Sustainability2016, 8(9), 835; doi:10.3390/su8090835 - published 24 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Forest resources remain vital to the survival of many rural communities, though the level of forest reliance varies across a range of sites and socio-economic settings. This article investigates variation in forest utilization across households in three ethnic groups living near a forest restoration area in Sumatra, Indonesia. Survey data were collected on 268 households, with a four-month recall period and three repeat visits to each selected household within a year. Random sampling was applied to select households in five villages and five Batin Sembilan (indigenous) semi-nomadic groups. Sampled households belonged to three ethnic groups: 15% were Batin Sembilan, 40% Local Malayan, and 45% Immigrant households. Indigenous households displayed the highest reliance on forests: 36% of their annual total income came from this source, as compared with 10% and 8% for Local and Immigrant households, respectively. Our findings showed that the livelihoods of indigenous groups were still intricately linked with forest resources, despite a rapid landscape-wide transition from natural forest to oil palm and timber plantations.
Sustainability2016, 8(9), 839; doi:10.3390/su8090839 - published 24 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Sustainability relies on the environmental, social and economical systems: the three pillars of sustainability. The social sustainability mostly advocates the people’s welfare, health, safety, and quality of life. In the agricultural food industry, the aspects of social sustainability, such as consumer health and safety have gained substantial attention due to the frequent cases of food-borne diseases. The food-borne diseases due to the food degradation, chemical contamination and adulteration of food products pose a serious threat to the consumer’s health, safety, and quality of life. To ensure the consumer’s health and safety, it is essential to develop an efficient system which can address these critical social issues in the food distribution networks. This research proposes an ePedigree (electronic pedigree) traceability system based on the integration of RFID and sensor technology for real-time monitoring of the agricultural food to prevent the distribution of hazardous and adulterated food products. The different aspects regarding implementation of the proposed system in food chains are analyzed and a feasible integrated solution is proposed. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated and finally, a comprehensive analysis of the proposed ePedigree system’s impact on the social sustainability in terms of consumer health and safety is presented.
Sustainability2016, 8(9), 837; doi:10.3390/su8090837 - published 24 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Food wastes are sources of compounds that can be used as natural additives in the food and feed industry. The olive oil industry produces two main wastes: aqueous waste (olive mill wastewater) and solid waste (pomace or olive cake). These by-products are rich in phenols, which are antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds able to inhibit or delay the growth of several bacteria in vitro. The dietary effect of both olive mill wastewater polyphenolic extract (OMWPE) and dehydrated olive cake (DOC) on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens was investigated. A commercial basal diet was supplemented with either OMWPE- or DOC-enriched maize at two dosages (low: 16%; high: 33%). The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. shedding was evaluated at 21, 35, and 49 days of age. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. differed among groups only at 49 days of age. Both OMWPE groups showed a lower (p < 0.05) prevalence compared to the control group. The odds ratio evaluation showed that the higher dose of OMWPE reduced the possibility of shedding 11-fold compared to the control group (p < 0.001). These results highlight the potential use of olive by-products against Campylobacter spp. in poultry.
Sustainability2016, 8(9), 764; doi:10.3390/su8090764 - published 24 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Lipase from Candida sp. 99–125 is widely employed to catalyzed transesterification and can be used for biodiesel production. In this study, the lipase was immobilized by combined adsorption and entrapment to catalyze biodiesel production from waste cooking oil (WCO) via transesterification, and investigating co-immobilizing agents as additives according to the enzyme activity. The addition of the mixed co-immobilizing agents has positive effects on the activities of the immobilized lipase. Three different immobilizing methods were compared by the conversion ratio of biodiesel and structured by Atom Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), respectively. It was found that entrapment followed by adsorption was the best method. The effect of the co-immobilizing agent amount, lipase dosage, water content, and reuse ability of the immobilized lipase was investigated. By comparison with previous research, this immobilized lipase showed good reuse ability: the conversion ratio excesses 70% after 10 subsequent reactions, in particular, was better than Novozym435 and TLIM on waste cooking oil for one unit of lipase.
Sustainability2016, 8(9), 840; doi:10.3390/su8090840 - published 24 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Assessing waste production in schools highlights the contribution of school children and school staff to the total amount of waste generated in a region, as well as any poor practices of recycling (the so-called separate collection of waste) in schools by the students, which could be improved through educational activities. Educating young people regarding the importance of environmental issues is essential, since instilling the right behavior in school children is also beneficial to the behavior of their families. The way waste management was carried out in different schools in Trento (northern Italy) was analyzed: a primary school, a secondary school, and three high schools were taken as cases of study. The possible influence of the age of the students and of the various activities carried out within the schools on the different behaviors in separating waste was also evaluated. The results showed that the production of waste did not only depend on the size of the institutes and on the number of occupants, but, especially, on the type of activities carried out in addition to the ordinary classes and on the habits of both pupils and staff. In the light of the results obtained, some corrective measures were proposed to schools, aimed at increasing the awareness of the importance of the right behavior in waste management by students and the application of good practices of recycling.
Sustainability2016, 8(9), 834; doi:10.3390/su8090834 - published 23 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The meteorological service (MS) in Korea is provided by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA), a governmental organization. This study attempts to measure the economic value of the national MS in the Korean household sector. Economic theory indicates that the economic value of a service is the area under the demand curve, which is the sum of the actual expenditure and the additional willingness to pay (WTP) for the service. The actual expenditure is well known, but the additional WTP is not. Thus, we assess the additional WTP for the national MS, conducting a contingent valuation survey of 1000 randomly selected households in Korea in 2014. We use a one-and-one-half-bound dichotomous choice question to derive the WTP responses and apply a spike model to deal with WTP responses of zero. The mean additional WTP per household is computed as KRW 860 (USD 0.75) per month and is statistically significant at the 1% level. Given that the monthly expenditure for the MS is KRW 1459 (USD 1.26) per household as of 2013, the economic value of the national MS is computed as KRW 2319 (USD 2.01) per household per month. Expanding the value to the national population gives us KRW 513.6 billion (USD 444.9 million) per year.