Open AccessArticle
An Adaptive Moving Target Imaging Method for Bistatic Forward-Looking SAR Using Keystone Transform and Optimization NLCS
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 216; doi:10.3390/s17010216 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Bistatic forward-looking SAR (BFSAR) is a kind of bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system that can image forward-looking terrain in the flight direction of an aircraft. Until now, BFSAR imaging theories and methods for a stationary scene have been researched thoroughly. However, for
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Bistatic forward-looking SAR (BFSAR) is a kind of bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system that can image forward-looking terrain in the flight direction of an aircraft. Until now, BFSAR imaging theories and methods for a stationary scene have been researched thoroughly. However, for moving-target imaging with BFSAR, the non-cooperative movement of the moving target induces some new issues: (I) large and unknown range cell migration (RCM) (including range walk and high-order RCM); (II) the spatial-variances of the Doppler parameters (including the Doppler centroid and high-order Doppler) are not only unknown, but also nonlinear for different point-scatterers. In this paper, we put forward an adaptive moving-target imaging method for BFSAR. First, the large and unknown range walk is corrected by applying keystone transform over the whole received echo, and then, the relationships among the unknown high-order RCM, the nonlinear spatial-variances of the Doppler parameters, and the speed of the mover, are established. After that, using an optimization nonlinear chirp scaling (NLCS) technique, not only can the unknown high-order RCM be accurately corrected, but also the nonlinear spatial-variances of the Doppler parameters can be balanced. At last, a high-order polynomial filter is applied to compress the whole azimuth data of the moving target. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vinobot and Vinoculer: Two Robotic Platforms for High-Throughput Field Phenotyping
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 214; doi:10.3390/s17010214 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In this paper, a new robotic architecture for plant phenotyping is being introduced. The architecture consists of two robotic platforms: an autonomous ground vehicle (Vinobot) and a mobile observation tower (Vinoculer). The ground vehicle collects data from individual plants, while the observation tower
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In this paper, a new robotic architecture for plant phenotyping is being introduced. The architecture consists of two robotic platforms: an autonomous ground vehicle (Vinobot) and a mobile observation tower (Vinoculer). The ground vehicle collects data from individual plants, while the observation tower oversees an entire field, identifying specific plants for further inspection by the Vinobot. The advantage of this architecture is threefold: first, it allows the system to inspect large areas of a field at any time, during the day and night, while identifying specific regions affected by biotic and/or abiotic stresses; second, it provides high-throughput plant phenotyping in the field by either comprehensive or selective acquisition of accurate and detailed data from groups or individual plants; and third, it eliminates the need for expensive and cumbersome aerial vehicles or similarly expensive and confined field platforms. As the preliminary results from our algorithms for data collection and 3D image processing, as well as the data analysis and comparison with phenotype data collected by hand demonstrate, the proposed architecture is cost effective, reliable, versatile, and extendable. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Opportunistic Sensor Data Collection with Bluetooth Low Energy
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 159; doi:10.3390/s17010159 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has gained very high momentum, as witnessed by its widespread presence in smartphones, wearables and other consumer electronics devices. This fact can be leveraged to carry out opportunistic sensor data collection (OSDC) in scenarios where a sensor node cannot
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Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has gained very high momentum, as witnessed by its widespread presence in smartphones, wearables and other consumer electronics devices. This fact can be leveraged to carry out opportunistic sensor data collection (OSDC) in scenarios where a sensor node cannot communicate with infrastructure nodes. In such cases, a mobile entity (e.g., a pedestrian or a vehicle) equipped with a BLE-enabled device can collect the data obtained by the sensor node when both are within direct communication range. In this paper, we characterize, both analytically and experimentally, the performance and trade-offs of BLE as a technology for OSDC, for the two main identified approaches, and considering the impact of its most crucial configuration parameters. Results show that a BLE sensor node running on a coin cell battery can achieve a lifetime beyond one year while transferring around 10 Mbit/day, in realistic OSDC scenarios. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Three-Dimensional Measurement for Specular Reflection Surface Based on Reflection Component Separation and Priority Region Filling Theory
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 215; doi:10.3390/s17010215 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Due to the strong reflection property of materials with smooth surfaces like ceramic and metal, it will cause saturation and the highlight phenomenon in the image when taking pictures of those materials. In order to solve this problem, a new algorithm which is
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Due to the strong reflection property of materials with smooth surfaces like ceramic and metal, it will cause saturation and the highlight phenomenon in the image when taking pictures of those materials. In order to solve this problem, a new algorithm which is based on reflection component separation (RCS) and priority region filling theory is designed. Firstly, the specular pixels in the image are found by comparing the pixel parameters. Then, the reflection components are separated and processed. However, for ceramic, metal and other objects with strong specular highlight, RCS theory will change color information of highlight pixels due to larger specular reflection component. In this situation, priority region filling theory was used to restore the color information. Finally, we implement 3D experiments on objects with strong reflecting surfaces like ceramic plate, ceramic bottle, marble pot and yellow plate. Experimental results show that, with the proposed method, the highlight caused by the strong reflecting surface can be well suppressed. The highlight pixel number of ceramic plate, ceramic bottle, marble pot and yellow plate, is decreased by 43.8 times, 41.4 times, 33.0 times, and 10.1 times. Three-dimensional reconstruction results show that highlight areas were significantly reduced. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hierarchical NiCo2O4 Hollow Sphere as a Peroxidase Mimetic for Colorimetric Detection of H2O2 and Glucose
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 217; doi:10.3390/s17010217 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In this work, the hierarchical NiCo2O4 hollow sphere synthesized via a “coordinating etching and precipitating” process was demonstrated to exhibit intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. The peroxidase-like activity of NiCo2O4, NiO, and Co3O4 hollow spheres
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In this work, the hierarchical NiCo2O4 hollow sphere synthesized via a “coordinating etching and precipitating” process was demonstrated to exhibit intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. The peroxidase-like activity of NiCo2O4, NiO, and Co3O4 hollow spheres were comparatively studied by the catalytic oxidation reaction of 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in presence of H2O2, and a superior peroxidase-like activity of NiCo2O4 was confirmed by stronger absorbance at 652 nm. Furthermore, the proposed sensing platform showed commendable response to H2O2 with a linear range from 10 μM to 400 μM, and a detection limit of 0.21 μM. Cooperated with GOx, the developed novel colorimetric and visual glucose-sensing platform exhibited high selectivity, favorable reproducibility, satisfactory applicability, wide linear range (from 0.1 mM to 4.5 mM), and a low detection limit of 5.31 μM. In addition, the concentration-dependent color change would offer a better and handier way for detection of H2O2 and glucose by naked eye. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Diaphragm Based Fiber Bragg Grating Acceleration Sensor with Temperature Compensation
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 218; doi:10.3390/s17010218 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
A novel fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing-based acceleration sensor has been proposed to simultaneously decouple and measure temperature and acceleration in real-time. This design applied a diaphragm structure and utilized the axial property of a tightly suspended optical fiber, enabling improvement in its
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A novel fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing-based acceleration sensor has been proposed to simultaneously decouple and measure temperature and acceleration in real-time. This design applied a diaphragm structure and utilized the axial property of a tightly suspended optical fiber, enabling improvement in its sensitivity and resonant frequency and achieve a low cross-sensitivity. The theoretical vibrational model of the sensor has been built, and its design parameters and sensing properties have been analyzed through the numerical analysis. A decoupling method has been presented with consideration of the thermal expansion of the sensor structure to realize temperature compensation. Experimental results show that the temperature sensitivity is 8.66 pm/°C within the range of 30–90 °C. The acceleration sensitivity is 20.189 pm/g with a linearity of 0.764% within the range of 5~65 m/s2. The corresponding working bandwidth is 10~200 Hz and its resonant frequency is 600 Hz. This sensor possesses an excellent impact resistance for the cross direction, and the cross-axis sensitivity is below 3.31%. This implementation can avoid the FBG-pasting procedure and overcome its associated shortcomings. The performance of the proposed acceleration sensor can be easily adjusted by modifying their corresponding physical parameters to satisfy requirements from different vibration measurements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Competitive Swarm Optimizer Based Gateway Deployment Algorithm in Cyber-Physical Systems
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 209; doi:10.3390/s17010209 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Wireless sensor network topology optimization is a highly important issue, and topology control through node selection can improve the efficiency of data forwarding, while saving energy and prolonging lifetime of the network. To address the problem of connecting a wireless sensor network to
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Wireless sensor network topology optimization is a highly important issue, and topology control through node selection can improve the efficiency of data forwarding, while saving energy and prolonging lifetime of the network. To address the problem of connecting a wireless sensor network to the Internet in cyber-physical systems, here we propose a geometric gateway deployment based on a competitive swarm optimizer algorithm. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm has a continuous search feature in the solution space, which makes it suitable for finding the geometric center of gateway deployment; however, its search mechanism is limited to the individual optimum (pbest) and the population optimum (gbest); thus, it easily falls into local optima. In order to improve the particle search mechanism and enhance the search efficiency of the algorithm, we introduce a new competitive swarm optimizer (CSO) algorithm. The CSO search algorithm is based on an inter-particle competition mechanism and can effectively avoid trapping of the population falling into a local optimum. With the improvement of an adaptive opposition-based search and its ability to dynamically parameter adjustments, this algorithm can maintain the diversity of the entire swarm to solve geometric K-center gateway deployment problems. The simulation results show that this CSO algorithm has a good global explorative ability as well as convergence speed and can improve the network quality of service (QoS) level of cyber-physical systems by obtaining a minimum network coverage radius. We also find that the CSO algorithm is more stable, robust and effective in solving the problem of geometric gateway deployment as compared to the PSO or Kmedoids algorithms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Commercial Self-Monitoring Devices for Clinical Purposes: Results from the Future Patient Trial, Phase I
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 211; doi:10.3390/s17010211 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Commercial self-monitoring devices are becoming increasingly popular, and over the last decade, the use of self-monitoring technology has spread widely in both consumer and medical markets. The purpose of this study was to evaluate five commercially available self-monitoring devices for further testing in
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Commercial self-monitoring devices are becoming increasingly popular, and over the last decade, the use of self-monitoring technology has spread widely in both consumer and medical markets. The purpose of this study was to evaluate five commercially available self-monitoring devices for further testing in clinical applications. Four activity trackers and one sleep tracker were evaluated based on step count validity and heart rate validity. Methods: The study enrolled 22 healthy volunteers in a walking test. Volunteers walked a 100 m track at 2 km/h and 3.5 km/h. Steps were measured by four activity trackers and compared to gyroscope readings. Two trackers were also tested on nine subjects by comparing pulse readings to Holter monitoring. Results: The lowest average systematic error in the walking tests was −0.2%, recorded on the Garmin Vivofit 2 at 3.5 km/h; the highest error was the Fitbit Charge HR at 2 km/h with an error margin of 26.8%. Comparisons of pulse measurements from the Fitbit Charge HR revealed a margin error of −3.42% ± 7.99% compared to the electrocardiogram. The Beddit sleep tracker measured a systematic error of −3.27% ± 4.60%. Conclusion: The measured results revealed the current functionality and limitations of the five self-tracking devices, and point towards a need for future research in this area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Low Frequency FBG Accelerometer with Symmetrical Bended Spring Plates
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 206; doi:10.3390/s17010206 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
To meet the requirements for low-frequency vibration monitoring, a new type of FBG (fiber Bragg grating) accelerometer with a bended spring plate is proposed. Two symmetrical bended spring plates are used as elastic elements, which drive the FBG to produce axial strains equal
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To meet the requirements for low-frequency vibration monitoring, a new type of FBG (fiber Bragg grating) accelerometer with a bended spring plate is proposed. Two symmetrical bended spring plates are used as elastic elements, which drive the FBG to produce axial strains equal in magnitude but opposite in direction when exciting vibrations exist, leading to doubling the wavelength shift of the FBG. The mechanics model and a numerical method are presented in this paper, with which the influence of the structural parameters on the sensitivity and the eigenfrequency are discussed. The test results show that the sensitivity of the accelerometer is more than 1000 pm/g when the frequency is within the 0.7–20 Hz range. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Imaging and Force Recognition of Single Molecular Behaviors Using Atomic Force Microscopy
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 200; doi:10.3390/s17010200 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The advent of atomic force microscopy (AFM) has provided a powerful tool for investigating the behaviors of single native biological molecules under physiological conditions. AFM can not only image the conformational changes of single biological molecules at work with sub-nanometer resolution, but also
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The advent of atomic force microscopy (AFM) has provided a powerful tool for investigating the behaviors of single native biological molecules under physiological conditions. AFM can not only image the conformational changes of single biological molecules at work with sub-nanometer resolution, but also sense the specific interactions of individual molecular pair with piconewton force sensitivity. In the past decade, the performance of AFM has been greatly improved, which makes it widely used in biology to address diverse biomedical issues. Characterizing the behaviors of single molecules by AFM provides considerable novel insights into the underlying mechanisms guiding life activities, contributing much to cell and molecular biology. In this article, we review the recent developments of AFM studies in single-molecule assay. The related techniques involved in AFM single-molecule assay were firstly presented, and then the progress in several aspects (including molecular imaging, molecular mechanics, molecular recognition, and molecular activities on cell surface) was summarized. The challenges and future directions were also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Object Detection and Classification by Decision-Level Fusion for Intelligent Vehicle Systems
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 207; doi:10.3390/s17010207 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
To understand driving environments effectively, it is important to achieve accurate detection and classification of objects detected by sensor-based intelligent vehicle systems, which are significantly important tasks. Object detection is performed for the localization of objects, whereas object classification recognizes object classes from
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To understand driving environments effectively, it is important to achieve accurate detection and classification of objects detected by sensor-based intelligent vehicle systems, which are significantly important tasks. Object detection is performed for the localization of objects, whereas object classification recognizes object classes from detected object regions. For accurate object detection and classification, fusing multiple sensor information into a key component of the representation and perception processes is necessary. In this paper, we propose a new object-detection and classification method using decision-level fusion. We fuse the classification outputs from independent unary classifiers, such as 3D point clouds and image data using a convolutional neural network (CNN). The unary classifiers for the two sensors are the CNN with five layers, which use more than two pre-trained convolutional layers to consider local to global features as data representation. To represent data using convolutional layers, we apply region of interest (ROI) pooling to the outputs of each layer on the object candidate regions generated using object proposal generation to realize color flattening and semantic grouping for charge-coupled device and Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) sensors. We evaluate our proposed method on a KITTI benchmark dataset to detect and classify three object classes: cars, pedestrians and cyclists. The evaluation results show that the proposed method achieves better performance than the previous methods. Our proposed method extracted approximately 500 proposals on a 1226×370 image, whereas the original selective search method extracted approximately 106×n proposals. We obtained classification performance with 77.72% mean average precision over the entirety of the classes in the moderate detection level of the KITTI benchmark dataset. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication Technology and Characteristics of a Magnetic Sensitive Transistor with nc-Si:H/c-Si Heterojunction
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 212; doi:10.3390/s17010212 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This paper presents a magnetically sensitive transistor using a nc-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction as an emitter junction. By adopting micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, the nc-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction silicon magnetically sensitive transistor (HSMST) chips were designed and fabricated on a
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This paper presents a magnetically sensitive transistor using a nc-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction as an emitter junction. By adopting micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, the nc-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction silicon magnetically sensitive transistor (HSMST) chips were designed and fabricated on a p-type <100> orientation double-side polished silicon wafer with high resistivity. In addition, a collector load resistor (RL) was integrated on the chip, and the resistor converted the collector current (IC) to a collector output voltage (Vout). When IB = 8.0 mA, VDD = 10.0 V, and RL = 4.1 kΩ, the magnetic sensitivity (SV) at room temperature and temperature coefficient (αC) of the collector current for HSMST were 181 mV/T and −0.11%/°C, respectively. The experimental results show that the magnetic sensitivity and temperature characteristics of the proposed transistor can be obviously improved by the use of a nc-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction as an emitter junction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation on Radiometric Capability of Chinese Optical Satellite Sensors
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 204; doi:10.3390/s17010204 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The radiometric capability of on-orbit sensors should be updated on time due to changes induced by space environmental factors and instrument aging. Some sensors, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), have onboard calibrators, which enable real-time calibration. However, most Chinese remote sensing
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The radiometric capability of on-orbit sensors should be updated on time due to changes induced by space environmental factors and instrument aging. Some sensors, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), have onboard calibrators, which enable real-time calibration. However, most Chinese remote sensing satellite sensors lack onboard calibrators. Their radiometric calibrations have been updated once a year based on a vicarious calibration procedure, which has affected the applications of the data. Therefore, a full evaluation of the sensors’ radiometric capabilities is essential before quantitative applications can be made. In this study, a comprehensive procedure for evaluating the radiometric capability of several Chinese optical satellite sensors is proposed. In this procedure, long-term radiometric stability and radiometric accuracy are the two major indicators for radiometric evaluation. The radiometric temporal stability is analyzed by the tendency of long-term top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance variation; the radiometric accuracy is determined by comparison with the TOA reflectance from MODIS after spectrally matching. Three Chinese sensors including the Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera onboard Huan Jing 1 satellite (HJ-1), as well as the Visible and Infrared Radiometer (VIRR) and Medium-Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) onboard the Feng Yun 3 satellite (FY-3) are evaluated in reflective bands based on this procedure. The results are reasonable, and thus can provide reliable reference for the sensors’ application, and as such will promote the development of Chinese satellite data. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Gas Sensors Based on Polymer Field-Effect Transistors
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 213; doi:10.3390/s17010213 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This review focuses on polymer field-effect transistor (PFET) based gas sensor with polymer as the sensing layer, which interacts with gas analyte and thus induces the change of source-drain current (ΔISD). Dependent on the sensing layer which can be semiconducting
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This review focuses on polymer field-effect transistor (PFET) based gas sensor with polymer as the sensing layer, which interacts with gas analyte and thus induces the change of source-drain current (ΔISD). Dependent on the sensing layer which can be semiconducting polymer, dielectric layer or conducting polymer gate, the PFET sensors can be subdivided into three types. For each type of sensor, we present the molecular structure of sensing polymer, the gas analyte and the sensing performance. Most importantly, we summarize various analyte–polymer interactions, which help to understand the sensing mechanism in the PFET sensors and can provide possible approaches for the sensor fabrication in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Efficient Wideband Spectrum Sensing with Maximal Spectral Efficiency for LEO Mobile Satellite Systems
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 193; doi:10.3390/s17010193 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The usable satellite spectrum is becoming scarce due to static spectrum allocation policies. Cognitive radio approaches have already demonstrated their potential towards spectral efficiency for providing more spectrum access opportunities to secondary user (SU) with sufficient protection to licensed primary user (PU). Hence,
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The usable satellite spectrum is becoming scarce due to static spectrum allocation policies. Cognitive radio approaches have already demonstrated their potential towards spectral efficiency for providing more spectrum access opportunities to secondary user (SU) with sufficient protection to licensed primary user (PU). Hence, recent scientific literature has been focused on the tradeoff between spectrum reuse and PU protection within narrowband spectrum sensing (SS) in terrestrial wireless sensing networks. However, those narrowband SS techniques investigated in the context of terrestrial CR may not be applicable for detecting wideband satellite signals. In this paper, we mainly investigate the problem of joint designing sensing time and hard fusion scheme to maximize SU spectral efficiency in the scenario of low earth orbit (LEO) mobile satellite services based on wideband spectrum sensing. Compressed detection model is established to prove that there indeed exists one optimal sensing time achieving maximal spectral efficiency. Moreover, we propose novel wideband cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) framework where each SU reporting duration can be utilized for its following SU sensing. The sensing performance benefits from the novel CSS framework because the equivalent sensing time is extended by making full use of reporting slot. Furthermore, in respect of time-varying channel, the spatiotemporal CSS (ST-CSS) is presented to attain space and time diversity gain simultaneously under hard decision fusion rule. Computer simulations show that the optimal sensing settings algorithm of joint optimization of sensing time, hard fusion rule and scheduling strategy achieves significant improvement in spectral efficiency. Additionally, the novel ST-CSS scheme performs much higher spectral efficiency than that of general CSS framework. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Lift-Off-Tolerant Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing Method for Drill Pipes at Wellhead
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 201; doi:10.3390/s17010201 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
To meet the great needs for MFL (magnetic flux leakage) inspection of drill pipes at wellheads, a lift-off-tolerant MFL testing method is proposed and investigated in this paper. Firstly, a Helmholtz coil magnetization method and the whole MFL testing scheme are proposed. Then,
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To meet the great needs for MFL (magnetic flux leakage) inspection of drill pipes at wellheads, a lift-off-tolerant MFL testing method is proposed and investigated in this paper. Firstly, a Helmholtz coil magnetization method and the whole MFL testing scheme are proposed. Then, based on the magnetic field focusing effect of ferrite cores, a lift-off-tolerant MFL sensor is developed and tested. It shows high sensitivity at a lift-off distance of 5.0 mm. Further, the follow-up high repeatability MFL probing system is designed and manufactured, which was embedded with the developed sensors. It can track the swing movement of drill pipes and allow the pipe ends to pass smoothly. Finally, the developed system is employed in a drilling field for drill pipe inspection. Test results show that the proposed method can fulfill the requirements for drill pipe inspection at wellheads, which is of great importance in drill pipe safety. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ubiquitous Emergency Medical Service System Based on Wireless Biosensors, Traffic Information, and Wireless Communication Technologies: Development and Evaluation
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 202; doi:10.3390/s17010202 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This study presents a new ubiquitous emergency medical service system (UEMS) that consists of a ubiquitous tele-diagnosis interface and a traffic guiding subsystem. The UEMS addresses unresolved issues of emergency medical services by managing the sensor wires for eliminating inconvenience for both patients
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This study presents a new ubiquitous emergency medical service system (UEMS) that consists of a ubiquitous tele-diagnosis interface and a traffic guiding subsystem. The UEMS addresses unresolved issues of emergency medical services by managing the sensor wires for eliminating inconvenience for both patients and paramedics in an ambulance, providing ubiquitous accessibility of patients’ biosignals in remote areas where the ambulance cannot arrive directly, and offering availability of real-time traffic information which can make the ambulance reach the destination within the shortest time. In the proposed system, patient’s biosignals and real-time video, acquired by wireless biosensors and a webcam, can be simultaneously transmitted to an emergency room for pre-hospital treatment via WiMax/3.5 G networks. Performances of WiMax and 3.5 G, in terms of initialization time, data rate, and average end-to-end delay are evaluated and compared. A driver can choose the route of the shortest time among the suggested routes by Google Maps after inspecting the current traffic conditions based on real-time CCTV camera streams and traffic information. The destination address can be inputted vocally for easiness and safety in driving. A series of field test results validates the feasibility of the proposed system for application in real-life scenarios. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effective Calibration of Low-Cost Soil Water Content Sensors
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 208; doi:10.3390/s17010208 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Soil water content is a key variable for understanding and modelling ecohydrological processes. Low-cost electromagnetic sensors are increasingly being used to characterize the spatio-temporal dynamics of soil water content, despite the reduced accuracy of such sensors as compared to reference electromagnetic soil water
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Soil water content is a key variable for understanding and modelling ecohydrological processes. Low-cost electromagnetic sensors are increasingly being used to characterize the spatio-temporal dynamics of soil water content, despite the reduced accuracy of such sensors as compared to reference electromagnetic soil water content sensing methods such as time domain reflectometry. Here, we present an effective calibration method to improve the measurement accuracy of low-cost soil water content sensors taking the recently developed SMT100 sensor (Truebner GmbH, Neustadt, Germany) as an example. We calibrated the sensor output of more than 700 SMT100 sensors to permittivity using a standard procedure based on five reference media with a known apparent dielectric permittivity (1 < Ka < 34.8). Our results showed that a sensor-specific calibration improved the accuracy of the calibration compared to single “universal” calibration. The associated additional effort in calibrating each sensor individually is relaxed by a dedicated calibration setup that enables the calibration of large numbers of sensors in limited time while minimizing errors in the calibration process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for the Determination of Lung Cancer Biomarkers—A Preliminary Investigation
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 210; doi:10.3390/s17010210 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
With 1.6 million deaths per year, lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. One reason for this high number is the absence of a preventive medical examination method. Many diagnoses occur in a late cancer stage with a low
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With 1.6 million deaths per year, lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. One reason for this high number is the absence of a preventive medical examination method. Many diagnoses occur in a late cancer stage with a low survival rate. An early detection could significantly decrease the mortality. In recent decades, certain substances in human breath have been linked to certain diseases. Different studies show that it is possible to distinguish between lung cancer patients and a healthy control group by analyzing the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their breath. We developed a sensor based on photoacoustic spectroscopy for six of the most relevant VOCs linked to lung cancer. As a radiation source, the sensor uses an optical-parametric oscillator (OPO) in a wavelength region from 3.2 µm to 3.5 µm. The limits of detection for a single substance range between 5 ppb and 142 ppb. We also measured high resolution absorption spectra of the biomarkers compared to the data currently available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) database, which is the basis of any selective spectroscopic detection. Future lung cancer screening devices could be based on the further development of this sensor. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Liu, B., et al. Quantitative Evaluation of Pulsed Thermography, Lock-In Thermography and Vibrothermography on Foreign Object Defect (FOD) in CFRP. Sensors 2016, 16, doi:10.3390/s16050743
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 195; doi:10.3390/s17010195 -