Open AccessArticle
Does Suburbanization Cause Ecological Deterioration? An Empirical Analysis of Shanghai, China
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 124; doi:10.3390/su9010124 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Suburbanization in the US largely occurred to solve various urban problems; however, it has also caused many issues, such as the decline of central urban areas, the waste of land resources, and the deterioration of ecological environments in the suburbs. Therefore, the study
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Suburbanization in the US largely occurred to solve various urban problems; however, it has also caused many issues, such as the decline of central urban areas, the waste of land resources, and the deterioration of ecological environments in the suburbs. Therefore, the study of suburbanization has received considerable attention in academia. Scholars have argued that suburbanization leads to ecological deterioration. To examine this viewpoint, the authors analyzed spatial-temporal changes in the ambient environment, the soil environment, the water environment, and other ecological environments, as well as carbon emissions of the central urban areas and the suburbs, in the suburbanization process exemplified by Shanghai. The results showed that suburbanization indeed caused many changes in ecological and environmental quality, but that the overall environmental quality in the suburbs of Shanghai remained better than that in the central urban area. It is important not to exaggerate the negative impact of suburbanization in metropolitan areas on the quality of the surrounding ecological environments. However, great attention must be given to controlling the diffusion of pollutants resulting from industrial and population suburbanization. It is also crucial to continue strengthening ecological environmental remediation, improvement, and recovery in the central urban area, and to comprehensively promote the coordinated development of agricultural modernization, industrial aggregation, low-carbon urbanization, and ecological sustainability, in both urban and rural areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
How Do Differences in Land Ownership Types in China Affect Land Development? A Case from Beijing
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 123; doi:10.3390/su9010123 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
China has a unique land use system in which there are two types of land ownership, namely, state-owned urban land and farmer collective-owned rural land. Despite strict restrictions on the use rights of farmer collective-owned land, rural land is, in fact, developed along
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China has a unique land use system in which there are two types of land ownership, namely, state-owned urban land and farmer collective-owned rural land. Despite strict restrictions on the use rights of farmer collective-owned land, rural land is, in fact, developed along two pathways: it is formally acquired by the state and transferred into state ownership, or it is informally developed while remaining in collective ownership. Taking Beijing, the capital, as an example, and using data from land use surveys in the Changping district of the city, this paper examines the spatial patterns and characteristics of land development along these two pathways, and sets up a multinomial logit model to test whether land development with and without ownership change was affected by the same factors. The findings suggest that: (1) development on collective-owned land is more spatially scattered, and its links to public infrastructure are weaker; (2) transportation infrastructure, farmer income, spatial location, and previous land usage are the major factors that affect land development; nevertheless, the influences of the factors are different for the two pathways. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Validation of a Wave Energy Converter Array Hydrodynamics Tool
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 115; doi:10.3390/su9010115 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This paper uses experimental data to validate a wave energy converter (WEC) array hydrodynamics tool developed within the context of linearized potential flow theory. To this end, wave forces and power absorption by an array of five-point absorber WECs in monochromatic and panchromatic
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This paper uses experimental data to validate a wave energy converter (WEC) array hydrodynamics tool developed within the context of linearized potential flow theory. To this end, wave forces and power absorption by an array of five-point absorber WECs in monochromatic and panchromatic waves were measured from a set of deep-water wave basin experimental tests. Unlike the few other examples of WEC array experimental campaigns, the power take-off (PTO) system of each WEC was simulated by means of advanced equipment capable of accurately reproducing linear control strategies and, thereby, reducing the uncertainty in the physical model. Experimental measurements are then compared with numerical predictions showing reasonable agreement; the measured trends are, in the same way, well captured by the numerical predictions. Further analysis demonstrates that the developed tool can predict, on the safe side, wave forces and power absorption with less than 17.5% and 23.0% error, respectively, for more than 68% of the predictions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sprawl Dynamics in Rural–Urban Territories Highly Suited for Wine Production. Mapping Urban Growth and Changing Territorial Shapes in North-East Italy
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 116; doi:10.3390/su9010116 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In Italy, large-scale changes in the structure of land use can be observed. These are caused primarily by socio-economic pressures, generally determining the conversion of agricultural land into artificial surfaces. Our aim was to investigate if and how sprawl dynamics influence viticultural landscapes
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In Italy, large-scale changes in the structure of land use can be observed. These are caused primarily by socio-economic pressures, generally determining the conversion of agricultural land into artificial surfaces. Our aim was to investigate if and how sprawl dynamics influence viticultural landscapes (that is, if they result in scattered, intermediate, or compact urban developments). We focused on selected territories in North-East Italy, where vine-growing provides almost uninterrupted land cover, as case study areas. Using GIS-based techniques, we documented the processes of land use, analyzing the resulting changes of urban-rural forms and in territorial shapes. Results at the Provincial level showed decreasing dispersed artificial surfaces and increasing clustered urban developments. This trend is also detected in areas under vine, but in general is more modest. Our research indicates that typical agricultural productions can determine resistance to the alienation of land, maintaining a sufficient consistency for areas to develop in a more varied and articulated (for example touristic) manner. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Value Chain Structures that Define European Cellulosic Ethanol Production
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 118; doi:10.3390/su9010118 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Production of cellulosic ethanol (CE) has not yet reached the scale envisaged by the literature and industry. This study explores CE production in Europe to improve understanding of the motivations and barriers associated with this situation. To do this, we conduct a case
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Production of cellulosic ethanol (CE) has not yet reached the scale envisaged by the literature and industry. This study explores CE production in Europe to improve understanding of the motivations and barriers associated with this situation. To do this, we conduct a case study-based analysis of CE production plants across Europe from a global value chain (GVC) perspective. We find that most CE production plants in the EU focus largely on intellectual property and are therefore only at the pilot or demonstration scale. Crescentino, the largest CE production facility in Europe, is also more interested in technology licensing than producing ethanol. Demonstration-scale plants tend to have a larger variety of feedstocks, whereas forestry-based plants have more diversity of outputs. As scale increases, the diversity of feedstocks and outputs diminishes, and firms struggle with feedstock provisioning, global petroleum markets and higher financial risks. We argue that, to increase CE production, policies should consider value chains, promote the wider bio-economy of products and focus on economies of scope. Whereas the EU and its member states have ethanol quotas and blending targets, a more effective policy would be to seek to reduce the risks involved in financing capital projects, secure feedstock provisioning and support a diversity of end products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Potential of Variable Renewable Energy for a Balanced Isolated Grid: A Japanese Case Study
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 119; doi:10.3390/su9010119 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
There is a global push to develop renewable energy to further a low-carbon society. However, the nature of variable renewable energy (VRE) sources such as wind power and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems may create problems because electricity grids require a stable power supply
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There is a global push to develop renewable energy to further a low-carbon society. However, the nature of variable renewable energy (VRE) sources such as wind power and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems may create problems because electricity grids require a stable power supply to match demand. To evaluate the potential capacity of VREs that may be installed, we develop an optimized model that balances power supply and demand and also considers grid balancing by battery storage and load frequency control. The model was applied to a case study of an isolated grid on a remote Japanese island. When set to optimize the grid in terms of lowest cost, the model suggested that, compared with the base case, the capacity of wind power should be increased by a factor of 1.7 and 15.8 for situations without and with battery storage, respectively. Since it was always considered to be more expensive than wind power, no change in solar PV capacity was observed. These approaches resulted in a decrease in the total power generation cost of 2% and 24%, respectively, while total CO2 emissions fell by 3% and 52%, primarily driven by decreased used of the existing fossil-fueled thermal plant. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biochars as Potential Adsorbers of CH4, CO2 and H2S
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 121; doi:10.3390/su9010121 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Methane gas, as one of the major biogases, is a potential source of renewable energy for power production. Biochar can be readily used to purify biogas contaminants such as H2S and CO2. This study assessed the adsorption of CH
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Methane gas, as one of the major biogases, is a potential source of renewable energy for power production. Biochar can be readily used to purify biogas contaminants such as H2S and CO2. This study assessed the adsorption of CH4, H2S, and CO2 onto four different types of biochars. The adsorption dynamics of biochars were investigated in a fixed-bed column, by determining the breakthrough curves and adsorption capacities of biochars. The physicochemical properties of biochars were considered to justify the adsorption performance. The results showed that CH4 was not adsorbed well by the subjected biochars whereas CO2 and H2S were successfully captured. The H2S and CO2 breakthrough capacity were related to both the surface adsorption and chemical reaction. The adsorption capacity was in the following order: perilla > soybean stover > Korean oak > Japanese oak biochars. The simultaneous adsorption also leads to a competition of sorption sites. Biochars are a promising material for the biogas purification industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Morphological Features on Summer Temperature Variations on the Example of Two Residential Neighborhoods in Ljubljana, Slovenia
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 122; doi:10.3390/su9010122 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The study conducted in this paper is focused on a predominantly residential area of the City of Ljubljana—Koseze, which is characterized by generally favorable (bio)climatic conditions. Nonetheless, thermal satellite images showed that residential neighborhoods within the Koseze district display unexpected variations in summer
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The study conducted in this paper is focused on a predominantly residential area of the City of Ljubljana—Koseze, which is characterized by generally favorable (bio)climatic conditions. Nonetheless, thermal satellite images showed that residential neighborhoods within the Koseze district display unexpected variations in summer temperatures. This observation called into question the benefits of existing bioclimatic features and indicated the need to investigate and compare two neighborhoods with similar urban parameters, with the aim to identify morphological differential characteristics impacting urban heat island (UHI) intensity. By applying the study methodology based on a literature review, surveys of key precedents, detailed mapping in two Koseze locations, in situ measurements, observations and recordings, thermal imagery, and the analyses of statistical data, as well as by defining the four main categories of morphological urban parameters—structure, cover, fabric and metabolism, it was concluded that both neighborhoods have common morphological elements mitigating the UHI effect. Additionally, it was found that the neighborhood with higher UHI intensity has several less favorable features, such as busier roads, larger surface of parking corridors, and the existence of underground parking space. The traffic as an element of urban morphology hence represents the main cause of differences among UHI levels in the two Koseze neighborhoods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Distributed Demand Side Management with Battery Storage for Smart Home Energy Scheduling
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 120; doi:10.3390/su9010120 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The role of Demand Side Management (DSM) with Distributed Energy Storage (DES) has been gaining attention in recent studies due to the impact of the latter on energy management in the smart grid. In this work, an Energy Scheduling and Distributed Storage (ESDS)
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The role of Demand Side Management (DSM) with Distributed Energy Storage (DES) has been gaining attention in recent studies due to the impact of the latter on energy management in the smart grid. In this work, an Energy Scheduling and Distributed Storage (ESDS) algorithm is proposed to be installed into the smart meters of Time-of-Use (TOU) pricing consumers possessing in-home energy storage devices. Source of energy supply to the smart home appliances was optimized between the utility grid and the DES device depending on energy tariff and consumer demand satisfaction information. This is to minimize consumer energy expenditure and maximize demand satisfaction simultaneously. The ESDS algorithm was found to offer consumer-friendly and utility-friendly enhancements to the DSM program such as energy, financial, and investment savings, reduced/eliminated consumer dissatisfaction even at peak periods, Peak-to-Average-Ratio (PAR) demand reduction, grid energy sustainability, socio-economic benefits, and other associated benefits such as environmental-friendliness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Objective Optimization for Equipment Capacity in Off-Grid Smart House
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 117; doi:10.3390/su9010117 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Recently, the off-grid smart house has been attracting attention in Japan for considering global warming. Moreover, the selling price of surplus power from the renewable energy system by Feed-In Tariff (FIT) has declined. Therefore, this paper proposes an off-grid smart house with the
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Recently, the off-grid smart house has been attracting attention in Japan for considering global warming. Moreover, the selling price of surplus power from the renewable energy system by Feed-In Tariff (FIT) has declined. Therefore, this paper proposes an off-grid smart house with the introduced Photovoltaic (PV) system, Solar Collector (SC) system, Hot Water Heat Pump (HWHP), fixed battery and Electric Vehicle (EV). In this research, a multi-objective optimization problem is considered to minimize the introduced capacity and shortage of the power supply in the smart house. It can perform the electric power procurement from the EV charging station for the compensation of a shortage of power supply. From the simulation results, it is shown that the shortage of the power supply can be reduced by the compensation of the EV power. Furthermore, considering the uncertainty for PV output power, reliable simulation results can be obtained. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Dynamic Relationship between Fluctuations in the Korean Housing Market and the Occurrence of Unsold New Housing Stocks
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 107; doi:10.3390/su9010107 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In this paper, we intend to identify the characteristics of occurrence of unsold new housing stocks and draw the implications for the housing business strategy that can effectively cope with the market risk under the Korean housing market. As a result of the
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In this paper, we intend to identify the characteristics of occurrence of unsold new housing stocks and draw the implications for the housing business strategy that can effectively cope with the market risk under the Korean housing market. As a result of the analysis, most of the theoretical causality of occurrence of unsold new housing stocks under the three-dimensional Korean housing market was found to correspond to the empirical analysis result. In addition, the chonsei market that produces the characteristic movement of Korean housing market had a significant relation with occurrence of unsold new housing stocks. Because of these results, it is thought that the proposed housing business strategy can effectively cope with the housing market risk. It is thought that we need to additionally examine the financial validity of the proposed housing business model by calculating the cash flow and grope for policy support measures to materialize it on the basis of the analysis result of this paper. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Annual Precipitation Fluctuation and Spatial Differentiation Characteristics of the Horqin Region
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 111; doi:10.3390/su9010111 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Precipitation is the main water source for vegetation survival in arid and semi-arid areas. However, previous studies always focus on the effects of precipitation in different time scales, but ignore the effects of precipitation in different spatial scales. To further study the effects
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Precipitation is the main water source for vegetation survival in arid and semi-arid areas. However, previous studies always focus on the effects of precipitation in different time scales, but ignore the effects of precipitation in different spatial scales. To further study the effects of precipitation fluctuation in different spatial scales, we used the wavelet analysis method to analyze its temporal and spatial change based on data from eighteen meteorological stations during 1961–2015 in Horqin region. Results showed that: (1) from the overall tendency of precipitation changes, the precipitation inter-annual variations in Horqin region had the tendency of gradually decreasing from the southeast (District IV) to the northwest; (2) the precipitation anomalies of District I–IV between 1960 and 1980 were small and approximate to the normal value; (3) in the time scale of 23–32 years, the cyclical fluctuations were very significant and the annual precipitation underwent two cyclical fluctuations from a period of low precipitation to a period of high precipitation; and (4) as results of analyzing the spatial wavelet variance of sub-region, the main cycle of precipitation in District I, District II and District III was between 10 and 11 years, while the main cycle of precipitation in District IV was 25 years. The main conclusions include the following. (1) This region tended to be arid, and the precipitation gradually decreased from the southeast (District IV) to northwest (District I). (2) The influence of spatial differentiation characteristics on precipitation fluctuation in this region was cyclical fluctuation, which gradually decreased from the southeast to the northwest. The length of the cyclical change period gradually shortened. In the first main cycle, whose annual precipitation changes were most significant, the changing characteristic was District IV and District I decreased from 25 years to 10 years. (3) Predicated from the cyclical changing law that the annual precipitation decreases from high to low, the Horqin region will remain in a period of low precipitation between 2016 and 2020. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mapping Social Vulnerability to Air Pollution: A Case Study of the Yangtze River Delta Region, China
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 109; doi:10.3390/su9010109 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Many frequent and severe air pollution incidents have emerged across the vast parts of China recently. The identification of factors and mapping social vulnerability has become extremely necessary for environmental management and sustainable development. However, studies associating social vulnerability with air pollution remain
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Many frequent and severe air pollution incidents have emerged across the vast parts of China recently. The identification of factors and mapping social vulnerability has become extremely necessary for environmental management and sustainable development. However, studies associating social vulnerability with air pollution remain sparse. With reference to research achievements of social vulnerability, this study made a new trial regarding social vulnerability assessment to air pollution. With the projection pursuit cluster (PPC) model, the top three factors contributing to social vulnerability index (SVI) were discovered and SVI and SVI dimensions (susceptibility, exposure, and adaptability) were evaluated. Results revealed that adaptability values are higher than susceptibility and exposure values. SVI is in a poor condition as, for the whole region, most values belong to the high-medium level. High SVI values mainly appear in the northern and the southern ends of study area. SVI in Shanghai is lower than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. On the scale of prefecture-level city, it can be found that the low-value centers of SVI always occurred in urban core areas. The spatial variation and inequality in social vulnerability provide policy-makers a scientific basis for air pollution prevention and sustainable management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determinants of Residential Solid Waste Management Services Provision: A Village-Level Analysis in Rural China
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 110; doi:10.3390/su9010110 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Providing residential solid waste collection (RSWC) services is the first and most indispensable part of residential solid waste management and is crucial for rural environment protection. This paper seeks to analyze the determinants of RSWC services’ provision at the village level, based on
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Providing residential solid waste collection (RSWC) services is the first and most indispensable part of residential solid waste management and is crucial for rural environment protection. This paper seeks to analyze the determinants of RSWC services’ provision at the village level, based on a latest survey data set of 150 villages in the Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone (PLEEZ) in Jiangxi Province. Using a Probit regression model and a Bivariate Probit regression model, our results indicated that: (1) The provision of RSWC services is not evenly distributed and richer villages have more RSWC services; (2) A showcasing phenomenon exists in the provision of RSWC services. Villages that are more populous, nearer to the township government, and located in the new countryside and old liberated areas saw an increase in the provision of RSWC facilities, services that will more easily showcase village leaders’ political achievement, while the provision of RSWC workers and both RSWC facilities and workers, services that will less easily showcase village leaders’ political achievement, do not increase in these villages; (3) Informal governance characteristics, such as the ratio of largest family clans, whether village leaders come from the village’s largest family clans, and the number of people working in the upper-level government have strong predictive power over the provision of RSWC services, while formal governance characteristics, such as elections, do not matter in RSWC services’ provision. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Affecting the Survival of SMEs: A Study of Biotechnology Firms in South Korea
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 108; doi:10.3390/su9010108 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Past studies examining survival factors of biotechnology firms have focused on pioneer countries, such as the USA, the UK and Germany. However, as the biotechnology industry in Asia is reaching the take-off stage and showing a high growth rate, the research on survival
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Past studies examining survival factors of biotechnology firms have focused on pioneer countries, such as the USA, the UK and Germany. However, as the biotechnology industry in Asia is reaching the take-off stage and showing a high growth rate, the research on survival factors in the context of Asian latecomers is needed. The present research investigates internal and external factors affecting the survival of SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises) in the biotechnology industry in South Korea. The Cox hazard model was employed to perform a robust estimation in survival analysis. The analysis of internal factors showed that the origin of a firm (i.e., having prior experience or spin-offs) and the business sub-sector (i.e., platform-based) affect the hazard rates of biotechnology firms. In terms of external factors, unlike strategic alliances, government R&D funding lowered hazard rates for the firm’s survival. Additionally, considering that the reasons of firm exit can be divided into bankruptcy and M&A (Mergers and Acquisitions), the different effects of origins from other firms and strategic alliance for firm survival are confirmed. The results suggest that prior experience, platform-based and constant government R&D funding contribute to the sustainable development of SMEs in the biotechnology industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On the Relationship between Holocene Geomorphic Evolution of Rivers and Prehistoric Settlements Distribution in the Songshan Mountain Region of China
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 114; doi:10.3390/su9010114 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This paper deals with the study of Holocene geomorphic evolution of rivers around Songshan Mountain in relation to human frequentation in Prehistoric periods. The investigations were performed by means of an integration of GIS data processing; field surveys and particle size analysis. In
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This paper deals with the study of Holocene geomorphic evolution of rivers around Songshan Mountain in relation to human frequentation in Prehistoric periods. The investigations were performed by means of an integration of GIS data processing; field surveys and particle size analysis. In 8000–3000 aBP; in the Songshan Mountain Region, large-scale river sedimentation occurred. This increased the elevation of river beds that were higher than today. After 3000 aBP; the upper reaches of the rivers experienced a down cut; while the lower reaches experienced continuing sedimentation. The data on the elevation of prehistoric settlements above the river levels were obtained from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). These data were corrected according to the evolutionary features of fluvial landforms in order to obtain synchronous elevations above river levels of prehistoric settlements. The relationship between sediment distribution and the Holocene geomorphic evolution was investigated through the statistical analysis of the elevation above the river levels. Outputs from our analyses enabled us to differentiate three evolutionary stages. During the first one, related to Peiligang culture (9000–7500 aBP), populations mainly settled on both hilly relief and high plateaus depending on their agriculture production modes. During the second stage, from Yangshao (7500–5000 aBP) to the Longshan period (5000–4000 aBP), settlements were mainly distributed on mountainous areas and hilly lands to avoid flooding and to develop agriculture. Finally, during the Xiashang culture (4000–3000 aBP), a large number of settlements migrated to the plain area to facilitate trade of goods and cultural exchanges. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Energy Saving in Public Transport Using Renewable Energy
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 106; doi:10.3390/su9010106 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Hydrogen produced by renewable sources represents an interesting way to reduce the energetic dependence on fossil fuels in the transportation sector. This paper shows a feasibility study for the production, storage and distribution of hydrogen in the western Sicilian context, using three different
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Hydrogen produced by renewable sources represents an interesting way to reduce the energetic dependence on fossil fuels in the transportation sector. This paper shows a feasibility study for the production, storage and distribution of hydrogen in the western Sicilian context, using three different renewable sources: wind, biomass and sea wave. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the hydrogen demand, needed to replace all diesel supplied buses with electrical buses equipped with fuel cells. An economic analysis is presented with the evaluation of the avoidable greenhouse gas emissions. Four different scenarios correlate the hydrogen demand for urban transport to the renewable energy resources present in the territories and to the modern technologies available for the production of hydrogen. The study focuses on the possibility of tapping into the potential of renewable energies (wind, biomass and sea wave) for the production of hydrogen by electrolysis. The use of hydrogen would reduce significantly the emissions of particulate and greenhouse gases in the urban districts under analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Managing European Cross Border Cooperation Projects on Sustainability: A Focus on an MESP Project
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 112; doi:10.3390/su9010112 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
International cooperation is a must to achieve the goal of sustainable development, since only through cross border actions’ complex issues like environmental degradation can be faced. Supranational initiatives and shared objectives are the only path for getting a durable and effective green strategy,
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International cooperation is a must to achieve the goal of sustainable development, since only through cross border actions’ complex issues like environmental degradation can be faced. Supranational initiatives and shared objectives are the only path for getting a durable and effective green strategy, which transcends boundaries or governments and fosters a common effort for sustainability through networking. The European Neighborhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI) aims at reinforcing cooperation between the European Union (EU) and partner countries’ regions placed along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. To this extent, MESP (Managing the Environmental Sustainability of Ports for a durable development) can be considered as a typical cross border cooperation project, willing to create a sustainable environmental management of port in northern and southern shores of the Mediterranean basin. This has been achieved through the development of specific guidelines towards environmental sustainability and the collection of common tools, methodologies, good practices and innovations focused on pollution reduction that can be replicated in Mediterranean ports and further. This was possible through the creation of a strong cooperation network and long-lasting collaborations among partners and stakeholders such as harbour cities, port authorities, universities, research centres and scientific skills. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Wine Tourism and Sustainability: A Review
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 113; doi:10.3390/su9010113 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The literature on tourism and events is endless; a niche in this wide research field is represented by food and wine research. The growing interest shown by wine tourists has nurtured the proliferation of wine events and the growth of the wine tourism
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The literature on tourism and events is endless; a niche in this wide research field is represented by food and wine research. The growing interest shown by wine tourists has nurtured the proliferation of wine events and the growth of the wine tourism business; as a consequence, academicians’ interest in this issue has increased. At the same time, research on tourism and events is an evolving field and it has moved from a main economic focus to a broader perspective: some scholars have highlighted how the growing interest towards green and sustainable practices has stimulated academic research and a lot has been done on the management of environmental issues. Given the resonance of wine tourism and the role it has for local and rural development, the interest towards the issue of sustainability in wine is more than warranted. Thus, this paper aims to provide some useful insights about where research has gone and where it is going; a thorough literature review has been performed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Scenario Prediction of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions in China’s Machinery Industry
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 87; doi:10.3390/su9010087 -
Abstract
Energy conservation and CO2 abatement is currently an important development strategy for China. It is significant to analyze how to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions in China’s energy-intensive machinery industry. We not only employ a cointegration method and scenario analysis
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Energy conservation and CO2 abatement is currently an important development strategy for China. It is significant to analyze how to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions in China’s energy-intensive machinery industry. We not only employ a cointegration method and scenario analysis to predict the future energy demand and CO2 emissions in China’s machinery industry, but we also use the Monte Carlo simulation to test the validity of the predictions. The results show that energy demand in the industry will respectively reach 678.759 Mtce (million ton coal equivalent) in 2020 and 865.494 Mtce in 2025 under the baseline scenario. Compared with the baseline scenario, the energy savings in 2020 will respectively be 63.654 Mtce and 120.787 Mtce in the medium and advanced scenarios. Furthermore, we forecast the corresponding CO2 emissions as well as the reduction potential respectively in 2020 and 2025. In order to achieve energy conservation and emissions reduction, the government should increase energy price, levy environmental taxes based on the emissions level of machinery enterprises, promote mergers and acquisitions of enterprises, and expand the scale of enterprises. This paper provides a reference for energy conservation and CO2 abatement policy in China’s machinery industry. Full article
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