Open AccessArticle
Households’ Willingness-to-Pay for Fish Product Attributes and Implications for Market Feasibility of Wastewater-Based Aquaculture Businesses in Hanoi, Vietnam
Resources 2017, 6(3), 30; doi:10.3390/resources6030030 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
A choice experiment was used to assess households’ willingness-to-pay (WTP) for informational attributes (sources of water used to rear fish, and certification) of fish products in Hanoi, Vietnam. The study showed that households’ purchasing decisions are influenced by their access to information of
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A choice experiment was used to assess households’ willingness-to-pay (WTP) for informational attributes (sources of water used to rear fish, and certification) of fish products in Hanoi, Vietnam. The study showed that households’ purchasing decisions are influenced by their access to information of food product attributes and ascribe an economic value to it. The results indicated that households are willing to pay 51% (USD 1.11 per kg) above the prevailing market price of fish for information to know if wastewater is used to rear the fish they consume. Similarly, they are willing to pay 20% above the prevailing market price of fish (USD 0.43 per kg) to know if freshwater is used as a rearing medium. It is important to note that the increased marginal WTP is for information on whether the fish they consume is raised in wastewater over freshwater. This supports the notion of households’ concern over the safety of consuming wastewater-raised fish. Households are also willing to pay 65% (USD 1.42 per kg) above the prevailing market price for certified fish. Based on the cost of fish certification and WTP estimates, we found a total economic benefit of USD 172 million for the implementation of a wastewater-raised fish business model in Hanoi. The demand for wastewater-raised fish is likely to be affected by households’ perception of certification by a trusted government agency, source of water used to raise the fish, age, income and household size. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Market Feasibility of Faecal Sludge and Municipal Solid Waste-Based Compost as Measured by Farmers’ Willingness-to-Pay for Product Attributes: Evidence from Kampala, Uganda
Resources 2017, 6(3), 31; doi:10.3390/resources6030031 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
There is a great potential to close the nutrient recycling loop, support a ‘circular economy’ and improve cost recovery within the waste sector and to create viable businesses via the conversion of waste to organic fertilizers. Successful commercialization of waste-based organic fertilizer businesses
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There is a great potential to close the nutrient recycling loop, support a ‘circular economy’ and improve cost recovery within the waste sector and to create viable businesses via the conversion of waste to organic fertilizers. Successful commercialization of waste-based organic fertilizer businesses however largely depends on a sound market. We used a choice experiment to estimate farmers’ willingness-to-pay (WTP) for faecal sludge and municipal solid waste-based (FSM) compost in Kampala, Uganda and considered three attributes—fortification, pelletization and certification. Our results reveal that farmers are willing to pay for FSM compost and place a higher value on a ‘certified’ compost product. They are willing to pay US $0.4 per kg above the current market price for a similar certified product, which is 67 times higher than the cost of providing the attribute. Farmers are willing to pay US $0.127 per kg for ‘pelletized’ FSM compost, which is lower (0.57 times) than the cost of providing the attribute. On the other hand, farmers require US $0.089 per kg as a compensation to use ‘fortified’ FSM compost. We suggest that future FSM compost businesses focus on a ‘certified and pelletized’ FSM product as this product type has the highest production cost–WTP differential and for which future businesses can capture the highest percentage of the consumer surplus. The demand for FSM compost indicates the benefits that can accrue to farmers, businesses and the environment from the recycling of organic waste for agriculture. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Modeling Cross-Border Regions, Place-Making, and Resource Management: A Delphi Analysis
Resources 2017, 6(3), 32; doi:10.3390/resources6030032 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Along international borders, spillover of resource management issues is a growing challenge. Development of cross-border regions (CBRs) is seen as an emerging means of addressing these issues. A set of theoretical models, geo-economic mobilization and a resource-focused territorial program of place-making have been
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Along international borders, spillover of resource management issues is a growing challenge. Development of cross-border regions (CBRs) is seen as an emerging means of addressing these issues. A set of theoretical models, geo-economic mobilization and a resource-focused territorial program of place-making have been proposed as a lens for understanding why such change could occur. From this theory, we identify three C’s as critical initial or necessary conditions to start the process: commonterritorial identity, convergence of knowledge and values, willingness for cooperation. We then utilize results of a Delphi study in the Fraser Lowland, a sub-district of the American-Canadian Cascadia borderland, to test if these three are present and actively working together. Our analysis based on both cumulative logit and mixed-effect modeling confirms the active existence of the three C’s demonstrating the value of these theoretical models. However, the Delphi also shows that not all in this region are convinced of cross-border convergence and case studies provide mixed signals of successful cross-border resource management, indicating that sufficient conditions are yet to be fully met. Thus, our results confirm the value of these models as a lens to view events, but leave many questions to be researched. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Interannual Variability and Seasonal Predictability of Wind and Solar Resources
Resources 2017, 6(3), 29; doi:10.3390/resources6030029 -
Abstract
Solar and wind resources available for power generation are subject to variability due to meteorological factors. Here, we use a new global climate reanalysis product, Version 2 of the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2), to quantify interannual variability of
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Solar and wind resources available for power generation are subject to variability due to meteorological factors. Here, we use a new global climate reanalysis product, Version 2 of the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2), to quantify interannual variability of monthly-mean solar and wind resource from 1980 to 2016 at a resolution of about 0.5 degrees. We find an average coefficient of variation (CV) of 11% for monthly-mean solar radiation and 8% for wind speed. Mean CVs were about 25% greater over ocean than over land and, for land areas, were greatest at high latitude. The correlation between solar and wind anomalies was near zero in the global mean, but markedly positive or negative in some regions. Both wind and solar variability were correlated with values of climate modes such as the Southern Oscillation Index and Arctic Oscillation, with correlations in the Northern Hemisphere generally stronger during winter. We conclude that reanalysis solar and wind fields could be helpful in assessing variability in power generation due to interannual fluctuations in the solar and wind resource. Skillful prediction of these fluctuations seems to be possible, particularly for certain regions and seasons, given the persistence or predictability of climate modes with which these fluctuations are associated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Land–Water–Food Nexus: Expanding the Social–Ecological System Framework to Link Land and Water Governance
Resources 2017, 6(3), 28; doi:10.3390/resources6030028 -
Abstract
To date, the land–water–food nexus has been primarily addressed from an ecological, hydrological or agronomic angle, with limited response to the governance interface between the input resources. Likewise, in widely used heuristic frameworks, such as the social–ecological system (SES) framework, governance interactions between
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To date, the land–water–food nexus has been primarily addressed from an ecological, hydrological or agronomic angle, with limited response to the governance interface between the input resources. Likewise, in widely used heuristic frameworks, such as the social–ecological system (SES) framework, governance interactions between resources are not sufficiently addressed. We address this gap empirically, using the case of Tajikistan, based on a farm household survey analysis of 306 farmers. The results indicate that land system variables contribute to the willingness to cooperate in irrigation management. Specifically, formal land tenure has a positive effect on farmers paying for water as well as on the likelihood of their investing time and effort in irrigation infrastructure, which is decisive for Tajikistan’s food and fiber production. Irrigation system variables show that, e.g., being an upstream user increases the likelihood to contribute to labor maintenance efforts. We further discuss how decisions with respect to the land sector could be designed in the future to facilitate cooperation in other resource sectors. Further, we conclude from a conceptual perspective that the SES framework integrating a nexus perspective can be adapted: either (1) by adding a second-tier “governance nexus” variable inside the governance variable of an irrigation system; or (2) by adding a land resource unit and system outside the irrigation system. Full article
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Open AccessErratum
Erratum: Wellmer, F.-W.; Scholz, R.W. Putting Phosphorus First: The Need to Know and Right to Know Call for a Revised Hierarchy of Natural Resources. Resources 2017, 6, 20
Resources 2017, 6(3), 27; doi:10.3390/resources6030027 -
Abstract The corresponding author for this article should be Friedrich-W. Wellmer instead of Roland W. Scholz. [...]
Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Impact of Fecal Sludge and Municipal Solid Waste Co-Compost on Crop Growth of Raphanus Sativus L. and Capsicum Anuum L. under Stress Conditions
Resources 2017, 6(3), 26; doi:10.3390/resources6030026 -
Abstract
Co-composted dewatered faecal sludge (FS) with organic fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW) has a high potential to be used as an agricultural resource in Sri Lanka. In addition to options for cost recovery in waste management, closing the nutrient and carbon cycles
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Co-composted dewatered faecal sludge (FS) with organic fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW) has a high potential to be used as an agricultural resource in Sri Lanka. In addition to options for cost recovery in waste management, closing the nutrient and carbon cycles between urban and rural areas, substitution of mineral fertilizers, reduced pollution. and the restoration of degraded arable land are possible with important benefits. Up to now little is known about the usage of FS-MSW as fertilizer and it needs to be studied in order to achieve a better understanding and generate application recommendations. The aim of these experiments has been to evaluate the possibility of substituting mineral fertilization. Two field experiments were conducted on sandy loam to assess the effects of MSW compost and FS-MSW co-compost, its pelletized forms, and mineral-enriched FS-MSW on crop growth. As a short-term crop Raphanus sativus “Beeralu rabu” (radish) was studied for 50 days in a randomized complete block design (RCDB). Results show that, under drought conditions, FS-MSW co-compost increased the yield significantly, while MSW and FS-MSW compost enabled the highest survival rate of the plants. Similarly, the second field trial with a long-term crop, Capsicum anuum “CA-8” (capsicum), was planted as RCBD, using the same treatments, for a cultivation period of 120 days. Results display that during a drought followed by water saturated soil conditions co-compost treatments achieved comparable yields and increased the survival rate significantly compared to the control, fertilized with urea, triple super phosphate, and muriate of potash. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) revealed that pelletizing decreased the monetary benefits if only fertilizer value is considered. It can be concluded that, under drought and water stress, co-compost ensures comparable yields and enables more resistance, but might not be economical viable as a one-crop fertilizer. These findings need to be validated with further trials under different climate regimes and soils. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Successes and Failures of Decentralized Energy Solutions and Implications for the Water–Energy–Food Security Nexus: Case Studies from Developing Countries
Resources 2017, 6(3), 24; doi:10.3390/resources6030024 -
Abstract
Access to reliable and affordable energy is vital for sustainable development. In the off-grid areas of developing countries, decentralized energy solutions have received increasing attention due to their contributions to reducing poverty. However, most of the rural population in many developing countries still
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Access to reliable and affordable energy is vital for sustainable development. In the off-grid areas of developing countries, decentralized energy solutions have received increasing attention due to their contributions to reducing poverty. However, most of the rural population in many developing countries still has little or no access to modern energy technologies. This paper assesses the factors that determine the successes and failures of decentralized energy solutions based on local harmonized case studies from heterogeneous contexts from Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and South America. The case studies were analyzed through the coupled lenses of energy transition and the Water–Energy–Food Security (WEF) Nexus. The findings indicate that access to modern decentralized energy solutions has not resulted in complete energy transitions due to various tradeoffs with the other domains of the WEF Nexus. On the other hand, the case studies point at the potential for improvements in food security, incomes, health, the empowerment of women, and resource conservation when synergies between decentralized energy solutions and other components of the WEF Nexus are present. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Strategic Development Challenges in Marine Tourism in Nunavut
Resources 2017, 6(3), 25; doi:10.3390/resources6030025 -
Abstract
Marine tourism in Arctic Canada has grown substantially since 2005. Though there are social, economic and cultural opportunities associated with industry growth, climate change and a range of environmental risks and other problems present significant management challenges. This paper describes the growth in
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Marine tourism in Arctic Canada has grown substantially since 2005. Though there are social, economic and cultural opportunities associated with industry growth, climate change and a range of environmental risks and other problems present significant management challenges. This paper describes the growth in cruise tourism and pleasure craft travel in Canada’s Nunavut Territory and then outlines issues and concerns related to existing management of both cruise and pleasure craft tourism. Strengths and areas for improvement are identified and recommendations for enhancing the cruise and pleasure craft governance regimes through strategic management are provided. Key strategic approaches discussed are: (1) streamlining the regulatory framework; (2) improving marine tourism data collection and analysis for decision-making; and (3) developing site guidelines and behaviour guidelines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Expedition Cruising in the Canadian Arctic: Visitor Motives and the Influence of Education Programming on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviours
Resources 2017, 6(3), 23; doi:10.3390/resources6030023 -
Abstract
Cruising is a segment of tourism that is increasing at a faster rate than other kinds of leisure travel, especially in the Arctic region. Due to changing environmental conditions in recent years, cruise ships have been able to access more regions of the
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Cruising is a segment of tourism that is increasing at a faster rate than other kinds of leisure travel, especially in the Arctic region. Due to changing environmental conditions in recent years, cruise ships have been able to access more regions of the Arctic for a longer operating season. We investigated the cruiser motivations for polar expedition cruising and the educational dimensions of expedition cruising. Motivations of cruisers were identified using entrance surveys prior to embarking on four separate itineraries (n = 144). We conducted semi-structured interviews, n = 22), made participant observations while on board the vessel for one trip to support survey findings, and followed up with a post-trip survey to assess attitudinal changes (n = 92). We found that, unlike mainstream cruisers, expedition cruisers are motivated by opportunities for novel experience and for learning. Subsequently, the educational programming offered by expedition cruise companies is an important component of the cruise experience. We found that this programming has positively impacted cruiser attitudes, behaviours, and knowledge post-cruise. These findings will encourage cruise companies to improve their educational offerings (i.e., preparedness, program quality, level of engagement) to meet the expectations of their clientele, thereby transferring critical knowledge of environmental stewardship. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Integrated, Decentralized Wastewater Management for Resource Recovery in Rural and Peri-Urban Areas
Resources 2017, 6(2), 22; doi:10.3390/resources6020022 -
Abstract
Collection and treatment of wastewater have a huge impact on the environment and economy, both at the local and global levels. Eco-innovation may play a paramount role in the reduction of the environmental impact of such systems, and in their greater sustainability in
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Collection and treatment of wastewater have a huge impact on the environment and economy, both at the local and global levels. Eco-innovation may play a paramount role in the reduction of the environmental impact of such systems, and in their greater sustainability in economic, environmental, and social terms. Decentralization appears as a logical solution to tackle sustainability problems of wastewater management systems, as it focuses on the on-site treatment of wastewater and on local recycling and reuse of resources contained in domestic wastewater (in primus, water itself). This paper analyses the needs, technological options and contribution to water management of decentralized systems. Decentralized solutions in general will tend to be compatible with local water use and reuse requirements, where locally treated water could support agricultural productivity or (in more urban areas) be used as a substitute for drinking-quality supply water for compatible uses. In analyzing sustainability of technology, different dimensions should be taken into account (in particular, local issues). There is no fixed or universal solution to the technological issue; to the contrary, all relevant studies demonstrated there are varying degrees of sustainability in the way a technology is selected and operated, to avoid exporting problems over time or space. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Role of CSR and SLO in Ecotourism: Collaboration for Economic and Environmental Sustainability of Arctic Resources
Resources 2017, 6(2), 21; doi:10.3390/resources6020021 -
Abstract
Abstract: Major biophysical, economic, and political changes in the Arctic regions during the past two decades has grown business opportunities in the Arctic countries, such as tourism. More specifically, with a focus on sustainability of resources, the industry of ecotourism has emerged
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Abstract: Major biophysical, economic, and political changes in the Arctic regions during the past two decades has grown business opportunities in the Arctic countries, such as tourism. More specifically, with a focus on sustainability of resources, the industry of ecotourism has emerged and become the fastest growing area within tourism. Ecotourism is a travel experience that embraces environmental conservation and the sustainability of local resources and culture. Ecotourism and related businesses must practice ethical behavior to obtain both government and social permission to conduct and carry out their operations. Government and community acceptance, or gaining a social license to operate (SLO) is key. Being accepted as a part of the community is not a formal agreement or document, but ongoing negotiations, practices, and acts of corporate social responsibility (CSR). For example, in many Arctic regions where tourism occurs, the land and resources have other designated uses such as agriculture, forestry, or fisheries. Added infrastructure grows a smaller community, as revenue generating opportunities bring an influx of people and use the resources and infrastructure, as well as have an impact on the local culture and traditions. Sustaining the local and traditional resources and lands, especially in the Arctic where damage can be unrepairable, becomes a key factor in decisions regarding tourism developments. Thus, the need for responsible businesses with a sustainability focus. The need for practices of CSR and SLO in ecotourism is undeniable. Understanding that businesses hold responsibility and play a role in society, the environment, and the life of the locals is very important. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Putting Phosphorus First: The Need to Know and Right to Know Call for a Revised Hierarchy of Natural Resources
Resources 2017, 6(2), 20; doi:10.3390/resources6020020 -
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to develop two concepts regarding phosphorus that will serve as a contribution fulfilling the call for intergenerational equity: to improve knowledge of future resources and to develop a framework by setting priorities for maximizing availability with a
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The aim of this paper is to develop two concepts regarding phosphorus that will serve as a contribution fulfilling the call for intergenerational equity: to improve knowledge of future resources and to develop a framework by setting priorities for maximizing availability with a hierarchy of natural resources. The increasing human demand for minerals and metals is causing persistent concern about long-term supply security. This holds true particularly for phosphorus. Phosphorus is bioessential; it cannot be substituted. There are no unlimited resources for phosphorus. The question of how large the reserves are and the potential for finding additional reserves and resources for a long-term supply are, therefore, of interest to numerous stakeholders, from governments to individuals. We examine governments’ needs and individuals’ rights to know private exploration data. Because of the essential nature of phosphorus, we emphasize the public’s special right to know as much as possible about phosphate reserves, resources and the geopotential for new discoveries, based upon the basic human right to feed oneself in dignity. To fulfill the call for intergenerational equity, however, knowledge alone is not enough; guidelines for management have to follow. This can be achieved by defining a hierarchy of natural resources for setting priorities. For humankind’s technological and cultural development, a sufficient supply of energy resources must be considered the key element; therefore, efforts to maximize information that will enable best decisions to be made have been the strongest. A hierarchy of natural resources with fossil and nuclear energies at the top was proposed. However, with the new development of renewable forms of energy and the decreasing role of fossil-fuel energy, the hierarchy of natural resources that defines priorities must be revised. We propose a hierarchy that replaces fossil-fuel energy at the top with phosphorus. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Urine, Poultry Manure, and Dewatered Faecal Sludge on Agronomic Characteristics of Cabbage in Accra, Ghana
Resources 2017, 6(2), 19; doi:10.3390/resources6020019 -
Abstract
The study was to assess the: (i) effect of human urine and other organic inputs on cabbage growth, yield, nutrient uptake, N-use efficiency, and soil chemical characteristics; (ii) economic returns of the use of urine and/or other organic inputs as a source of
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The study was to assess the: (i) effect of human urine and other organic inputs on cabbage growth, yield, nutrient uptake, N-use efficiency, and soil chemical characteristics; (ii) economic returns of the use of urine and/or other organic inputs as a source of fertiliser for cabbage production. To meet these objectives, participatory field trials were conducted at Dzorwulu, Accra. Four different treatments (Urine alone, Urine + dewatered faecal sludge (DFS), Urine + poultry droppings (PD), NPK (15-15-15) + PD) were applied in a Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) with soil alone as control. Each treatment was applied at a rate of 121 kg·N·ha−1 corresponding to the Nitrogen requirement of cabbage in Ghana. Growth and yield parameters, plant nutrient uptake, and soil chemical characteristics were determined using standard protocols. There were no significant differences between treatments for cabbage head weight, or total and marketable yields. However, unmarketable yield from NPK + PD was 1 to 2 times higher (p < 0.05) than those from Urine + PD, Urine + DFS, and Urine alone. Seasonal effect on yields was also pronounced with higher (p < 0.001) cabbage head weight (0.95 kg) and marketable yields (12.7 kg·ha−1) in the dry season than the rainy season (0.42 kg and 6.27 kg·ha−1). There was higher (p < 0.005) phosphorous uptake in cabbage from Urine + PD treated soil than those from other treatments. Nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) uptake in the dry season was significantly higher than the rainy season. Soils treated with Urine + DFS and Urine + PD were high in total N content. Urine + PD and Urine + DFS treated soils gave fairly high yield than PD + NPK with a net gain of US$1452.0 and US$1663.5, respectively. The application of urine in combination with poultry droppings has the potential to improve cabbage yields, nutrient uptake, and soil nitrogen and phosphorous content. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
“An ounce of Prevention is Worth a Pound of Cure”: Adopting Landscape-Level Precautionary Approaches to Preserve Arctic Coastal Heritage Resources
Resources 2017, 6(2), 18; doi:10.3390/resources6020018 -
Abstract
The Arctic region is changing rapidly and dramatically as a result of climate change, perhaps two to three times faster than other areas of the world. Its inaccessibility, remoteness, and low population density no longer offers sufficient protection from expanding human use and
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The Arctic region is changing rapidly and dramatically as a result of climate change, perhaps two to three times faster than other areas of the world. Its inaccessibility, remoteness, and low population density no longer offers sufficient protection from expanding human use and development for its rich and diverse natural and cultural heritage. While considerable attention is being focused on better understanding and more effectively protecting its natural resources, far less is being done to identify and preserve this region’s significant maritime heritage resources. This remoteness and inaccessibility that has protected Arctic resources for so long has also constrained our capacity to conduct sufficient archaeological studies to inform and guide the place-specific identification and preservation of what remains of this compelling history and heritage. The wilderness landscape of the Arctic has a rich and relatively well-documented historical record, spanning more than 2000 years of exploration and commerce, and of Indigenous cultures stretching further back over 4000–6000 years. More effectively using this historical record to identify significant maritime cultural landscapes in the Arctic and expanding the use of precautionary approaches to the preservation of these landscapes will not only assist in establishing regional priorities for targeted archaeological surveys and investigations, but will also likely minimize what will be lost forever as the inevitable “ice-free Arctic”, as well as its expanded human footprint, approaches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Towards a Balanced Sustainability Vision for the Coffee Industry
Resources 2017, 6(2), 17; doi:10.3390/resources6020017 -
Abstract
As one of the world’s most traded agricultural commodities, coffee constitutes a significant part of the overall economy and a major source of foreign revenue for many developing countries. Coffee also touches a large portion of the world’s population in the South, where
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As one of the world’s most traded agricultural commodities, coffee constitutes a significant part of the overall economy and a major source of foreign revenue for many developing countries. Coffee also touches a large portion of the world’s population in the South, where it is mainly produced, and in the North, where it is primarily consumed. As a product frequently purchased by a significant share of worldwide consumers on a daily basis in social occasions, the coffee industry has earned a high profile that also attracts the interest of non-governmental organizations, governments, multilateral organizations and development specialists and has been an early adopter of Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS). Responding to the trend of increased interest on sustainability, it is therefore not surprising that coffee continues to be at the forefront of sustainability initiatives that transcend into other agricultural industries. Based on literature and authors’ experiences, this article reflects on the VSS evolution and considers a sustainability model that specifically incorporates producers’ local realities and deals with the complex scenario of sustainability challenges in producing regions. Agreeing on a joint sustainability approach with farmers’ effective involvement is necessary so that the industry as a whole (up and downstream value chain actors) can legitimately communicate its own sustainability priorities. This top-down/bottom-up approach could also lead to origin-based, actionable and focused sustainability key performance indicators, relevant for producers and consistent with the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. The initiative also aims to provide a sustainability platform for single origin coffees and Geographical Indications (GIs) in accordance with growers’ own realities and regions, providing the credibility that consumers now expect from sustainability initiatives, additional differentiation options for origin coffees and economic upgrade opportunities for farmers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
One-Dimensional Renewable Warranty Management within Sustainable Supply Chain
Resources 2017, 6(2), 16; doi:10.3390/resources6020016 -
Abstract
Sensor embedded products utilize sensors implanted into products during their production process. Sensors are useful in predicting the best warranty policy and warranty period to offer a customer for remanufactured components and products. The conditions and remaining lives of components and products can
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Sensor embedded products utilize sensors implanted into products during their production process. Sensors are useful in predicting the best warranty policy and warranty period to offer a customer for remanufactured components and products. The conditions and remaining lives of components and products can be estimated prior to offering a warranty based on the data provided by the sensors. This helps reduce the number of claims during warranty periods, determines the right preventive maintenance (PM) policy, and eliminates unnecessary costs inflicted on the remanufacturer. The renewing, one-dimensional Free Replacement Warranty (FRW), Pro-Rata Warranty (PRW), and combination FRW/PRW policies’ costs for remanufactured products and components were evaluated with/without offering PM for different periods in this paper. To that end, the effect of offering renewable, one-dimensional, Free Replacement Warranty (FRW), or Pro-Rata Warranty (PRW), or combination FRW/PRW warranty policies for each disassembled component and sensor embedded remanufactured product was examined, and the impact of sensor embedded products on warranty costs was assessed. A case study and varying simulation scenarios is examined and presented to illustrate the model’s applicability. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
The Link between e-Waste and GDP—New Insights from Data from the Pan-European Region
Resources 2017, 6(2), 15; doi:10.3390/resources6020015 -
Abstract
Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is difficult to sustainably manage. One key issue is the challenge of planning for WEEE flows as current and future quantities of waste are difficult to predict. To address this, WEEE generation and gross domestic product (GDP)
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Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is difficult to sustainably manage. One key issue is the challenge of planning for WEEE flows as current and future quantities of waste are difficult to predict. To address this, WEEE generation and gross domestic product (GDP) data from 50 countries of the pan-European region were assessed. A high economic elasticity was identified, indicating that WEEE and GDP are closely interlinked. More detailed analyses revealed that GDP at purchasing power parity (GDP PPP) is a more meaningful measure when looking at WEEE flows, as a linear dependency between WEEE generation and GDP PPP was identified. This dependency applies to the whole region, regardless of the economic developmental stage of individual countries. In the pan-European region, an increase of 1000 international $ GDP PPP means an additional 0.5 kg WEEE is generated that requires management. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Unpacking Changes in Mangrove Social-Ecological Systems: Lessons from Brazil, Zanzibar, and Vietnam
Resources 2017, 6(1), 14; doi:10.3390/resources6010014 -
Abstract
Mangroves provide multiple benefits, from carbon storage and shoreline protection to food and energy for natural resource-dependent coastal communities. However, they are coming under increasing pressure from climate change, coastal development, and aquaculture. There is increasing need to better understand the changes mangroves
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Mangroves provide multiple benefits, from carbon storage and shoreline protection to food and energy for natural resource-dependent coastal communities. However, they are coming under increasing pressure from climate change, coastal development, and aquaculture. There is increasing need to better understand the changes mangroves face and whether these changes differ or are similar in different parts of the world. Using a multiple case study approach, focused on Vietnam, Zanzibar, and Brazil, this research analyzed the drivers, pressures, states, impacts, and responses (DPSIR) of mangrove systems. A qualitative content analysis was used on a purposively sampled document set for each country to identify and collate evidence under each of the DPSIR categories. Population growth and changing political and economic processes were key drivers across the three countries, leading to land use change and declining states of mangroves. This had an impact on the delivery of regulatory and provisioning ecosystem services from mangroves and on the welfare of coastal communities. Responses have been predominantly regulatory and aim to improve mangrove states, but without always considering ecosystem services or the consequences for welfare. The issue of scale emerged as a critical factor with drivers, pressures, impacts, and responses operating at different levels (from international to local), with consequences for response effectiveness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Why Organization May Be the Primary Limitation to Implementing Sustainability at the Local Level: Examples from Swedish Case Studies
Resources 2017, 6(1), 13; doi:10.3390/resources6010013 -
Abstract
Much of the effort to address environmental issues at the local level has focused on defining principles and aims rather than addressing the operational difficulties of implementation. Drawing upon insights from sustainability scholarship, this study reviews two cases: the development of a Swedish
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Much of the effort to address environmental issues at the local level has focused on defining principles and aims rather than addressing the operational difficulties of implementation. Drawing upon insights from sustainability scholarship, this study reviews two cases: the development of a Swedish standard for implementing sustainable development at municipality, county council, and regional levels, and attempts by a small rural municipality to establish a process towards implementing the Aalborg Commitments. The research illustrates the specific organizational and managerial complexity of these case study experiences. It concludes that an organizational focus on integration and mainstreaming deserves particular attention to achieve broader sustainability, or related environmental or adaptation goals. The results, in particular, highlight the role that integrated management systems can play for sustainability work at the local level. Full article