Open AccessArticle
Terrestrial Condition Assessment for National Forests of the USDA Forest Service in the Continental US
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2144; doi:10.3390/su9112144 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The terrestrial condition assessment (TCA) evaluates effects of uncharacteristic stressors and disturbance agents on land-type associations (LTAs) to identify restoration opportunities on national forest system (NFS) lands in the United States. A team of agency scientists and managers, representing a broad array of
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The terrestrial condition assessment (TCA) evaluates effects of uncharacteristic stressors and disturbance agents on land-type associations (LTAs) to identify restoration opportunities on national forest system (NFS) lands in the United States. A team of agency scientists and managers, representing a broad array of natural resource disciplines, developed a logic structure for the TCA to identify appropriate data sources to support analyses. Primary national data sources included observed insect- and pathogen-induced mortality, key critical loads for soil and the atmosphere, long term seasonal departures in temperature and precipitation, road densities, uncharacteristic wildfires, historical fire regime departure, wildfire potential, insect and pathogen risk, and vegetation departure from natural range of variability. The TCA was implemented with the ecosystem management decision support (EMDS) system, a spatial decision support system for landscape analysis and planning. EMDS uses logic models to interpret data, synthesizes information over successive layers of logic topics, and draws inferences about the ecological integrity of LTAs as an initial step to identifying high priority LTAs for landscape restoration on NFS lands. Results from the analysis showed that about 74 percent of NFS lands had moderate or better overall ecological integrity. Major impacts to ecological integrity included risk of mortality due to insects and disease, extent of current mortality, extent of areas with high and very high wildfire hazard potential, uncharacteristically severe wildfire, and elevated temperatures. In the discussion, we consider implications for agency performance reporting on restoration activities, and subsequent possible steps, including strategic and tactical planning for restoration. The objective of the paper is to describe the TCA framework with results from a national scale application on NFS lands. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Research on Energy-Saving Scheduling of a Forging Stock Charging Furnace Based on an Improved SPEA2 Algorithm
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2154; doi:10.3390/su9112154 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In order to help the forging enterprise realize energy conservation and emission reduction, the scheduling problem of furnace heating was improved in this paper. Aiming at the charging problem of continuous heating furnace, a multi-objective furnace charging model with minimum capacity difference and
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In order to help the forging enterprise realize energy conservation and emission reduction, the scheduling problem of furnace heating was improved in this paper. Aiming at the charging problem of continuous heating furnace, a multi-objective furnace charging model with minimum capacity difference and waiting time was established in this paper. An improved strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm 2 (SPEA2) algorithm was designed to solve this problem. The original fitness assignment strategy, crossover operator and population selection mechanism of SPEA2 are replaced with DOPGA (Domination Power of an Individual Genetic Algorithm), adaptive cross operator, and elitist strategy. Finally, the effectiveness and feasibility of the improved SPEA2 was verified by actual arithmetic example. The comparison of results gained from three methods shows the superiority of the improved SPEA2 in solving this problem. Compared with strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA) and SPEA2, the improved SPEA2 can get a better solution without increasing time complexity, the heating time is reduced by total 93 minutes, and can save 7533GJ energy. The research in this paper can help the forging enterprise improve furnace utilization, reduce heating time and unnecessary heating preservation time, as well as achieve sustainable energy savings and emissions reduction. Full article
Open AccessReview
Modern Christian Landscape in Nanjing, China: A Literature Review
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2155; doi:10.3390/su9112155 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Between the First Opium War in 1840 and the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the development of modern Christianity in Nanjing expanded beyond the parameters of faith and spirituality, while interacting closely with Nanjing’s city life and space across
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Between the First Opium War in 1840 and the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the development of modern Christianity in Nanjing expanded beyond the parameters of faith and spirituality, while interacting closely with Nanjing’s city life and space across a wider spectrum, such that a unique religious and cultural landscape was produced. Through an extensive literature review of 115 articles identified on this topic, this paper analyzes the development of the space of Christian churches in Nanjing, and further documents the pattern of interactions between Nanjing’s development as a modern city and its religious cultural landscape. Moreover, drawing from the theoretical perspective of Sense of Place, the paper summarizes the characteristics of religious cultural landscape in the aspects of vision and structure, function and modernization, and memory and identity, and points out that the Christian landscape should also be conducted from the activation of material form, local functions and historical meanings to achieve sustainable development of Christian landscape. Finally, the paper offers planning and design strategies for the continued growth of Christian landscape in Nanjing. Full article
Open AccessReview
Sustainable Soil Management in Ski Areas: Threats and Challenges
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2150; doi:10.3390/su9112150 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The skiing industry often represent the main contribution to mountain regions’ economy, by providing several economic benefits and the improvement of services and infrastructure. Ski resorts also play a crucial role as an impacting factor, causing severe changes on Alpine landscape and ecosystems.
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The skiing industry often represent the main contribution to mountain regions’ economy, by providing several economic benefits and the improvement of services and infrastructure. Ski resorts also play a crucial role as an impacting factor, causing severe changes on Alpine landscape and ecosystems. In particular ski runs construction and operation have considerable impacts on alpine soils, influencing their chemical and physical properties which affecting the establishment and development of plant communities. The work provides a description of the changes in soil properties and the related effects on vegetation. It aims furthermore to investigate the recent best practices applied for a successful soil restoration after ski runs construction, which may contribute to a sustainable use of mountain soils and ecosystems. Based on the current regulatory framework, this review gives a global overview on how, in Europe and specifically in Italy, the sustainable use of soils is considered during the construction and management of ski runs. As the framework is still lacking of specific rules regarding soil protection and management on ski runs, the present work wishes to provide recommendations in order to fill this gap, favoring the effective application of best practices for soil protection during ski run construction and maintenance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Evacuation Warnings Prior to a Hurricane Disaster
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2152; doi:10.3390/su9112152 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The key purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that optimization of evacuation warnings by time period and impacted zone is crucial for efficient evacuation of an area impacted by a hurricane. We assume that people behave in a manner consistent with the
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The key purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that optimization of evacuation warnings by time period and impacted zone is crucial for efficient evacuation of an area impacted by a hurricane. We assume that people behave in a manner consistent with the warnings they receive. By optimizing the issuance of hurricane evacuation warnings, one can control the number of evacuees at different time intervals to avoid congestion in the process of evacuation. The warning optimization model is applied to a case study of Hurricane Sandy using the study region of Brooklyn. We first develop a model for shelter assignment and then use this outcome to model hurricane evacuation warning optimization, which prescribes an evacuation plan that maximizes the number of evacuees. A significant technical contribution is the development of an iterative greedy heuristic procedure for the nonlinear formulation, which is shown to be optimal for the case of a single evacuation zone with a single evacuee type case, while it does not guarantee optimality for multiple zones under unusual circumstances. A significant applied contribution is the demonstration of an interface of the evacuation warning method with a public transportation scheme to facilitate evacuation of a car-less population. This heuristic we employ can be readily adapted to the case where response rate is a function of evacuation number in prior periods and other variable factors. This element is also explored in the context of our experiment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Circuity Characteristics of Urban Travel Based on GPS Data: A Case Study of Guangzhou
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2156; doi:10.3390/su9112156 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
A longer, wider and more complicated change in the travel path is put forward to adapt to the rapidly increasing expansion of metropolises in the field of urban travel. Urban travel requires higher levels of sustainable urban transport.Therefore,this paper explores the circuity characteristics
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A longer, wider and more complicated change in the travel path is put forward to adapt to the rapidly increasing expansion of metropolises in the field of urban travel. Urban travel requires higher levels of sustainable urban transport.Therefore,this paper explores the circuity characteristics of urban travel and investigates the temporal relationship between time and travel circuity and the spatial relationship between distance and travel circuity to understand the efficiency of urban travel. Based on Guangzhou Taxi-GPS big data, travel circuity is considered in this paper to analyze the circuity spatial distribution and strength characteristics of urban travel in three types of metropolitan regions, including core areas, transition areas and fringe areas. Depending on the different attributes of the three types, the consistency and dissimilar characteristics of travel circuity and influencing factors of travel circuity in metropolises are discussed. The results are shown as follows: (1) by observing the temporal andspatial distribution of travel circuity, it can be found that peaks and troughs change with time, and travel circuity of transition areas is higher than other areas during the peak period. When travelling in these three regions, travel circuity spatial distribution is consistent, which is the core-periphery distribution. When travelling among these three regions, travel circuity spatial distribution is distinct; (2) by analyzing the relationship between time and distance of travel and travel circuity, it can be seen that the shorter the travel time or travel distance, the greater the travel circuity, resulting in a lower travel efficiency; (3) the influence of six factors, including population, road and public transportation, on travel circuity is significant. Whether it is the origin point or destination point, when its location is closer to the city center and the station density of grid is lower, the travel circuity is higher. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Stakeholder Orientation in Cruise Lines’ Mission Statements
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2151; doi:10.3390/su9112151 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Consistent with the extant management literature, mission statements are crucial for the sustainability and growth of any firms and have been considered to be a tool for the strategic management process. Despite the considerable attention awarded to this theme, the role of the
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Consistent with the extant management literature, mission statements are crucial for the sustainability and growth of any firms and have been considered to be a tool for the strategic management process. Despite the considerable attention awarded to this theme, the role of the mission statement in the strategic management of tourism firms has not been sufficiently highlighted. The present paper tries to bridge this literature gap and aims to (i) analyze the content of mission statements; and (ii) investigate the stakeholder orientation of cruise line mission statements. We apply a content analysis method to analyze the mission statements of 44 cruise lines, employing three different perspectives: (1) the inclusion of stakeholder groups; (2) mentions of specific “mission” components; (3) reference to four goals usually assigned to mission statements. The analysis was performed using the software package QDA-Miner. The results suggest that it is possible to identify four clusters of firms that present similar content in their mission statements, and that cruise companies tend to reserve a major attention to customers. This contribution presents some valuable research implications mainly useful for researchers and academics, but also maybe of benefit to professionals and investors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stability of Deep Underground Openings through Large Fault Zones in Argillaceous Rock
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2153; doi:10.3390/su9112153 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The stability of underground openings is pivotal to sustainable safe mining in underground coal mines. To determine the stability and tunneling safety issues in 800-m-deep underground openings through large fault zones in argillaceous rocks in the Guqiao Coal Mine in East China, the
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The stability of underground openings is pivotal to sustainable safe mining in underground coal mines. To determine the stability and tunneling safety issues in 800-m-deep underground openings through large fault zones in argillaceous rocks in the Guqiao Coal Mine in East China, the pilot industrial test, laboratory experimentation, and field measurements were used to analyze the large deformations and failure characteristics of the surrounding rock, the influence factors of safe excavation and stability of underground openings, and to study the stability control countermeasures. The main factors influencing the stability and tunneling safety include large fault zones, high in situ stress, poor mechanical properties and engineering performance of the argillaceous rock mass, groundwater inrush and gas outburst. According to the field study, the anchor-ability of cables and the groutability of cement-matrix materials in the argillaceous rock in the large fault zones were extremely poor, and deformations and failure of the surrounding rock were characterized by dramatic initial deformation, high long-term creep rate, obviously asymmetric deformations and failure, rebound of roof displacements, overall loosened deformations of deep surrounding rock on a large scale, and high sensitivity to engineering disturbance and water immersion. Various geo-hazards occurred during the pilot excavation, including roof collapse, groundwater inrush, and debris flow. Control techniques are proposed and should be adopted to ensure tunneling safety and to control the stability of deep underground openings through large fault zones, including regional strata reinforcement technique such as ground surface pre-grouting, primary enhanced control measures, floor grouting reinforcement technique, and secondary enclosed support measures for long-term stability, which are critical for ensuring the sustainable development of the coal mine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Coordination Contracts in a Dual-Channel Supply Chain with a Risk-Averse Retailer
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2148; doi:10.3390/su9112148 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Dual channels have become popular strategies for manufacturers due to the development of innovative selling platforms. Examples in practice also show that the lack of relationship management, such as cooperation and sharing, may cause an unsustainable supply chain performance. However, previous studies on
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Dual channels have become popular strategies for manufacturers due to the development of innovative selling platforms. Examples in practice also show that the lack of relationship management, such as cooperation and sharing, may cause an unsustainable supply chain performance. However, previous studies on coordination of dual-channel supply chains always focus on the contribution to profits and neglect the sustainability of relationship development between channel members. In this paper, we study the coordination of a dual-channel supply chain including a direct channel and a traditional channel. Under the fact that sustainable economy, instead of profit maximization, is the more appropriate objective in channel members’ decision making, we consider the retailer’s risk exposure and assume the risk degree is also a factor that impacts decision making. We assume the manufacturer is risk-neutral and the retailer is risk-averse, and measure the risk attitude with Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR) approach. Two traditional contracts widely used in single-channel supply chains, i.e., revenue-sharing contract and buy-back contract, are analyzed first. Although some researchers have discussed that traditional contracts cannot coordinate the dual-channel supply chain, our results show that traditional contracts can still come into play with restrictions on the risk-averse degree. Then we propose a risk-sharing contract which could distribute profits between two channel members and coordinate the system under varied risk-averse degrees with a fixed risk-sharing degree. Finally, we analyze the sensitivity of different parameters to illustrate the stable coordinating outcomes of this contract, and prove its generalization with more powerful channel members. The results provide important managerial insights. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Real Estate Appraisals with Bayesian Approach and Markov Chain Hybrid Monte Carlo Method: An Application to a Central Urban Area of Naples
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2138; doi:10.3390/su9112138 -
Abstract
This paper experiments an artificial neural networks model with Bayesian approach on a small real estate sample. The output distribution has been calculated operating a numerical integration on the weights space with the Markov Chain Hybrid Monte Carlo Method (MCHMCM). On the same
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This paper experiments an artificial neural networks model with Bayesian approach on a small real estate sample. The output distribution has been calculated operating a numerical integration on the weights space with the Markov Chain Hybrid Monte Carlo Method (MCHMCM). On the same real estate sample, MCHMCM has been compared with a neural networks model (NNs), traditional multiple regression analysis (MRA) and the Penalized Spline Semiparametric Method (PSSM). All four methods have been developed for testing the forecasting capacity and reliability of MCHMCM in the real estate field. The Markov Chain Hybrid Monte Carlo Method has proved to be the best model with an absolute average percentage error of 6.61%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Securing the Future of Cultural Heritage by Identifying Barriers to and Strategizing Solutions for Preservation under Changing Climate Conditions
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2143; doi:10.3390/su9112143 -
Abstract
Climate change challenges cultural heritage management and preservation. Understanding the barriers that can impede preservation is of paramount importance, as is developing solutions that facilitate the planning and management of vulnerable cultural resources. Using online survey research, we elicited the opinions of diverse
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Climate change challenges cultural heritage management and preservation. Understanding the barriers that can impede preservation is of paramount importance, as is developing solutions that facilitate the planning and management of vulnerable cultural resources. Using online survey research, we elicited the opinions of diverse experts across southeastern United States, a region with cultural resources that are particularly vulnerable to flooding and erosion from storms and sea level rise. We asked experts to identify the greatest challenges facing cultural heritage policy and practice from coastal climate change threats, and to identify strategies and information needs to overcome those challenges. Using content analysis, we identified institutional, technical and financial barriers and needs. Findings revealed that the most salient barriers included the lack of processes and preservation guidelines for planning and implementing climate adaptation actions, as well as inadequate funding and limited knowledge about the intersection of climate change and cultural heritage. Experts perceived that principal needs to overcome identified barriers included increased research on climate adaptation strategies and impacts to cultural heritage characteristics from adaptation, as well as collaboration among diverse multi-level actors. This study can be used to set cultural heritage policy and research agendas at local, state, regional and national scales. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Construction and Use of a Simple Index of Urbanisation in the Rural–Urban Interface of Bangalore, India
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2146; doi:10.3390/su9112146 -
Abstract
Urbanisation is a global trend rapidly transforming the biophysical and socioeconomic structures of metropolitan areas. To better understand (and perhaps control) these processes, more interdisciplinary research must be dedicated to the rural–urban interface. This also calls for a common reference system describing intermediate
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Urbanisation is a global trend rapidly transforming the biophysical and socioeconomic structures of metropolitan areas. To better understand (and perhaps control) these processes, more interdisciplinary research must be dedicated to the rural–urban interface. This also calls for a common reference system describing intermediate stages along a rural–urban gradient. The present paper constructs a simple index of urbanisation for villages in the Greater Bangalore Area, using GIS analysis of satellite images, and combining basic measures of building density and distance. The correlation of the two parameters and discontinuities in the frequency distribution of the combined index indicate highly dynamic stages of transformation, spatially clustered in the rural–urban interface. This analysis is substantiated by a qualitative assessment of village morphologies. The index presented here serves as a starting point in a large, coordinated study of rural–urban transitions. It was used to stratify villages for random sampling in order to perform a representative socioeconomic household survey, along with agricultural experiments and environmental assessments in various subsamples. Later on, it will also provide a matrix against which the results can be aligned and evaluated. In this process, the measures and classification systems themselves can be further refined and elaborated. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Optimization of the Separation Parameters and Indicators of Separation Efficiency of Buckwheat Seeds
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2134; doi:10.3390/su9112134 -
Abstract
The separation parameters and the indicators of separation efficiency for buckwheat seeds and impurities that are difficult to separate were optimized with the use of self-designed software based on genetic algorithms. The results of the calculations differed significantly from the suboptimal values determined
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The separation parameters and the indicators of separation efficiency for buckwheat seeds and impurities that are difficult to separate were optimized with the use of self-designed software based on genetic algorithms. The results of the calculations differed significantly from the suboptimal values determined in previous studies. The optimal values of the indicator of separation efficiency were higher; whereas the values of the indicator of buckwheat seed loss were significantly lower. The optimal working parameters for a seed separator in order to promote separation efficiency were determined. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Block Design Process for High-Rise and High-Density Districts with Snow and Wind Simulations for Winter Cities
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2132; doi:10.3390/su9112132 -
Abstract
Urban designs that consider regional climatic conditions are one of the most important approaches for developing sustainable cities. In cities that suffer from heavy snow and cold winds in winter, an urban design approach different than that used for warm cities should be
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Urban designs that consider regional climatic conditions are one of the most important approaches for developing sustainable cities. In cities that suffer from heavy snow and cold winds in winter, an urban design approach different than that used for warm cities should be used. This study presents a scientific design process (the sustainable design approach) that incorporates environmental and energy assessments that use snow and wind simulations to establish guidelines for the design of urban blocks in high-rise and high-density districts so that the impact of snow and wind can be minimized in these cities. A city block in downtown Sapporo, Japan, was used as a case study, and we evaluated four conceptual models. The four models were evaluated for how they impacted the snow and wind conditions in the block as well as the snow removal energy. Based on the results, we were able to identify the design guidelines in downtown Sapporo: an urban block design with higher building height ratio without the mid-rise part can reduce the snowdrifts and lower the snow removal energy. The proposed sustainable urban design approach would be effective in improving the quality of public spaces and reducing snow removal energy in winter cities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Particulate Matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in Subway Systems: Health-Based Economic Assessment
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2135; doi:10.3390/su9112135 -
Abstract
Particulate matter (PM) is implicated in severely negative health effects, and subway-system PM is potentially more genotoxic than several other particle types. However, there are insufficient studies on subway-system PM-pollution reduction and control and the potential economic benefits thereof. Thus, the present study
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Particulate matter (PM) is implicated in severely negative health effects, and subway-system PM is potentially more genotoxic than several other particle types. However, there are insufficient studies on subway-system PM-pollution reduction and control and the potential economic benefits thereof. Thus, the present study undertakes to assess the potential economic benefits resulting from a 10 μg/m3 reduction in PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in a subway system, and to evaluate the importance of prevention and management of PM generally and subway-system PM specifically. Socioeconomic benefits such as medical expense curtailment, the precautionary effect on premature death, and the precautionary effect on productivity loss among subway passengers and workers were estimated by the cost-of-illness (COI) method. The health endpoints included two categories of disease: all lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The results showed that the total annual economic value in cost savings was 328.2 million KRW: 124.2 million KRW in direct costs, 186.4 million KRW in premature mortality costs, and 17.6 million KRW in productivity loss costs, respectively. These findings suggest that the control of PM10 and PM2.5 levels in subway systems should be promoted, as such effort certainly can produce significant economic benefits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Open Source-Based Real-Time Data Processing Architecture Framework for Manufacturing Sustainability
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2139; doi:10.3390/su9112139 -
Abstract
Currently, the manufacturing industry is experiencing a data-driven revolution. There are multiple processes in the manufacturing industry and will eventually generate a large amount of data. Collecting, analyzing and storing a large amount of data are one of key elements of the smart
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Currently, the manufacturing industry is experiencing a data-driven revolution. There are multiple processes in the manufacturing industry and will eventually generate a large amount of data. Collecting, analyzing and storing a large amount of data are one of key elements of the smart manufacturing industry. To ensure that all processes within the manufacturing industry are functioning smoothly, the big data processing is needed. Thus, in this study an open source-based real-time data processing (OSRDP) architecture framework was proposed. OSRDP architecture framework consists of several open sources technologies, including Apache Kafka, Apache Storm and NoSQL MongoDB that are effective and cost efficient for real-time data processing. Several experiments and impact analysis for manufacturing sustainability are provided. The results showed that the proposed system is capable of processing a massive sensor data efficiently when the number of sensors data and devices increases. In addition, the data mining based on Random Forest is presented to predict the quality of products given the sensor data as the input. The Random Forest successfully classifies the defect and non-defect products, and generates high accuracy compared to other data mining algorithms. This study is expected to support the management in their decision-making for product quality inspection and support manufacturing sustainability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Health Risk Assessment of Vegetables Grown on the Contaminated Soils in Daye City of Hubei Province, China
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2141; doi:10.3390/su9112141 -
Abstract
China is an agriculturally-producing country and the safety of its vegetables will have an extensive attention at home and abroad. Recently, contamination of soils and vegetables caused by mining activities is of great social concern because of the potential risk to human health,
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China is an agriculturally-producing country and the safety of its vegetables will have an extensive attention at home and abroad. Recently, contamination of soils and vegetables caused by mining activities is of great social concern because of the potential risk to human health, especially to the residents whom live near metal or metalloid mines. In this study, 18 topsoil and 141 vegetable samples were collected from the contaminated areas in Daye City Hubei Province, China and the concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were analyzed. A self-designed questionnaire was assigned to obtain the exposure scenario and the USEPA health risk assessment model was adopted to assess two type of risks (non-carcinogenic risks and carcinogenic risks) of vegetables to humans. The results showed that the average contents of metal(loid)s in soils exceeded the background value of Daye City. The average contents of metal(loid)s, especially As, Cd, Pb, in three kinds of vegetables were significantly higher than the permissible values based on Chinese national standard. Leafy vegetables had relatively higher concentrations and the transfer factors of As (0.015), Cd (0.080) and Pb (0.003) were comparable to leguminous and fruit vegetables. Leguminous vegetables had relatively higher concentrations and transfer factors of Cu (0.032) and Zn (0.094) than leafy and fruit vegetables. The transfer factors from soil to plants follows a decreasing order as Cd (0.068), Zn (0.047) > Cu (0.023) > As (0.006), Pb (0.002). Furthermore, health risk assessment revealed the following results: the non-carcinogenic risk decreased in the order of children, adult, adolescent, while the carcinogenic risk followed a decreasing order of adult, adolescent, children; the calculated carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk of the metal(loid)s by vegetable consumption decreased in the order of leafy vegetables > fruit vegetables > leguminous vegetables. The relatively lower transfer factors and lower risks may suggest that leguminous and fruit vegetables are more suitable for planting in Daye City. Based on the contributions of five kinds of metal(loid)s from three types of vegetables, Cd and As are found to be the dominant sources of health risk. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Conflicts of Interest and Change in Original Intent: A Case Study of Vacant and Abandoned Homes Repurposed as Community Gardens in a Shrinking City, Daegu, South Korea
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2140; doi:10.3390/su9112140 -
Abstract
As part of an urban policy designed to revive South Korea’s shrinking cities, vacant residential structures are being demolished and the resulting empty plots transformed into public spaces. This study discursively examines this process, its stakeholders, and the sources of conflict among them
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As part of an urban policy designed to revive South Korea’s shrinking cities, vacant residential structures are being demolished and the resulting empty plots transformed into public spaces. This study discursively examines this process, its stakeholders, and the sources of conflict among them in the neighborhood of Daebong 2 in Daegu, South Korea. Additionally, solutions for maintaining public interest are explored. Employees and members of relevant municipal authorities and non-profit organizations (NPOs), as well as town residents, were selected through purposive sampling for interviews. The data were then analyzed via open coding. The results reveal conflict between users and non-users in terms of the possession of public goods, as well as conflict between project executives in the creation process. We also found that spatial and policy characteristics are a particular source of conflict in dense, historic residential areas. To overcome problems caused by rivalry and discord, the following actions are required: a change in perspective among policy practitioners; a governance structure that consists of a public/private/community partnership; consensus among community members, and; equitable welfare through programs based on inclusivity and public interest. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
How Third-Party CSR Evaluation Matters: Keeping Up with Rivals in CSR Performance Ratings of Korean Firms, 2011–2015
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2137; doi:10.3390/su9112137 -
Abstract
Does corporate social responsibility (CSR) evaluation by third-party entities (i.e., external agencies, including civic organizations) affect the CSR performance of firms? This article explores the question of whether and how third-party CSR ratings change the subsequent CSR behavior and hence performance of rated
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Does corporate social responsibility (CSR) evaluation by third-party entities (i.e., external agencies, including civic organizations) affect the CSR performance of firms? This article explores the question of whether and how third-party CSR ratings change the subsequent CSR behavior and hence performance of rated firms. Combining insights from the research on ratings/rankings and a behavioral theory of firms, we hypothesize that firms with large negative CSR rating gaps—i.e., CSR ratings below the industry average—are more prone to improving their subsequent CSR behavior, and hence performance ratings, than those with small negative gaps, because of the desire to avoid being viewed as CSR laggards relative to their industry rivals. As a result, efforts are directed at enhancing CSR performance. Empirical support for this conjecture is found through random effect regression analyses of publicly listed firms in Korea that were rated by the KEJI (Korean Economic Justice Institute) during 2011–2015 with respect to multiple dimensions of CSR. Further results show that the positive effect of negative CSR rating gaps on subsequent CSR ratings appears only in the firms without well-established reputations, suggesting the possibility that firms with weak reputations have stronger incentives to keep up with other industry incumbents in CSR performance ratings than their counterparts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On the Sustainability of Co-Authoring Behaviors in Vietnamese Social Sciences: A Preliminary Analysis of Network Data
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2142; doi:10.3390/su9112142 -
Abstract
The topic of sustainability has mostly been tied to economic development and environmental protection, yet not much attention has been paid to the need for high problem-solving capacity as this underlines both issues. One of the most straightforward ways to improve problem-solving capacity
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The topic of sustainability has mostly been tied to economic development and environmental protection, yet not much attention has been paid to the need for high problem-solving capacity as this underlines both issues. One of the most straightforward ways to improve problem-solving capacity is to nurture ‘productive and enduring’, i.e., sustainable, scientific communities. The study examines the co-authoring behaviors of 412 Vietnamese social scientists over the 2008–2017 period via social network analysis to determine if these researchers have formed sustainable scientific communities, using Scopus data. The dataset provides an insightful look into the predominant form of collaboration, i.e., co-authorship, within the Vietnamese social science research communities. Through basic network metrics such as density and clustering coefficient, the study hypothesizes that the socially sustainable research communities are those with low clustering and high density. As any scholar's position in a network can be specified by three quantities: the number of publications, connections, and years in research, the distance metrics from the most productive to the rest are computed and compared. The study hypothesizes that if the distance is too large; it reflects the socially unsustainable situation in the network. The results indicate that certain level of social unsustainability exists in social sciences groups in Vietnam. Though the results are only indicative, it has opened up a fertile space for future inquiry into this matter. Full article
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