Open AccessArticle
Understanding Child Outcomes within a Multiple Risk Model: Examining Parental Incarceration
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 82; doi:10.3390/socsci6030082 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The risks in children’s lives often co-occur and overlap in time. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of parental incarceration within a multiple risk model that allows for the control of other prominent risk factors in a child’s life.
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The risks in children’s lives often co-occur and overlap in time. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of parental incarceration within a multiple risk model that allows for the control of other prominent risk factors in a child’s life. The impact of four primary parental risk factors (parental mental illness, parental substance use, parental mental illness, and poverty) on seven child outcomes (school failure, criminal behaviors, being arrested, behavioral difficulties, emotional difficulties, alcohol use, and drug use) was examined. The study utilizes a statistical analysis that is rarely seen in social work research and helps the researcher to better understand the individual contributions of various risk factors. The accumulation of multiple risk factors in a child’s life was found to significantly increase the likelihood that several negative outcomes would occur. The research, however, suggests further that this is an over simplification of the phenomenon and that specific risk factors are more likely to contribute to specific child outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Family Complexity and the Stress Process in Prison: How Sibling Living Arrangements of Minor Children Influence Maternal Role Strains
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 81; doi:10.3390/socsci6030081 -
Abstract
This paper offers a life-course stress process perspective on maternal role strain as a ‘pain of imprisonment’ by engaging the concept of ‘family complexity’ in the context of mass incarceration I consider how the living arrangements of minor siblings (i.e., those living apart
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This paper offers a life-course stress process perspective on maternal role strain as a ‘pain of imprisonment’ by engaging the concept of ‘family complexity’ in the context of mass incarceration I consider how the living arrangements of minor siblings (i.e., those living apart or together) during maternal incarceration functions as a form of family complexity. When minor children live apart from their siblings, they may experience more isolation which may further serve as a stressor for incarcerated mothers. A positive association between siblings living apart and maternal role strain would support a process of ‘stress proliferation’ across the prison-family interface. I investigate these connections using survey-based data on mothers with multiple minor children (n = 80) collected in 2011 from a voluntary sample of respondents housed in a federal minimum security prison in the United States. Multivariate logistic regression results indicate that minor siblings living apart during periods of maternal confinement elevates role strain among mothers (odds ratio = 3.66, p < 0.05). This connection is indicative of an ‘inter-institutional strain.’ Finally, children’s age also increases maternal role strain, but this finding is explained by sibling living arrangements during the mother’s incarceration. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Feminisms and the Hijāb: Not Mutually Exclusive
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 80; doi:10.3390/socsci6030080 -
Abstract
The hijab (veil) is the traditional head covering worn by Muslim women throughout the world. In the West, the hijab has come to symbolize an assumed institutionalized oppression of all women in the Muslim world. Many outside Western observers believe that women who
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The hijab (veil) is the traditional head covering worn by Muslim women throughout the world. In the West, the hijab has come to symbolize an assumed institutionalized oppression of all women in the Muslim world. Many outside Western observers believe that women who wear a veil are forced to wear it, whether by families, husbands, or governments, and examples of the extremes—Afghanistan, Iran, and Saudi Arabia—are often considered the norm for all Muslim countries. In reality, the situation is more complex. Using a survey done at the Gulf University for Science & Technology in Kuwait in 2013 (published as “The Veil in Kuwait, Gender, Fashion, Identity”), not only religious concerns but also social and cultural considerations, personal taste and identity, geographic location, socio-economic level, and occasionally conscious rejections of Western influence can all play a part in the decision whether or not to wear a veil. In this preliminary study, I consider this survey as a case study, together with the theory of post-colonial feminism, to find a more nuanced and realistic understanding about the hijab as well as contributing to the development of less Western-oriented definitions of feminism. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Is Social Media to Blame for the Sharp Rise in STDs?
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 78; doi:10.3390/socsci6030078 -
Abstract
Rhode Island, New Zealand, and southern California recently reported sharp increases in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Health department officials stated that these increases appeared to be due to the more widespread use of social media like Tinder, Grindr, and Facebook, which allow users
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Rhode Island, New Zealand, and southern California recently reported sharp increases in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Health department officials stated that these increases appeared to be due to the more widespread use of social media like Tinder, Grindr, and Facebook, which allow users to readily connect with and meet others. The purpose of this study was to see if U.S. states that have more users of social networking sites, dating sites, and dating apps like Match.com, Ashley Madison, Our Time, Down Dating, Bumble, Zoosk, Hinge, Score, At First Sight, Plenty of Fish, Eharmony, Adult Friend Finder, Tinder, Grindr, and Facebook have more cases of STDs after controlling for population, race, age, income, education, and population density. It was found that states with more users of Match.com, OKCupid, and Down Dating had a larger number of cases of STDs, while states with more users of Our Time, Ashley Madison, Facebook, How About We, Hinge, Adult Friend Finder, Grindr, Bumble, Score, Tinder, and At First Sight had fewer cases of STDs. While social networking sites make it easier for individuals to be exposed to an STD since in-network individuals may share an STD, many sites either attract individuals who are not interested in a short-term sexual relationship or who take precautions to avoid contracting an STD. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Modelling and Simulation of the Formation of Social Networks
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 79; doi:10.3390/socsci6030079 -
Abstract
Social networking has been a feature of human society. From the early hunter-gatherer tribes, medieval guilds, the twentieth century workplaces, up to online entities like Facebook and Twitter, it is difficult to think of a time or place where all people did not
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Social networking has been a feature of human society. From the early hunter-gatherer tribes, medieval guilds, the twentieth century workplaces, up to online entities like Facebook and Twitter, it is difficult to think of a time or place where all people did not belong to at least one cooperative group. It follows that social network formation has been studied extensively in the past decades and will continue to be a popular area of research. Past research has primarily confined itself to considering cases in which new members are introduced into the networks by making a constant number of connections to those who are already present in the networks. Our study aims to fill the glaring gap in the variety of network formation modelling. Most notably, we want to consider scenarios in which the number of connections new members make to those already present in the networks is determined by chance. More specifically, the number of connections made to existing members when a new one is introduced into the network is characterized by a positive integer-valued random variable. The objective of the study is to determine the distribution of degree of a node in this kind of social networks. It is determined that the node degree distribution is a mixture of geometric distributions. Three numerical examples are provided in the study to demonstrate the validity of our findings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Political Approaches to Tackling Islamophobia: An ‘Insider/Outsider’ Analysis of the British Coalition Government’s Approach between 2010–15
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 77; doi:10.3390/socsci6030077 -
Abstract
Soon after the Conservative-led Coalition government came to power in 2010, Baroness Sayeeda Warsi announced that Islamophobia had passed the ‘dinner-table test’ in contemporary Britain. Resultantly, the need to address Islamophobia was identified as a priority for the Coalition. This article critically analyses
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Soon after the Conservative-led Coalition government came to power in 2010, Baroness Sayeeda Warsi announced that Islamophobia had passed the ‘dinner-table test’ in contemporary Britain. Resultantly, the need to address Islamophobia was identified as a priority for the Coalition. This article critically analyses how the Coalition sought to achieve this and the extent to which it was successful. Focusing on the period 2010–15, this article initially frames what is meant by Islamophobia, before briefly setting out how it had been responded to by previous British governments. Regarding the Coalition, a threefold approach is adopted that considers the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Islamophobia, the Cross-Government Working Group on Anti-Muslim Hate, and the political discourses used by the Coalition about Muslims and Islam more generally. Concluding that the Coalition failed to meet the high expectations set by Warsi’s speech, this article considers why this might have been so. Full article
Open AccessArticle
What Are the Main Challenges Impeding Implementation of the Spatial Plans in Egypt Using Ecotourism Development as an Example?
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 75; doi:10.3390/socsci6030075 -
Abstract
In Egypt, highly technical plans are drawn up, but nobody puts them into practice. They always end up gathering dust on the shelves of national agencies or local government without being utilised to make improvements to local economic or environmental well-being. This is
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In Egypt, highly technical plans are drawn up, but nobody puts them into practice. They always end up gathering dust on the shelves of national agencies or local government without being utilised to make improvements to local economic or environmental well-being. This is because such plans did not reflect the stakeholder interests nor deal with their conflicts. The collaborative planning approach is exalted as one of the best methods to help reach a consensus between the stakeholders about the issues and to advance shared solutions and then increase the likelihood of successful implementation of a plan. However, the stakeholder collaboration and engagement practice in Egypt remains ineffective. This research seeks to investigate and understand the challenges and barriers that have hindered the efficiency of stakeholder engagement during ecotourism planning as a sectorial case study by focusing on two case studies, and critiquing existing experiences of ecotourism development planning based upon a conceptual framework for investigating and understanding those challenges. Evidence was drawn from a critical documentary review, and combined with observation and semi-structured interviews with 56 ecotourism experts and stakeholders. The analysis suggests that the stakeholder engagement was tokenistic, and the central government was still dominant. This is a result of three groups of challenges including deficiencies in operationalising stakeholder engagement and challenges associated with the government and non-government stakeholder groups. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
It’s Not Real Until It’s on Facebook: A Qualitative Analysis of Social Media and Digital Communication among Emerging Adults in College
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 74; doi:10.3390/socsci6030074 -
Abstract
Emerging adults are encountering a developmental stage in a polymediated world that brings autonomy, intimacy, and identity to the forefront of their transition from adolescence to adulthood. This study focuses on traditionally-aged college students who are deeply immersed with digital technology and communication
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Emerging adults are encountering a developmental stage in a polymediated world that brings autonomy, intimacy, and identity to the forefront of their transition from adolescence to adulthood. This study focuses on traditionally-aged college students who are deeply immersed with digital technology and communication as a primary method to communicate and interact with peers, partners, teachers, and family members. To understand the relationship between digital communication and emerging adulthood, researchers facilitated a qualitative study grounded in ethnomethodological and dramaturgical perspective to uncover the unique ways in which college students make sense of their social media during this developmental time period. Data collection occurred through nine focus groups; in all, 44 undergraduate students participated. Findings illustrate four relevant patterns to the development of emerging adults: a key rationale for use among participants that is tied to both ritualized behavior and institutional constraints; the importance of autonomy with their digital communication use that is often stifled by parental access to their mediated lives; the presentation of an identity that is rooted in norms of acceptable use; and the importance of digital communication to the development and maintenance of connections to family, friends, and intimate partners. Implications for further research are discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Livelihood after Relocation—Evidences of Guchchagram Project in Bangladesh
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 76; doi:10.3390/socsci6030076 -
Abstract
Due to climate change and its consequences to islands and coastal countries, the relocation of the people living in those vulnerable places has received a lot of attention from policy makers as well as academicians. There have been similar kinds of programs running
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Due to climate change and its consequences to islands and coastal countries, the relocation of the people living in those vulnerable places has received a lot of attention from policy makers as well as academicians. There have been similar kinds of programs running in Bangladesh since the country’s independence in 1971, and people who are landless or victimized due to river bank erosion, cyclones, or floods have been relocated under the umbrella program called ‘Guchchagram’, i.e., cluster villages. Different ruling parties had used different names for the project due to the financial nature of the project, but none of them have significantly differed from the overall goals and objectives of relocated settlements and the betterment of the landless and extreme event victims. Particularly, this study asks how and to what extent the livelihood of relocated households has changed, and what the potentials and constraints of the relocated settlements are. Based on an empirical study at four Guchchagrams of Gopalganj Sadar Upazila, the study shows that there is a significant improvement in the livelihood conditions of the migrated people, but the locational disadvantages and access to agricultural production, the local employment market, and some of the targeted objectives of the project have not achieved. To some extent, the rehabilitated families have similar risks as they had before; however, available agricultural lands and proper allocation can reduce such livelihood risks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Windows of Opportunity for Whom? Commissioners, Access, and the Balance of Interest in European Environmental Governance
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 73; doi:10.3390/socsci6030073 -
Abstract
The European Union’s ambition on environmental issues proves to be highly uneven. While it has agreed on stringent binding sustainability objectives in its reforms of the Common Fisheries Policy in 2013, it failed to reach such agreement on its 2030 climate change objectives
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The European Union’s ambition on environmental issues proves to be highly uneven. While it has agreed on stringent binding sustainability objectives in its reforms of the Common Fisheries Policy in 2013, it failed to reach such agreement on its 2030 climate change objectives at almost the same time. How can we make sense of this uneven performance of the European Union (EU) in environmental policy? The present article argues that integrating the multiple streams approach (MSA) with a focus on business power allows a better understanding of the divergence in the EU’s sustainability ambitions across policy fields. Based on this framework, it suggests that Commissioners can be highly influential policy entrepreneurs in the European governance process. Employing a content analysis of relevant documents from the two policy processes as well as interviews with representatives from political as well as non-state actors, the article depicts the suggested dynamics and deduces corresponding lessons for science and politics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Negotiating Space: The Construction of a New Spatial Identity for Palestinian Muslim Women in Israel
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 72; doi:10.3390/socsci6030072 -
Abstract
This article examines the impact of space on Muslim Palestinian women living in ethnically divided and deindustrialized cities and the roles ethnic marginalization and patriarchy play in shaping their spatial experiences. It examines how women negotiate their roles within space and establish themselves
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This article examines the impact of space on Muslim Palestinian women living in ethnically divided and deindustrialized cities and the roles ethnic marginalization and patriarchy play in shaping their spatial experiences. It examines how women negotiate their roles within space and establish themselves as actors therein. This study also explores the connection between mobility and space in the case of Palestinian Muslim women in Israel. It considers whether and how space and mobility are connected for this minority group. Muslim women in Israel, who were once rarely involved in spaces outside their homes, fields, and villages, have broken existing boundaries to enter new economic, social, and educational environments. However, the gendering of space for these women has been profoundly changed and challenged by a variety of factors, namely state interference, modernization, and Islamism. Full article
Open AccessArticle
‘When She Calls for Help’—Domestic Violence in Christian Families
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 71; doi:10.3390/socsci6030071 -
Abstract
Violence in relationships is a common experience for a significant number of women. VicHealth (Australia) has noted that one of the underlying and contributing factors towards violence against women is their environment, citing ‘faith-based institutions’ such as churches as one such environment for
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Violence in relationships is a common experience for a significant number of women. VicHealth (Australia) has noted that one of the underlying and contributing factors towards violence against women is their environment, citing ‘faith-based institutions’ such as churches as one such environment for many women. Indeed, international research shows that the language of religion is often used by women to explain abuse. Additionally, abused Christian women are more likely to remain in or return to unsafe relationships, citing religious beliefs to support avoidance of ‘family break-ups’ despite abuse. In contrast, however, churches can address domestic violence within a context of care, with emphasis on a theology of biblical equality. This paper examines how domestic violence may be supported by Christian language and belief, and suggests an ‘alternate theology’ concerning religious language in concepts of gender roles, sacrifice, submission, and suffering. It reviews current research on the connection between Christian religious language and domestic violence against women, to highlight the Christian church’s role as a contributing factor to such abuse. Finally, the paper makes some suggestions on how religious language can, in contrast to perpetuating abuse through norms, sever the connections between domestic violence and religious language. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Infrapolitics of Defiance: Forms of Agency Exhibited by Homeless Survivors of Gender-Based Violence
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 70; doi:10.3390/socsci6030070 -
Abstract
This article offers a provocative look at practices of false compliance that homeless gender-based violence survivors employ to withstand the personal and structural violence they experience. The article explores how the three instrumentations of disorder, evasion, and subterfuge are used by survivors as
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This article offers a provocative look at practices of false compliance that homeless gender-based violence survivors employ to withstand the personal and structural violence they experience. The article explores how the three instrumentations of disorder, evasion, and subterfuge are used by survivors as forms of veiled resistance, as well as locations that exhibit their agency. Featuring stories from a series of in-depth interviews, the article uses critical theory to examine the specific mechanisms survivors’ use to defy violent power relations. The research employs a grounded theory methodology, using narrative analysis grids to code for dialogic and performative themes that consistently emerge in survivor narratives. Research findings suggest that survivors’ needs may be best met through innovative community-based programming that deinstitutionalizes entry and exit points into support systems. This decenters the role and function of the external professional helper by utilizing trained local community members as key partners in the disruption of violence cycles. This less traditional approach should be accompanied by housing reform policies that effect longer-term structural change by embedding shelter and safety needs in community networks. In the absence of such durable supports, survivors will continue to enact strategies of sabotage and logics of subversion until helping systems are transformed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Tale of Two Majors: Explaining the Gender Gap in STEM Employment among Computer Science and Engineering Degree Holders
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 69; doi:10.3390/socsci6030069 -
Abstract
We examine factors contributing to the gender gap in employment in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) among men and women with bachelor’s degrees in computer science and engineering, the two largest and most male-dominated STEM fields. Data come from the National Science
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We examine factors contributing to the gender gap in employment in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) among men and women with bachelor’s degrees in computer science and engineering, the two largest and most male-dominated STEM fields. Data come from the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT) from 1995 to 2008. Different factors are associated with persistence in STEM jobs among computer science and engineering degree holders. Conditional on receiving a degree in computer science, women are 14 percentage points less likely to work in STEM than their male counterparts. Controlling for demographic and family characteristics did little to change this gender gap. Women with degrees in engineering are approximately 8 percentage points less likely to work in STEM than men, although about half of this gap is explained by observed differences between men and women. We document a widening gender gap in STEM employment in computer science, but this gender gap narrows across college cohorts among those with degrees in engineering. Among recent computer science graduates, the gender gap in STEM employment for white, Hispanic, and black women relative to white men is even larger than for older graduates. Gender and race gaps in STEM employment for recent cohorts of engineering graduates are generally small, though younger Asian women and men no longer have an employment advantage relative to white men. Our results suggest that a one-size-fits-all approach to increasing women’s representation in the most male-dominated STEM fields may not work. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hashtag Recovery: #Eating Disorder Recovery on Instagram
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 68; doi:10.3390/socsci6030068 -
Abstract
People who have experienced eating disorders are making sense of and managing their own health and recoveries, in part by engaging with digital technologies. We analyzed 1056 images related to eating disorder recovery posted to Instagram using the hashtags #EDRecovery, #EatingDisorderRecovery, #AnorexiaRecovery, #BulimiaRecovery
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People who have experienced eating disorders are making sense of and managing their own health and recoveries, in part by engaging with digital technologies. We analyzed 1056 images related to eating disorder recovery posted to Instagram using the hashtags #EDRecovery, #EatingDisorderRecovery, #AnorexiaRecovery, #BulimiaRecovery and #RecoveryWarrior to explore user performances of eating disorder recovery. We situated our analysis in a critical Deleuzian feminist frame, seeking to understand better how users represented, negotiated, or contested dominant constructions of “how to be recovered”. We identified a number of themes: A Feast for the Eyes, Bodies of Proof, Quotable, and (Im)Perfection. Within each of these themes, we observed links to social location, including the White, Western, middle-to-upper-class trappings that tether representations of eating disorder recovery to stereotypes about who gets eating disorders and may restrict access to the category of recovered. Documenting recovery online may be a way for those in recovery to chart progress and interact with similar others. However, recoveries presented on Instagram resemble stereotypical perspectives on who gets eating disorders and, thus, who might recover, subtly reinforcing a dominant recovery biopedagogy. These versions of recovery may not be available to all, limiting the possibility of engagement for people enacting and embodying diverse recoveries. Still, users make representational interventions into Instagram by making the struggles and challenges of eating disorder recovery visible to each other and to broader audiences. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Media Exposure and Racialized Perceptions of Inequities in Criminal Justice
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(3), 67; doi:10.3390/socsci6030067 -
Abstract
Does media exposure to salient criminological events exacerbate racialized perceptions of injustice? We examine whether closely following media coverage of the fatal encounter of George Zimmerman’s shooting of Trayvon Martin moderates racial and ethnic differences in opinion surrounding the event and the U.S.
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Does media exposure to salient criminological events exacerbate racialized perceptions of injustice? We examine whether closely following media coverage of the fatal encounter of George Zimmerman’s shooting of Trayvon Martin moderates racial and ethnic differences in opinion surrounding the event and the U.S. criminal justice system. Our analysis addresses several key aspects of the case: Whether Zimmerman would have been arrested sooner if Martin had been white, whether respondents felt Zimmerman’s acquittal was justified, and whether there is racial bias against African Americans in the criminal justice system. Relying on national opinion surveys before and after Zimmerman’s trial verdict, our findings support the racial gradient thesis by demonstrating that sustained exposure to racialized framing of the incident in the media affects Hispanics the most and hardens entrenched attitudes among African Americans relative to whites. The analysis supports the continuing relevance of the mass media in attitude formation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Challenges Confronting Rural Dwellers in Accessing Health Information in Ghana: Shai Osudoku District in Perspective
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(2), 66; doi:10.3390/socsci6020066 -
Abstract
The focus of the study was to investigate health information seeking behavior as well as the barriers to health information seeking among rural dwellers in Ghana using Shai Osudoku District as a case study. The convenient and purposive sampling technique was used to
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The focus of the study was to investigate health information seeking behavior as well as the barriers to health information seeking among rural dwellers in Ghana using Shai Osudoku District as a case study. The convenient and purposive sampling technique was used to sample 210 community members within Shai Osudoku District. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0 was employed to process the quantitative data. The data was processed into statistical tables and charts for interpretation and discussion. The outcome of the study revealed that the most common sources of health information seeking among rural community members in the district of investigation are posters, health care providers and families/friends, with radio being the most used platform. It was also revealed that those respondents with higher level of education are more likely to use the Internet and television in accessing health information (p = 0.001 and 0.000 respectively). Similarly, respondents with primary education or informal education were more likely to contact family members for health information (p = 0.001) The outcome of the study also shows that many rural communities in Ghana, particularly rural dwellers of Shai Osudoku District, facenumerous challenges in accessing health information. Notable among them are language barrier, location of the villages and inaccessibility to emerging technologies such as mobile phones and television sets. We conclude that, policies for improving health information access and reducing barriers to health information seeking in rural communities should be designed and implemented by Ghana health service. Also, education on how to access health-related information with easily accessible sources either free or at low-priced could be a way to help people in rural settings in Ghana with limited health information. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
“Strength of Weak Ties,” Neighborhood Ethnic Heterogeneity, and Depressive Symptoms among Adults: A Multilevel Analysis of Korean General Social Survey (KGSS) 2012
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(2), 65; doi:10.3390/socsci6020065 -
Abstract
A substantial body of research, based largely on North American and European contexts, demonstrates that social networks play a critical role in protecting and promoting mental, as well as physical, health. The purpose of this study is to examine how “weak” and “strong”
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A substantial body of research, based largely on North American and European contexts, demonstrates that social networks play a critical role in protecting and promoting mental, as well as physical, health. The purpose of this study is to examine how “weak” and “strong” network relations are differentially related to individual mental health (depressive symptoms) based on a nationally representative sample of South Korean adults. Using multilevel analysis, the current research also investigates the extent to which contextual or neighborhood-level factors moderate the associations between depression and social network. Findings show that regular interaction with weaker ties (acquaintances, neighbors, coworkers, etc.) are associated with better mental health. The number of strong ties (family members and friends), on the other hand, is not a significant predictor of psychological distress. In addition, a cross-level interaction term is observed: The negative relationship between weak ties and depressive symptoms is diminished in neighborhoods with more foreign-born residents or immigrants. General implications beyond the empirical case under investigation are discussed, as to why weak ties can be “strong” in relation to mental health and how this phenomenon can vary according to residential characteristics such as ethnic heterogeneity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Survivors’ Sociocultural Status in Mwenga: A Comparison of the Issue before and after Rape
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(2), 64; doi:10.3390/socsci6020064 -
Abstract
This article discusses psychosocial challenges faced by women survivors of rape in their families and communities based on the interpretation of rape as a sexual taboo and held beliefs that automatic transgression of taboo, through unwanted sexual contact, defiles and endangers survivors and
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This article discusses psychosocial challenges faced by women survivors of rape in their families and communities based on the interpretation of rape as a sexual taboo and held beliefs that automatic transgression of taboo, through unwanted sexual contact, defiles and endangers survivors and those who associate with them. This article raises awareness on these challenges and provides contextualized useful knowledge for professionals in helping the relationship with survivors and for gender relations policy makers. Built on results from a doctoral qualitative, grounded theory-based research, the article presents survivors’ stories from women who suffered rape and therapists who provided multidisciplinary services to them. Researchers have found that rape is widely believed to be a sexual taboo in Mwenga and other rural areas from the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The results suggest that efforts to support healing and social integration of survivors can be well supported by taking into consideration the contextual belief system around sexual defilement as this plays a significant role in post rape relations for survivors in their families and communities. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Process Review of the Indashyikirwa Couples Curriculum to Prevent Intimate Partner Violence and Support Healthy, Equitable Relationships in Rwanda
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(2), 63; doi:10.3390/socsci6020063 -
Abstract
Indashyikirwa is a Rwandan intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention program being implemented by CARE International Rwanda, Rwanda Women’s Network (RWN), and Rwanda Men’s Resource Centre (RWAMREC). A central aspect of the programme is a 20-session curriculum for heterosexual couples designed to support healthy,
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Indashyikirwa is a Rwandan intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention program being implemented by CARE International Rwanda, Rwanda Women’s Network (RWN), and Rwanda Men’s Resource Centre (RWAMREC). A central aspect of the programme is a 20-session curriculum for heterosexual couples designed to support healthy, non-violent relationships. This paper draws on qualitative interviews with 15 couples (before and after the curriculum) and 9 field staff to assess couples’ impressions, comprehension of, and engagement with this innovative training. Thematic analysis was conducted to compare key findings from both data sources. Couples and staff offered positive assessments of the curriculum including the contextual relevance, the participatory approach, and a high level of dedication to the training was shown by the majority of couples. Many couples appreciated being trained together, and although some men dominated the first few sessions, participation gradually became more gender-balanced, and facilitators emphasized creating a safe environment for equal participation. Curriculum content that was initially resisted or difficult reportedly became easier through couples learning and trying new skills and experiencing relationship benefits first-hand, which emphasizes the value of the skills building component and take home exercises. Important insights for couples-based, educational approaches to IPV prevention are identified from this process review. Full article