introduced with IF-setting. Hence, a weighting method depended on Entropy and IFSs, is developed to present the weights of DMs and evaluation factors. A new ranking approach is provided for prioritizing the alternatives. To indicate the applicability of the presented new decision model, an industrial application for assessing contractors in the construction industry is given and discussed from the recent literature. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Opportunities and Barriers for Water Co-Governance—A Critical Analysis of Seven Cases of Diffuse Water Pollution from Agriculture in Europe, Australia and North America
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1634; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051634 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Diffuse Water Pollution from Agriculture (DWPA) and its governance has received increased attention as a policy concern across the globe. Mitigation of DWPA is a complex problem that requires a mix of policy instruments and a multi-agency, broad societal response. In this paper,
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Diffuse Water Pollution from Agriculture (DWPA) and its governance has received increased attention as a policy concern across the globe. Mitigation of DWPA is a complex problem that requires a mix of policy instruments and a multi-agency, broad societal response. In this paper, opportunities and barriers for developing co-governance, defined as collaborative societal involvement in the functions of government, and its suitability for mitigation of DWPA are reviewed using seven case studies in Europe (Poland, Denmark, Sweden, The Netherlands and UK), Australia (Murray-Darling Basin) and North America (State of Minnesota). An analytical framework for assessing opportunities and barriers of co-governance was developed and applied in this review. Results indicated that five key issues constitute both opportunities and barriers, and include: (i) pressure for change; (ii) connected governance structures and allocation of resources and funding; (iii) leadership and establishment of partnerships through capacity building; (iv) use and co-production of knowledge; and (v) time commitment to develop water co-governance. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Effect of Removing Bovine Trypanosomiasis in Eastern Africa
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1633; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051633 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Increasing the production of meat and milk within sub-Saharan Africa should provide significant food security benefits. However, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions represent a challenge, as cattle production in the region typically has high emissions intensity (EI), i.e., high rates of GHG emissions per
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Increasing the production of meat and milk within sub-Saharan Africa should provide significant food security benefits. However, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions represent a challenge, as cattle production in the region typically has high emissions intensity (EI), i.e., high rates of GHG emissions per unit of output. The high EI is caused by the relatively low production efficiencies in the region, which are in turn partly due to endemic cattle diseases. In theory, improved disease control should increase the efficiency and decrease the emissions intensity of livestock production; however quantitative analysis of the potential GHG mitigation effects of improved disease control in Africa is lacking. This paper seeks to respond to this by using a hybrid modelling approach to quantify the production and emissions effects of removing trypanosomiasis from East African cattle production systems. The emissions are quantified for each cattle production system using an excel version of GLEAM, the Food and Agriculture Organization’s Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model. The results indicate that removing trypanosomiasis leads to a reduction in the emissions intensity per unit of protein produced of between 0% and 8%, driven mainly by the increases in milk yields and cow fertility rates. Despite the limitations, it is argued that the approach provides considerable scope for modelling the GHG impacts of disease interventions. Full article
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