Open AccessArticle
Ancient Irrigation Canals Mapped from Corona Imageries and Their Implications in Juyan Oasis along the Silk Road
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1283; doi:10.3390/su9071283 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Historical records and archaeological discoveries have shown that prosperous agricultural activities developed in the ancient Juyan Oasis of northwestern China, an important oasis that once flourished on the ancient Silk Road. However, how the irrigation canals were distributed in historical time was unknown.
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Historical records and archaeological discoveries have shown that prosperous agricultural activities developed in the ancient Juyan Oasis of northwestern China, an important oasis that once flourished on the ancient Silk Road. However, how the irrigation canals were distributed in historical time was unknown. Here, we identified and mapped the spatial distribution of ancient abandoned irrigation canals that were built using CORONA photographs and field inspections. This work found that ancient irrigation canals are large-scale and distributed throughout the desertified environment, with three hierarchical organization of first-, second-, and third-order irrigation canals (the total length of the first- and second-order-irrigation canals is dramatically more than 392 km). This study further indicates that ancient irrigation methods and modern irrigation systems in arid regions of China share the same basic irrigation design. New visual and fine-scale evidence and spatial distribution of irrigation canals are provided to illustrate the development of the ancient irrigated agriculture that occurred in the Juyan Oasis. This work is useful for readers who are interested in the construction and organization approaches of irrigation canals used in ancient irrigated agriculture in arid regions. It also has implications for how ancient people balance the relationships between human needs and the eco-environment using reasonable water management methods, especially for decision-making in the efficient usage of limited water resources in the arid inland river basin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Time-Spatial Convergence of Air Pollution and Regional Economic Growth in China
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1284; doi:10.3390/su9071284 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The haze pollution caused by fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) emissions has become one of the most crucial topics of sustainable environmental governance in China. Using the average concentration of PM 2.5 in China’s key cities from 2000 to 2012, as measured by
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The haze pollution caused by fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) emissions has become one of the most crucial topics of sustainable environmental governance in China. Using the average concentration of PM 2.5 in China’s key cities from 2000 to 2012, as measured by aerosol optical depth, this study tested the time-spatial convergence of fine particulate matter pollution in China. The results show that there is a trend of absolute convergence between timespan and China’s PM 2.5 emissions. At the same time, in the geographic areas divided by the east, middle and west zones, there is a significant difference in the convergence rate of PM 2.5. The growth rate of PM 2.5 in the middle and west zones is significantly higher than that of the east zone. The correlation test between regional economic growth and PM 2.5 emissions suggest a significant positive N-type Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) after considering spatial lag and spatial error effect. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Estimating the Contribution of New Seed Cultivars to Increases in Crop Yields: A Case Study for Corn
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1282; doi:10.3390/su9071282 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Sustainability in agricultural development relies on continuing seed (cultivar) development and adoption. Measuring the contribution made by new seed cultivars to yield increases nationwide is essential, but this process remains challenging for academics. This study develops a method to estimate the overall contribution
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Sustainability in agricultural development relies on continuing seed (cultivar) development and adoption. Measuring the contribution made by new seed cultivars to yield increases nationwide is essential, but this process remains challenging for academics. This study develops a method to estimate the overall contribution of new seed cultivars to crop yield increases by dividing the study period into several diffusion periods in terms of the replacement in major seed cultivars, and by defining a yield response model incorporating a series of dummy variables to capture net increases due to new cultivars’ diffusion in each period. According to this method, corn cultivars tested in the period from 1980 to 2013 in China can be divided into five periods. Significant increases in corn yields due to cultivar replacement were captured, and the contributions over the base period were calculated as 61.7%, 47.6%, 46.0%, and 48.9% for periods 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Their respective contributions over the previous periods were therefore 61.7%, 34.6%, 26.7% and 56.7%. Estimation results indicate that the introduction of new corn seed cultivars significantly contributed to corn yield increase. This method is likely to have practical applications for other crops or livestock. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Selecting Persuasive Strategies and Game Design Elements for Encouraging Energy Saving Behavior
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1281; doi:10.3390/su9071281 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Design for sustainable behavior has become more important for product or service design considering environmental sustainability in the use stage. The goal of this work is to specifically help design for encouraging energy-saving behavior in selecting effective persuasive design strategies and game design
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Design for sustainable behavior has become more important for product or service design considering environmental sustainability in the use stage. The goal of this work is to specifically help design for encouraging energy-saving behavior in selecting effective persuasive design strategies and game design elements by considering users’ differences. The work begins with screening commonly employed persuasive strategies based on literature and the analysis of existing cases in design for energy-saving behavior. Secondly, a questionnaire survey is conducted to investigate the possible demographic differences on the persuasiveness of the selected persuasive strategies. Thirdly, the selected persuasive strategies are mapped to twenty-nine useful game design elements via an affinity diagram method. The results could help designers choose effective persuasive strategies and game design elements for different user groups. At the end, an illustrative example is presented to show the application potential in design for energy-saving behavior. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Rainfall-Induced Landslide on Unsaturated Soil Slopes
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1280; doi:10.3390/su9071280 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This paper investigates rainfall-induced landslides on partially saturated soil slopes using the 2011 Umyeonsan landslides at the center of Seoul, Korea. An integrated analysis of rainfall-induced landslide was carried out through laboratory tests, field tests, and numerical analysis. The results of comprehensive investigations
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This paper investigates rainfall-induced landslides on partially saturated soil slopes using the 2011 Umyeonsan landslides at the center of Seoul, Korea. An integrated analysis of rainfall-induced landslide was carried out through laboratory tests, field tests, and numerical analysis. The results of comprehensive investigations in the Umyeonsan region demonstrate that landslide activity is closely related primarily to rainfall and soil properties and slope geometry, and vegetation. Numerical analysis was also performed to confirm the effect of these factors on landslide occurrence. Special attention was given to rainfall penetration analysis to determine the wetting band depth for shallow and deep-seated slope failure in watershed-scale landslide. The simulated results agree closely with the investigation results, which indicates that the applied method is appropriate for use in the simulation of landslides in unsaturated soils. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Normative Alignment, Institutional Resilience and Shifts in Legal Governance of the Energy Transition
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1273; doi:10.3390/su9071273 -
Abstract
In Europe, the energy transition by means of a governance shift through liberalization is followed by a transition and shift towards community energy initiatives, with a particular view of supporting the demand for greater energy sustainability. What institutional legal consequences, as constraints and
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In Europe, the energy transition by means of a governance shift through liberalization is followed by a transition and shift towards community energy initiatives, with a particular view of supporting the demand for greater energy sustainability. What institutional legal consequences, as constraints and opportunities for lawful behaviour, follow from a shift in legal governance towards facilitating resilient community energy services? This conceptual article looks for an answer to this question by combining governance theory with Ostrom’s IAD-framework and Institutional Legal Theory. A key aspect is understanding normative alignment (as institutional conduciveness and resilience) in relation to the possible shift from the current institutional environment of regulated energy market to that of a community energy network. The heuristic and analytical (design) relevance of the approach is illustrated with two policy examples contrasting the energy democratization and energy expansion frames, and discussed also in the perspective of energy governance experimentation with community energy initiatives in The Netherlands. Three scenarios of shifts in legal governance are identified. The key issue in legal governance design is the choice between these, particularly with respect to the integrity of institutional environments in terms of former frames to provide proper guidance to operational (experimental) activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Variations and Determinants of Per Capita Household CO2 Emissions (PHCEs) in China
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1277; doi:10.3390/su9071277 -
Abstract
In China, household CO2 emissions (HCEs) are increasing due to economic development and accelerated urbanization. This paper details the spatial variations of per capita household CO2 emissions (PHCEs) in China and the factors impacting PHCEs using spatial statistical analysis and a
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In China, household CO2 emissions (HCEs) are increasing due to economic development and accelerated urbanization. This paper details the spatial variations of per capita household CO2 emissions (PHCEs) in China and the factors impacting PHCEs using spatial statistical analysis and a spatial panel data model for the period from 1997 to 2014. Our results indicate that (1) there has been high provincial variation in rates of change across China, with some provinces’ PHCEs increasing by an order of magnitude from 1997 to 2014; (2) the Global Moran’s I of PHCEs are above 0, and the spatial differences between PHCEs are caused by the High-High cluster and Low-Low cluster in China; (3) a 1% increase of per capita income, education level, and urbanization will result in increases in PHCEs of 0.6990%, 0.0149%, and 0.0044%, respectively, whilst a 1% increase in household size will result in a 0.0496% decrease in PHCEs. There are a large number of factors impacting CO2 emissions, while there is little specific guidance on the spatial variations and provincial characteristics of CO2 emissions from the perspective of household consumption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Long Term Quantification of Climate and Land Cover Change Impacts on Streamflow in an Alpine River Catchment, Northwestern China
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1278; doi:10.3390/su9071278 -
Abstract
Quantifying the long term impacts of climate and land cover change on streamflow is of great important for sustainable water resources management in inland river basins. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was employed to simulate the streamflow in the upper
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Quantifying the long term impacts of climate and land cover change on streamflow is of great important for sustainable water resources management in inland river basins. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was employed to simulate the streamflow in the upper reaches of Heihe River Basin, northwestern China, over the last half century. The Sequential Uncertainty Fitting algorithm (SUFI-2) was selected to calibrate and validate the SWAT model. The results showed that both Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and determination coefficient (R2) were over 0.93 for calibration and validation periods, the percent bias (PBIAS) of the two periods were—3.47% and 1.81%, respectively. The precipitation, average, maximum, and minimum air temperature were all showing increasing trends, with 14.87 mm/10 years, 0.30 °C/10 years, 0.27 °C/10 year, and 0.37 °C/10 years, respectively. Runoff coefficient has increased from 0.36 (averaged during 1964 to 1988) to 0.39 (averaged during 1989 to 2013). Based on the SWAT simulation, we quantified the contribution of climate and land cover change to streamflow change, indicated that the land cover change had a positive impact on river discharge by increasing 7.12% of the streamflow during 1964 to 1988, and climate change contributed 14.08% for the streamflow increasing over last 50 years. Meanwhile, the climate change impact was intensive after 2000s. The increasing of streamflow contributed to the increasing of total streamflow by 64.1% for cold season (November to following March) and 35.9% for warm season (April to October). The results provide some references for dealing with climate and land cover change in an inland river basin for water resource management and planning. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Curvilinear Relationship between Corporate Innovation and Environmental Sustainability
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1267; doi:10.3390/su9071267 -
Abstract
This paper proposes and tests the impacts of firms’ innovation activities, such as patents, on their involvement in environmental sustainability, such as environmental performance. Combining resource allocation and eco-innovation perspectives assuming constant levels of trade-off costs, this study proposes diminishing trade-off costs between
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This paper proposes and tests the impacts of firms’ innovation activities, such as patents, on their involvement in environmental sustainability, such as environmental performance. Combining resource allocation and eco-innovation perspectives assuming constant levels of trade-off costs, this study proposes diminishing trade-off costs between corporate innovation and environmental sustainability. Specifically, this research hypothesizes a U-shaped relationship, suggesting that a firm will suffer trade-off costs between innovation and environment-oriented activities up to a certain level, and that once a firm accumulates an adequate level of innovation, it may reduce trade-off costs, caring more for environmental issues. A proposed hypothesis is supported by empirical testing of a sample of 11,657 firm-year observations with 1564 firms, spanning from 1991 to 2010. We also found that corporate patenting activities are relevant to undesirable impacts on environmental performance overall, instead of satisfying outcomes. We suggest that firms and managers should care for environmental sustainability issues once they accumulate an adequate level of innovation assets through patenting activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electrical Energy Storage Systems Feasibility; the Case of Terceira Island
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1276; doi:10.3390/su9071276 -
Abstract
The Azores Regional Government, through the Sustainable Energy Action Plan for the Azorean Islands, assumed that by the year 2018, 60% of electricity would be generated from renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, by increasing renewable energy sources share in the electricity mix, peak energy
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The Azores Regional Government, through the Sustainable Energy Action Plan for the Azorean Islands, assumed that by the year 2018, 60% of electricity would be generated from renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, by increasing renewable energy sources share in the electricity mix, peak energy that exceeds grid capacity cannot be used unless when considering energy storage systems. Therefore, this article aims at determining, among batteries and Pumped Hydro Systems, the most cost-effective energy storage system to deploy in Terceira Island, along with geothermal, wind, thermal and bio waste energy, while considering demand and supply constraints. It is concluded that a pumped hydro system sited in Serra do Morião-Nasce Água is the best option for storage of the excess generated energy when compared with batteries. However, further studies should analyze environmental constraints. It is demonstrated that by increasing the storage power capacity, a pumped hydro system improves its cost efficiency when compared with batteries. It is also demonstrated that, to ensure quality, economic feasibility, reliability and a reduction of external costs, it is preferable to replace fuel-oil by wind to generate electricity up to a conceivable technical limit, while building a pumped hydro system, or dumping the excess peak energy generated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Metrics of Urban Sustainability: A Case Study of Changing Downtowns in Thunder Bay, Canada
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1272; doi:10.3390/su9071272 -
Abstract
Thunder Bay, a medium-sized city in Northern Ontario, has a twin downtown core model, arising from the merging of two former cities in 1970. Its north core, designated as the City’s Entertainment District has received considerable investment, notably a major waterfront renewal project
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Thunder Bay, a medium-sized city in Northern Ontario, has a twin downtown core model, arising from the merging of two former cities in 1970. Its north core, designated as the City’s Entertainment District has received considerable investment, notably a major waterfront renewal project undertaken in 2009 as part of an overall strategy towards downtown revitalization. Greater diversity of commercial functions and increasing residential capacity in downtowns are considered positive steps towards sustainable urban development. It is hoped the leadership taken by the City in its downtown capital investments can stimulate others (corporations and individuals) to re-invest in both living and working in more central locations to the benefit of environmental sustainability indicators like journey-to-work (distance and mode selected) and residential density. This article tracks changes in business composition and residential capacity during a five year period via the development of an intensive database of business and institutional activities. Urban sustainability metrics developed include residential capacity and density, business vacancy rates and business composition and turnover, which complement an existing measure of land-use diversity developed in earlier research. While major capital investments in downtown revitalization (such as the waterfront project) have fairly long-term impact horizons, data suggest some positive trends in the developed metrics in the downtown north core since 2009. In particular, there have been notable investments in waterfront condos and downtown lofts and some diversification in the food retailing and restaurant sectors. However, overall trends in downtown commerce are currently flat, indicative of a struggling local economy and a continued suburbanization of key commercial sectors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Predicting Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions of Excavators in Earthwork Operations: An Artificial Neural Network Model
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1257; doi:10.3390/su9071257 -
Abstract
Excavators are one of the most energy-intensive elements of earthwork operations. Predicting the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of excavators is therefore critical in order to mitigate the environmental impact of earthwork operations. However, there is a lack of method for estimating
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Excavators are one of the most energy-intensive elements of earthwork operations. Predicting the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of excavators is therefore critical in order to mitigate the environmental impact of earthwork operations. However, there is a lack of method for estimating such energy consumption and CO2 emissions, especially during the early planning stages of these activities. This research proposes a model using an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict an excavator’s hourly energy consumption and CO2 emissions under different site conditions. The proposed ANN model includes five input parameters: digging depth, cycle time, bucket payload, engine horsepower, and load factor. The Caterpillar handbook’s data, that included operational characteristics of twenty-five models of excavators, were used to develop the training and testing sets for the ANN model. The proposed ANN models were also designed to identify which factors from all the input parameters have the greatest impact on energy and emissions, based on partitioning weight analysis. The results showed that the proposed ANN models can provide an accurate estimating tool for the early planning stage to predict the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of excavators. Analyses have revealed that, within all the input parameters, cycle time has the greatest impact on energy consumption and CO2 emissions. The findings from the research enable the control of crucial factors which significantly impact on energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Sustainable Retailing in the Fashion Industry: A Systematic Literature Review
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1266; doi:10.3390/su9071266 -
Abstract
Although sustainability in the fashion industry has gained prominence from both business practices and academic research, retailing, a vital part of the supply chain, has not yet been fairly explored in academia. The interest in this area has increased lately, mainly due to
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Although sustainability in the fashion industry has gained prominence from both business practices and academic research, retailing, a vital part of the supply chain, has not yet been fairly explored in academia. The interest in this area has increased lately, mainly due to the growing complexity within this dynamic context. Therefore, it is meaningful to conduct a systematic review of the relevant published literature in this field. This study aims to identify the main perspectives of research on sustainable retailing in the fashion industry. The content analysis results indicate that the most prominent areas in the field are sustainable retailing in disposable fashion, fast fashion, slow fashion, green branding and eco-labeling; retailing of secondhand fashion; reverse logistics in fashion retailing; and emerging retailing opportunities in e-commerce. The results from this review also indicate that there is a lack of research on sustainable retailing in the fashion industry in the developing market. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
The Effects of Food Waste on Wildlife and Humans
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1269; doi:10.3390/su9071269 -
Abstract
A reduction in the loss and waste of human food is a global issue for addressing poverty and hunger in poorer nations, and for reducing the environmental footprint of the agriculture sector. An emerging issue, however, is that food wasted by humans is
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A reduction in the loss and waste of human food is a global issue for addressing poverty and hunger in poorer nations, and for reducing the environmental footprint of the agriculture sector. An emerging issue, however, is that food wasted by humans is often accessible to wildlife, affecting wildlife ecology and behaviour, as well as ecological processes and community dynamics. Here we highlight the extent of such impacts, drawing on examples from mammalian predators and other taxonomic groups. We then develop two conceptual models. The first shows how wildlife access to food waste can exacerbate human-wildlife conflicts. The second highlights that when food waste is removed, the effects on wildlife and ecosystem processes should be monitored. The conceptual models are important when considering that large quantities of food waste are intentionally and unintentionally provided to wildlife around the world. We conclude there is an urgent need to change the way people currently manage the food we produce. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Modelling of Urban Physical Vulnerability to Explosion Hazards Using GIS and Fuzzy MCDA
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1274; doi:10.3390/su9071274 -
Abstract
Most of the world’s population is concentrated in accumulated spaces in the form of cities, making the concept of urban planning a significant issue for consideration by decision makers. Urban vulnerability is a major issue which arises in urban management, and is simply
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Most of the world’s population is concentrated in accumulated spaces in the form of cities, making the concept of urban planning a significant issue for consideration by decision makers. Urban vulnerability is a major issue which arises in urban management, and is simply defined as how vulnerable various structures in a city are to different hazards. Reducing urban vulnerability and enhancing resilience are considered to be essential steps towards achieving urban sustainability. To date, a vast body of literature has focused on investigating urban systems’ vulnerabilities with regard to natural hazards. However, less attention has been paid to vulnerabilities resulting from man-made hazards. This study proposes to investigate the physical vulnerability of buildings in District 6 of Tehran, Iran, with respect to intentional explosion hazards. A total of 14 vulnerability criteria are identified according to the opinions of various experts, and standard maps for each of these criteria have been generated in a GIS environment. Ultimately, an ordered weighted averaging (OWA) technique was applied to generate vulnerability maps for different risk conditions. The results of the present study indicate that only about 25 percent of buildings in the study area have a low level of vulnerability under moderate risk conditions. Sensitivity analysis further illustrates the robustness of the results obtained. Finally, the paper concludes by arguing that local authorities must focus more on risk-reduction techniques in order to reduce physical vulnerability and achieve urban sustainability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of the Suitability of Some American Grapevine Rootstocks as a New Edible Landscape Component of Vertical Gardens
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1275; doi:10.3390/su9071275 -
Abstract
In this study, grapevine was used as the research material. This plant which epitomizes the opinion that vertical gardens can have a positive influence on human psychology with their beautiful view, e.g., the hanging gardens of Babylon about 2500 years ago. The study
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In this study, grapevine was used as the research material. This plant which epitomizes the opinion that vertical gardens can have a positive influence on human psychology with their beautiful view, e.g., the hanging gardens of Babylon about 2500 years ago. The study in question was conducted in 2016 at Bingol University, Faculty of Agriculture, the Department of Garden Plants research and application area. The offshoot growth was measured in a fertilizer experiment that formed the control, first application (200 g/100 L water, leaf) and second application (100 g/100 L water + 20% leaf + root). Moreover, the plant’s footprint in the vertical area was determined. The average offshoot growth of 1103 P American grapevine rootstock in the first and second applications was measured as 61.5 cm and 39.5 cm respectively, and it was 43.0 cm and 51.0 for C American grapevine rootstock. The average growth of 1103 P and 1616 C American grapevine in the control group was determined as 30.6 cm and 32.1 cm. The average growth of both American grapevine rootstocks used in the experiment was determined to be higher for the first and second applications than the controls. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Half-Precast Concrete Slab System on Construction Productivity
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1268; doi:10.3390/su9071268 -
Abstract
A half-precast concrete slab system (HPCSS) is reported to exhibit excellent structural performance when compared with traditional slab systems. However, there is a lack of extant research examining the construction issues of an HPCSS. Thus, in this study, we analyze the construction process
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A half-precast concrete slab system (HPCSS) is reported to exhibit excellent structural performance when compared with traditional slab systems. However, there is a lack of extant research examining the construction issues of an HPCSS. Thus, in this study, we analyze the construction process and productivity of applying an HPCSS by using a simulation method with the data collected from an actual construction case. The results indicate that (i) the construction productivity of HPCSS is 1.7 times that of a traditional slab system, (ii) the cost per productivity unit of HPCSS exceeds that of a traditional slab system, and (iii) critical resources affecting the HPCSS productivity include form crew and rebar crew. The results of this study suggest that it is possible to develop an optimal construction plan of a construction site in which an HPCSS is installed, and that the HPCSS can be actively applied in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Differences in Infiltration and Evaporation of Diesel and Gasoline Droplets Spilled onto Concrete Pavement
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1271; doi:10.3390/su9071271 -
Abstract
Pollution at gas stations due to small spills that occur during vehicle refueling have received little attention. We have performed laboratory experiments to assess evaporation and infiltration of fuel spilled onto concrete. Changes in the concrete mass after small amounts of diesel and
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Pollution at gas stations due to small spills that occur during vehicle refueling have received little attention. We have performed laboratory experiments to assess evaporation and infiltration of fuel spilled onto concrete. Changes in the concrete mass after small amounts of diesel and gasoline were spilled have been analyzed. Variation in humidity, among other parameters, clearly affects the measured mass since condensed water is constantly added to or released from the concrete. This mass experiences an about exponential decay in time. The difference in behavior between both fuel types is important as the percentage of evaporated mass is much larger for gasoline, while infiltration is more significant for diesel. A statistical analysis suggests that the initial spill amount does not significantly affect the fraction of infiltrated fuel over time. This finding is in agreement with pore-scale simulations that we performed. A significant amount of fuel could be seeping into soil and groundwater underneath concrete pavement at gas stations or could be released to the atmosphere. Possible solutions for pavement and groundwater pollution are considered. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stormwater Management toward Water Supply at the Community Scale—A Case Study in Northern Taiwan
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1206; doi:10.3390/su9071206 -
Abstract
Adaptation measures are necessary for reducing the impacts of extreme climatic events, especially at the community scale. Constructed wetlands and rainwater harvesting systems are commonly used as on-site water supply systems for distributed adaptation. The purpose of this study is to build a
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Adaptation measures are necessary for reducing the impacts of extreme climatic events, especially at the community scale. Constructed wetlands and rainwater harvesting systems are commonly used as on-site water supply systems for distributed adaptation. The purpose of this study is to build a community water supply model and to evaluate the performance of low impact development (LID) modules as water supply facilities. The community water supply model simulates four water balances, namely, household storage, the constructed wetland, the rainwater harvesting system, and paddy fields. Three performance indicators are utilized, namely, the water saving efficiency, tolerance duration, and water use efficiency. The results show that the rainwater harvesting system saves up to 25.8% of the total domestic water demand, and the constructed wetland saves up to 40% of the irrigation water demand in Xingshi Village, located in northern Taiwan. In conclusion, the constructed wetland and rainwater harvesting system are good candidates for on-site water supply systems at the community scale. However, constructing a community water supply system requires more study, including a climate change risk assessment and the optimization of adaptation measures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Waste Management in Industrial Construction: Investigating Contributions from Industrial Ecology
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1251; doi:10.3390/su9071251 -
Abstract
The need for effective construction waste management is growing in importance, due to the increasing generation of construction waste and to its adverse impacts on the environment. However, despite the numerous studies on construction waste management, recovery of construction waste through Industrial Symbiosis
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The need for effective construction waste management is growing in importance, due to the increasing generation of construction waste and to its adverse impacts on the environment. However, despite the numerous studies on construction waste management, recovery of construction waste through Industrial Symbiosis and the adoption of other inter-firm practices, comprised within Industrial Ecology field of study, have not been fully explored. The present research aims to investigate Industrial Ecology contributions to waste management in industrial construction. The waste management strategies adopted in two industrial construction projects in Brazil are analyzed. The main waste streams generated are identified, recycling and landfilling diversion rates are presented and waste recovery through Industrial Symbiosis is discussed. A SWOT analysis was carried out. Results demonstrate that 9% of the waste produced in one of the projects was recovered through Industrial Symbiosis, while in the other project, waste recovery through Industrial Symbiosis achieved the rate of 30%. These data reveal Industrial Symbiosis’ potential to reduce landfilling of industrial construction wastes, contributing to waste recovery in construction. In addition, results show that industrial construction projects can benefit from the following synergies common in Industrial Ecology place-based approaches: centralized waste management service, shared waste management infrastructure and administrative simplification. Full article
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