Open AccessArticle
Optimum Subsidy to Promote Electric Boiler Investment to Accommodate Wind Power
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 874; doi:10.3390/su9060874 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The increasing development of combined heat and power (CHP) plants is exacerbating the wind power curtailment problem in regional power grids during the winter heating season. Electric boilers (EBs) were proposed to be employed within CHP plants to relieve this problem. However, CHP
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The increasing development of combined heat and power (CHP) plants is exacerbating the wind power curtailment problem in regional power grids during the winter heating season. Electric boilers (EBs) were proposed to be employed within CHP plants to relieve this problem. However, CHP plants usually have no incentive for investing in EBs. Therefore, CHP plants must be incentivized to make such investments through appropriate compensation from beneficiaries, i.e., government and wind farms, although this has not previously been discussed. We propose a game theory model to simulate the impact of government subsidies on EB investment. We analyzed the utilization of the involved parties with the marginal cost and average cost and applied game theory to simulate the investment decisions. Then, an approximate enumeration technique was developed to identify the optimum government subsidy. An actual case of a regional power grid in northern China was investigated to validate the proposed method. A minimum government subsidy to maximize total social benefit was calculated; this subsidy can incentivize wind farms and CHP plants to invest in and use EBs. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Route to Sustainability—Prospects and Challenges of the Bio-Based Economy
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 887; doi:10.3390/su9060887 -
Abstract
The bio-based economy has been increasingly recognized in the sustainability debate over the last two decades, presented as a solution to a number of ecological and social challenges. Its premises include climate change mitigation, cleaner production processes, economic growth, and new employment opportunities.
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The bio-based economy has been increasingly recognized in the sustainability debate over the last two decades, presented as a solution to a number of ecological and social challenges. Its premises include climate change mitigation, cleaner production processes, economic growth, and new employment opportunities. Yet, a transition to a bio-based economy is hampered by risk factors and uncertainties. In this paper, we explore the concept of a bio-based economy, focusing on opportunities of achieving sustainability, as well as challenges of a transition. Departing from an understanding of sustainability provided by the weak and strong sustainability paradigms, we first outline the definition and development of the bio-based economy from a theoretical perspective. Second, we use Sweden as an example of how a transition towards a bio-based economy has been evolving in practice. The review indicates that the proposed direction and strategies of the bio-based economy are promising, but sometimes contradictory, resulting in different views on the actions needed for its premises to be realized. Additionally, current developments adhere largely to the principles of the weak sustainability paradigm. In order for the bio-based economy to develop in accordance with the notion of strong sustainability, important steps to facilitate a transition would include acknowledging and addressing the trade-offs caused by biophysical and social limits to growth. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Selection of a Sustainable Functional Pasta Enriched with Opuntia Using ELECTRE III Methodology
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 885; doi:10.3390/su9060885 -
Abstract
In the last decade, the nutritional and health benefits of Opuntia (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) were discussed by academic scientists and private companies. In particular, the introduction of this substance in frequently consumed foods, like, for example, pasta and bakery products, could
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In the last decade, the nutritional and health benefits of Opuntia (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) were discussed by academic scientists and private companies. In particular, the introduction of this substance in frequently consumed foods, like, for example, pasta and bakery products, could have a wide diffusion due to its rich composition in polyphenols, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and amino acids. The identified natural cactus compounds are responsible for biologically relevant activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, and neuro-protective properties. The aim of this paper is the evaluation of the best combination of Opuntia quantity and process parameters (recipe) for the production of sustainable functional pasta. The results obtained show that the new functional pasta guarantees the presence of the Opuntia quantity necessary to be considered a healthy food without altering the organoleptic and physical properties of the final product. An important indicator of a sustainable food product is its capacity to contribute to public health while maintaining a high quality of the final product. The selection of the optimal recipe was carried out by means of a multi-criteria decision-making procedure, ELECTRE III. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the stability of the obtained solutions varying the ELECTRE III thresholds, showing that the results obtained are stable under uncertain conditions. Food productions are often affected by qualitative judgments in terms of physical and organoleptic properties of the final product, making the ELECTRE III particularly suitable in an industrial application in which different points of view are involved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Public Participatory Mapping of Cultural Ecosystem Services: Citizen Perception and Park Management in the Parco Nord of Milan (Italy)
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 891; doi:10.3390/su9060891 -
Abstract
Ecosystem services may be underestimated, and consequently threatened, when land-use planning and management decisions are based on inadequate information. Unfortunately, most of the studies aimed to evaluate and map cultural ecosystem services (CES) are not used for actual decision support therefore there is
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Ecosystem services may be underestimated, and consequently threatened, when land-use planning and management decisions are based on inadequate information. Unfortunately, most of the studies aimed to evaluate and map cultural ecosystem services (CES) are not used for actual decision support therefore there is a gap in the literature about its use in practice. This study aimed to reduce this gap by: (i) mapping CES perceived by city park users through participatory mapping (PPGIS); (ii) mapping CES arising from park management (management perception); (iii) comparing citizens and park management perception to identify matches or mismatches; and (iv) discussing the utility of the data acquired and the methodology proposed to inform urban planning. The methodology presented in this study resulted in data directly informative for urban planning. It provided spatially explicit data about perceived cultural services of the park as well as information about the matching or mismatching patterns about cultural services provision comparing the users’ view with the management dimension. This research demonstrated a way to use the potential of ES mapping to inform urban planning and explored the local management demand for CES mapping, showing this to be a valuable tool for effective integration into actual decision making. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Place-Based Rural Development and Resilience: A Lesson from a Small Community
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 889; doi:10.3390/su9060889 -
Abstract
Community resilience is central to reshaping the role and functions of rural areas; and development has increasingly come about via the capacity of communities to be resilient in the face of challenges. When policies designed and adopted in rural areas are place-based; these
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Community resilience is central to reshaping the role and functions of rural areas; and development has increasingly come about via the capacity of communities to be resilient in the face of challenges. When policies designed and adopted in rural areas are place-based; these policies should rely on resilient actors; belonging to resilient communities. The aim of this article is to focus on factors that can trigger or re-activate mechanisms that help to actively build resilience in areas that are heavily economically and socially impoverished using as a case study a very active and dynamic rural community. From the case study; three aspects emerge; all of which are closely interrelated; as having been particularly significant for building community resilience. The first was the rebuilding of previously frayed social ties within the community (growth of social capital and increased trust). The second was the ‘cascade effect’ of the first project started in the community; which led to the creation of many other initiatives. The third was the adoption of a systemic approach; able to bring together areas and sectors that had previously been disconnected (breaking down technical-legislative barriers). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Predicting Bio-indicators of Aquatic Ecosystems Using the Support Vector Machine Model in the Taizi River, China
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 892; doi:10.3390/su9060892 -
Abstract
Numerous studies have sought to clarify the link between biological communities and environmental factors in freshwater, but an appropriate model is still needed to predict the effect of water quality and hydromorphology improvement on biological communities and to provide useful information for ecological
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Numerous studies have sought to clarify the link between biological communities and environmental factors in freshwater, but an appropriate model is still needed to predict the effect of water quality and hydromorphology improvement on biological communities and to provide useful information for ecological restoration planning. In this study, a support vector machine (SVM) was used to predict the bio-indicators of an aquatic ecosystem (i.e., macroinvertebrates, fish, algae communities) in the Taizi River, northeast China. Environmental factors, including physico-chemical (i.e., dissolved oxygen (DO), electricity conductivity (EC), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand in five days (BOD5), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN)) and hydromorphology parameters (i.e., water quantity, channel change, morphology diversity) were used as the input variables to train and validate the SVM model. The sensitivity of the input variables for the prediction was examined by removing a variable from the SVM model. Results revealed that the SVM model reproduced the variation in bio-indicators of fish and algae communities well, based on the input variables. The sensitivity for the input variables applied in SVM showed that in the Taizi River the most sensitive variables for predicting macroinvertebrate and algae communities were channel change, DO, TN, and TP, while the most sensitive variables for predicting fish communities were DO and BOD5. This study proposed an effective method for predicting biological communities, which will improve freshwater quality and hydromorphology management schemes. The outputs can guide the decision-making process in river basin management, support the prioritization of actions and resource allocation, and help to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Impact of Mobile Technology on Exhibition Attendees’ Unplanned Booth Visit Behaviour
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 884; doi:10.3390/su9060884 -
Abstract
This study examines the effect of the booth Recommender system (BRS) embedded in a mobile device on the goals of exhibition attendees, based on two main theories that are unplanned behaviour and goal frame theories. Previous studies have overlooked the importance of the
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This study examines the effect of the booth Recommender system (BRS) embedded in a mobile device on the goals of exhibition attendees, based on two main theories that are unplanned behaviour and goal frame theories. Previous studies have overlooked the importance of the unplanned behavioural effectiveness of IT devices for understanding motivation and delivering unexpected outcomes at exhibitions. The BRS offers customized, personalized, and advanced information to attendees; experiences with the BRS lead to unplanned behaviour. In this paper, we distinguish several goal frames, including hedonic, gain, and normative goals, which contribute to the relationship between continued BRS use and unplanned booth visits. Continued BRS use directly influences revisit intentions to an exhibition and contributes to unplanned booth visits. We analysed data from 508 attendees at a franchise exhibition using structural equation modelling (SEM) method. Our research empirically determined that goal framing theory and unplanned behaviour via continued BRS use embedded in a mobile device are connected. Continued BRS use in an exhibition can contribute to attendees’ impulsive behaviour and can induce them to return to an exhibition. The results and implications are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Particle Morphologies of LiFePO4 on Water- and Solvent-Based Processing and Electrochemical Properties
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 888; doi:10.3390/su9060888 -
Abstract
LiFePO4 (LFP) primary particles and secondary agglomerates have been processed into water- and solvent-based cathodes. By means of neutron and X-ray diffraction it was found that no structural changes of LiFePO4 occurred upon water- and solvent-based slurry preparation. Electrochemical characterization was
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LiFePO4 (LFP) primary particles and secondary agglomerates have been processed into water- and solvent-based cathodes. By means of neutron and X-ray diffraction it was found that no structural changes of LiFePO4 occurred upon water- and solvent-based slurry preparation. Electrochemical characterization was carried out with full-cells and a distinct influence of particle morphology was observable. Water-based processing of primary particles leads to deficits in electrochemical performance while secondary agglomerates are non-sensitive to water during processing. In the presence of water, high mechanical stress during slurry preparation causes a partial detachment of carbon coating. However, this effect is negligible for secondary agglomerates since only surface particles are exposed to mechanical stress. Due to longer diffusion paths and the fact that secondary agglomerates represent a micro-heterogeneity in the cathode, the C-rate capability of secondary agglomerates is slightly lower than that of primary particles. This paper demonstrates that for any high energy application with moderate C-rates, secondary agglomerates hold a great potential for environmentally friendly and cost-efficient water-based cathode production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Does Environmental Policy Reduce Enterprise Innovation?—Evidence from China
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 872; doi:10.3390/su9060872 -
Abstract
With the serious worldwide problem of carbon emissions, carbon emissions’ control and trade have become necessary policies adopted by the governments, after the establishment of the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), China has also implemented a similar carbon emission trading pilot policy
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With the serious worldwide problem of carbon emissions, carbon emissions’ control and trade have become necessary policies adopted by the governments, after the establishment of the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), China has also implemented a similar carbon emission trading pilot policy which plays a vital role in environmental regulation and influences enterprise behaviors, so this paper will put more focus on the impact of this policy on the enterprise innovation. In this paper, we construct a theoretical model and use the “Chinese Carbon Emissions Trading Pilot Policy” as a quasi-natural experiment to accurately identify the net causal effect of this environmental policy on enterprise innovation. Moreover, we use the synthetic control and difference-in-differences methods to eliminate the endogeneity to a large extent and conduct the robustness tests, difference-in-differences method, placebo test, and permutation test to respectively confirm these results. The results show that the implementation of carbon emissions trading policy will significantly reduce the enterprise innovation in general, this conclusion is contrary to the EU ETS’s effect, which is confirmed by plenty of previous empirical study. However, this policy has different effects across enterprises of different industries and different types of innovation. It can promote enterprise innovation of environmental industry, but it will inhibit enterprise innovation of non-environmental industry; besides, it can promote the development of green technical innovation and inhibit non-green technical innovation, which is basically identical to the causal effect of EU ETS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Realities, Perceptions, Challenges and Aspirations of Rural Youth in Dryland Agriculture in the Midelt Province, Morocco
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 871; doi:10.3390/su9060871 -
Abstract
Active involvement of youth in agriculture is necessary for sustainable agricultural systems but is currently a challenge in many areas. Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative participatory research methods, this study analyses rural youth’s realities, perspectives and aspirations in dryland Agricultural Livelihood
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Active involvement of youth in agriculture is necessary for sustainable agricultural systems but is currently a challenge in many areas. Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative participatory research methods, this study analyses rural youth’s realities, perspectives and aspirations in dryland Agricultural Livelihood Systems (ALSs) in the Midelt Province, Morocco, with a particular focus on gender. The data collected are an important first step in understanding the target group and working with youth to identify and develop appropriate programmatic interventions to improve their livelihoods and rural futures. Prior to expressing their aspirations for their rural life and career, the youth first raised the issue of unfulfilled primary needs: access to education, potable water, heath care, and lack of infrastructure in their villages. The issue of outmigration from rural areas is controversial and not so widespread. The youth’s dream village is envisioned as a rural place where people have a more comfortable life with their own families, farming better and more sustainably rather than seeking a job in urban areas. To support the youth’s aspirations and their willingness to stay in agriculture, there is a need for infrastructural and regulatory interventions and specific training in agricultural practices targeting and engaging youth. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Management of a Tourist Village Establishment in Mountainous Area through Analysis of Costs and Incomes
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 875; doi:10.3390/su9060875 -
Abstract
The popularity of rural areas and especially the mountainous ones, as a possibility to spend the vacation has increased in most countries. Almost all mountain areas can provide great opportunities for the development of various forms of rural tourism, there being many examples
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The popularity of rural areas and especially the mountainous ones, as a possibility to spend the vacation has increased in most countries. Almost all mountain areas can provide great opportunities for the development of various forms of rural tourism, there being many examples according to which many mountain areas, through appropriate and effective strategies of capitalizing the resources through the forms of rural tourism, start from the pioneer stage to a real valuable alternative in socio-economic terms for the rural area. One of the concepts that are increasingly used is the “tourist village”, its main issue, consisting in the return of the investment, an aspect that we will discuss in this paper. The paper presents an analysis of the way in which the occupancy degree affects the period of amortization of the initial investment. Concretely, in the case of the medium-sized tourist village, the minimum occupancy degree for the amortization of the initial investment, starts from about 25% for the investment without a loan, but subsidy in proportion of 50% and reaches at about 85% in the case of an investment with loan, for a period of 10 years, without advance or subsidy and with an interest of 7%. Initial investments were established for a holiday village in the Romanian countryside. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Data Compatibility to Enhance Sustainable Capabilities for Autonomous Analytics in IoT
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 877; doi:10.3390/su9060877 -
Abstract
The collection of raw data is based on sensors embedded in devices or the environment for real-time data extraction. Nowadays, the Internet of Things (IoT) environment is used to support autonomous data collection by reducing human involvement. It is hard to analyze such
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The collection of raw data is based on sensors embedded in devices or the environment for real-time data extraction. Nowadays, the Internet of Things (IoT) environment is used to support autonomous data collection by reducing human involvement. It is hard to analyze such data, especially when working with the sensors in a real-time environment. On using data analytics in IoT with the help of RDF, many issues can be resolved. Resultant data will have a better chance of quality analytics by reforming data into the semantical annotation. Industrial correspondence through data will be improved by the induction of semantics at large due to efficient data capturing, whereas one popular medium of sensors’ data storage is Relational Database (RDB). This study provides a complete automated mechanism to transform from loosely structured data stored in RDB into RDF. These data are obtained from sensors in semantically annotated RDF stores. The given study comprises methodology for improving compatibility by introducing bidirectional transformation between classical DB and RDF data stores to enhance the sustainable capabilities of IoT systems for autonomous analytics. Two case studies, one on weather and another on heart-rate measurement collections through IoT sensors, are used to show the transformation process in operation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sea Reclamation Status of Countries around the South China Sea from 1975 to 2010
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 878; doi:10.3390/su9060878 -
Abstract
As a way of turning sea into land for living space for humans, the actions of sea reclamation bring about significant benefits. Nevertheless, it is also an under-recognized threat to the environment and the marine ecosystem. Based on images in two periods, sea
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As a way of turning sea into land for living space for humans, the actions of sea reclamation bring about significant benefits. Nevertheless, it is also an under-recognized threat to the environment and the marine ecosystem. Based on images in two periods, sea reclamation information of countries around the South China Sea was extracted from 1975 to 2010. The spatial state and driven forces of sea reclamation are then discussed. Results show that the overall strength of sea reclamation in the South China Sea was great. New reclaimed land added up to 3264 km2. Sea reclamation for fish farming was the main reclamation type and widely distributed in the whole area, especially on the coast from the Pearl River Delta to the Red River Delta, and the coast of Ca Mau Peninsula. Sea reclamation in China and Vietnam was rather significant, which occupies 80.6% of the total reclamation area. Singapore had the highest level of sea reclamation. New reclaimed land for fish farming holds a key role in China, Vietnam, and Indonesia, while new reclaimed land for construction and docks dominated in Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei. Areas and use-type compositions of new reclaimed land in countries varied greatly due to the differences of economic factors, policy inclination, and landscapes in the respective countries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simulating Block-Level Urban Expansion for National Wide Cities
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 879; doi:10.3390/su9060879 -
Abstract
Large-scale models are generally associated with large spatial modelling units, for example, counties or super grids (several to dozens of km2). Few applied urban models can achieve a large spatial coverage with irregular spatial units due to data availability and computation
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Large-scale models are generally associated with large spatial modelling units, for example, counties or super grids (several to dozens of km2). Few applied urban models can achieve a large spatial coverage with irregular spatial units due to data availability and computation load. The framework of automatic identification and characterization of blocks developed by Liu and Long (2016) makes such an ideal model possible by establishing the existing urban blocks using road networks and points of interest for very large areas (e.g., a country or a continent). In this study, we develop a mega-vector-blocks cellular automata model (MVB-CA) to simulate urban expansion at the block level for 654 Chinese cities. The existing urban blocks in 2012 were used for initiating the MVB-CA and are generated using multi-levelled road networks and ubiquitous points of interest. We then simulate block-based urban expansion of all the cities from 2012 to 2017. The national spatial development strategies of China are discussed extensively by academia and policy makers, while the baseline scenario and other simulated urban expansion scenarios have been tested and compared horizontally. As one of the first block-based urban expansion models at a national scale, its academic contributions, practical applications, and potential biases are also discussed in this paper. The developed MVB-CA using general approaches is also applicable for other counties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Energetic Sustainability and the Environment: A Transdisciplinary, Economic–Ecological Approach
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 873; doi:10.3390/su9060873 -
Abstract
The paper combines original concepts about eco-energetic systems, in a transdisciplinary sustainable context. Firstly, it introduces the concept of M.E.N. (Mega-Eco-Nega-Watt), the eco-energetic paradigm based on three different but complementary ecological economic spaces: the Megawatt as needed energy, the Ecowatt as ecological energy,
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The paper combines original concepts about eco-energetic systems, in a transdisciplinary sustainable context. Firstly, it introduces the concept of M.E.N. (Mega-Eco-Nega-Watt), the eco-energetic paradigm based on three different but complementary ecological economic spaces: the Megawatt as needed energy, the Ecowatt as ecological energy, and the Negawatt as preserved energy. The paper also deals with the renewable energies and technologies in the context of electrical energy production. Secondly, in the context of the M.E.N. eco-energetic paradigm, comprehensive definitions are given about eco-energetic systems and for pollution. Thirdly, the paper introduces a new formula for the eco-energetic efficiency which correlates the energetic efficiency of the system and the necessary newly defined ecological coefficient. The proposed formula for eco-energetic efficiency enables an interesting form of relating to different situations in which the input energy, output energy, lost energy, and externalities involved in an energetic process, interact to produce energy in a specific energetic system, in connection with the circular resilient economy model. Finally, the paper presents an original energetic diagram to explain different channels to produce electricity in a resilience regime, with high eco-energetic efficiency from primary external energetic sources (gravitation and solar sources), fuels (classical and radioactive), internal energetic sources (geothermal, volcanoes) and other kind of sources. Regardless the kind of energetic sources used to obtain electricity, the entire process should be sustainable in what concerns the transdisciplinary integration of the different representative spheres as energy, socio-economy, and ecology (environment). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Walkability and Street Intersections in Rural-Urban Fringes: A Decision Aiding Evaluation Procedure
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 883; doi:10.3390/su9060883 -
Abstract
We propose a decision-aiding evaluation procedure (i) for classifying road crossings based on their impact on walkability and, subsequently, (ii) for prioritising street improvements, in urban-rural fringe areas. In the peripheral urban-rural fringes, pedestrian mobility is usually less developed and people generally depend
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We propose a decision-aiding evaluation procedure (i) for classifying road crossings based on their impact on walkability and, subsequently, (ii) for prioritising street improvements, in urban-rural fringe areas. In the peripheral urban-rural fringes, pedestrian mobility is usually less developed and people generally depend more on cars for their everyday chores. Partly this is inevitable given the structural features and supply of services and activities in such areas, but part is due to a frequent neglect of pedestrian mobility in planning and urban design. Measures to improve this state of affairs can include the design of more pedestrian-friendly environments offering to potential users a greater level of security, comfort and convenience when walking to their designated destinations. Our evaluation procedure combines a walkability assessment methodology with the ELECTRE TRI rating procedure, in order to assist planners and decision makers in designing physical streets to enhance the continuity, safety and quality of pedestrian paths. Improving the walking accessibility in the fringe areas of towns is a way to reduce the physical and perceptual distance which separates these contexts from the rest of the city, thus leading to a progressive integration of urban functions. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Sustainability and Innovation in the Automotive Sector: A Structured Content Analysis
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 880; doi:10.3390/su9060880 -
Abstract
This study aims to analyse the scientific literature on sustainability and innovation in the automotive sector in the last 13 years. The research is classified as descriptive and exploratory. The process presented 31 articles in line with the research topic in the Scopus
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This study aims to analyse the scientific literature on sustainability and innovation in the automotive sector in the last 13 years. The research is classified as descriptive and exploratory. The process presented 31 articles in line with the research topic in the Scopus database. The bibliometric analysis identified the most relevant articles, authors, keywords, countries, research centers and journals for the subject from 2004 to 2016 in the Industrial Engineering domain. We concluded, through the systemic analysis, that the automotive sector is well structured on the issue of sustainability and process innovation. Innovations in the sector are of the incremental process type, due to the lower risk, lower costs and less complexity. However, the literature also points out that radical innovations are needed in order to fit the prevailing environmental standards. The selected studies show that environmental practices employed in the automotive sector are: the minimization of greenhouse gas emissions, life-cycle assessment, cleaner production, reverse logistics and eco-innovation. Thus, it displays the need for empirical studies in automotive companies on the environmental practices employed and how these practices impact innovation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Influencing Consumers’ Intentions to Participate in a Formal E-Waste Collection System: A Case Study of Onitsha, Nigeria
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 881; doi:10.3390/su9060881 -
Abstract
Due to the increasing amount of electronic waste (e-waste) generated in Nigeria, challenges such as consumer disposal behaviors have emerged. An understanding of consumers’ intentions to participate in formal e-waste collections is key in increasing the level of participation in an e-waste collection
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Due to the increasing amount of electronic waste (e-waste) generated in Nigeria, challenges such as consumer disposal behaviors have emerged. An understanding of consumers’ intentions to participate in formal e-waste collections is key in increasing the level of participation in an e-waste collection scheme. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) creates an applicable platform for identifying the determinants of recycling intention. Based on the TPB, we develop a theoretical framework to study how influencing factors such as attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and environmental knowledge influence intentions to participate in formal e-waste collections. Additionally, we extend the research framework to examine whether the factors of infrastructure and economic incentive moderate the relationships between the influencing factors and intention. Using an empirical survey conducted in Onitsha with 384 usable questionnaire responses, we observe that attitude, subjective norm, and environmental knowledge directly influence consumers’ intentions. Statistical results also show that only the factor of infrastructure moderates the relationship between two influencing factors (attitude and subjective norm) and intention. The resulting negative coefficients of regression for the interactions indicate that the introduction of infrastructure will result in a weaker influencing ability of attitude and subjective norm on intention. Thus, the implications of this study in motivating consumers’ intentions suggest it would be beneficial for the government to provide functional and adequately managed infrastructure situated close to the community, such that it can be easily accessed by household consumers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Study of the Simulated Expansion Boundary of Construction Land in Shanghai Based on a SLEUTH Model
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 876; doi:10.3390/su9060876 -
Abstract
The SLEUTH model is one of the recent methodological advances, but its data sources are mainly interpreted from remote sensing images. It doesn’t cover the whole urban area and exhibits technical errors. Moreover, the relationships between land use and land cover change (LUCC)
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The SLEUTH model is one of the recent methodological advances, but its data sources are mainly interpreted from remote sensing images. It doesn’t cover the whole urban area and exhibits technical errors. Moreover, the relationships between land use and land cover change (LUCC) and sustainability have seldom been discussed. Aimed at addressing these shortcomings, we focus on a wider range and use different data sources to simulate and predict the boundary of urban construction land expansion, and analyze the relationship between the expansion style of urban land and the change of ecological service value. Based on Shanghai land use map data, which covers the whole city scope and eliminates the error in data processing, we use a SLEUTH model to simulate the urban growth mode in Shanghai in 2020 under two scenarios, i.e., the natural growth mode and ecological priority mode, which are different from the previous scenario modes such as unprotected, light protected, moderately protected, and heavily protected modes. The results are as follows: (1) The development of urban land in Shanghai is most reasonable under the ecological priority mode as its ecological service value is higher than that of the natural growth mode; (2) Construction land expansion in Shanghai is very slow under the ecological priority mode, wherein construction land growth mainly occurs in the northwest, southwest, and southeast of Shanghai, and the northwest part of Chongming Island; (3) The surrounding area of the central city is given priority over edge growth, where the growth range is small. The outer suburbs are given priority for widespread growth, which is synchronous with the slow growth of roads. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Oxidative Photodegradation of Pyrene and Fluoranthene by Fe-Based and Zn-Based Fenton Reagents
Sustainability 2017, 9(5), 870; doi:10.3390/su9050870 -
Abstract
Increased industrialization has introduced a lot of hazardous materials into ecosystems. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most toxic and persistent organic pollutants emanating from petrochemical industrial areas. Remediation of PAHs-contaminated soil has been a particularly big challenge. Photochemical oxidation–reduction processes have
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Increased industrialization has introduced a lot of hazardous materials into ecosystems. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most toxic and persistent organic pollutants emanating from petrochemical industrial areas. Remediation of PAHs-contaminated soil has been a particularly big challenge. Photochemical oxidation–reduction processes have gained attention because of their high efficiency and robustness for PAH removal from contaminated soils. In this study, the efficacy of Fe-based and Zn-based Fenton reagents for remediating soil contaminated with pyrene (Pyr) and fluoranthene (Flr) is evaluated. UV treatment (2-h exposure) at 254 nm resulted in 21.6 and 28.5% degradations of Pyr and Flr, respectively. The Zn-based Fenton reagent performed better than the Fe-based reagent by degrading 99.9% of Pyr. The Fe-based Fenton reagent (under UV light) resulted in 97.1–99.7% and 95.1–98.9% Pyr and Flr degradations, respectively, in 0.5–2 h. Notably, the temperature increase during UV irradiation facilitated the enhanced degradation of Pyr and Flr, as observed from negative correlations (r = (−)0.902–0.961 and p = 0.039–0.098) between the temperature and PAH concentrations. The newly tested Zn-based Fenton reagent was equally effective as the Fe-based Fenton reagent in degrading Pyr and Flr in soil. Hence, it can be used as a new alternative reagent to remediate PAH-polluted soils. Full article
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