Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Social Sciences in 2017
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(1), 15; doi:10.3390/socsci7010015 (registering DOI) -
Open AccessArticle
Uncovering Discursive Framings of the Bangladesh Shipbreaking Industry
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(1), 14; doi:10.3390/socsci7010014 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Shipbreaking in the Chittagong region of Bangladesh supplies metal to meet the needs of the nation’s construction sector. The shipbreaking industry has received international attention for environmental contamination and workers’ insecurity. However, these issues have been framed without considering the actors that produce
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Shipbreaking in the Chittagong region of Bangladesh supplies metal to meet the needs of the nation’s construction sector. The shipbreaking industry has received international attention for environmental contamination and workers’ insecurity. However, these issues have been framed without considering the actors that produce them and their associated motives. This paper illuminates the conflicting discourses regarding the industry between two divergent groups of actors. On the one hand, national and international NGOs collaborate to enforce a discourse focused on negative localized impacts. On the other hand, yard owners, yard workers, and local community members forge a counter discourse, focused on positive localized impacts and raising doubts about the origin of the environmental pollutants and occupational standards setting. National and international actors have so far missed the conflicting perspective of workers, yard owners, locals and NGOs. We contend that these divergent discourses involve scalar politics, with one discursive frame focused on localized impacts in order to leverage global resources, while the other situates local communities in the global world system; this confounding of scale leads to ineffective policy formulation. This shipbreaking case study provides a valuable lesson on the importance of listening to and including stakeholders at multiple scales when seeking policies to address localized impacts of a globalized industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling and Evaluation of the Possibilities of Forming a Regional Industrial Symbiosis Networks
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(1), 13; doi:10.3390/socsci7010013 -
Abstract
Industrial symbiosis (IS) is a term used to describe a network of diverse organizations that make use of different byproducts to improve their ability to achieve common goals, improve environmental conditions, and/or improve business and technical processes. In this paper, we propose a
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Industrial symbiosis (IS) is a term used to describe a network of diverse organizations that make use of different byproducts to improve their ability to achieve common goals, improve environmental conditions, and/or improve business and technical processes. In this paper, we propose a model for evaluation of the possibilities of the establishment of such IS on a regional level. This paper studied a benchmark of seven IS examples, which are used to build a qualitative multi-criteria decision model for evaluation of the development of IS network model. Through these examples, where two are the best known IS cases in the world, we demonstrate the importance of social actors’ involvement in IS in their industrial or non-industrial technological processes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Estimating Ideal Points from Roll-Call Data: Explore Principal Components Analysis, Especially for More Than One Dimension?
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(1), 12; doi:10.3390/socsci7010012 -
Abstract
For two or more dimensions, the two main approaches to estimating legislators’ ideal points from roll-call data entail arbitrary, yet consequential, identification and modeling assumptions that bring about both indeterminateness and undue constraints for the ideal points. This paper presents a simple and
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For two or more dimensions, the two main approaches to estimating legislators’ ideal points from roll-call data entail arbitrary, yet consequential, identification and modeling assumptions that bring about both indeterminateness and undue constraints for the ideal points. This paper presents a simple and fast approach to estimating ideal points in multiple dimensions that is not marred by those issues. The leading approach at present is that of Poole and Rosenthal. Also prominent currently is one that uses Bayesian techniques. However, in more than one dimension, they both have several problems, of which nonidentifiability of ideal points is the most precarious. The approach that we offer uses a particular mode of principal components analysis to estimate ideal points. It applies logistic regression to estimate roll-call parameters. It has a special feature that provides some guidance for deciding how many dimensions to use. Although its relative simplicity makes it useful even in just one dimension, its main advantages are for more than one. Full article
Open AccessArticle
“Girl Power”: Gendered Academic and Workplace Experiences of College Women in Engineering
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(1), 11; doi:10.3390/socsci7010011 -
Abstract
Women in engineering continue to experience bias in the field. This constructivist case study uses feminist theory to examine the gendered experiences of graduating senior women engineering students in academic and workplace environments. In each setting we identified three subthemes; in academia: “I
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Women in engineering continue to experience bias in the field. This constructivist case study uses feminist theory to examine the gendered experiences of graduating senior women engineering students in academic and workplace environments. In each setting we identified three subthemes; in academia: “I don’t think my education is any different,” “Being underestimated constantly,” and “You don’t want to be seen as getting advantages”; in the workplace: “Oh, you’re a girl,” “There’s a lot of sexism,” and Benefits of “girl power.” Overall, findings indicate that women experience bias in both settings, often via implicit bias in academia and with instances of implicit bias, sexism, and sexual harassment occurring even more often in the workplace through internship experiences. The article concludes with suggestions for practice, future research, and strategies to create supportive academic and workplace experiences and environments for women engineers. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Pride, Paternalism, Prejudice—Images of the Working Class
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(1), 10; doi:10.3390/socsci7010010 -
Abstract
What has happened with the image of the working class? The hero in the construction of the Nordic Model was the labor movement (and the working class). For a long time, this was the dominant picture of the Norwegian working class. However, the
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What has happened with the image of the working class? The hero in the construction of the Nordic Model was the labor movement (and the working class). For a long time, this was the dominant picture of the Norwegian working class. However, the societal trends of the past decades have, in a peculiar way, given the working class a central place in political discussions and in the public sphere, but now, a more ambivalent image emerges. In a somewhat paternalistic way, the worker image in political and academic debates as well as in part of the public sphere is typically that of a person unsuccessful in the educational system. Even a third image is identifiable in the public sphere—a prejudice imagery—in which the class is labelled as unhealthy, abusing the welfare system, culturally unsophisticated, and politically dangerous, moving toward right-wing populism. The ambition of the paper is to present these different images of the working class. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Greece’s Economic and Social Transformation 2008–2017
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(1), 9; doi:10.3390/socsci7010009 -
Abstract
Greece has confronted serious financial problems since 2008 when the global financial crisis reached its peak. The disturbance in the markets led to an unprecedented local debt crisis, which has lasted till now. The scope of this research is to examine how the
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Greece has confronted serious financial problems since 2008 when the global financial crisis reached its peak. The disturbance in the markets led to an unprecedented local debt crisis, which has lasted till now. The scope of this research is to examine how the crisis affected the local transformation of the society from 2008 to 2017. For this purpose, the paper made secondary analysis of previous data, reports, articles, as well as other relevant information on basic economic and social factors such as GDP, income per capita, unemployment, social exclusion, poverty and homelessness. Despite the fact that three International Economic Programmes have been adopted by the Greek governments, the country still fights for its financial stability. Furthermore, the consequences of crisis were devastating in society. The state countermeasures have triggered a surge in unemployment, emigration, poverty and exclusion, especially among youngsters. In addition, major national economic and social indicators have significantly worsened. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Applying ExpandNet’s Systematic Approach to Scaling Up in an Integrated Population, Health and Environment Project in East Africa
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(1), 8; doi:10.3390/socsci7010008 -
Abstract
While the importance of pursuing integrated population, health and environment (PHE) approaches and ensuring their sustainable expansion to regional and national levels have been widely affirmed in the development field, little practical experience and evidence exist about how this can be accomplished. This
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While the importance of pursuing integrated population, health and environment (PHE) approaches and ensuring their sustainable expansion to regional and national levels have been widely affirmed in the development field, little practical experience and evidence exist about how this can be accomplished. This paper lays out the systematic approach to scale up developed by ExpandNet and subsequently illustrates its application in the Health of People and Environment in the Lake Victoria Basin (HoPE-LVB) project, which is an integrated PHE project implemented in Uganda and Kenya from 2012–2017. Results demonstrate not only the perceived relevance of pursuing integrated development approaches by stakeholders but also the fundamental value of systematically designing and implementing the project with focused attention to scale up, as well as the challenges involved in operationalizing commitment to integration among bureaucratic agencies deeply grounded in vertical departmental approaches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Framing Engineering: The Role of College Website Descriptions
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(1), 7; doi:10.3390/socsci7010007 -
Abstract
This study contributes to the literature on women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) by examining the framing of engineering on college websites, a major recruitment tool. We take websites to be key sources of textual data that can provide insights into
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This study contributes to the literature on women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) by examining the framing of engineering on college websites, a major recruitment tool. We take websites to be key sources of textual data that can provide insights into the discourses surrounding the field of engineering. We ask whether women-only institutions (WOIs) frame engineering in ways that appeal more broadly to women. Our sample comprises the full range of WOIs offering engineering degrees in the US (14) and a comparison sample of 14 coeducational universities also offering engineering degrees. We employ established methods for discourse analysis, and both deductive and inductive coding processes in analyzing the textual data. Our main findings indicate that WOIs’ framing of engineering places a greater emphasis on collaboration, supports for students, interdisciplinarity, and the potential for engineering to contribute to improvements for society. In contrast, co-ed institutions tend to place a greater emphasis on the financial returns and job security that result from majoring in engineering. We conclude that co-ed engineering programs should consider a broadening of the descriptions surrounding the engineering field, since the inclusion of a wider set of values could be appealing to women students. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Parental Occupation and the Gender Math Gap: Examining the Social Reproduction of Academic Advantage among Elementary and Middle School Students
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(1), 6; doi:10.3390/socsci7010006 -
Abstract
Math proficiency is considered a critical subject for entry into most science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) occupations. This study examines the relationship between parental occupation and gender differences in students’ math performance, that is, the gender math gap. Using insights from theories
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Math proficiency is considered a critical subject for entry into most science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) occupations. This study examines the relationship between parental occupation and gender differences in students’ math performance, that is, the gender math gap. Using insights from theories of social and gender reproduction, we hypothesize that daughters of STEM-employed parents, and especially STEM-employed mothers, will score higher on standardized math tests than their peers with non-STEM parents. Multiple waves of panel data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS–K) featuring students in third, fifth, and eighth grades are used to examine these hypotheses. Results from random effects regression models confirm these hypotheses while also revealing support for STEM-employed father-to-son and father-to-daughter transmission of a math performance advantage. Also, regardless of parental occupation, a gender math gap remains evident. We conclude by discussing implications, study limitations, and directions for future research. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Muslim Mobilities and Gender: An Introduction
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(1), 5; doi:10.3390/socsci7010005 -
Abstract
Mobility represents the common imagination that the current world is in a constant flux, based on, for example, technical development, wide arrays of infrastructure and digital communication [...]
Full article
Open AccessArticle
Is There “Hope for Every Addicted American”? The New U.S. War on Drugs
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(1), 3; doi:10.3390/socsci7010003 -
Abstract
The U.S. has been waging a War on Drugs for the last forty years. But in the mid-2010s, a series of reforms have rejected this militant approach. How did these policies manage to break through a gridlocked Congress? What is the nature of
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The U.S. has been waging a War on Drugs for the last forty years. But in the mid-2010s, a series of reforms have rejected this militant approach. How did these policies manage to break through a gridlocked Congress? What is the nature of these reforms, and what are their political implications? Using critical discourse analysis, I demonstrate that a new policy framework of “addiction recovery” defines the political crises of the opioid epidemic, the failure of the War on Drugs, and mass incarceration in terms of disease, attributing Drug War injustices to prejudice against “addiction,” rather than a constellation of institutional racism, sexism, nativism, and economic exploitation enacted through drug policy. I conclude that characterizing recent reforms as a decisive break with the War on Drugs obscures the ways in which drug policy continues to perpetuate injustice by offering a personal, rather than political, solution in the “hope” of recovery. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Impact of Farmers’ Training Centres on Household Income: Evidence from Propensity Score Matching in Eastern Ethiopia
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(1), 4; doi:10.3390/socsci7010004 -
Abstract
In developing countries, agricultural advisory services (AASs) are regarded as a key component of economic development strategies in terms of improving productivity and livelihoods. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of empirical evidence on the impact of AASs in general and the Farmers’ Training
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In developing countries, agricultural advisory services (AASs) are regarded as a key component of economic development strategies in terms of improving productivity and livelihoods. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of empirical evidence on the impact of AASs in general and the Farmers’ Training Centres (FTCs) in particular. In this article, we employ the propensity score matching procedure to estimate the impact of an FTC-based training on household farm income in eastern Ethiopia. The result indicates a significant average gain of annual farm income by participants of the training, ranging from Birr 9557 to Birr 10,388 per household. Full article
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Open AccessCommentary
Indigenous Studies Speaks to American Sociology: The Need for Individual and Social Transformations of Indigenous Education in the USA
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(1), 1; doi:10.3390/socsci7010001 -
Abstract
Despite legislation to increase educational success for racial and ethnic minorities in the USA, educational disparities persist. I examine this trend among Indigenous peoples in the state of Oregon, but extend it to education systems across the USA. In Oregon, American Indians have
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Despite legislation to increase educational success for racial and ethnic minorities in the USA, educational disparities persist. I examine this trend among Indigenous peoples in the state of Oregon, but extend it to education systems across the USA. In Oregon, American Indians have the poorest educational attainment of all racial and ethnic groups; only 55% of American Indians graduate on time. I examine this problem from a critical sociological perspective, answering the call for sociology to end its “complicity in the elimination of the native”. I argue education systems are extensions of settler colonial logics and power structures. I propose educational transformations built upon Indigenous cultural teachings, advocating that we follow an Indigenous educational framework that has as its foundation: (1) Indigenous elders’ instructions that education should teach us to be “real human beings”; (2) Indigenous teachings that invite us to engage in reflexivity to understand the “spirit” of our work; and (3) my own Yakama teachings on utilizing a decolonizing praxis within educational institutions. I conclude that American sociology needs to draw from Indigenous Studies scholarship to better understand and address the education inequalities facing Indigenous peoples in the USA. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Political Cleavages, Religiosity, and Values on Attitudes towards Nonprofit Organizations
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(1), 2; doi:10.3390/socsci7010002 -
Abstract
Individual, micro-level attitudes towards nonprofit organizations (NPOs) can have many potential determinants. In this study, we explore the impact of three categories of potential determinants of attitudes towards NPOs: Political cleavages (the cultural integration vs. demarcation cleavage and the economic integration vs. demarcation
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Individual, micro-level attitudes towards nonprofit organizations (NPOs) can have many potential determinants. In this study, we explore the impact of three categories of potential determinants of attitudes towards NPOs: Political cleavages (the cultural integration vs. demarcation cleavage and the economic integration vs. demarcation cleavage); religiosity and spirituality; and values (the survival vs. self-expression value dimension). Based on a representative survey in Switzerland, we estimate the impact of those factors for five different attitudinal dimensions and six different NPO types. The Bayesian model estimates show that all three categories of determinants have small to moderate impact. The effects of religiosity, spirituality, the self-expression value dimension, and of economic integration are generally positive. The effects of the survival value dimension and of cultural demarcation are generally negative, with the exception of the NPO type of professional associations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effort and Reward Effects: Appreciation and Self-Rated Performance in e-Internships
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 154; doi:10.3390/socsci6040154 -
Abstract
As new work and internship options arise, educators, employers and students seek information about the learning benefits of these new arrangements. This is also the case in terms of e-internships. The purpose of this study was to assess the merit of the effort-reward
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As new work and internship options arise, educators, employers and students seek information about the learning benefits of these new arrangements. This is also the case in terms of e-internships. The purpose of this study was to assess the merit of the effort-reward imbalance model to understand appreciation and performance as reported by the e-interns (also known as virtual interns). The study involved a cross-sectional sample of e-interns. The sample was recruited using the snowball technique and two specialized internship portals. Participants were grouped into a number of conditions. Effort conditions depended on participants’ reported goal clarity and satisfaction with support. Reward conditions were determined based on the (un-)availability of training and payment in e-internships. When participants fell into high effort or low reward conditions, they reported lower perceived performance. They also felt less valued. The reverse pattern was observed when participants completed their internship under low effort and high reward conditions. By identifying conditions under which e-interns will report higher performance and appreciation, employers are provided with starting points for the design and reward practices. In addition, the results suggest that e-internships may share similar characteristics of traditional internships which may similarly vary in terms of the value and rewards they bring to interns. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Child’s Voice in Determining Program Acceptability for a School-Based Mindfulness Intervention
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 155; doi:10.3390/socsci6040155 -
Abstract
School-based mindfulness interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing mental health symptoms. However, comparatively little research has investigated the acceptability of these programs from the perspective of the children. Program acceptability underpins engagement, and more engaging programs are also more efficacious
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School-based mindfulness interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing mental health symptoms. However, comparatively little research has investigated the acceptability of these programs from the perspective of the children. Program acceptability underpins engagement, and more engaging programs are also more efficacious (Cowan & Sheridan, 2003; Mautone et al., 2009) yet there is little literature which has considered the acceptability of school-based mindfulness programs. To address this gap, semi-structured interviews were conducted with upper primary aged children (N = 30) who had participated in a six week mindfulness program in four Australian primary schools. Thematic analysis of interviews revealed children found the program to be acceptable. Children reported that they enjoyed doing the mindfulness program, would recommend it to others, and learned about relaxing as well as felt relaxed while doing the program. Children also highlighted the use of culturally appropriate teaching materials and possible stigmatisation as threats to the acceptability of the program. The results of the study support the acceptability of mindfulness programs in school settings, grounded in the unique perspective of the child. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Bending and Fitting: Disciplinarized Institutionalization of Modern Science in China during the ‘Treaty Century’
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 153; doi:10.3390/socsci6040153 -
Abstract
This article investigates how Western science established itself through disciplinarized institutionalization in China as the country entered the modern era, delineating China’s science and technology (S&T) enterprises evolving within the social settings primarily decided by Confucianism doctrines including Scholar-bureaucrat virtue. Although the perspective
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This article investigates how Western science established itself through disciplinarized institutionalization in China as the country entered the modern era, delineating China’s science and technology (S&T) enterprises evolving within the social settings primarily decided by Confucianism doctrines including Scholar-bureaucrat virtue. Although the perspective of this study is mainly historical, I also adopt a sociological approach to scientific knowledge production in order to argue that, the socialization of Western science during the ‘Treaty Century’ (1842–1943) has shaped and channeled the growth of modern S&T as well as its governance in contemporary China in a normative manner. It is this sociological interpretation of the history of modern science in China that sheds new light on our understanding of scientific knowledge as a component element of belief system that crosses countries, social structures, and civilizations. The main findings also include the premises on which the S&T governance issues are explored in China’s case, in particular, the increased social mobility at the intrusion of the Western. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Research-Based Training: Methodological Characteristics and Results of the Analysis of Educational Programs
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 152; doi:10.3390/socsci6040152 -
Abstract
The purpose of the article is to determine the peculiarities of using teaching elements of research-based training at the Institute of Human Sciences at Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University. Based on focus group methodology, the authors identify the key methodological characteristics of research-based training,
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The purpose of the article is to determine the peculiarities of using teaching elements of research-based training at the Institute of Human Sciences at Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University. Based on focus group methodology, the authors identify the key methodological characteristics of research-based training, which have comprised the basis of educational program analysis for determining the application of tasks that contribute to the development of students’ research skills. The study used a focus group method. Its purpose was to obtain the necessary information from the participants to describe the methodological basis and justification of methods, forms, indicators, etc. of research-based training systems among people who are competent and have experience in this field. After that, the method of “theoretical sampling” was used, which enabled formulation of generalized characteristics according to the results of focus groups. The practical value of the study is the determination of the methodological characteristics of research-based training, which is the basis for the application of tasks by university teachers that promote the development of research competence in students. The research is one of the first attempts to determine the methodological characteristics of research-based training in Ukraine Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Academic Advising and Maintaining Major: Is There a Relation?
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 151; doi:10.3390/socsci6040151 -
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of academic advising on changing or maintaining majors in university degrees. It is also a goal of the study to determine which semester students change their majors and whether advising contributes to that
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of academic advising on changing or maintaining majors in university degrees. It is also a goal of the study to determine which semester students change their majors and whether advising contributes to that change. Through this correlational study, the researchers explored students’ perceptions about the academic advising they received and the relationship of its absence on students’ major change. The participants were 1725 undergraduate students from all year levels. The survey used to collect the data for this study is: the Influences on Choice of Major survey. Based on the findings, it was found that university advisors have a very poor effect on students’ decisions to select their majors as 45.6% of the 1725 participants indicated no influence of advising in their survey answers. Whereas career advancement opportunities, students’ interests, and job opportunities indicate a strong effect on their majors’ selections, as they score the highest means of 3.76, 3.73, and 3.64, respectively. In addition, findings show that students are most likely changing their majors in their second year, and specifically in the second semester. Second year major change scored 36.9% in the second semester and 30.9% in the first semester. More importantly, results indicate that there is a positive significant correlation between college advisors and major change in the second year (p = 0.000). It is to researchers’ understanding based on the findings that when students receive enough academic advising in the first year of study, and this advising continues steadily into the next year, the probability of students changing their majors decreases greatly. Full article