Open AccessArticle
Is Sustainable Intensification Pro-Poor? Evidence from Small-Scale Farmers in Rural Tanzania
Resources 2017, 6(3), 47; doi:10.3390/resources6030047 -
Abstract
The transition of farming systems to higher levels of productivity without overusing natural resources is of rising interest especially in African countries, where population growth has often been larger than past productivity increases. This paper aims to contribute to the debate on whether
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The transition of farming systems to higher levels of productivity without overusing natural resources is of rising interest especially in African countries, where population growth has often been larger than past productivity increases. This paper aims to contribute to the debate on whether environmentally friendly agricultural practices are compatible with economic interests. In the context of small-scale farm households in Tanzania, the analysis focuses on Conservation Agriculture (CA) at different levels of agricultural output, as CA is a promising toolbox for sustainable intensification. The results are based on a household survey conducted in 2014 with 900 randomly selected small-scale farmers in rural Tanzania, i.e., in semi-arid Dodoma and in semi-humid Morogoro region. We find that mulching is most frequently applied, followed by crop rotation, fallowing, intercropping and tree planting. Logit regressions show that CA adoption is influenced by socio-economic factors, farm characteristics and the regional context. Quantile regressions explain different levels of agricultural output through variables related to the extent of using CA. They indicate that marginalized farmers have the strongest crop income effect from an increased use of mulching. With increasing levels of agricultural output, the use of mulching remains beneficial for farmers, but the effect appears less pronounced. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rules of Engagement: A Review of Regulatory Instruments Designed to Promote and Secure Local Content Requirements in the Oil and Gas Sector
Resources 2017, 6(3), 46; doi:10.3390/resources6030046 -
Abstract
Regulatory interventions, such as Local Content (LC) requirements, have been incorporated to counter market forces to maximise petroleum revenues. This has been undertaken with the hypothesis that the governments of petroleum-producing countries depend heavily on petroleum sectors for development, yet energy markets inadequately
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Regulatory interventions, such as Local Content (LC) requirements, have been incorporated to counter market forces to maximise petroleum revenues. This has been undertaken with the hypothesis that the governments of petroleum-producing countries depend heavily on petroleum sectors for development, yet energy markets inadequately allocate these resources. Thus, governments revise existing, and often out-of-date, petroleum laws and introduce new petroleum legislation to specifically promote socio-economic objectives. This article explores the key legislative instruments of LC as developed and implemented in the oil and gas sectors both from developed and developing countries’ perspectives. In assessing the overall policy approach, this article evaluates instruments used to secure Local Content requirements in the oil and gas industry. In conclusion, governments must identify appropriate frameworks that consider the political and regulatory challenge of striking a balance between incentivising upstream investors and fulfilling national interests, such as creating jobs. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Sustainable Tourism and Natural Resource Conservation in the Polar Regions: An Editorial
Resources 2017, 6(3), 45; doi:10.3390/resources6030045 -
Abstract
This editorial provides an introduction to the special issue of Resources on Sustainable Tourism and Natural Resource Conservation in the Polar Regions, which proceeds the fifth bi-annual conference of the International Polar Tourism Research Network (IPTRN). The conference and coinciding community workshop on
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This editorial provides an introduction to the special issue of Resources on Sustainable Tourism and Natural Resource Conservation in the Polar Regions, which proceeds the fifth bi-annual conference of the International Polar Tourism Research Network (IPTRN). The conference and coinciding community workshop on tourism development were organized at the edge of the Arctic in the community of Raufarhöfn (pop. 160) in Northeast Iceland from 29 August to 2 September 2016. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Water Governance in Cambodia: From Centralized Water Governance to Farmer Water User Community
Resources 2017, 6(3), 44; doi:10.3390/resources6030044 -
Abstract
Cambodia has abundant water resources in the wet season and a scarcity of water in the dry season. These phenomena undermine the development in this country and pose a threat to long-term development. Hence, the governance of water becomes critically important for the
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Cambodia has abundant water resources in the wet season and a scarcity of water in the dry season. These phenomena undermine the development in this country and pose a threat to long-term development. Hence, the governance of water becomes critically important for the current and future development of Cambodia. Thus, this study is undertaken to understand the current water governance practice, challenges and constraints that prevent Cambodia from managing water effectively, and identify opportunities to improve it. In doing this, the study examines the water governance in Cambodia from a large-scale water management system and three community-based water resource management systems and farmer water user communities (FWUCs) in three provinces around Cambodia. It concludes that the current water governance practice in Cambodia is still too weak and fragmented to address the water security issues affecting the country, and thus, reorganization of the current structure and system of the water governance framework would be required to address long-term water security issues. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Recycling in Brasil: Paper and Plastic Supply Chain
Resources 2017, 6(3), 43; doi:10.3390/resources6030043 -
Abstract
Although recycling is considered the core of a circular economy for returning materials to the supply chain, its procedures are poorly understood. Waste recycling is considered a big source of energy saving and a promoter of CO2 recovery. Besides that, it generates
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Although recycling is considered the core of a circular economy for returning materials to the supply chain, its procedures are poorly understood. Waste recycling is considered a big source of energy saving and a promoter of CO2 recovery. Besides that, it generates jobs and changes markets worldwide. The Brasilian National Policy on Solid Waste (PNRS) recognizes Waste Pickers as the major social agent in the recycling process responsible for putting Brasil among the ten largest paper-recycling countries in the world. This paper presents an analysis of Brasilian recycling chains of paper and plastics and the main challenges for expanding recycling from Municipal solid waste. The research data were obtained from primary and secondary source related to the recycling supply chain of paper and of the following plastics—High Density Polyethylene (HDPE),Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE), Polypropylene(PP), Polyethylene Terephthalate(PET) and Polystyrene(PS). Enterprises of various sizes, including informal ones and WPs associations/cooperatives, were visited, in the five Brasilian geographic regions, during the years of 2013 and 2014. A nomenclature was defined for the various enterprises that operate in the Brasilian recycling chain. Each node of the plastic and paper recycling chain was described. The main bottleneck observed in these chains is the lack of continuous programs of selective collection with an emphasis on environmental education processes in the 5570 Brasilian municipalities. Several possibilities not only to promote waste recycling but also to increase the productivity of the sorting process are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Using Social, Economic and Land-Use Indices to Build a Local Sustainability Index in a Mining Region of the Sierra Tarahumara, Mexico
Resources 2017, 6(3), 42; doi:10.3390/resources6030042 -
Abstract
Ore mining has served as a predictor of economic wellbeing since it brought development to countries. However, these benefits do not always extend to all localities that comprised the center of this industry. This paper examined the contribution of mining to local communities.
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Ore mining has served as a predictor of economic wellbeing since it brought development to countries. However, these benefits do not always extend to all localities that comprised the center of this industry. This paper examined the contribution of mining to local communities. An index of local sustainability was constructed based on economic, social, and land-use data from twelve localities where mining and forestry are their major economic activities. Land-use variables were obtained from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM 5) images for 2000, and Landsat Operational Land Imager (OLI8) for 2014, while the socio-economic variables were collected in twelve localities with an 85-question survey. A sustainability index was developed for each group of variables—economic (ESI), social (SSI) and land-use sustainability index (LUSI)—to further build a local sustainability index (LSI). Three localities showed the highest ESI (0.61, 0.53 and 0.43) and SSI (0.90, 0.79 and 0.78), while two localities had the lowest values in the ESI and SSI. In contrast, the highest value of LUSI was found in two other different localities and in one with lower SSI. Income from mining activities is positively associated with the ESI and SSI, but there was no evidence of linear association with the LUSI. A local index of sustainability provides useful information for planning and development strategies. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Seasonal Migration and Settlement around Lake Chad: Strategies for Control of Resources in an Increasingly Drying Lake
Resources 2017, 6(3), 41; doi:10.3390/resources6030041 -
Abstract
The Lake Chad Basin has for a very long period supported the livelihoods of millions of peoples from the different countries that share this transboundary water resource. Its shrinking over the decades has meant that many of those who depend on it for
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The Lake Chad Basin has for a very long period supported the livelihoods of millions of peoples from the different countries that share this transboundary water resource. Its shrinking over the decades has meant that many of those who depend on it for livelihoods would have to adjust to the changing resource environment of this lake basin. This study sets out to examine the seasonal migration of people in search of water, pasture, fuelwood and cultivable land, and how this movement affects access and use of basin resources. The study made use of survey data obtained from 220 household heads on the Cameroon side of the Lake Chad basin, and secondary data from Cameroon ministries in charge of agriculture, the environment, and that of livestock. Our findings show that while fishing and livestock rearing continue to feature among the oldest determinants of population movements in the Lake Chad basin, increasingly the search for new farming opportunities made available by a shrinking lake and the political instability emanating from Nigeria are also becoming an important determinant. The increasing population in the lake region is compounding pressures created by a shrinking lake on access to water, fuelwood, pasture, and farmland. While there is potential to develop and benefit from the agricultural possibilities emerging from a shrinking lake, the impacts of poor agricultural resource management (especially land degradation, loss of agricultural biodiversity, and poor water management) may hamper the sustainable practice of agriculture if proper efforts are not made to address them. This study contributes to the scientific understanding of the changing nature of environmental resources in Africa. It specifically contributes to understanding the exacerbating threats to the sustainability of natural resources (water, agricultural and grazing land) caused by environmental changes, diversification of rural actors (fishers, farmers, breeders), weak resource management, and since 2013, by an armed conflict. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sources of Extraterrestrial Rare Earth Elements: To the Moon and Beyond
Resources 2017, 6(3), 40; doi:10.3390/resources6030040 -
Abstract
The resource budget of Earth is limited. Rare-earth elements (REEs) are used across the world by society on a daily basis yet several of these elements have <2500 years of reserves left, based on current demand, mining operations, and technologies. With an increasing
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The resource budget of Earth is limited. Rare-earth elements (REEs) are used across the world by society on a daily basis yet several of these elements have <2500 years of reserves left, based on current demand, mining operations, and technologies. With an increasing population, exploration of potential extraterrestrial REE resources is inevitable, with the Earth’s Moon being a logical first target. Following lunar differentiation at ~4.50–4.45 Ga, a late-stage (after ~99% solidification) residual liquid enriched in Potassium (K), Rare-earth elements (REE), and Phosphorus (P), (or “KREEP”) formed. Today, the KREEP-rich region underlies the Oceanus Procellarum and Imbrium Basin region on the lunar near-side (the Procellarum KREEP Terrain, PKT) and has been tentatively estimated at preserving 2.2 × 108 km3 of KREEP-rich lithologies. The majority of lunar samples (Apollo, Luna, or meteoritic samples) contain REE-bearing minerals as trace phases, e.g., apatite and/or merrillite, with merrillite potentially contributing up to 3% of the PKT. Other lunar REE-bearing lunar phases include monazite, yittrobetafite (up to 94,500 ppm yttrium), and tranquillityite (up to 4.6 wt % yttrium, up to 0.25 wt % neodymium), however, lunar sample REE abundances are low compared to terrestrial ores. At present, there is no geological, mineralogical, or chemical evidence to support REEs being present on the Moon in concentrations that would permit their classification as ores. However, the PKT region has not yet been mapped at high resolution, and certainly has the potential to yield higher REE concentrations at local scales (<10s of kms). Future lunar exploration and mapping efforts may therefore reveal new REE deposits. Beyond the Moon, Mars and other extraterrestrial materials are host to REEs in apatite, chevkinite-perrierite, merrillite, whitlockite, and xenotime. These phases are relatively minor components of the meteorites studied to date, constituting <0.6% of the total sample. Nonetheless, they dominate a samples REE budget with their abundances typically 1–2 orders of magnitude enriched relative to their host rock. As with the Moon, though phases which host REEs have been identified, no extraterrestrial REE resource, or ore, has been identified yet. At present extraterrestrial materials are therefore not suitable REE-mining targets. However, they are host to other resources that will likely be fundamental to the future of space exploration and support the development of in situ resource utilization, for example: metals (Fe, Al, Mg, PGEs) and water. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On the Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Geothermal Brines
Resources 2017, 6(3), 39; doi:10.3390/resources6030039 -
Abstract
The availability of rare earth elements from primary resources has come into question in the last two decades. This has sparked various government and industry initiatives to examine potential rare earth element resources apart from virgin ore bodies. Geothermal fluids are potentially significant
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The availability of rare earth elements from primary resources has come into question in the last two decades. This has sparked various government and industry initiatives to examine potential rare earth element resources apart from virgin ore bodies. Geothermal fluids are potentially significant sources of valuable minerals and metals, while co-recovery with geothermal energy production would be an attractive sustainable system. In this work, we give a brief survey of data collected on rare earth element concentrations in geothermal fluids. A survey of methods and technologies for extracting rare earth elements from geothermal is discussed along with the feasibility of recovering rare earth elements from geothermal brines. Based on the findings of this study, rare earth element extraction from geothermal fluids is technically possible, but neither economically viable nor strategically significant at this time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Forgotten Islands: Monitoring Tourist Numbers and Managing Tourism Impacts on New Zealand’s Subantarctic Islands
Resources 2017, 6(3), 38; doi:10.3390/resources6030038 -
Abstract
Situated to the south of New Zealand in the Southern Ocean are the New Zealand Subantarctic Islands, comprising the Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes, Snares and Bounty Islands. Sometimes referred to as the ‘Forgotten Islands’, these island groups are among the most remote and hostile
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Situated to the south of New Zealand in the Southern Ocean are the New Zealand Subantarctic Islands, comprising the Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes, Snares and Bounty Islands. Sometimes referred to as the ‘Forgotten Islands’, these island groups are among the most remote and hostile within New Zealand waters. Yet, as they harbour some of the country’s most unique biodiversity and contain some of the world’s least modified landforms, they were recognized in 1998 with the designation of World Heritage Area status. It is not surprising therefore that the Islands have long appealed to visitors wishing to explore and understand the Islands’ rich natural and cultural environments. Typically, fare-paying tourists arrive by sea in small- to medium-sized expedition-style cruise vessels, although in recent years, the number of small vessels, such as yachts and sail boats, has increased. The most recent Conservation Management Strategy (2016) proposes developing and implementing a visitor monitoring programme to determine the effects of visitors on the natural and cultural environment, as well as on the visitor experience itself. However, there is only piecemeal data published on visitor numbers (especially since the mid-1990s) upon which to base visitor monitoring, and there is only limited evidence regarding the range of possible impacts visitors may have, including direct and indirect impact on wildlife, soils, and vegetation. In order to address this gap in knowledge, this case study draws on stakeholder interviews (n = 4), and a range of secondary sources (including visitor statistics from the Department of Conservation, tour operators and other published works) to provide an overview and update on visitation to the Islands, including site-specific data, an assessment of tourist impacts, and how impacts are currently monitored and managed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Warning System Options for Landslide Risk: A Case Study in Upper Austria
Resources 2017, 6(3), 37; doi:10.3390/resources6030037 -
Abstract
This paper explores warning system options in the landslide-prone community of Gmunden/Gschliefgraben in Upper Austria. It describes stakeholder perspectives on the technical, social, economic, legal and institutional characteristics of a warning system. The perspectives differ on issues such as responsibility allocation in decisions
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This paper explores warning system options in the landslide-prone community of Gmunden/Gschliefgraben in Upper Austria. It describes stakeholder perspectives on the technical, social, economic, legal and institutional characteristics of a warning system. The perspectives differ on issues such as responsibility allocation in decisions regarding warnings, technologies used for monitoring and forecasting, costs and financial aspects, open data policies and the role of the residents. Drawing on the theory of plural rationality and based on a desk study and interviews, stakeholder perspectives and discourses on the warning system problem and its solution were elicited. The perspectives formed the basis for the specification of three technical policy options for a warning system in Gschliefgraben: a minimal-cost and cost-effective system; a technical-expert system; and a resident-centered system. The case demonstrates the importance of accounting for a plurality of values and preferences and of giving voice to competing discourses in communities contemplating warning systems or other public good policies. This paper concludes that understanding the different and often conflicting perspectives and technical policy options is the starting point for formulating an agreed compromise for an effective warning system. We describe the compromise solution in an accompanying paper included in this Special Issue. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Speculations Linking Monazite Compositions to Origin: Llallagua Tin Ore Deposit (Bolivia)
Resources 2017, 6(3), 36; doi:10.3390/resources6030036 -
Abstract
Monazite [(Ce,Th)PO4] from the Llallagua tin ore deposit in Bolivia is characterized by low radiogenic element contents. Previously reported field evidence and mineral associations suggest the mineral formed via direct precipitation from hydrothermal fluids. Monazite compositions thus may provide insight into
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Monazite [(Ce,Th)PO4] from the Llallagua tin ore deposit in Bolivia is characterized by low radiogenic element contents. Previously reported field evidence and mineral associations suggest the mineral formed via direct precipitation from hydrothermal fluids. Monazite compositions thus may provide insight into characteristics of the fluids from which it formed. Chemical compositions of three Llallagua monazite grains were obtained using Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), n = 64] and laser ablation mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS, n = 56). The mineral has higher amounts of U (123 ± 17 ppm) than Th (39 ± 20 ppm) (LA-ICP-MS, ±1σ). Grains have the highest amounts of fluorine ever reported for monazite (0.88 ± 0.10 wt %, EPMA, ±1σ), and F-rich fluids are effective mobilizers of rare earth elements (REEs), Y, and Th. The monazite has high Eu contents and positive Eu anomalies, consistent with formation in a highly-reducing back-arc environment. We speculate that F, Ca, Si and REE may have been supplied via dissolution of pre-existing fluorapatite. Llallagua monazite oscillatory zoning is controlled by an interplay of low (P + Ca + Si + Y) and high atomic number (REE) elements. We suggest monazite compositions provide insight into fluid geochemistry, mineral reactions, and tectonic settings of ore deposits that contain the mineral. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperCase Report
The Ortelius Incident in the Hinlopen Strait—A Case Study on How Satellite-Based AIS Can Support Search and Rescue Operations in Remote Waters
Resources 2017, 6(3), 35; doi:10.3390/resources6030035 -
Abstract
In this paper, Automatic Identification System (AIS) data collected from space is used to demonstrate how the data can support search and rescue (SAR) operations in remote waters. The data was recorded by the Norwegian polar orbiting satellite AISSat-1. This is a case
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In this paper, Automatic Identification System (AIS) data collected from space is used to demonstrate how the data can support search and rescue (SAR) operations in remote waters. The data was recorded by the Norwegian polar orbiting satellite AISSat-1. This is a case study discussing the Ortelius incident in Svalbard in early June 2016. The tourist vessel flying the flag of Cyprus experienced engine failure in a remote part of the Arctic Archipelago. The passengers and crew were not harmed. There were no Norwegian Coast Guard vessels in the vicinity. The Governor of Svalbard had to deploy her vessel Polarsyssel to assist the Ortelius. The paper shows that satellite-based AIS enables SAR coordination centers to swiftly determine the identity and precise location of vessels in the vicinity of the troubled ship. This knowledge makes it easier to coordinate SAR operations. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Managing High Arctic Tourism Sites: A Collective Action Perspective
Resources 2017, 6(3), 33; doi:10.3390/resources6030033 -
Abstract
Sustainable management of nature-based tourism sites is a pertinent issue in vulnerable Arctic environments. Arctic tourism operators often act collectively to protect their common interests of ensuring the sustainability of tourism sites. Nowadays, information and communication technology (ICT) is increasingly used to support
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Sustainable management of nature-based tourism sites is a pertinent issue in vulnerable Arctic environments. Arctic tourism operators often act collectively to protect their common interests of ensuring the sustainability of tourism sites. Nowadays, information and communication technology (ICT) is increasingly used to support these collaborative efforts, but the remoteness and risks associated with Arctic tourism operations challenge the success of such collective action. This study explores the use of ICT as a management tool for Arctic tourism sites to ensure their sustained quality. Drawing on a case study of an expedition cruise operators’ network in Svalbard, we explore how the use of ICT affects collective action and sustainable management of tourism sites. Our findings show that, through increased noticeability, the creation of artificial proximity and the development of new management practices, ICT can help to overcome the challenges for collective action that are posed by the Arctic environment. The use of ICT results in changes in a network’s relational and normative structures, which can as much add to as detract from the success of collective action. Our study indicates that the successful application of ICT depends on a high level of social capital, in particular norms, to guide interactions between ICT and network actors. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Rare Earth Element Deposits of Alkaline Igneous Rocks
Resources 2017, 6(3), 34; doi:10.3390/resources6030034 -
Abstract
Alkaline igneous complexes host deposits of rare earth elements (REE), which represent one of the most economically important resources of heavy REE and Yttrium (Y). The hosts are differentiated rocks ranging from nepheline syenites and trachytes to peralkaline granites. These complexes usually occur
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Alkaline igneous complexes host deposits of rare earth elements (REE), which represent one of the most economically important resources of heavy REE and Yttrium (Y). The hosts are differentiated rocks ranging from nepheline syenites and trachytes to peralkaline granites. These complexes usually occur in continental within-plate tectonic settings associated with rifts, faults, or hotspot magmatism. The REE mineralization is found in layered alkaline complexes, granitic stocks, and late-stages dikes and rarely trachytic volcanic and volcaniclastic deposits. The bulk of REE is present in accessory minerals, which can reach percentage levels in mineralized zones. The mineralization contains various REE-bearing minerals that can display complex replacement textures. Main REE minerals present in these deposits are bastnäsite, eudialyte, loparite, gittinsite, xenotime, monazite, zircon, and fergusonite. The parent magmas of alkaline igneous complexes are derived from partial melts of mantle sources. Protracted fractional crystallization of the magma led to an enrichment in REE, particularly in the late stages of magma evolution. The primary magmatic mineralization is commonly overprinted (remobilized and enriched) by late magmatic to hydrothermal fluids. Elevated abundances of U and Th in the deposits make a gamma-ray (radiometric) survey an important exploration tool, but also represent a significant environmental challenge for exploitation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Households’ Willingness-to-Pay for Fish Product Attributes and Implications for Market Feasibility of Wastewater-Based Aquaculture Businesses in Hanoi, Vietnam
Resources 2017, 6(3), 30; doi:10.3390/resources6030030 -
Abstract
A choice experiment was used to assess households’ willingness-to-pay (WTP) for informational attributes (sources of water used to rear fish, and certification) of fish products in Hanoi, Vietnam. The study showed that households’ purchasing decisions are influenced by their access to information of
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A choice experiment was used to assess households’ willingness-to-pay (WTP) for informational attributes (sources of water used to rear fish, and certification) of fish products in Hanoi, Vietnam. The study showed that households’ purchasing decisions are influenced by their access to information of food product attributes and ascribe an economic value to it. The results indicated that households are willing to pay 51% (USD 1.11 per kg) above the prevailing market price of fish for information to know if wastewater is used to rear the fish they consume. Similarly, they are willing to pay 20% above the prevailing market price of fish (USD 0.43 per kg) to know if freshwater is used as a rearing medium. It is important to note that the increased marginal WTP is for information on whether the fish they consume is raised in wastewater over freshwater. This supports the notion of households’ concern over the safety of consuming wastewater-raised fish. Households are also willing to pay 65% (USD 1.42 per kg) above the prevailing market price for certified fish. Based on the cost of fish certification and WTP estimates, we found a total economic benefit of USD 172 million for the implementation of a wastewater-raised fish business model in Hanoi. The demand for wastewater-raised fish is likely to be affected by households’ perception of certification by a trusted government agency, source of water used to raise the fish, age, income and household size. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Market Feasibility of Faecal Sludge and Municipal Solid Waste-Based Compost as Measured by Farmers’ Willingness-to-Pay for Product Attributes: Evidence from Kampala, Uganda
Resources 2017, 6(3), 31; doi:10.3390/resources6030031 -
Abstract
There is a great potential to close the nutrient recycling loop, support a ‘circular economy’ and improve cost recovery within the waste sector and to create viable businesses via the conversion of waste to organic fertilizers. Successful commercialization of waste-based organic fertilizer businesses
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There is a great potential to close the nutrient recycling loop, support a ‘circular economy’ and improve cost recovery within the waste sector and to create viable businesses via the conversion of waste to organic fertilizers. Successful commercialization of waste-based organic fertilizer businesses however largely depends on a sound market. We used a choice experiment to estimate farmers’ willingness-to-pay (WTP) for faecal sludge and municipal solid waste-based (FSM) compost in Kampala, Uganda and considered three attributes—fortification, pelletization and certification. Our results reveal that farmers are willing to pay for FSM compost and place a higher value on a ‘certified’ compost product. They are willing to pay US $0.4 per kg above the current market price for a similar certified product, which is 67 times higher than the cost of providing the attribute. Farmers are willing to pay US $0.127 per kg for ‘pelletized’ FSM compost, which is lower (0.57 times) than the cost of providing the attribute. On the other hand, farmers require US $0.089 per kg as a compensation to use ‘fortified’ FSM compost. We suggest that future FSM compost businesses focus on a ‘certified and pelletized’ FSM product as this product type has the highest production cost–WTP differential and for which future businesses can capture the highest percentage of the consumer surplus. The demand for FSM compost indicates the benefits that can accrue to farmers, businesses and the environment from the recycling of organic waste for agriculture. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Modeling Cross-Border Regions, Place-Making, and Resource Management: A Delphi Analysis
Resources 2017, 6(3), 32; doi:10.3390/resources6030032 -
Abstract
Along international borders, spillover of resource management issues is a growing challenge. Development of cross-border regions (CBRs) is seen as an emerging means of addressing these issues. A set of theoretical models, geo-economic mobilization and a resource-focused territorial program of place-making have been
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Along international borders, spillover of resource management issues is a growing challenge. Development of cross-border regions (CBRs) is seen as an emerging means of addressing these issues. A set of theoretical models, geo-economic mobilization and a resource-focused territorial program of place-making have been proposed as a lens for understanding why such change could occur. From this theory, we identify three C’s as critical initial or necessary conditions to start the process: commonterritorial identity, convergence of knowledge and values, willingness for cooperation. We then utilize results of a Delphi study in the Fraser Lowland, a sub-district of the American-Canadian Cascadia borderland, to test if these three are present and actively working together. Our analysis based on both cumulative logit and mixed-effect modeling confirms the active existence of the three C’s demonstrating the value of these theoretical models. However, the Delphi also shows that not all in this region are convinced of cross-border convergence and case studies provide mixed signals of successful cross-border resource management, indicating that sufficient conditions are yet to be fully met. Thus, our results confirm the value of these models as a lens to view events, but leave many questions to be researched. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Interannual Variability and Seasonal Predictability of Wind and Solar Resources
Resources 2017, 6(3), 29; doi:10.3390/resources6030029 -
Abstract
Solar and wind resources available for power generation are subject to variability due to meteorological factors. Here, we use a new global climate reanalysis product, Version 2 of the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2), to quantify interannual variability of
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Solar and wind resources available for power generation are subject to variability due to meteorological factors. Here, we use a new global climate reanalysis product, Version 2 of the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2), to quantify interannual variability of monthly-mean solar and wind resource from 1980 to 2016 at a resolution of about 0.5 degrees. We find an average coefficient of variation (CV) of 11% for monthly-mean solar radiation and 8% for wind speed. Mean CVs were about 25% greater over ocean than over land and, for land areas, were greatest at high latitude. The correlation between solar and wind anomalies was near zero in the global mean, but markedly positive or negative in some regions. Both wind and solar variability were correlated with values of climate modes such as the Southern Oscillation Index and Arctic Oscillation, with correlations in the Northern Hemisphere generally stronger during winter. We conclude that reanalysis solar and wind fields could be helpful in assessing variability in power generation due to interannual fluctuations in the solar and wind resource. Skillful prediction of these fluctuations seems to be possible, particularly for certain regions and seasons, given the persistence or predictability of climate modes with which these fluctuations are associated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Land–Water–Food Nexus: Expanding the Social–Ecological System Framework to Link Land and Water Governance
Resources 2017, 6(3), 28; doi:10.3390/resources6030028 -
Abstract
To date, the land–water–food nexus has been primarily addressed from an ecological, hydrological or agronomic angle, with limited response to the governance interface between the input resources. Likewise, in widely used heuristic frameworks, such as the social–ecological system (SES) framework, governance interactions between
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To date, the land–water–food nexus has been primarily addressed from an ecological, hydrological or agronomic angle, with limited response to the governance interface between the input resources. Likewise, in widely used heuristic frameworks, such as the social–ecological system (SES) framework, governance interactions between resources are not sufficiently addressed. We address this gap empirically, using the case of Tajikistan, based on a farm household survey analysis of 306 farmers. The results indicate that land system variables contribute to the willingness to cooperate in irrigation management. Specifically, formal land tenure has a positive effect on farmers paying for water as well as on the likelihood of their investing time and effort in irrigation infrastructure, which is decisive for Tajikistan’s food and fiber production. Irrigation system variables show that, e.g., being an upstream user increases the likelihood to contribute to labor maintenance efforts. We further discuss how decisions with respect to the land sector could be designed in the future to facilitate cooperation in other resource sectors. Further, we conclude from a conceptual perspective that the SES framework integrating a nexus perspective can be adapted: either (1) by adding a second-tier “governance nexus” variable inside the governance variable of an irrigation system; or (2) by adding a land resource unit and system outside the irrigation system. Full article
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