Open AccessArticle
Vahid Online: Post-2009 Iran and the Politics of Citizen Media Convergence
Soc. Sci. 2016, 5(4), 77; doi:10.3390/socsci5040077 -
Abstract
An attempt is made to study the social network site, Vahid Online, pseudonym of a leading Iranian activist who has the largest social media followership online. Vahid Online is Iran’s leading distributor of information about social and political news about Iran, a source
[...] Read more.
An attempt is made to study the social network site, Vahid Online, pseudonym of a leading Iranian activist who has the largest social media followership online. Vahid Online is Iran’s leading distributor of information about social and political news about Iran, a source of information used by citizens and journalists. Similar to Twitter, Vahid Online posts, shares, and communicates news in short messages with hyperlinks, hashtags, or internet slang for multimedia purposes. In this networking media space, citizen journalism is assumed the civic responsibility of news and information dissemination with a perceived conception of internet as an agency of change. Vahid Online, I argue, is representative of an individuated networking activism in the new technology for information production. Technology, likewise, is imagined as a political agency and, in turn, citizenship is redefined through technology that carries the promise of change. It is also argued that Vahid Online’s conception of citizen journalism is directly born out of the Green Movement in 2009, a protest movement against the 2009 presidential elections with a self-image of networked citizenship with a relative reliance on a weak tie model of civic association. The notion of citizen journalism examined here is one of civic participatory activism in archiving the collection, reporting, and dissemination of news through the merging of diverse media technologies in an attempt to create and distribute the most impact spreading news. The paper finally offers a critical analysis and argues that Vahid Online is more about individuated network framing of a privileged politics through practice of new technology. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Militarization of Mass Incapacitation and Torture during the Sunni Insurgency and American Occupation of Iraq
Soc. Sci. 2016, 5(4), 78; doi:10.3390/socsci5040078 -
Abstract
While scholars and journalists have focused important attention on the recent militarization of intensive policing and imprisonment policies in the United States, there is little reciprocal recognition of how militarized versions of these policies were also exported for use in the occupation of
[...] Read more.
While scholars and journalists have focused important attention on the recent militarization of intensive policing and imprisonment policies in the United States, there is little reciprocal recognition of how militarized versions of these policies were also exported for use in the occupation of Iraq. Intensive policing and imprisonment enabled the American-led and Shia-dominated Iraq Ministries of Defense and Interior along with U.S. forces to play significant roles in the ethnic cleansing and displacement of Arab Sunnis from Baghdad neighborhoods, and in their disproportionate detention in military- and militia-operated facilities, of which the Abu Ghraib prison is only the best known. The failure of American authorities alone and working with Iraq’s government to intervene in stopping the use of police and prisons as places of torture is a violation of U.N.-invoked and U.S.-ratified treaties, and thereby subject to prosecution. Such prosecutions have imported into international law the concept of “joint criminal enterprise” anticipated by the criminologist Donald Cressey and incorporated in the American Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) statutes used to convict organized criminals. We elaborate how the concept of joint criminal enterprise can be used to understand and possibly prosecute a chain of command responsibility for the use of policing and prisons as sites of torture in Iraq. We analyze the previously neglected international consequences of U.S. policing, prison, and mass incapacitation strategies with links to American criminology. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Religiously and Scientifically Framed Messages on Agreement with Water Use Restrictions
Soc. Sci. 2016, 5(4), 76; doi:10.3390/socsci5040076 -
Abstract
Recent droughts in 2012 and 2013 have increased attention to water use issues in the United States. Cities, government agencies, and environmental nonprofit organizations use scientifically-framed messages to advocate for water conservation. In addition, some religious organizations use messages based on religious teachings
[...] Read more.
Recent droughts in 2012 and 2013 have increased attention to water use issues in the United States. Cities, government agencies, and environmental nonprofit organizations use scientifically-framed messages to advocate for water conservation. In addition, some religious organizations use messages based on religious teachings to promote water conservation. Because approximately 70% of the U.S. public reports some religious affiliation, it is important to investigate the influence of religious and scientific messages for promoting water conservation. I report the results of an experiment that examines how scientifically- and religiously-framed messages influence attitudes about water use restrictions. I found that Christians were no more or less likely to agree with a policy calling for water use restrictions than non-Christians and non-religious people. However, a Christian religious message negatively influenced agreement with water use restrictions in the entire sample—and in a Christian subsample. Results suggest that religiously framed messages may not increase environmental concern. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Women, Gender, and Politics in Morocco
Soc. Sci. 2016, 5(4), 75; doi:10.3390/socsci5040075 -
Abstract
This article analyzes the intersection of gender, women’s activism, and political participation in Morocco in a socio-political approach. The emergence of women’s activism is an answer to the gender-based discrimination in the country. Women’s non-government organizations (NGOs) struggle for women’s rights and participate
[...] Read more.
This article analyzes the intersection of gender, women’s activism, and political participation in Morocco in a socio-political approach. The emergence of women’s activism is an answer to the gender-based discrimination in the country. Women’s non-government organizations (NGOs) struggle for women’s rights and participate actively in the feminization and democratization of the public sphere to ensure sustainable development. They create progressive social change through the mobilization and participation of women. The role of women’s NGO’s (liberal and Islamic alike) in the struggle against gender inequalities is remarkable in regard of their efforts to consolidate democracy and social justice and to challenge traditional thinking and inequitable, oppressive, undemocratic, sexist practices of governance. Despite the different approaches, they act together to achieve women’s rights in a variety of places. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Household Structure and Suburbia Residence in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: Evidence from the American Housing Survey
Soc. Sci. 2016, 5(4), 74; doi:10.3390/socsci5040074 -
Abstract
Suburbs have demographically diversified in terms of race, yet little research has been done on household structures in suburbs. Using the 2011 American Housing Survey and 2009–2013 American Community Survey, this study investigates the distributions of household structures in suburbia and central cities,
[...] Read more.
Suburbs have demographically diversified in terms of race, yet little research has been done on household structures in suburbs. Using the 2011 American Housing Survey and 2009–2013 American Community Survey, this study investigates the distributions of household structures in suburbia and central cities, and the relationship between household structures and residential attainment. The findings of this research include: (1) The distribution of household structures differs between suburbia and central cities. Married-couple households are the most common household type in both central cities and suburbs, but they are more likely to reside in suburbia than in central cities; (2) Household structure is a determinant of residential attainment and the relationship varies by race/ethnicity groups. Among Hispanics and Asians, multigenerational household structure is indicative of central city residence, but this association does not hold for whites and blacks. For multigenerational households, the odds of living in suburbia decreases by almost 40 percent among Hispanics and by almost 50 percent for Asians. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
“My Mom Says Some Girls Have Penises”: How Mothers of Gender-Diverse Youth Are Pushing Gender Ideology Forward (and How They’re Not)
Soc. Sci. 2016, 5(4), 73; doi:10.3390/socsci5040073 -
Abstract
Despite a rapid rise in the public visibility of parents who are choosing to support their transgender and gender-diverse children in recent years, little is yet known about how these parents challenge the regulatory forces of hegemonic gender through their parenting. Based on
[...] Read more.
Despite a rapid rise in the public visibility of parents who are choosing to support their transgender and gender-diverse children in recent years, little is yet known about how these parents challenge the regulatory forces of hegemonic gender through their parenting. Based on semi-structured in-depth interviews, this article offers a comparative analysis of the ways that two groups of mothers—gender-expansive and gender-subversive—with differing ideological understandings of gender diversity resist the transmission of hegemonic schemas as they work to affirm their child’s sense of self. Drawing on Ridgway’s concept of gender as a primary frame, I identify a range of strategies used by each group and assess the potential for and limitations to advancing progressive gender ideology through trans-affirming mothering. While both groups contribute in powerful ways to trans-positive, gender-inclusive change, they do so through distinct parenting approaches that vary in their potential to undermine dominant gender ideology. While both groups of mothers resist the transmission of hegemonic gender beliefs in their parenting, the tactics and rhetoric used by gender-subversive mothers pose a more direct threat to the gender order than do those of gender-expansive mothers. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Peer-Review Writing Workshops in College Courses: Students’ Perspectives about Online and Classroom Based Workshops
Soc. Sci. 2016, 5(4), 72; doi:10.3390/socsci5040072 -
Abstract
Peer-review workshops are commonly used in writing courses as a way for students to give their peers feedback as well as help their own writing. Most of the research on peer-review workshops focuses on workshops held in traditional in-person courses, with less research
[...] Read more.
Peer-review workshops are commonly used in writing courses as a way for students to give their peers feedback as well as help their own writing. Most of the research on peer-review workshops focuses on workshops held in traditional in-person courses, with less research on peer-review workshops held online. Students in a freshman writing course experienced both a classroom based writing workshop and an online workshop and then took a survey about their experiences. The majority of the students preferred the online writing workshop because of the convenience of the workshop and being able to post anonymous reviews. Students whom preferred the traditional in-person writing workshop liked being able to talk with their peers about their papers. This research article focuses on the students’ responses and experiences with traditional and online peer-reviews. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
In Their Own Words: The Health and Sexuality of Immigrant Women with Infibulation Living in Switzerland
Soc. Sci. 2016, 5(4), 71; doi:10.3390/socsci5040071 -
Abstract
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a significant public health problem. It is estimated that around 14,700 women affected by FGM live in Switzerland, primarily among women with a history of migration. Our qualitative research investigated the sexual health of immigrant women living with
[...] Read more.
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a significant public health problem. It is estimated that around 14,700 women affected by FGM live in Switzerland, primarily among women with a history of migration. Our qualitative research investigated the sexual health of immigrant women living with FGM in Switzerland, describing their own perception of health, reproductive life and sexuality. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a group of eight immigrant women of sub-Saharan origin living in Switzerland with Type III FGM (infibulation). Seven of the women were from Somalia and one was from the Ivory Coast. All of the Somali women were mothers and married (two separated), and the Ivorian woman was a single mother. The women in our study reported a low level of sexual satisfaction and reproductive health. They affirmed their desire to improve, or at least change, their condition. Although they rarely talk with their husbands about sexual subject matter, they would like to include them more and improve dialogue. Specific socio-sexual management is recommended when caring for immigrant women living with FGM in order to respond to their specific health care needs. Multidisciplinary approaches may be able to offer more comprehensive health care, including facilitated communication to improve dialogue between women and health care professionals, and eventually between women and their husbands in discussing sexual subject matter. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Epistemic Communities, Human Rights, and the Global Diffusion of Legislation against the Organ Trade
Soc. Sci. 2016, 5(4), 69; doi:10.3390/socsci5040069 -
Abstract
Over the past several decades, over 100 countries have passed legislation banning commercial organ transplantation. What explains this rapid, global diffusion of laws? Based on qualitative data from in-depth interviews, historical analysis, and secondary sources, this paper explores the role played by the
[...] Read more.
Over the past several decades, over 100 countries have passed legislation banning commercial organ transplantation. What explains this rapid, global diffusion of laws? Based on qualitative data from in-depth interviews, historical analysis, and secondary sources, this paper explores the role played by the medical epistemic community and human rights in the global spread of laws against the organ trade. In addition to shaping, guiding, and influencing norms and approaches to transplantation, the epistemic community has been instrumental in the development of various resolutions, policy initiatives, recommended practices, statements, legislation, and model laws. Moreover, the epistemic community helped position the organ trade as an issue of societal and global importance, and it persistently encouraged states to undertake actions, such as implementing legislation, to combat the organ trade. Critically, the epistemic community’s efforts against the organ trade incorporated the concepts of human rights, integrity, and dignity, which had diffused globally and become institutionalized in the period after WWII. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Education Policy and Under-Five Survival in Uganda: Evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys
Soc. Sci. 2016, 5(4), 70; doi:10.3390/socsci5040070 -
Abstract
This study seeks to examine the influence of mothers’ schooling accomplishments on child mortality outcomes by exploiting the exogenous variability in schooling prompted by the 1997 universal primary education (UPE) policy in Uganda. The UPE policy, which eliminated school fees for all primary
[...] Read more.
This study seeks to examine the influence of mothers’ schooling accomplishments on child mortality outcomes by exploiting the exogenous variability in schooling prompted by the 1997 universal primary education (UPE) policy in Uganda. The UPE policy, which eliminated school fees for all primary school children, provides an ideal setting for investigating the causal effect of the subsequent burst in primary school enrollment on child mortality outcomes in Uganda. The analysis relies on data from three waves of the nationally representative Uganda Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2000/01, 2006, and 2011. To lessen the bias created by the endogenous nature of education, this study employs the mother’s age at UPE implementation as an instrumental variable in the two-stage least squares model. The empirical analysis shows that one-year spent in school translates to a 2.24 percentage point decline in under-five mortality as observed at survey date and a 1.58 percentage point reduction in infant mortality even after accounting for potential confounding variables. These upshots are weakly robust to a variety of sample sizes and different model specifications. Overall, the results suggest that increasing the primary schooling possibilities for women might contribute towards a reduction in child mortality in low-income countries with high child mortality rates. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Angry and Alone: Demographic Characteristics of Those Who Post to Online Comment Sections
Soc. Sci. 2016, 5(4), 68; doi:10.3390/socsci5040068 -
Abstract
The Internet and social media afford individuals the opportunity to post their thoughts instantaneously and largely without filters. While this has tremendous democratic potential, it also raises questions about the quality of the discourse these technological changes portend. Online comment sections may be
[...] Read more.
The Internet and social media afford individuals the opportunity to post their thoughts instantaneously and largely without filters. While this has tremendous democratic potential, it also raises questions about the quality of the discourse these technological changes portend. Online comment sections may be a particularly unique form of communication within social media to investigate because of their ubiquitous and often anonymous nature. A longitudinal examination of Pew Center data over the course of 4 years suggests that there are demographic differences between people who post and those who do not post to online comment sections. Specifically, in 2008 and 2010 regression analysis demonstrates there is an increased likelihood of posting among men, the unmarried, and the unemployed. However, the 2012 data tells a different story and suggests the possibility that the nature of comment sections might be changing. The findings have important implications for understanding the character of online discourse as well as the vitriol undergirding the political attitudes of disaffected citizens. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Postcolonial Reflection on the Christian Mission: The Case of North Korean Refugees in China and South Korea
Soc. Sci. 2016, 5(4), 67; doi:10.3390/socsci5040067 -
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to challenge the dominant narrative of Christian service providers working for North Korean refugees’ welfare, and to articulate the perspectives of non-Christian aid recipients, especially North Korean refugees in China and South Korea. Drawing upon postcolonialism, I
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to challenge the dominant narrative of Christian service providers working for North Korean refugees’ welfare, and to articulate the perspectives of non-Christian aid recipients, especially North Korean refugees in China and South Korea. Drawing upon postcolonialism, I will unpack dysfunctions of Christian missions and ministries while relating them to anthropological insights and ethnographic research data. As a Christian scholar, I attempt to invite Christian leaders and field workers to engage in critical reflections on their goals, dispositions, and strategies in relating to the culturally, politically, and economically marginalized. This paper is aimed to offer opportunities for Christian missionaries to critique their colonial models and to reclaim their missions that decolonize both missionaries and the missionized. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The New Eugenics: Black Hyper-Incarceration and Human Abatement
Soc. Sci. 2016, 5(4), 66; doi:10.3390/socsci5040066 -
Abstract
In the early twentieth century, the eugenics movement exercised considerable influence over domestic US public policy. Positive eugenics encouraged the reproduction of “fit” human specimens while negative eugenics attempted to reduce the reproduction of “unfit” specimens like the “feebleminded” and the criminal. Although
[...] Read more.
In the early twentieth century, the eugenics movement exercised considerable influence over domestic US public policy. Positive eugenics encouraged the reproduction of “fit” human specimens while negative eugenics attempted to reduce the reproduction of “unfit” specimens like the “feebleminded” and the criminal. Although eugenics became a taboo concept after World War II, it did not disappear. It was merely repackaged. Incarceration is no longer related to stated eugenic goals, yet incapacitation in prisons still exerts a prophylactic effect on human reproduction. Because minorities are incarcerated in disproportionately high numbers, the prophylactic effect of incarceration affects them most dramatically. In fact, for black males, the effect of hyper-incarceration might be so great as to depress overall reproduction rates. This article identifies some of the legal and extralegal variables that would be relevant for such an analysis and calls for such an investigation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Netflix and Engage? Implications for Streaming Television on Political Participation during the 2016 US Presidential Campaign
Soc. Sci. 2016, 5(4), 65; doi:10.3390/socsci5040065 -
Abstract
A large body of existing research has consistently demonstrated that the use of social networking sites (SNS) by citizens in elections is positively related to different forms of both offline and online participation. The opposite argument, however, is often advanced with regard to
[...] Read more.
A large body of existing research has consistently demonstrated that the use of social networking sites (SNS) by citizens in elections is positively related to different forms of both offline and online participation. The opposite argument, however, is often advanced with regard to increased viewing broadcast or cable television, particularly entertainment programming. This study proceeds from this broad vantage point by examining survey-based indicators of active SNS use and conventional television viewing in the 2016 presidential primaries, as well as the frequency of streaming television viewing during the early stages of this campaign. Data for this study was drawn from a representative nationwide online panel, and findings observed here suggest that more personalized communication through the ongoing morphology of social networking sites and streaming both political and apolitical television content are significant factors in positively shaping both online and offline participation. Comparisons with other media including conventional television viewing are introduced, and theoretical implications from a media system dependency framework are discussed. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Banishment in Public Housing: Testing an Evolution of Broken Windows
Soc. Sci. 2016, 5(4), 61; doi:10.3390/socsci5040061 -
Abstract
Banishment policies grant police the authority to formally ban individuals from entering public housing and arrest them for trespassing if they violate the ban. Despite its widespread use and the social consequences resulting from it, an empirical evaluation of the effectiveness of banishment
[...] Read more.
Banishment policies grant police the authority to formally ban individuals from entering public housing and arrest them for trespassing if they violate the ban. Despite its widespread use and the social consequences resulting from it, an empirical evaluation of the effectiveness of banishment has not been performed. Understanding banishment enforcement is an evolution of broken windows policing, this study explores how effective bans are at reducing crime in public housing. We analyze crime data, spanning the years 2001–2012, from six public housing communities and 13 surrounding communities in one southeastern U.S. city. Using Arellano-Bond dynamic panel models, we investigate whether or not issuing bans predicts reductions in property and violent crimes as well as increases in drug and trespass arrests in public housing. We find that this brand of broken windows policing does reduce crime, albeit relatively small reductions and only for property crime, while resulting in an increase in trespass arrests. Given our findings that these policies have only a modest impact on property crime, yet produce relatively larger increases in arrests for minor offenses in communities of color, and ultimately have no significant impact on violent crime, it will be important for police, communities, and policy makers to discuss whether the returns are worth the potential costs. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Ascription, Achievement, and Perceived Equity of Educational Regimes: An Empirical Investigation
Soc. Sci. 2016, 5(4), 64; doi:10.3390/socsci5040064 -
Abstract
This article considers how countries differ in the opinions that citizens hold about the fairness of the social and educational system. From the literature, we derive a typology of four educational “regimes”, based on differences in educational system, labour market and welfare state
[...] Read more.
This article considers how countries differ in the opinions that citizens hold about the fairness of the social and educational system. From the literature, we derive a typology of four educational “regimes”, based on differences in educational system, labour market and welfare state design. We then use data from the ISSP (2009) to investigate how much weight respondents attribute to ascribed characteristics (e.g., being born in a wealthy family) and individual responsibility (e.g., working hard) to explain success in life or at school. We also examine how these judgments relate to the educational background of the respondents. We consider how these patterns correspond to the existing knowledge on social and economic inequality and what this means for the legitimacy of the social system. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Turning Points in the Lives of Chinese and Indian Women Leaders Working toward Social Justice
Soc. Sci. 2016, 5(4), 63; doi:10.3390/socsci5040063 -
Abstract
Institutional change has a human face. This paper explores how a select group of women in China and India experienced economic and political turmoil and why they chose to become change agents. Through in-depth interviews with 40 women from NGOs, government agencies and
[...] Read more.
Institutional change has a human face. This paper explores how a select group of women in China and India experienced economic and political turmoil and why they chose to become change agents. Through in-depth interviews with 40 women from NGOs, government agencies and private business, four broad moments in the evolution of a change agent are identified and discussed: (1) awareness of a double-bind; (2) reframing the tension induced by that double-bind; (3) becoming an agent of change; and (4) building a vibrant network. To highlight these key features, four women’s narratives are discussed in greater depth from recognizing injustice to taking a non-traditional stand. The paper concludes with a call for further comparative work on the role of personal narratives in shaping a movement for change. Full article
Open AccessArticle
40 Is the New 65? Older Adults and Niche Targeting Strategies in the Online Dating Industry
Soc. Sci. 2016, 5(4), 62; doi:10.3390/socsci5040062 -
Abstract
Niche dating sites have become a popular trend in the online dating industry; yet, little is known about the specialization strategies these sites use to cater to their users’ needs. Moreover, previous research alludes to the idea that many of these sites may
[...] Read more.
Niche dating sites have become a popular trend in the online dating industry; yet, little is known about the specialization strategies these sites use to cater to their users’ needs. Moreover, previous research alludes to the idea that many of these sites may be engaging in pseudo-individualization—a deceptive technique that creates an illusion of specialization. This study focuses on niche dating sites for older adults, one of the fastest growing niches in online dating. Through a qualitative content analysis and close reading of older-adult dating sites, I seek to determine how and to what extent online dating sites that target older adults actually customize their services to benefit this population. Three key findings emerge: (1) the use of mass segmentation, a strategy that combines elements of both mass marketing and market segmentation; (2) a strategic broadening of the boundaries of the older-adult niche; and (3) the use of deceptive advertising to attract users. These findings suggest that older-adult dating sites are, in fact, engaging in pseudo-individualization. They also highlight some of the unique aspects of online media that facilitate this practice. Implications for both online daters and site producers are discussed. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Azerbaijani Women, Online Mediatized Activism and Offline Mass Mobilization
Soc. Sci. 2016, 5(4), 60; doi:10.3390/socsci5040060 -
Abstract
Despite its post-Soviet history, Azerbaijan is an under-investigated country in academic research—compared with the other former constituencies, such as the Baltic countries or Russia, of the USSR—and gender questions of the contemporary Azerbaijani society are even less touched on. Within the current context
[...] Read more.
Despite its post-Soviet history, Azerbaijan is an under-investigated country in academic research—compared with the other former constituencies, such as the Baltic countries or Russia, of the USSR—and gender questions of the contemporary Azerbaijani society are even less touched on. Within the current context of the post-“Arab Spring” era of mediatized connectivity and collective political engagement, this article looks into and analyzes how Azerbaijani women participate in different online and offline social and political movements, and if (and how) they are impeded by the increased state authoritarianism in Azerbaijan. Using data, obtained from online information resources, yearly reports of human rights organizations, focus group discussions, and interviews, the study detects four major activist constellations within the Azerbaijani field of gendered politics. Based on the analysis of conditions of detected groups, the article claims that flash mobs, a tactic employed mainly by liberal activists, emerge as the promising way in overcoming the normative nature of Azerbaijani patriarchal society, thus providing an opportunity for normalization and internalization of the feeling of being on the street and acting in concert with others—the practices which might lead towards an increasing participation of (especially young) women in the political processes of the country. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Just Not Like Us: The Interactive Impact of Dimensions of Identity and Race in Attitudes towards Immigration
Soc. Sci. 2016, 5(4), 59; doi:10.3390/socsci5040059 -
Abstract
Since 2009, more Mexicans have been leaving rather than coming to the USA; likewise, illegal immigration from Mexico has declined. Yet, immigration remains a hotly contested issue in the 2016 presidential election, with a seemingly marked increase in anti-immigrant policy and rhetoric, much
[...] Read more.
Since 2009, more Mexicans have been leaving rather than coming to the USA; likewise, illegal immigration from Mexico has declined. Yet, immigration remains a hotly contested issue in the 2016 presidential election, with a seemingly marked increase in anti-immigrant policy and rhetoric, much of which is directed at immigrants from Mexico. In this paper, we seek to explain how individual ethnocultural and civic-based conceptions of what it means to be an American influence attitudes towards immigration. Past theoretical research on national identity has framed the effects of these dimensions as interactive but past empirical work has yet to demonstrate an important interaction between race and ethnocultural identity. Failure to account for these interaction effects has led to inaccurate assumptions about the levels of hostility towards immigrants and how widespread anti-immigrant sentiment really is. We demonstrate a clear interactive effect between identification as white and ethnocultural dimensions of identity and show that this effect has masked the root of the most ardent anti-immigrant sentiment. We also show that while there is a sizeable minority of the population that identifies as both white and have high levels of ethnocultural identity, a majority of Americans prefer to keep immigration levels at the status quo and have an identity that is balanced between ethnoculturalism and civic-based conceptions of identity. Full article
Figures

Figure 1