Open AccessArticle
Fuzzy Computing Model of Activity Recognition on WSN Movement Data for Ubiquitous Healthcare Measurement
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2053; doi:10.3390/s16122053 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Ubiquitous health care (UHC) is beneficial for patients to ensure they complete therapeutic exercises by self-management at home. We designed a fuzzy computing model that enables recognizing assigned movements in UHC with privacy. The movements are measured by the self-developed body motion sensor,
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Ubiquitous health care (UHC) is beneficial for patients to ensure they complete therapeutic exercises by self-management at home. We designed a fuzzy computing model that enables recognizing assigned movements in UHC with privacy. The movements are measured by the self-developed body motion sensor, which combines both accelerometer and gyroscope chips to make an inertial sensing node compliant with a wireless sensor network (WSN). The fuzzy logic process was studied to calculate the sensor signals that would entail necessary features of static postures and dynamic motions. Combinations of the features were studied and the proper feature sets were chosen with compatible fuzzy rules. Then, a fuzzy inference system (FIS) can be generated to recognize the assigned movements based on the rules. We thus implemented both fuzzy and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems in the model to distinguish static and dynamic movements. The proposed model can effectively reach the recognition scope of the assigned activity. Furthermore, two exercises of upper-limb flexion in physical therapy were applied for the model in which the recognition rate can stand for the passing rate of the assigned motions. Finally, a web-based interface was developed to help remotely measure movement in physical therapy for UHC. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Fault Tolerance Mechanism for On-Road Sensor Networks
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2059; doi:10.3390/s16122059 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
On-Road Sensor Networks (ORSNs) play an important role in capturing traffic flow data for predicting short-term traffic patterns, driving assistance and self-driving vehicles. However, this kind of network is prone to large-scale communication failure if a few sensors physically fail. In this paper,
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On-Road Sensor Networks (ORSNs) play an important role in capturing traffic flow data for predicting short-term traffic patterns, driving assistance and self-driving vehicles. However, this kind of network is prone to large-scale communication failure if a few sensors physically fail. In this paper, to ensure that the network works normally, an effective fault-tolerance mechanism for ORSNs which mainly consists of backup on-road sensor deployment, redundant cluster head deployment and an adaptive failure detection and recovery method is proposed. Firstly, based on the Nx principle and the sensors’ failure rate, this paper formulates the backup sensor deployment problem in the form of a two-objective optimization, which explains the trade-off between the cost and fault resumption. In consideration of improving the network resilience further, this paper introduces a redundant cluster head deployment model according to the coverage constraint. Then a common solving method combining integer-continuing and sequential quadratic programming is explored to determine the optimal location of these two deployment problems. Moreover, an Adaptive Detection and Resume (ADR) protocol is deigned to recover the system communication through route and cluster adjustment if there is a backup on-road sensor mismatch. The final experiments show that our proposed mechanism can achieve an average 90% recovery rate and reduce the average number of failed sensors at most by 35.7%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Wireless Wearable Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Monitoring Device with Disposable Sensors
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2060; doi:10.3390/s16122060 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
A novel portable wireless volatile organic compound (VOC) monitoring device with disposable sensors is presented. The device is miniaturized, light, easy-to-use, and cost-effective. Different field tests have been carried out to identify the operational, analytical, and functional performance of the device and its
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A novel portable wireless volatile organic compound (VOC) monitoring device with disposable sensors is presented. The device is miniaturized, light, easy-to-use, and cost-effective. Different field tests have been carried out to identify the operational, analytical, and functional performance of the device and its sensors. The device was compared to a commercial photo-ionization detector, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and carbon monoxide detector. In addition, environmental operational conditions, such as barometric change, temperature change and wind conditions were also tested to evaluate the device performance. The multiple comparisons and tests indicate that the proposed VOC device is adequate to characterize personal exposure in many real-world scenarios and is applicable for personal daily use. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Integrating Deoxyribozymes into Colorimetric Sensing Platforms
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2061; doi:10.3390/s16122061 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Biosensors are analytical devices that have found a variety of applications in medical diagnostics, food quality control, environmental monitoring and biodefense. In recent years, functional nucleic acids, such as aptamers and nucleic acid enzymes, have shown great potential in biosensor development due to
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Biosensors are analytical devices that have found a variety of applications in medical diagnostics, food quality control, environmental monitoring and biodefense. In recent years, functional nucleic acids, such as aptamers and nucleic acid enzymes, have shown great potential in biosensor development due to their excellent ability in target recognition and catalysis. Deoxyribozymes (or DNAzymes) are single-stranded DNA molecules with catalytic activity and can be isolated to recognize a wide range of analytes through the process of in vitro selection. By using various signal transduction mechanisms, DNAzymes can be engineered into fluorescent, colorimetric, electrochemical and chemiluminescent biosensors. Among them, colorimetric sensors represent an attractive option as the signal can be easily detected by the naked eye. This reduces reliance on complex and expensive equipment. In this review, we will discuss the recent progress in the development of colorimetric biosensors that make use of DNAzymes and the prospect of employing these sensors in a range of chemical and biological applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Boundary-Layer Detection at Cryogenic Conditions Using Temperature Sensitive Paint Coupled with a Carbon Nanotube Heating Layer
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2062; doi:10.3390/s16122062 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Detection of flow transition on aircraft surfaces and models can be vital to the development of future vehicles and computational methods for evaluating vehicle concepts. In testing at ambient conditions, IR thermography is ideal for this measurement. However, for higher Reynolds number testing,
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Detection of flow transition on aircraft surfaces and models can be vital to the development of future vehicles and computational methods for evaluating vehicle concepts. In testing at ambient conditions, IR thermography is ideal for this measurement. However, for higher Reynolds number testing, cryogenic facilities are often used, in which IR thermography is difficult to employ. In these facilities, temperature sensitive paint is an alternative with a temperature step introduced to enhance the natural temperature change from transition. Traditional methods for inducing the temperature step by changing the liquid nitrogen injection rate often change the tunnel conditions. Recent work has shown that adding a layer consisting of carbon nanotubes to the surface can be used to impart a temperature step on the model surface with little change in the operating conditions. Unfortunately, this system physically degraded at 130 K and lost heating capability. This paper describes a modification of this technique enabling operation down to at least 77 K, well below the temperature reached in cryogenic facilities. This is possible because the CNT layer is in a polyurethane binder. This was tested on a Natural Laminar Flow model in a cryogenic facility and transition detection was successfully visualized at conditions from 200 K to 110 K. Results were also compared with the traditional temperature step method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Brain-Machine Interface Based on ERD/ERS for an Upper-Limb Exoskeleton Control
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2050; doi:10.3390/s16122050 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
To recognize the user’s motion intention, brain-machine interfaces (BMI) usually decode movements from cortical activity to control exoskeletons and neuroprostheses for daily activities. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether self-induced variations of the electroencephalogram (EEG) can be useful as control
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To recognize the user’s motion intention, brain-machine interfaces (BMI) usually decode movements from cortical activity to control exoskeletons and neuroprostheses for daily activities. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether self-induced variations of the electroencephalogram (EEG) can be useful as control signals for an upper-limb exoskeleton developed by us. A BMI based on event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) is proposed. In the decoder-training phase, we investigate the offline classification performance of left versus right hand and left hand versus both feet by using motor execution (ME) or motor imagery (MI). The results indicate that the accuracies of ME sessions are higher than those of MI sessions, and left hand versus both feet paradigm achieves a better classification performance, which would be used in the online-control phase. In the online-control phase, the trained decoder is tested in two scenarios (wearing or without wearing the exoskeleton). The MI and ME sessions wearing the exoskeleton achieve mean classification accuracy of 84.29% ± 2.11% and 87.37% ± 3.06%, respectively. The present study demonstrates that the proposed BMI is effective to control the upper-limb exoskeleton, and provides a practical method by non-invasive EEG signal associated with human natural behavior for clinical applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Wearable Sensor-Based Human Activity Recognition Method with Multi-Features Extracted from Hilbert-Huang Transform
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2048; doi:10.3390/s16122048 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Wearable sensors-based human activity recognition introduces many useful applications and services in health care, rehabilitation training, elderly monitoring and many other areas of human interaction. Existing works in this field mainly focus on recognizing activities by using traditional features extracted from Fourier transform
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Wearable sensors-based human activity recognition introduces many useful applications and services in health care, rehabilitation training, elderly monitoring and many other areas of human interaction. Existing works in this field mainly focus on recognizing activities by using traditional features extracted from Fourier transform (FT) or wavelet transform (WT). However, these signal processing approaches are suitable for a linear signal but not for a nonlinear signal. In this paper, we investigate the characteristics of the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) for dealing with activity data with properties such as nonlinearity and non-stationarity. A multi-features extraction method based on HHT is then proposed to improve the effect of activity recognition. The extracted multi-features include instantaneous amplitude (IA) and instantaneous frequency (IF) by means of empirical mode decomposition (EMD), as well as instantaneous energy density (IE) and marginal spectrum (MS) derived from Hilbert spectral analysis. Experimental studies are performed to verify the proposed approach by using the PAMAP2 dataset from the University of California, Irvine for wearable sensors-based activity recognition. Moreover, the effect of combining multi-features vs. a single-feature are investigated and discussed in the scenario of a dependent subject. The experimental results show that multi-features combination can further improve the performance measures. Finally, we test the effect of multi-features combination in the scenario of an independent subject. Our experimental results show that we achieve four performance indexes: recall, precision, F-measure, and accuracy to 0.9337, 0.9417, 0.9353, and 0.9377 respectively, which are all better than the achievements of related works. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On the Use of a Feedback Tracking Architecture for Satellite Navigation Spoofing Detection
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2051; doi:10.3390/s16122051 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In this paper, the Extended Coupled Amplitude Delay Lock Loop (ECADLL) architecture, previously introduced as a solution able to deal with a multipath environment, is revisited and improved to tailor it to spoofing detection purposes. Exploiting a properly-defined decision algorithm, the architecture is
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In this paper, the Extended Coupled Amplitude Delay Lock Loop (ECADLL) architecture, previously introduced as a solution able to deal with a multipath environment, is revisited and improved to tailor it to spoofing detection purposes. Exploiting a properly-defined decision algorithm, the architecture is able to effectively detect a spoofer attack, as well as distinguish it from other kinds of interference events. The new algorithm is used to classify them according to their characteristics. We also introduce the use of a ratio metric detector in order to reduce the detection latency and the computational load of the architecture. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
A Touch Sensing Technique Using the Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Fields on the Human Body
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2049; doi:10.3390/s16122049 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Touch sensing is a fundamental approach in human-to-machine interfaces, and is currently under widespread use. Many current applications use active touch sensing technologies. Passive touch sensing technologies are, however, more adequate to implement low power or energy harvesting touch sensing interfaces. This paper
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Touch sensing is a fundamental approach in human-to-machine interfaces, and is currently under widespread use. Many current applications use active touch sensing technologies. Passive touch sensing technologies are, however, more adequate to implement low power or energy harvesting touch sensing interfaces. This paper presents a passive touch sensing technique based on the fact that the human body is affected by the surrounding extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields, such as those of AC power lines. These external ELF fields induce electric potentials on the human body—because human tissues exhibit some conductivity at these frequencies—resulting in what is called AC hum. We therefore propose a passive touch sensing system that detects this hum noise when a human touch occurs, thus distinguishing between touch and non-touch events. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is validated by designing and implementing a flexible touch sensing keyboard. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Method for Vertical Acceleration Noise Suppression of a Thrust-Vectored VTOL UAV
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2054; doi:10.3390/s16122054 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Acceleration is of great importance in motion control for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), especially during the takeoff and landing stages. However, the measured acceleration is inevitably polluted by severe noise. Therefore, a proper noise suppression procedure is required. This paper presents a novel
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Acceleration is of great importance in motion control for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), especially during the takeoff and landing stages. However, the measured acceleration is inevitably polluted by severe noise. Therefore, a proper noise suppression procedure is required. This paper presents a novel method to reduce the noise in the measured vertical acceleration for a thrust-vectored tail-sitter vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) UAV. In the new procedure, a Kalman filter is first applied to estimate the UAV mass by using the information in the vertical thrust and measured acceleration. The UAV mass is then used to compute an estimate of UAV vertical acceleration. The estimated acceleration is finally fused with the measured acceleration to obtain the minimum variance estimate of vertical acceleration. By doing this, the new approach incorporates the thrust information into the acceleration estimate. The method is applied to the data measured in a VTOL UAV takeoff experiment. Two other denoising approaches developed by former researchers are also tested for comparison. The results demonstrate that the new method is able to suppress the acceleration noise substantially. It also maintains the real-time performance in the final estimated acceleration, which is not seen in the former denoising approaches. The acceleration treated with the new method can be readily used in the motion control applications for UAVs to achieve improved accuracy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Potentiometric Aptasensing of Vibrio alginolyticus Based on DNA Nanostructure-Modified Magnetic Beads
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2052; doi:10.3390/s16122052 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
A potentiometric aptasensing assay that couples the DNA nanostructure-modified magnetic beads with a solid-contact polycation-sensitive membrane electrode for the detection of Vibrio alginolyticus is herein described. The DNA nanostructure-modified magnetic beads are used for amplification of the potential response and elimination of the
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A potentiometric aptasensing assay that couples the DNA nanostructure-modified magnetic beads with a solid-contact polycation-sensitive membrane electrode for the detection of Vibrio alginolyticus is herein described. The DNA nanostructure-modified magnetic beads are used for amplification of the potential response and elimination of the interfering effect from a complex sample matrix. The solid-contact polycation-sensitive membrane electrode using protamine as an indicator is employed to chronopotentiometrically detect the change in the charge or DNA concentration on the magnetic beads, which is induced by the interaction between Vibrio alginolyticus and the aptamer on the DNA nanostructures. The present potentiometric aptasensing method shows a linear range of 10–100 CFU mL−1 with a detection limit of 10 CFU mL−1, and a good specificity for the detection of Vibrio alginolyticus. This proposed strategy can be used for the detection of other microorganisms by changing the aptamers in the DNA nanostructures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimized Energy Harvesting, Cluster-Head Selection and Channel Allocation for IoTs in Smart Cities
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2046; doi:10.3390/s16122046 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This paper highlights three critical aspects of the internet of things (IoTs), namely (1) energy efficiency, (2) energy balancing and (3) quality of service (QoS) and presents three novel schemes for addressing these aspects. For energy efficiency, a novel radio frequency (RF) energy-harvesting
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This paper highlights three critical aspects of the internet of things (IoTs), namely (1) energy efficiency, (2) energy balancing and (3) quality of service (QoS) and presents three novel schemes for addressing these aspects. For energy efficiency, a novel radio frequency (RF) energy-harvesting scheme is presented in which each IoT device is associated with the best possible RF source in order to maximize the overall energy that the IoT devices harvest. For energy balancing, the IoT devices in close proximity are clustered together and then an IoT device with the highest residual energy is selected as a cluster head (CH) on a rotational basis. Once the CH is selected, it assigns channels to the IoT devices to report their data using a novel integer linear program (ILP)-based channel allocation scheme by satisfying their desired QoS. To evaluate the presented schemes, exhaustive simulations are carried out by varying different parameters, including the number of IoT devices, the number of harvesting sources, the distance between RF sources and IoT devices and the primary user (PU) activity of different channels. The simulation results demonstrate that our proposed schemes perform better than the existing ones. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Managing the Quality of Experience in the Multimedia Internet of Things: A Layered-Based Approach
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2057; doi:10.3390/s16122057 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This paper addresses the issue of evaluating the Quality of Experience (QoE) for Internet of Things (IoT) applications, with particular attention to the case where multimedia content is involved. A layered IoT architecture is firstly analyzed to understand which QoE influence factors have
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This paper addresses the issue of evaluating the Quality of Experience (QoE) for Internet of Things (IoT) applications, with particular attention to the case where multimedia content is involved. A layered IoT architecture is firstly analyzed to understand which QoE influence factors have to be considered in relevant application scenarios. We then introduce the concept of Multimedia IoT (MIoT) and define a layered QoE model aimed at evaluating and combining the contributions of each influence factor to estimate the overall QoE in MIoT applications. Finally, we present a use case related to the remote monitoring of vehicles during driving practices, which is used to validate the proposed layered model, and we discuss a second use case for smart surveillance, to emphasize the generality of the proposed framework. The effectiveness in evaluating classes of influence factors separately is demonstrated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Minimum Interference Channel Assignment Algorithm for Multicast in a Wireless Mesh Network
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2056; doi:10.3390/s16122056 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have been considered as one of the key technologies for the configuration of wireless machines since they emerged. In a WMN, wireless routers provide multi-hop wireless connectivity between hosts in the network and also allow them to access the
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Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have been considered as one of the key technologies for the configuration of wireless machines since they emerged. In a WMN, wireless routers provide multi-hop wireless connectivity between hosts in the network and also allow them to access the Internet via gateway devices. Wireless routers are typically equipped with multiple radios operating on different channels to increase network throughput. Multicast is a form of communication that delivers data from a source to a set of destinations simultaneously. It is used in a number of applications, such as distributed games, distance education, and video conferencing. In this study, we address a channel assignment problem for multicast in multi-radio multi-channel WMNs. In a multi-radio multi-channel WMN, two nearby nodes will interfere with each other and cause a throughput decrease when they transmit on the same channel. Thus, an important goal for multicast channel assignment is to reduce the interference among networked devices. We have developed a minimum interference channel assignment (MICA) algorithm for multicast that accurately models the interference relationship between pairs of multicast tree nodes using the concept of the interference factor and assigns channels to tree nodes to minimize interference within the multicast tree. Simulation results show that MICA achieves higher throughput and lower end-to-end packet delay compared with an existing channel assignment algorithm named multi-channel multicast (MCM). In addition, MICA achieves much lower throughput variation among the destination nodes than MCM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Coordinate-Based Clustering Method for Indoor Fingerprinting Localization in Dense Cluttered Environments
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2055; doi:10.3390/s16122055 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Indoor positioning technologies has boomed recently because of the growing commercial interest in indoor location-based service (ILBS). Due to the absence of satellite signal in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), various technologies have been proposed for indoor applications. Among them, Wi-Fi fingerprinting has
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Indoor positioning technologies has boomed recently because of the growing commercial interest in indoor location-based service (ILBS). Due to the absence of satellite signal in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), various technologies have been proposed for indoor applications. Among them, Wi-Fi fingerprinting has been attracting much interest from researchers because of its pervasive deployment, flexibility and robustness to dense cluttered indoor environments. One challenge, however, is the deployment of Access Points (AP), which would bring a significant influence on the system positioning accuracy. This paper concentrates on WLAN based fingerprinting indoor location by analyzing the AP deployment influence, and studying the advantages of coordinate-based clustering compared to traditional RSS-based clustering. A coordinate-based clustering method for indoor fingerprinting location, named Smallest-Enclosing-Circle-based (SEC), is then proposed aiming at reducing the positioning error lying in the AP deployment and improving robustness to dense cluttered environments. All measurements are conducted in indoor public areas, such as the National Center For the Performing Arts (as Test-bed 1) and the XiDan Joy City (Floors 1 and 2, as Test-bed 2), and results show that SEC clustering algorithm can improve system positioning accuracy by about 32.7% for Test-bed 1, 71.7% for Test-bed 2 Floor 1 and 73.7% for Test-bed 2 Floor 2 compared with traditional RSS-based clustering algorithms such as K-means. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dielectrically-Loaded Cylindrical Resonator-Based Wireless Passive High-Temperature Sensor
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2037; doi:10.3390/s16122037 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The temperature sensor presented in this paper is based on a microwave dielectric resonator, which uses alumina ceramic as a substrate to survive in harsh environments. The resonant frequency of the resonator is determined by the relative permittivity of the alumina ceramic, which
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The temperature sensor presented in this paper is based on a microwave dielectric resonator, which uses alumina ceramic as a substrate to survive in harsh environments. The resonant frequency of the resonator is determined by the relative permittivity of the alumina ceramic, which monotonically changes with temperature. A rectangular aperture etched on the surface of the resonator works as both an incentive and a coupling device. A broadband slot antenna fed by a coplanar waveguide is utilized as an interrogation antenna to wirelessly detect the sensor signal using a radio-frequency backscattering technique. Theoretical analysis, software simulation, and experiments verified the feasibility of this temperature-sensing system. The sensor was tested in a metal-enclosed environment, which severely interferes with the extraction of the sensor signal. Therefore, frequency-domain compensation was introduced to filter the background noise and improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the sensor signal. The extracted peak frequency was found to monotonically shift from 2.441 to 2.291 GHz when the temperature was varied from 27 to 800 °C, leading to an average absolute sensitivity of 0.19 MHz/°C. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Framework to Implement IoT Network Performance Modelling Techniques for Network Solution Selection
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2038; doi:10.3390/s16122038 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
No single network solution for Internet of Things (IoT) networks can provide the required level of Quality of Service (QoS) for all applications in all environments. This leads to an increasing number of solutions created to fit particular scenarios. Given the increasing number
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No single network solution for Internet of Things (IoT) networks can provide the required level of Quality of Service (QoS) for all applications in all environments. This leads to an increasing number of solutions created to fit particular scenarios. Given the increasing number and complexity of solutions available, it becomes difficult for an application developer to choose the solution which is best suited for an application. This article introduces a framework which autonomously chooses the best solution for the application given the current deployed environment. The framework utilises a performance model to predict the expected performance of a particular solution in a given environment. The framework can then choose an apt solution for the application from a set of available solutions. This article presents the framework with a set of models built using data collected from simulation. The modelling technique can determine with up to 85% accuracy the solution which performs the best for a particular performance metric given a set of solutions. The article highlights the fractured and disjointed practice currently in place for examining and comparing communication solutions and aims to open a discussion on harmonising testing procedures so that different solutions can be directly compared and offers a framework to achieve this within IoT networks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tunable Multiple-Step Plasmonic Bragg Reflectors with Graphene-Based Modulated Grating
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2039; doi:10.3390/s16122039 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
We propose a novel plasmonic Bragg reflector (PBR) based on graphene with multiple-step silicon structure. The monolayer graphene bears locally variable optical properties by modulation of electric fields, and the periodical change of effective refractive index on graphene can be obtained by external
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We propose a novel plasmonic Bragg reflector (PBR) based on graphene with multiple-step silicon structure. The monolayer graphene bears locally variable optical properties by modulation of electric fields, and the periodical change of effective refractive index on graphene can be obtained by external bias voltage in the mid-infrared region. Through patterning the PBR units into multiple-step structures, we can decrease the insertion loss and suppress the rippling in transmission spectra. By introducing the defect into the multiple-step PBRs, the multiple resonance modes are formed inside the stopband by increasing the step number. This work may pave the ways for the further development of ultra-compact low-cost hyperspectral sensors in the mid-infrared region. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Manipulation and Immobilization of a Single Fluorescence Nanosensor for Selective Injection into Cells
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2041; doi:10.3390/s16122041 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Manipulation and injection of single nanosensors with high cell viability is an emerging field in cell analysis. We propose a new method using fluorescence nanosensors with a glass nanoprobe and optical control of the zeta potential. The nanosensor is fabricated by encapsulating a
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Manipulation and injection of single nanosensors with high cell viability is an emerging field in cell analysis. We propose a new method using fluorescence nanosensors with a glass nanoprobe and optical control of the zeta potential. The nanosensor is fabricated by encapsulating a fluorescence polystyrene nanobead into a lipid layer with 1,3,3-trimethylindolino-6′-nitrobenzopyrylospiran (SP), which is a photochromic material. The nanobead contains iron oxide nanoparticles and a temperature-sensitive fluorescent dye, Rhodamine B. The zeta potential of the nanosensor switches between negative and positive by photo-isomerization of SP with ultraviolet irradiation. The positively-charged nanosensor easily adheres to a negatively-charged glass nanoprobe, is transported to a target cell, and then adheres to the negatively-charged cell membrane. The nanosensor is then injected into the cytoplasm by heating with a near-infrared (NIR) laser. As a demonstration, a single 750 nm nanosensor was picked-up using a glass nanoprobe with optical control of the zeta potential. Then, the nanosensor was transported and immobilized onto a target cell membrane. Finally, it was injected into the cytoplasm using a NIR laser. The success rates of pick-up and cell immobilization of the nanosensor were 75% and 64%, respectively. Cell injection and cell survival rates were 80% and 100%, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Femtosecond Laser Ablated FBG with Composite Microstructure for Hydrogen Sensor Application
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2040; doi:10.3390/s16122040 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
A composite microstructure in fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with film deposition for hydrogen detection is presented. Through ablated to FBG cladding by a femtosecond laser, straight-trenches and spiral micro-pits are formed. A Pd–Ag film is sputtered on the surface of the laser processed
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A composite microstructure in fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with film deposition for hydrogen detection is presented. Through ablated to FBG cladding by a femtosecond laser, straight-trenches and spiral micro-pits are formed. A Pd–Ag film is sputtered on the surface of the laser processed FBG single mode fiber, and acts as hydrogen sensing transducer. The demonstrated experimental outcomes show that a composite structure produced the highest sensitivity of 26.3 pm/%H, nearly sevenfold more sensitive compared with original standard FBG. It offers great potential in engineering applications for its good structure stability and sensitivity. Full article
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