Open AccessArticle
Optimal Deployment of Sensor Nodes Based on Performance Surface of Underwater Acoustic Communication
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2389; doi:10.3390/s17102389 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The underwater acoustic sensor network (UWASN) is a system that exchanges data between numerous sensor nodes deployed in the sea. The UWASN uses an underwater acoustic communication technique to exchange data. Therefore, it is important to design a robust system that will function
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The underwater acoustic sensor network (UWASN) is a system that exchanges data between numerous sensor nodes deployed in the sea. The UWASN uses an underwater acoustic communication technique to exchange data. Therefore, it is important to design a robust system that will function even in severely fluctuating underwater communication conditions, along with variations in the ocean environment. In this paper, a new algorithm to find the optimal deployment positions of underwater sensor nodes is proposed. The algorithm uses the communication performance surface, which is a map showing the underwater acoustic communication performance of a targeted area. A virtual force-particle swarm optimization algorithm is then used as an optimization technique to find the optimal deployment positions of the sensor nodes, using the performance surface information to estimate the communication radii of the sensor nodes in each generation. The algorithm is evaluated by comparing simulation results between two different seasons (summer and winter) for an area located off the eastern coast of Korea as the selected targeted area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Magnetic Field Sensing Based on Bi-Tapered Optical Fibers Using Spectral Phase Analysis
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2393; doi:10.3390/s17102393 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
A compact, magnetic field sensor system based on a short, bi-tapered optical fiber (BTOF) span lying on a magnetic tape was designed, fabricated, and characterized. We monitored the transmission spectrum from a broadband light source, which displayed a strong interference signal. After data
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A compact, magnetic field sensor system based on a short, bi-tapered optical fiber (BTOF) span lying on a magnetic tape was designed, fabricated, and characterized. We monitored the transmission spectrum from a broadband light source, which displayed a strong interference signal. After data collection, we applied a phase analysis of the interference optical spectrum. We here report the results on two fabricated, BTOFs with different interference spectrum characteristics; we analyzed the signal based on the interference between a high-order modal component and the core fiber mode. The sensor exhibited a linear response for magnetic field increments, and we achieved a phase sensitivity of around 0.28 rad/mT. The sensing setup presented remote sensing operation and low-cost transducer magnetic material. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring Bridge Dynamic Responses Using Fiber Bragg Grating Tiltmeters
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2390; doi:10.3390/s17102390 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In bridge health monitoring, tiltmeters have been used for measuring rotation and curvature; however, their application in dynamic parameter identification has been lacking. This study installed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) tiltmeters on the bearings of a bridge and monitored the dynamic rotational angle.
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In bridge health monitoring, tiltmeters have been used for measuring rotation and curvature; however, their application in dynamic parameter identification has been lacking. This study installed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) tiltmeters on the bearings of a bridge and monitored the dynamic rotational angle. The dynamic features, including natural frequencies and mode shapes, have been identified successfully. The innovation presented in this paper is the first-time use of FBG tiltmeter readings to identify the natural frequencies of a long-span steel girder bridge. The identified results have been verified using a bridge finite element model. This paper introduces a new method for the dynamic monitoring of a bridge using FBG tiltmeters. Limitations and future research directions are also discussed in the conclusion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Light Node Communication Framework: A New Way to Communicate Inside Smart Homes
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2397; doi:10.3390/s17102397 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The Internet of things has profoundly changed the way we imagine information science and architecture, and smart homes are an important part of this domain. Created a decade ago, the few existing prototypes use technologies of the day, forcing designers to create centralized
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The Internet of things has profoundly changed the way we imagine information science and architecture, and smart homes are an important part of this domain. Created a decade ago, the few existing prototypes use technologies of the day, forcing designers to create centralized and costly architectures that raise some issues concerning reliability, scalability, and ease of access which cannot be tolerated in the context of assistance. In this paper, we briefly introduce a new kind of architecture where the focus is placed on distribution. More specifically, we respond to the first issue we encountered by proposing a lightweight and portable messaging protocol. After running several tests, we observed a maximized bandwidth, whereby no packets were lost and good encryption was obtained. These results tend to prove that our innovation may be employed in a real context of distribution with small entities. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Real-Time Monitoring of Water Content in Sandy Soil Using Shear Mode Piezoceramic Transducers and Active Sensing—A Feasibility Study
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2395; doi:10.3390/s17102395 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
A quantitative understanding of soil water content or soil water status is of great importance to many applications, such as landslide monitoring, rockfill dam health monitoring, precision agriculture, etc. In this paper, a feasibility study was conducted to monitor the soil water content
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A quantitative understanding of soil water content or soil water status is of great importance to many applications, such as landslide monitoring, rockfill dam health monitoring, precision agriculture, etc. In this paper, a feasibility study was conducted to monitor the soil water content in real time using permanent embedded piezoceramic-based transducers called smart aggregates (SAs). An active sensing approach using a customized swept acoustic wave with a frequency range between 100 Hz and 300 kHz was used to study the wave attenuation in the soil in correlation to soil moisture levels. Two sandy soil specimens, each embedded with a pair of SAs, were made in the laboratory, and the water percentage of the soil specimens was incrementally decreased from 15% to 3% during the tests. Due to the change of the soil water status, the damping property of the soil correspondingly changes. The change of the damping property results in the variation of the acoustic wave attenuation ratios. A wavelet packet-based energy index was adopted to compute the energy of the signal captured by the SA sensor. Experimental results show a parabolic growth curve of the received signal energy vs. the water percentage of the soil. The feasibility, sensitivity, and reliability of the proposed method for in-situ monitoring of soil water status were discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Objective Balance Error Scoring System for Sideline Concussion Evaluation Using Duplex Kinect Sensors
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2398; doi:10.3390/s17102398 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Sports-related concussion is a common sports injury that might induce potential long-term consequences without early diagnosis and intervention in the field. However, there are few options of such sensor systems available. The aim of the study is to propose and validate an automated
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Sports-related concussion is a common sports injury that might induce potential long-term consequences without early diagnosis and intervention in the field. However, there are few options of such sensor systems available. The aim of the study is to propose and validate an automated concussion administration and scoring approach, which is objective, affordable and capable of detecting all balance errors required by the balance error scoring system (BESS) protocol in the field condition. Our approach is first to capture human body skeleton positions using two Microsoft Kinect sensors in the proposed configuration and merge the data by a custom-made algorithm to remove the self-occlusion of limbs. The standing balance errors according to BESS protocol were further measured and accessed automatically by the proposed algorithm. Simultaneously, the BESS test was filmed for scoring by an experienced rater. Two results were compared using Pearson coefficient r, obtaining an excellent consistency (r = 0.93, p < 0.05). In addition, BESS test–retest was performed after seven days and compared using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), showing a good test–retest reliability (ICC = 0.81, p < 0.01). The proposed approach could be an alternative of objective tools to assess postural stability for sideline sports concussion diagnosis. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Flexible Sensors for Pressure Therapy: Effect of Substrate Curvature and Stiffness on Sensor Performance
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2399; doi:10.3390/s17102399 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Flexible pressure sensors are increasingly being used in medical and non-medical applications, and particularly in innovative health monitoring. Their efficacy in medical applications such as compression therapy depends on the accuracy and repeatability of their output, which in turn depend on factors such
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Flexible pressure sensors are increasingly being used in medical and non-medical applications, and particularly in innovative health monitoring. Their efficacy in medical applications such as compression therapy depends on the accuracy and repeatability of their output, which in turn depend on factors such as sensor type, shape, pressure range, and conformability of the sensor to the body surface. Numerous researchers have examined the effects of sensor type and shape, but little information is available on the effect of human body parameters such as support surfaces’ curvature and the stiffness of soft tissues on pressure sensing performance. We investigated the effects of body parameters on the performance of pressure sensors using a custom-made human-leg-like test setup. Pressure sensing parameters such as accuracy, drift and repeatability were determined in both static (eight hours continuous pressure) and dynamic (10 cycles of pressure application of 30 s duration) testing conditions. The testing was performed with a focus on compression therapy application for venous leg ulcer treatments, and was conducted in a low-pressure range of 20–70 mmHg. Commercially available sensors manufactured by Peratech and Sensitronics were used under various loading conditions to determine the influence of stiffness and curvature. Flat rigid, flat soft silicone and three cylindrical silicone surfaces of radii of curvature of 3.5 cm, 5.5 cm and 6.5 cm were used as substrates under the sensors. The Peratech sensor averaged 94% accuracy for both static and dynamic measurements on all substrates; the Sensitronics sensor averaged 88% accuracy. The Peratech sensor displayed moderate variations and the Sensitronics sensor large variations in output pressure readings depending on the underlying test surface, both of which were reduced markedly by individual pressure calibration for surface type. Sensor choice and need for calibration to surface type are important considerations for their application in healthcare monitoring. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Multi-Parameter Wireless Sensing System (MPwise): Its Description and Application to Earthquake Risk Mitigation
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2400; doi:10.3390/s17102400 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The Multi-Parameter Wireless Sensing (MPwise) system is an innovative instrumental design that allows different sensor types to be combined with relatively high-performance computing and communications components. These units, which incorporate off-the-shelf components, can undertake complex information integration and processing tasks at the individual
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The Multi-Parameter Wireless Sensing (MPwise) system is an innovative instrumental design that allows different sensor types to be combined with relatively high-performance computing and communications components. These units, which incorporate off-the-shelf components, can undertake complex information integration and processing tasks at the individual unit or node level (when used in a network), allowing the establishment of networks that are linked by advanced, robust and rapid communications routing and network topologies. The system (and its predecessors) was originally designed for earthquake risk mitigation, including earthquake early warning (EEW), rapid response actions, structural health monitoring, and site-effect characterization. For EEW, MPwise units are capable of on-site, decentralized, independent analysis of the recorded ground motion and based on this, may issue an appropriate warning, either by the unit itself or transmitted throughout a network by dedicated alarming procedures. The multi-sensor capabilities of the system allow it to be instrumented with standard strong- and weak-motion sensors, broadband sensors, MEMS (namely accelerometers), cameras, temperature and humidity sensors, and GNSS receivers. In this work, the MPwise hardware, software and communications schema are described, as well as an overview of its possible applications. While focusing on earthquake risk mitigation actions, the aim in the future is to expand its capabilities towards a more multi-hazard and risk mitigation role. Overall, MPwise offers considerable flexibility and has great potential in contributing to natural hazard risk mitigation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Lab-on-Chip, Surface-Enhanced Raman Analysis by Aerosol Jet Printing and Roll-to-Roll Hot Embossing
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2401; doi:10.3390/s17102401 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) combines the high specificity of Raman scattering with high sensitivity due to an enhancement of the electromagnetic field by metallic nanostructures. However, the tyical fabrication methods of SERS substrates suffer from low throughput and therefore high costs. Furthermore, point-of-care
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Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) combines the high specificity of Raman scattering with high sensitivity due to an enhancement of the electromagnetic field by metallic nanostructures. However, the tyical fabrication methods of SERS substrates suffer from low throughput and therefore high costs. Furthermore, point-of-care applications require the investigation of liquid solutions and thus the integration of the SERS substrate in a microfluidic chip. We present a roll-to-roll fabrication approach for microfluidics with integrated, highly efficient, surface-enhanced Raman scattering structures. Microfluidic channels are formed using roll-to-roll hot embossing in polystyrene foil. Aerosol jet printing of a gold nanoparticle ink is utilized to manufacture highly efficient, homogeneous, and reproducible SERS structures. The modified channels are sealed with a solvent-free, roll-to-roll, thermal bonding process. In continuous flow measurements, these chips overcome time-consuming incubation protocols and the poor reproducibility of SERS experiments often caused by inhomogeneous drying of the analyte. In the present study, we explore the influence of the printing process on the homogeneity and the enhancement of the SERS structures. The feasibility of aerosol-jet-modified microfluidic channels for highly sensitive SERS detection is demonstrated by using solutions with different concentrations of Rhodamine 6G and adenosine. The printed areas provide homogeneous enhancement factors of ~4 × 106. Our work shows a way towards the low-cost production of tailor-made, SERS-enabled, label-free, lab-on- chip systems for bioanalysis. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Crack Monitoring Method for an FRP-Strengthened Steel Structure Based on an Antenna Sensor
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2394; doi:10.3390/s17102394 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) has been increasingly applied to steel structures for structural strengthening or crack repair, given its high strength-to-weight ratio and high stiffness-to-weight ratio. Cracks in steel structures are the dominant hidden threats to structural safety. However, it is difficult to monitor
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Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) has been increasingly applied to steel structures for structural strengthening or crack repair, given its high strength-to-weight ratio and high stiffness-to-weight ratio. Cracks in steel structures are the dominant hidden threats to structural safety. However, it is difficult to monitor structural cracks under FRP coverage and there is little related research. In this paper, a crack monitoring method for an FRP-strengthened steel structure deploying a microstrip antenna sensor is presented. A theoretical model of the dual-substrate antenna sensor with FRP is established and the sensitivity of crack monitoring is studied. The effects of the weak conductivity of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) on the performance of crack monitoring are analyzed via contrast experiments. The effects of FRP thickness on the performance of the antenna sensor are studied. The influence of structural strain on crack detection coupling is studied through strain–crack coupling experiments. The results indicate that the antenna sensor can detect cracks in steel structures covered by FRP (including CFRP). FRP thickness affects the antenna sensor’s performance significantly, while the effects of strain can be ignored. The results provide a new approach for crack monitoring of FRP-strengthened steel structures with extensive application prospects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Transfer-Efficient Face Routing Using the Planar Graphs of Neighbors in High Density WSNs
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2402; doi:10.3390/s17102402 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Face routing has been adopted in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) where topological changes occur frequently or maintaining full network information is difficult. For message forwarding in networks, a planar graph is used to prevent looping, and because long edges are removed by planarization
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Face routing has been adopted in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) where topological changes occur frequently or maintaining full network information is difficult. For message forwarding in networks, a planar graph is used to prevent looping, and because long edges are removed by planarization and the resulting planar graph is composed of short edges, and messages are forwarded along multiple nodes connected by them even though they can be forwarded directly. To solve this, face routing using information on all nodes within 2-hop range was adopted to forward messages directly to the farthest node within radio range. However, as the density of the nodes increases, network performance plunges because message transfer nodes receive and process increased node information. To deal with this problem, we propose a new face routing using the planar graphs of neighboring nodes to improve transfer efficiency. It forwards a message directly to the farthest neighbor and reduces loads and processing time by distributing network graph construction and planarization to the neighbors. It also decreases the amount of location information to be transmitted by sending information on the planar graph nodes rather than on all neighboring nodes. Simulation results show that it significantly improves transfer efficiency. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of Ordered SnO2 Nanostructures with Enhanced Humidity Sensing Performance
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2392; doi:10.3390/s17102392 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Ordered SnO2 nanostructures were prepared as humidity sensors by nanosphere lithography with the magnetron sputtering technique. The X-ray diffraction patterns of SnO2 nanostructures show that all intense diffraction peaks correspond to the crystallographic planes of SnO2. The Atomic Force
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Ordered SnO2 nanostructures were prepared as humidity sensors by nanosphere lithography with the magnetron sputtering technique. The X-ray diffraction patterns of SnO2 nanostructures show that all intense diffraction peaks correspond to the crystallographic planes of SnO2. The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) mage shows that these SnO2 nanostructures exhibited a classic honeycomb structure. The resistance of this sensor was measured to show that the resistance of the sensor decreases with an increase from lower relative humidity (RH) to higher RH. Additionally, the longest response/recovery time was 32 s/42 s for 11–96% RH. The hysteresis for the SnO2 nanostructure sensor was <5%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Silicon Nanocrystals with pH-Sensitive Tunable Light Emission from Violet to Blue-Green
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2396; doi:10.3390/s17102396 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
We fabricated a silicon nanocrystal (NC) suspension with visible, continuous, tunable light emission with pH sensitivity from violet to blue-green. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern analysis exhibit the highly crystalline nanoparticles of silicon. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra and photoluminescence
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We fabricated a silicon nanocrystal (NC) suspension with visible, continuous, tunable light emission with pH sensitivity from violet to blue-green. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern analysis exhibit the highly crystalline nanoparticles of silicon. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra at different pH values, such as 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11, reveal the origins of light emission from the silicon NC suspension, which includes both the quantum confinement effect and surface bonding. The quantum confinement effect dominates the PL origins of silicon NCs, especially determining the tunability and the emission range of PL, while the surface bonding regulates the maximum peak center, full width at half maximum (FWHM), and offsets of PL peaks in response to the changing pH value. The peak fitting of PLE curves reveals one of the divided PLE peaks shifts towards a shorter wavelength when the pH value increases, which implies correspondence with the surface bonding between silicon NCs and hydrogen atoms or hydroxyl groups. The consequent detailed analysis of the PL spectra indicates that the surface bonding results in the transforming of the PL curves towards longer wavelengths with the increasing pH values, which is defined as the pH sensitivity of PL. These results suggest that the present silicon NCs with pH-sensitive tunable light emission could find promising potential applications as optical sources, bio-sensors, etc. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Improved Indoor Positioning System Using RGB-D Cameras and Wireless Networks for Use in Complex Environments
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2391; doi:10.3390/s17102391 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This work presents an Indoor Positioning System to estimate the location of people navigating in complex indoor environments. The developed technique combines WiFi Positioning Systems and depth maps, delivering promising results in complex inhabited environments, consisting of various connected rooms, where people
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This work presents an Indoor Positioning System to estimate the location of people navigating in complex indoor environments. The developed technique combines WiFi Positioning Systems and depth maps, delivering promising results in complex inhabited environments, consisting of various connected rooms, where people are freely moving. This is a non-intrusive system in which personal information about subjects is not needed and, although RGB-D cameras are installed in the sensing area, users are only required to carry their smart-phones. In this article, the methods developed to combine the above-mentioned technologies and the experiments performed to test the system are detailed. The obtained results show a significant improvement in terms of accuracy and performance with respect to previous WiFi-based solutions as well as an extension in the range of operation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modified Gray-Level Coding Method for Absolute Phase Retrieval
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2383; doi:10.3390/s17102383 -
Abstract
Fringe projection systems have been widely applied in three-dimensional (3D) shape measurements. One of the important issues is how to retrieve the absolute phase. This paper presents a modified gray-level coding method for absolute phase retrieval. Specifically, two groups of fringe patterns are
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Fringe projection systems have been widely applied in three-dimensional (3D) shape measurements. One of the important issues is how to retrieve the absolute phase. This paper presents a modified gray-level coding method for absolute phase retrieval. Specifically, two groups of fringe patterns are projected onto the measured objects, including three phase-shift patterns for the wrapped phase, and three n-ary gray-level (nGL) patterns for the fringe order. Compared with the binary gray-level (bGL) method which just uses two intensity values, the nGL method can generate many more unique codewords with multiple intensity values. With assistance from the average intensity and modulation of phase-shift patterns, the intensities of nGL patterns are normalized to deal with ambient light and surface contrast. To reduce the codeword detection errors caused by camera/projector defocus, nGL patterns are designed as n-ary gray-code (nGC) patterns to ensure that at most, one code changes at each point. Experiments verify the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed method to measure isolated objects with complex surfaces. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optical Sensing of Weed Infestations at Harvest
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2381; doi:10.3390/s17102381 -
Abstract
Kochia (Kochia scoparia L.), Russian thistle (Salsolatragus L.), and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.) are economically important weeds infesting dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production systems in the western United States. Those weeds produce most of their seeds
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Kochia (Kochia scoparia L.), Russian thistle (Salsolatragus L.), and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.) are economically important weeds infesting dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production systems in the western United States. Those weeds produce most of their seeds post-harvest. The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of an optical sensor, installed for on-the-go measurement of grain protein concentration, to detect the presence of green plant matter in flowing grain and assess the potential usefulness of this information for mapping weeds at harvest. Spectra of the grain stream were recorded continuously at a rate of 0.33 Hz during harvest of two spring wheat fields of 1.9 and 5.4 ha. All readings were georeferenced using a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver with 1 m positional accuracy. Chlorophyll of green plant matter was detectable in the red (638–710 nm) waveband. Maps of the chlorophyll signal from both fields showed an overall agreement of 78.1% with reference maps, one constructed prior to harvest and the other at harvest time, both based on visual evaluations of the three green weed species conducted by experts. Information on weed distributions at harvest may be useful for controlling post-harvest using variable rate technology for herbicide applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Alleviate Similar Object in Visual Tracking via Online Learning Interference-Target Spatial Structure
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2382; doi:10.3390/s17102382 -
Abstract
Correlation Filter (CF) based trackers have demonstrated superior performance to many complex scenes in smart and autonomous systems, but similar object interference is still a challenge. When the target is occluded by a similar object, they not only have similar appearance feature but
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Correlation Filter (CF) based trackers have demonstrated superior performance to many complex scenes in smart and autonomous systems, but similar object interference is still a challenge. When the target is occluded by a similar object, they not only have similar appearance feature but also are in same surrounding context. Existing CF tracking models only consider the target’s appearance information and its surrounding context, and have insufficient discrimination to address the problem. We propose an approach that integrates interference-target spatial structure (ITSS) constraints into existing CF model to alleviate similar object interference. Our approach manages a dynamic graph of ITSS online, and jointly learns the target appearance model, similar object appearance model and the spatial structure between them to improve the discrimination between the target and a similar object. Experimental results on large benchmark datasets OTB-2013 and OTB-2015 show that the proposed approach achieves state-of-the-art performance. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Downhole Applications of Magnetic Sensors
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2384; doi:10.3390/s17102384 -
Abstract
In this paper we present a review of the application of two types of magnetic sensors—fluxgate magnetometers and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensors—in the oil/gas industry. These magnetic sensors play a critical role in drilling wells safely, accurately and efficiently into a target
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In this paper we present a review of the application of two types of magnetic sensors—fluxgate magnetometers and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensors—in the oil/gas industry. These magnetic sensors play a critical role in drilling wells safely, accurately and efficiently into a target reservoir zone by providing directional data of the well and acquiring information about the surrounding geological formations. Research into magnetic sensors for oil/gas drilling has not been explored by researchers to the same extent as other applications, such as biomedical, magnetic storage and automotive/aerospace applications. Therefore, this paper aims to serve as an opportunity for researchers to truly understand how magnetic sensors can be used in a downhole environment and to provide fertile ground for research and development in this area. A look ahead, discussing other magnetic sensor technologies that can potentially be used in the oil/gas industry is presented, and what is still needed in order deploy them in the field is also addressed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Terahertz Spectroscopy for Proximal Soil Sensing: An Approach to Particle Size Analysis
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2387; doi:10.3390/s17102387 -
Abstract
Spatially resolved soil parameters are some of the most important pieces of information for precision agriculture. These parameters, especially the particle size distribution (texture), are costly to measure by conventional laboratory methods, and thus, in situ assessment has become the focus of a
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Spatially resolved soil parameters are some of the most important pieces of information for precision agriculture. These parameters, especially the particle size distribution (texture), are costly to measure by conventional laboratory methods, and thus, in situ assessment has become the focus of a new discipline called proximal soil sensing. Terahertz (THz) radiation is a promising method for nondestructive in situ measurements. The THz frequency range from 258 gigahertz (GHz) to 350 GHz provides a good compromise between soil penetration and the interaction of the electromagnetic waves with soil compounds. In particular, soil physical parameters influence THz measurements. This paper presents investigations of the spectral transmission signals from samples of different particle size fractions relevant for soil characterization. The sample thickness ranged from 5 to 17 mm. The transmission of THz waves was affected by the main mineral particle fractions, sand, silt and clay. The resulting signal changes systematically according to particle sizes larger than half the wavelength. It can be concluded that THz spectroscopic measurements provide information about soil texture and penetrate samples with thicknesses in the cm range. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Research on Low Modulus Distributed Fiber Optical Sensor for Pavement Material Strain Monitoring
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2386; doi:10.3390/s17102386 -
Abstract
The accumulated irreversible deformation in pavement under repeated vehicle loadings will cause fatigue failure of asphalt concrete. It is necessary to monitor the mechanical response of pavement under load by using sensors. Previous studies have limitations in modulus accommodation between the sensor and
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The accumulated irreversible deformation in pavement under repeated vehicle loadings will cause fatigue failure of asphalt concrete. It is necessary to monitor the mechanical response of pavement under load by using sensors. Previous studies have limitations in modulus accommodation between the sensor and asphalt pavement, and it is difficult to achieve the distributed monitoring goal. To solve these problems, a new type of low modulus distributed optical fiber sensor (DOFS) for asphalt pavement strain monitoring is fabricated. Laboratory experiments have proved the applicability and accuracy of the newly-designed sensor. This paper presents the results of the development. Full article
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