Open AccessArticle
Sex Differences in Countermovement Jump Phase Characteristics
Sports 2017, 5(1), 8; doi:10.3390/sports5010008 -
Abstract
The countermovement jump (CMJ) is commonly used to explore sex differences in neuromuscular function, but previous studies have only reported gross CMJ measures or have partly examined CMJ phase characteristics. The purpose of this study was to explore differences in CMJ phase characteristics
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The countermovement jump (CMJ) is commonly used to explore sex differences in neuromuscular function, but previous studies have only reported gross CMJ measures or have partly examined CMJ phase characteristics. The purpose of this study was to explore differences in CMJ phase characteristics between male and female athletes by comparing the force-, power-, velocity-, and displacement-time curves throughout the entire CMJ, in addition to gross measures. Fourteen men and fourteen women performed three CMJs on a force platform from which a range of kinetic and kinematic variables were calculated via forward dynamics. Jump height (JH), reactive strength index modified, relative peak concentric power, and eccentric and concentric displacement, velocity, and relative impulse were all greater for men (g = 0.58–1.79). Relative force-time curves were similar between sexes, but relative power-, velocity-, and displacement-time curves were greater for men at 90%–95% (immediately before and after peak power), 47%–54% (start of eccentric phase) and 85%–100% (latter half of concentric phase), and 65%–87% (bottom of countermovement and initial concentric phase) of normalized jump time, respectively. The CMJ distinguished between sexes, with men demonstrating greater JH through applying a larger concentric impulse and, thus, achieving greater velocity throughout most of the concentric phase, including take-off. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Post-Exercise Whole Body Vibration with Stretching on Mood State, Fatigue, and Soreness in Collegiate Swimmers
Sports 2017, 5(1), 7; doi:10.3390/sports5010007 -
Abstract
Static stretching (SS) during whole body vibration (WBV) has been suggested for exercise recovery. The purpose was to compare post-exercise self-ratings of fatigue (FAT), mood state (BAM), soreness (SOR), and perceived exertion (RPE) between SS and WBV+SS in swimmers (9 women, mean ±
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Static stretching (SS) during whole body vibration (WBV) has been suggested for exercise recovery. The purpose was to compare post-exercise self-ratings of fatigue (FAT), mood state (BAM), soreness (SOR), and perceived exertion (RPE) between SS and WBV+SS in swimmers (9 women, mean ± SD: 19.3 ± 1.3 year, 171 ± 5.7 cm, 67.6 ± 7.2 kg, 26.6 ± 4.1 %body fat (%BF); 10 men, mean ± SD: 19.7 ± 1.0 year, 183 ± 5.5 cm, 77.1 ± 4.2 kg, 13.1 ± 2.2 %BF). Athletes were divided by sex, event (sprint, distance), and assigned to SS or WBV+SS. Both conditions consisted of SS performed on the WBV platform with or without WBV (50 Hz, 6 mm). Sessions consisted of: pre and post measures of BAM, FAT, SOR; the condition; and RPE. Mixed factorial ANOVA were run. A significant condition by pre/post interaction was observed (p = 0.035). Post hoc analyses showed WBV+SS elicited lower post-exercise ratings of FAT (p = 0.002) and the BAM affective states, of tension (p = 0.031), and fatigue (p = 0.087). RPE did not differ between conditions. Of interest is the decrease in tension and fatigue noted by the BAM. Mood state can be indicative of how athletes adapt to training volume and intensity. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Sports in 2016
Sports 2017, 5(1), 6; doi:10.3390/sports5010006 -
Abstract The editors of Sports would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016. [...]
Full article
Open AccessReview
Soccer and Relative Age Effect: A Walk among Elite Players and Young Players
Sports 2017, 5(1), 5; doi:10.3390/sports5010005 -
Abstract
Grouping people according to chronological age is popular in fields such as education and sport. Athletes who are born in the first months of the year usually have cognitive and physical development differences in contrast to those born in the last months of
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Grouping people according to chronological age is popular in fields such as education and sport. Athletes who are born in the first months of the year usually have cognitive and physical development differences in contrast to those born in the last months of the same year. That is why competitive teams tend to select older players more often than youngsters. Age differences between athletes born in the same year as well as an over-representation of older players are known as the Relative Age Effect. This effect is extensively described in young and elite team sports such as basketball, volleyball or, ice-hockey, as well as in soccer. The purpose of this study is to examine the state-of-the-art of the Relative Age Effect in youth and elite soccer players. This review summarizes recent research articles on the Relative Age Effect related to competitive soccer from 2010 to 2016. The systematic literature search was conducted in four databases: SPORTDiscus, Medline, EBSCO host and Google Scholar. Although causes and final solutions have not been clearly achieved yet, it is necessary to continue investigating this phenomenon in order to provide a starting point for future research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Poorer Intermittent Sprints Performance in Ramadan-Fasted Muslim Footballers despite Controlling for Pre-Exercise Dietary Intake, Sleep and Training Load
Sports 2017, 5(1), 4; doi:10.3390/sports5010004 -
Abstract
This study examines the effects of Ramadan fasting on sprint performance during prolonged intermittent exercise in trained Muslim footballers, under controlled pre-exercise conditions. A within-group, cross-over study design with two non-fasted or Control trials performed before (i.e., CON1) and after (CON2) the Ramadan
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This study examines the effects of Ramadan fasting on sprint performance during prolonged intermittent exercise in trained Muslim footballers, under controlled pre-exercise conditions. A within-group, cross-over study design with two non-fasted or Control trials performed before (i.e., CON1) and after (CON2) the Ramadan month, and with the Ramadan-fasted (RAM) trials performed within the Ramadan month. After familiarization, 14 players completed a modified 60-min (4 × 15-min exercise blocks interspersed with 3-min intervals) of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (mLIST) of fixed speeds of walking, jogging, running, but with all-out effort sprints. During the interval periods, capillary blood glucose and blood lactate measures were taken, rectal and skin temperatures were recorded and maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) of the dominant leg and hand-grip were performed to provide some indication to the cause(s) of ‘fatigue’ during exercise. Players were provided with standardized 24-h pre-packed meals prior to all trials. Sleep hours were objectively assessed and perceived training loads were monitored and these were equivalent between RAM and CON trials. Sprint times throughout mLIST were significantly faster in both CON1 and CON2 as compared to RAM trials (all P < 0.017; d = small to moderate), and this poorer performance in RAM was observed as early as during the first 15-min of the mLIST. Blood markers, MVIC and thermoregulatory results were not substantially different between both CON and RAM trials. In conclusion, despite similarities in dietary intake, sleeping hours and training loads between conditions, results still indicate that Ramadan fasting had an adverse effect on prolonged intermittent performance. Nocebo effects plays a dominant role during exercise in the Ramadan-fasted state. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Number of Players and Maturity on Ball-Drills Training Load in Youth Basketball
Sports 2017, 5(1), 3; doi:10.3390/sports5010003 -
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the basketball ball-drills workload analyzing: (1) the effect of varying the number of players involved on physiological and technical demands; (2) the temporal changes in players’ responses across bouts; and (3) the relationship of players’ workload with their
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This study aimed to assess the basketball ball-drills workload analyzing: (1) the effect of varying the number of players involved on physiological and technical demands; (2) the temporal changes in players’ responses across bouts; and (3) the relationship of players’ workload with their maturation status and training age. Twelve young male basketball players (mean ± SD; age 13.9 ± 0.7 years; height 1.76 ± 0.06 m; body mass 65.7 ± 12.5 kg; HRmax 202 ± 8 beat·min−1) completed three bouts of 4 min interspersed by 2 min of passive recovery of two vs. two and four vs. four ball-drills. The mean percentage of HRmax (%HRmax) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected. Technical actions (TAs) (dribbles, passes, shots, interceptions, steals, rebounds, and turnovers) were calculated through notational analysis. Players’ genitalia development (GD) and pubic hair (PH) growth were assessed using Tanner scale. Results showed a higher %HRmax (p = 0.018), RPE (p = 0.042), dribbles (p = 0.007), shots (p = 0.003), and rebounds (p = 0.006) in two vs. two compared to four vs. four condition. Furthermore, a statistical difference was found for %HRmax (p = 0.005) and number of passes (p = 0.020) between bouts. In addition, no correlation between GD, PH, and training age with %HRmax, RPE, and TAs was found. These findings suggest that variations of the number of players involved affect ball-drills workload and that ball-drills training intensity varies across bouts. Finally, ball-drills elicit an adequate training stimulus, regardless of players’ maturation status and training age. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Content Validity and Psychometric Properties of the Nomination Scale for Identifying Football Talent (NSIFT): Application to Coaches, Parents and Players
Sports 2017, 5(1), 2; doi:10.3390/sports5010002 -
Abstract
The identification of football talent is a critical issue both for clubs and the families of players. However, despite its importance in a sporting, economic and social sense, there appears to be a lack of instruments that can reliably measure talent performance. The
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The identification of football talent is a critical issue both for clubs and the families of players. However, despite its importance in a sporting, economic and social sense, there appears to be a lack of instruments that can reliably measure talent performance. The aim of this study was to design and validate the Nomination Scale for Identifying Football Talent (NSIFT), with the aim of optimising the processes for identifying said talent. The scale was first validated through expert judgment, and then statistically, by means of an exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), internal reliability and convergent validity. The results reveal the presence of three factors in the scale’s factor matrix, with these results being confirmed by the CFA. The scale revealed suitable internal reliability and homogeneity indices. Convergent validity showed that it is teammates who are best able to identify football talent, followed by coaches and parents. It can be concluded that the NSIFT is suitable for use in the football world. Future studies should seek to confirm these results in different contexts by means of further CFAs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Empirical Prediction of Turnovers in NFL Football
Sports 2017, 5(1), 1; doi:10.3390/sports5010001 -
Abstract
Turnovers in the National Football League (NFL) occur whenever a team loses possession of the ball due to a fumble, or an interception. Turnovers disrupt momentum of the offensive team, and represent lost opportunities to advance downfield and score. Teams with a positive
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Turnovers in the National Football League (NFL) occur whenever a team loses possession of the ball due to a fumble, or an interception. Turnovers disrupt momentum of the offensive team, and represent lost opportunities to advance downfield and score. Teams with a positive differential turnover margin in a given game win 70% of the time. Turnovers are statistically rare events, occurring apparently randomly. These characteristics make them difficult to predict. This investigation advances the hypothesis that turnovers are predictable in NFL football. Machine learning models are developed to learn the concept: At any point within a football game, what is the likelihood that a turnover will be observed on the next play from scrimmage? NFL play-by-play data for 32 teams spanning seven full seasons were used to train the models. Results presented suggest evidence to support the working hypothesis. Under certain conditions, both fumbles and interceptions can be anticipated at low false discovery rates (less than 15%). When a turnover is predicted on the impending play from scrimmage, a high degree of confidence is associated with that prediction. The ability to anticipate catastrophic in-game events may lead to their management and control, ultimately improving the performance of individual athletes and their teams. This investigation contributes to the sports science literature by demonstrating the predictability of in-game events often considered to be essentially random in their occurrence. To the author’s knowledge, direct prediction of turnovers has not previously appeared in the literature, which has focused on retrospective statistical analyses of turnover margin in football games. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Relationships and Predictive Capabilities of Jump Assessments to Soccer-Specific Field Test Performance in Division I Collegiate Players
Sports 2016, 4(4), 56; doi:10.3390/sports4040056 -
Abstract
Leg power is an important characteristic for soccer, and jump tests can measure this capacity. Limited research has analyzed relationships between jumping and soccer-specific field test performance in collegiate male players. Nineteen Division I players completed tests of: leg power (vertical jump (VJ),
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Leg power is an important characteristic for soccer, and jump tests can measure this capacity. Limited research has analyzed relationships between jumping and soccer-specific field test performance in collegiate male players. Nineteen Division I players completed tests of: leg power (vertical jump (VJ), standing broad jump (SBJ), left- and right-leg triple hop (TH)); linear (30 m sprint; 0–5 m, 5–10 m, 0–10, 0–30 m intervals) and change-of-direction (505) speed; soccer-specific fitness (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2); and 7 × 30-m sprints to measure repeated-sprint ability (RSA; total time (TT), performance decrement (PD)). Pearson’s correlations (r) determined jump and field test relationships; stepwise regression ascertained jump predictors of the tests (p < 0.05). All jumps correlated with the 0–5, 0–10, and 0–30 m sprint intervals (r = −0.65–−0.90). VJ, SBJ, and left- and right-leg TH correlated with RSA TT (r = −0.51–−0.59). Right-leg TH predicted the 0–5 and 0–10 m intervals (R2 = 0.55–0.81); the VJ predicted the 0–30 m interval and RSA TT (R2 = 0.41–0.84). Between-leg TH asymmetry correlated with and predicted left-leg 505 and RSA PD (r = −0.68–0.62; R2 = 0.39–0.46). Improvements in jumping ability could contribute to faster speed and RSA performance in collegiate soccer players. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Three-Dimensional Movement Analysis of the Spike in Fistball
Sports 2016, 4(4), 55; doi:10.3390/sports4040055 -
Abstract
Due to its relevancy to point scoring, the spike is considered as one of the most important skills in fistball. Biomechanical analyses of this sport are very rare. In the present study, we performed a three-dimensional kinematic analysis of the fistball spike, which
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Due to its relevancy to point scoring, the spike is considered as one of the most important skills in fistball. Biomechanical analyses of this sport are very rare. In the present study, we performed a three-dimensional kinematic analysis of the fistball spike, which helps to specify performance parameters on a descriptive level. Recorded by four synchronized cameras (120 Hz) and linked to the motion capture software Simi Motion® 5.0, three female fistball players of the second German league (24–26 years, 1.63–1.69 m) performed several spikes under standardized conditions. Results show that the segment velocities of the arm reached their maximum successively from proximal to distal, following the principle of temporal coordination of single impulses. The wrist shows maximum speed when the fist hits the ball. The elbow joint angle performs a rapid transition from a strong flexion to a (almost) full extension; however, the extension is completed after the moment of ball impact. In contrast, the shoulder joint angle increases almost linearly until the fistball contact and decreases afterward. The findings can be used to optimize the training of the spike. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Defensive Performance Factors in the 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa
Sports 2016, 4(4), 54; doi:10.3390/sports4040054 -
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of defensive play in elite football, to identify variables associated with the direct recovery of ball possession, and to propose a model for predicting the success of defensive transitions. We analyzed 804 transitions
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The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of defensive play in elite football, to identify variables associated with the direct recovery of ball possession, and to propose a model for predicting the success of defensive transitions. We analyzed 804 transitions in the final stages of the Fedération Internationale Football Association (FIFA) World Cup 2010, and investigated the following variables using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses: duration of defensive transition, possession loss zone, position of players at the start and end of the defensive transitions, defensive organization, general defensive approach, time of the match, position of defense, zone in which the offensive transition ends, match status, and outcome of the defensive transition. We found that the defensive transitions started most frequently in the middle offensive zone (48.9%), with an organized defense set-up (98.8%), and were unsuccessful on 57.2% of occasions. The bivariate analysis showed that the variable most strongly associated with direct recovery of the possession of the ball (p = 0.018) is the area in which the ball is lost, and the multivariate analysis showed that the duration of the defensive transition can be used as a performance indicator, with transitions lasting between 0 and 15 s associated with a higher likelihood of directly recovering the ball. This work has allowed us to identify a pattern of tactical-strategic behavior with major probabilities of success in the defensive transitions. These results will be able to be used by coaches to improve the performance of their teams in this type of situation in the game. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Goal Format in Small-Sided Soccer Games: Technical Actions and Offensive Scenarios of Prepubescent Players
Sports 2016, 4(4), 53; doi:10.3390/sports4040053 -
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the number of goal-posts and the positioning of goal-posts used within small-sided games on the frequency of technical actions and offensive scenarios performed by prepubescent players within soccer. The participants were eight
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The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the number of goal-posts and the positioning of goal-posts used within small-sided games on the frequency of technical actions and offensive scenarios performed by prepubescent players within soccer. The participants were eight male prepubescent soccer players (12.1 ± 0.5 years). The participants were video recorded for 20 min playing four different formats of 4v4 small-sided games: (1) standard two goal game; (2) four goal game, one goal in each corner; (3) two goal game with goal-posts positioned 9.14 m/10 yd infield, scoring only through the back of the goal; (4) four goal-game, one goal positioned 9.14 m/10 yd infield in each corner, scoring through either the front or back of each goal. Chi-squared tests of independence were utilized to statistically explore the impact of the different small-sided game formats. There were significant associations (p < 0.05) observed between the different small-sided game formats and the frequency of turns, dribbles, shots, goals and overlaps performed. For example, players performed more turns in small-sided game format two and more shots during small-sided game format four. It is suggested coaches should consider using a variation of the number and positioning of goal-posts in small-sided games as an effective training tool in the development of prepubescent soccer players. This will enable coaches to vary the focus of sessions, and develop specific technical and tactical actions within a situation similar to that of real match-play. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Relationship between Procedural Tactical Knowledge and Specific Motor Skills in Young Soccer Players
Sports 2016, 4(4), 52; doi:10.3390/sports4040052 -
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between offensive tactical knowledge and the soccer-specific motor skills performance. Fifteen participants were submitted to two evaluation tests, one to assess their technical and tactical analysis. The motor skills performance was measured through
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between offensive tactical knowledge and the soccer-specific motor skills performance. Fifteen participants were submitted to two evaluation tests, one to assess their technical and tactical analysis. The motor skills performance was measured through four tests of technical soccer skills: ball control, shooting, passing and dribbling. The tactical performance was based on a tactical assessment system called FUT-SAT (Analyses of Procedural Tactical Knowledge in Soccer). Afterwards, technical and tactical evaluation scores were ranked with and without the use of the cluster method. A positive, weak correlation was perceived in both analyses (rho = 0.39, not significant p = 0.14 (with cluster analysis); and rho = 0.35; not significant p = 0.20 (without cluster analysis)). We can conclude that there was a weak association between the technical and the offensive tactical knowledge. This shows the need to reflect on the use of such tests to assess technical skills in team sports since they do not take into account the variability and unpredictability of game actions and disregard the inherent needs to assess such skill performance in the game. Full article
Open AccessReview
Supplementation Strategies to Reduce Muscle Damage and Improve Recovery Following Exercise in Females: A Systematic Review
Sports 2016, 4(4), 51; doi:10.3390/sports4040051 -
Abstract
Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) caused by unaccustomed or strenuous exercise can result in reduced muscle force, increased muscle soreness, increased intramuscular proteins in the blood, and reduced performance. Pre- and post-exercise optimal nutritional intake is important to assist with muscle-damage repair and reconditioning
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Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) caused by unaccustomed or strenuous exercise can result in reduced muscle force, increased muscle soreness, increased intramuscular proteins in the blood, and reduced performance. Pre- and post-exercise optimal nutritional intake is important to assist with muscle-damage repair and reconditioning to allow for an accelerated recovery. The increased demand for training and competing on consecutive days has led to a variety of intervention strategies being used to reduce the negative effects of EIMD. Nutritional intervention strategies are largely tested on male participants, and few report on sex-related differences relating to the effects of the interventions employed. This review focuses on nutritional intervention strategies employed to negate the effects of EIMD, focussing solely on females. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Vegetarian, Gluten-Free, and Energy Restricted Diets in Female Athletes
Sports 2016, 4(4), 50; doi:10.3390/sports4040050 -
Abstract
Female athletes who follow a diet that fails to meet energy and nutrient needs are at risk for musculoskeletal injuries, menstrual disturbances, and poor sports performance. Common nutritional concerns for the female athlete include low energy availability (EA) (i.e., energy intake from food
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Female athletes who follow a diet that fails to meet energy and nutrient needs are at risk for musculoskeletal injuries, menstrual disturbances, and poor sports performance. Common nutritional concerns for the female athlete include low energy availability (EA) (i.e., energy intake from food remaining for metabolic processes after accounting for energy expended during exercise) and inadequate dietary intakes (i.e., not meeting sports nutrition guidelines) of carbohydrates, protein, essential fatty acids (EFAs), B-vitamins, calcium, iron, and vitamin D. Low EA and the associated nutrient deficiencies are more common in athletes who compete in weight-sensitive sports (i.e., aesthetic, gravitational, and weight category sports) because low body fat and mass confer a competitive advantage. Other athletes at risk for energy and nutrient deficits include athletes following a vegetarian or gluten-free diet (GFD). Careful dietary planning can help an athlete meet energy and nutrient needs. This review covers the nutrition issues associated with low EA and special diets (i.e., vegetarian and GFD) and describes strategies to help female athletes meet their energy and nutrient needs. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Carbohydrate Intake on Maximal Power Output and Cognitive Performances
Sports 2016, 4(4), 49; doi:10.3390/sports4040049 -
Abstract
The present study aimed to assess the beneficial effect of acute carbohydrate (7% CHO) intake on muscular and cognitive performances. Seventeen high levels athletes in explosive sports (fencing and squash) participated in a randomized, double-blind study consisting in series of 6 sprints (5s)
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The present study aimed to assess the beneficial effect of acute carbohydrate (7% CHO) intake on muscular and cognitive performances. Seventeen high levels athletes in explosive sports (fencing and squash) participated in a randomized, double-blind study consisting in series of 6 sprints (5s) with a passive recovery (25s) followed by 15 min submaximal cycling after either maltodextrine and fructose (CHO) or placebo (Pl) intake. Cognitive performances were assessed before and after sprint exercise using a simple reaction time (SRT) task at rest, a visual scanning task (VS) and a Go/Nogo task (GNG) during a submaximal cycling exercise. Results showed a beneficial effect of exercise on VS task on both conditions (Pl: −283 ms; CHO: −423 ms) and on SRT only during CHO condition (−26 ms). In the CHO condition, SRT was faster after exercise whereas no effect of exercise was observed in the Pl condition. According to a qualitative statistical method, a most likely and likely positive effect of CHO was respectively observed on peak power (+4%) and tiredness (−23%) when compared to Pl. Furthermore, a very likely positive effect of CHO was observed on SRT (−8%) and a likely positive effect on visual scanning (−6%) and Go/Nogo tasks (−4%) without any change in accuracy. In conclusion acute ingestion of 250 mL of CHO, 60 min and 30 min before exercise, improve peak power output, decrease muscular tiredness and speed up information processing and visual detection without changing accuracy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Muscle- and Mode-Specific Responses of the Forearm Flexors to Fatiguing, Concentric Muscle Actions
Sports 2016, 4(4), 47; doi:10.3390/sports4040047 -
Abstract
Background: Electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) studies of fatigue have generally utilized maximal isometric or dynamic muscle actions, but sport- and work-related activities involve predominately submaximal movements. Therefore, the purpose of the present investigation was to examine the torque, EMG, and MMG responses
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Background: Electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) studies of fatigue have generally utilized maximal isometric or dynamic muscle actions, but sport- and work-related activities involve predominately submaximal movements. Therefore, the purpose of the present investigation was to examine the torque, EMG, and MMG responses as a result of submaximal, concentric, isokinetic, forearm flexion muscle actions. Methods: Twelve men performed concentric peak torque (PT) and isometric PT trials before (pretest) and after (posttest) performing 50 submaximal (65% of concentric PT), concentric, isokinetic (60°·s−1), forearm flexion muscle actions. Surface EMG and MMG signals were simultaneously recorded from the biceps brachii and brachioradialis muscles. Results: The results of the present study indicated similar decreases during both the concentric PT and isometric PT measurements for torque, EMG mean power frequency (MPF), and MMG MPF following the fatiguing workbout, but no changes in EMG amplitude (AMP) or MMG AMP. Conclusions: These findings suggest that decreases in torque as a result of fatiguing, dynamic muscle actions may have been due to the effects of metabolic byproducts on excitation–contraction coupling as indicated by the decreases in EMG MPF and MMG MPF, but lack of changes in EMG AMP and MMG AMP from both the biceps brachii and brachioradialis muscles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparıson of the Heart Rate and Blood Lactate Responses of Different Small Sided Games in Young Soccer Players
Sports 2016, 4(4), 48; doi:10.3390/sports4040048 -
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare the percentage of maximum heart rate (%HRmax), blood lactate (La), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE, CR-10) responses across different formats of small-sided games (SSG) in elite young soccer players. Fourteen players (average
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The purpose of this study was to compare the percentage of maximum heart rate (%HRmax), blood lactate (La), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE, CR-10) responses across different formats of small-sided games (SSG) in elite young soccer players. Fourteen players (average age 16.7 ± 0.6 years; height 177.6 ± 4.1 cm; body mass 66.3 ± 4.7 kg; average training age 6.7 ± 1.6 years; percentage of body fat 8.4 ± 2.6%) volunteered to perform the YoYo intermittent recovery test (level 1) and eight bouts of soccer drills including 2-a-side, 3-a-side, and 4-a-side games without goalkeepers in random order at two-day intervals. Heart rates were monitored throughout the SSGs, whereas the RPE and venous blood lactate were determined at the end of the last bout of each SSG. The differences in La, %HRmax, and RPE either across the different SSGs or between the bouts were identified using 3 × 8 (games × exercise bouts) two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. Significant differences were found in terms of La, RPE, and %HRmax among the different types of SSG (p ≤ 0.05). 3-a-side and 4-a-side games elicited significantly higher responses than 2-a-side games in terms of %HRmax (p ≤ 0.05), whereas 4-a-side games resulted in significantly lower La and RPE responses compared to 2-a-side and 3-a-side games. The results of this study show that physiological responses differ according to the numbers of players involved in small-sided games. Therefore, it can be concluded that 3-a-side and 4-a-side games could be more effective in improving high intensity aerobic performance than 2-a-side games, which in turn are more appropriate for developing anaerobic performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Airflow-Restricting Mask Reduces Acute Performance in Resistance Exercise
Sports 2016, 4(4), 46; doi:10.3390/sports4040046 -
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the number of repetitions to volitional failure, the blood lactate concentration, and the perceived exertion to resistance training with and without an airflow-restricting mask. Methods: Eight participants participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study.
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Background: The aim of this study was to compare the number of repetitions to volitional failure, the blood lactate concentration, and the perceived exertion to resistance training with and without an airflow-restricting mask. Methods: Eight participants participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study. Participants were assigned to an airflow-restricting mask group (MASK) or a control group (CONT) and completed five sets of chest presses and parallel squats until failure at 75% one-repetition-maximum test (1RM) with 60 s of rest between sets. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs), blood lactate concentrations (Lac), and total repetitions were taken after the training session. Results: MASK total repetitions were lower than those of the CONT, and (Lac) and MASK RPEs were higher than those of the CONT in both exercises. Conclusions: We conclude that an airflow-restricting mask in combination with resistance training increase perceptions of exertion and decrease muscular performance and lactate concentrations when compared to resistance training without this accessory. This evidence shows that the airflow-restricting mask may change the central nervous system and stop the exercise beforehand to prevent some biological damage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Coffee and Caffeine Ingestion Have Little Effect on Repeated Sprint Cycling in Relatively Untrained Males
Sports 2016, 4(3), 45; doi:10.3390/sports4030045 -
Abstract
The present study investigated the effect of ingesting caffeine-dose-matched anhydrous caffeine or coffee on the performance of repeated sprints. Twelve recreationally active males (mean ± SD age: 22 ± 2 years, height: 1.78 ± 0.07 m, body mass: 81 ± 16 kg) completed
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The present study investigated the effect of ingesting caffeine-dose-matched anhydrous caffeine or coffee on the performance of repeated sprints. Twelve recreationally active males (mean ± SD age: 22 ± 2 years, height: 1.78 ± 0.07 m, body mass: 81 ± 16 kg) completed eighteen 4 s sprints with 116 s recovery on a cycle ergometer on four separate occasions in a double-blind, randomised, counterbalanced crossover design. Participants ingested either 3 mg·kg−1 of caffeine (CAF), 0.09 g·kg−1 coffee, which provided 3 mg·kg−1 of caffeine (COF), a taste-matched placebo beverage (PLA), or a control condition (CON) 45 min prior to commencing the exercise protocol. Peak and mean power output and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded for each sprint. There were no significant differences in peak power output (CAF: 949 ± 199 W, COF: 949 ± 174 W, PLA: 971 ± 149 W and CON: 975 ± 170 W; p = 0.872; ηP2 = 0.02) or mean power output (CAF: 873 ± 172 W, COF: 862 ± 44 W, PLA: 887 ± 119 W and CON: 892 ± 143 W; p = 0.819; ηP2 = 0.03) between experimental conditions. Mean RPE was similar for all trials (CAF: 11 ± 2, COF: 11 ± 2, PLA: 11 ± 2 and CON: 11 ± 2; p = 0.927; ηP2 = 0.01). Neither the ingestion of COF or CAF improved repeated sprint cycling performance in relatively untrained males. Full article
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