Abstract: Based on a qualitative study of eight “less visible” Muslim Iraqi Turkoman immigrants in a multicultural Sydney, this article highlights the dynamic nature of immigrant identity that is constructed of multiple ethno-communal identities. This article explores the significance of transnational activities, due to readily available communication technologies, and how this allows Muslim Iraqi Turkoman immigrants not only to hold multiple identities, but also move and mix in societies with plural ethno-religious communities, such as Sydney. Through a transnational lens and the use of qualitative study, this article looks at how Muslim Iraqi Turkoman forced migrants have engaged in identity reproduction and settlement in Sydney, and how their experiences compare with the utopic dream of a “multicultural Australia”. The key findings in this article show that: firstly, “less visible” Muslim Iraqi Turkoman ethnic minority usually finds it difficult to self-define their identity, and often uses nation states as point of reference; secondly, Islamophobic attacks affect feelings of belongingness to the larger Australian society; thirdly, maintaining home culture promotes feelings of belongingness to Australia.
Abstract: Findings from this experiment contributed novel insights into the theoretical field of welfare policy, addressing fundamental questions about wealth redistribution rules and norms. The expenses of the redistribution pertaining to basic goods, as well as those associated with public (non-basic) but vital goods, are separately estimated by transforming the expenses into functions of the poverty line. The findings reveal that, along the poverty line that treats all citizens equally, the politicians representing opposing ideologies decide how the redistribution of basic and vital goods should be financed. Politicians should come to an agreement, subject to an approval of their decisions by voters-citizens. However, in the absence of such approval, politicians have no alternative but to continue the negotiations. Based on this premise, we concluded that political decisions with an elevated poverty line as a parameter would give rise to inverse working incentives of benefits claimants. This may result in unbalanced books, due to the expenditure on the delivery of basic and non-basic goods to their respective destinations. By keeping the books in balance, we postulate that one half of median income μ, in accord with Fuchs point, may be used in the form of poverty line ½μ for just and fair wealth redistribution in resolving the ideological controversies between left- and right-wing politicians. Through the income exception rule equal to ½μ, as a result of a relief payments simulation, the wealth redistribution system, known since 1962 from as Friedman’s Negative Income Tax (NIT), diminished the Gini coefficient.
Abstract: The investigation of job insecurity has been a growing field of research. However, little is known about the strategies employees adopt to reduce job insecurity. Former research has shown that employees who perceive high job insecurity tend to engage in voluntary turnover. Yet, we do not know whether such a strategy is successful in reducing perceived job insecurity. Based on the Swiss Household Panel (SHP), a general population survey in Switzerland, a propensity score matching procedure is applied to investigate whether voluntary turnover successfully reduces feelings of job insecurity for employees who previously perceived an above-average level of job insecurity. Assuming that individual and family conditions are important factors explaining the success of this strategy it is distinguished between men and women with high, equally shared, or low financial responsibilities and of different age and educational groups. The results show that voluntary turnover indeed reduces perceived job insecurity. Whereas the individual factors do not moderate this relationship, the level of financial responsibilities does: employees who equally share financial responsibilities with their partners are most successful in reducing perceived job insecurity through voluntary turnover. The use of a propensity score matching procedure has proven fruitful as the bias caused by differing pre-turnover characteristics can be reduced considerably.
Abstract: This paper adds to research on girls’ growing educational advantage by examining gender differences in career paths. Using baseline data from an intervention study (TRY-IT!) targeting 265 sixth-graders in Title I schools, our research traces adolescent career aspirations by gender, race and class. Additionally, we investigate whether girls and boys exhibit differential sensitivity to environmental risk and protective factors that shape career and educational aspirations. We find that the career choices of boys vary more widely by social context, including socioeconomic status, race, and academic resources. Specifically, among youth with fewer social and academic advantages, girls aspire to more practical careers and careers which require higher levels of educational attainment relative to boys. The findings reveal how sources of inequality such as race and class shape gendered aspirations and complicate gender inequality. We reason that boys’ choices are more volatile and socially contingent because of the emphasis on high-status careers as a signifier of masculinity.
Abstract: Healthy community approaches encompass a diverse group of population based strategies and interventions that create supportive environments, foster community behavior change and improve health. This systematic review examined the effectiveness of ten most common healthy community approaches (Healthy Cities/Communities, Smart Growth, Child Friendly Cities, Safe Routes to Schools, Safe Communities, Active Living Communities, Livable Communities, Social Cities, Age-Friendly Cities, and Dementia Friendly Cities) on positive health outcomes. Empirical studies were identified through a search of the academic and grey literature for the period 2000–2014. Of the 231 articles retrieved, 26 met the inclusion criteria with four receiving moderate quality ratings and 22 poor ratings using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool. The majority of studies evaluated Safe Routes to School Programs and reported positive associations with students’ active commute patterns. Fewer studies assessed benefits of Smart Growth, Safe Communities, Active Living Communities and Age-Friendly Cities. The remaining approaches were relatively unexplored in terms of their health benefits however focused on conceptual frameworks and collaborative processes. More robust studies with longer follow-up duration are needed. Priority should be given to evaluation of healthy community projects to show their effectiveness within the population health context.