Open AccessArticle
Mapping Deforestation in North Korea Using Phenology-Based Multi-Index and Random Forest
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(12), 997; doi:10.3390/rs8120997 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Phenology-based multi-index with the random forest (RF) algorithm can be used to overcome the shortcomings of traditional deforestation mapping that involves pixel-based classification, such as ISODATA or decision trees, and single images. The purpose of this study was to investigate methods to identify
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Phenology-based multi-index with the random forest (RF) algorithm can be used to overcome the shortcomings of traditional deforestation mapping that involves pixel-based classification, such as ISODATA or decision trees, and single images. The purpose of this study was to investigate methods to identify specific types of deforestation in North Korea, and to increase the accuracy of classification, using phenological characteristics extracted with multi-index and random forest algorithms. The mapping of deforestation area based on RF was carried out by merging phenology-based multi-indices (i.e., normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference water index (NDWI), and normalized difference soil index (NDSI)) derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) products and topographical variables. Our results showed overall classification accuracy of 89.38%, with corresponding kappa coefficients of 0.87. In particular, for forest and farm land categories with similar phenological characteristic (e.g., paddy, plateau vegetation, unstocked forest, hillside field), this approach improved the classification accuracy in comparison with pixel-based methods and other classes. The deforestation types were identified by incorporating point data from high-resolution imagery, outcomes of image classification, and slope data. Our study demonstrated that the proposed methodology could be used for deciding on the restoration priority and monitoring the expansion of deforestation areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exploiting TERRA-AQUA MODIS Relationship in the Reflective Solar Bands for Aerosol Retrieval
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(12), 996; doi:10.3390/rs8120996 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Satellite remote sensing has been providing aerosol data with ever-increasing accuracy, representative of the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB) aerosol retrievals. These retrievals are generally performed over spectrally dark objects and therefore may struggle over bright surfaces.
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Satellite remote sensing has been providing aerosol data with ever-increasing accuracy, representative of the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB) aerosol retrievals. These retrievals are generally performed over spectrally dark objects and therefore may struggle over bright surfaces. This study proposed an analytical TERRA-AQUA MODIS relationship in the reflective solar bands for aerosol retrieval. For the relationship development, the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) effects were adjusted using reflectance ratios in the MODIS 2.13 μm band and the path radiance was approximated as an analytical function of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and scattering phase function. Comparisons with MODIS observation data, MODIS AOT data, and sun photometer measurements demonstrate the validity of the proposed relationship for aerosol retrieval. The synergetic TERRA-AQUA MODIS retrievals are highly correlated with the ground measured AOT at TERRA MODIS overpass time (R2 = 0.617; RMSE = 0.043) and AQUA overpass time (R2 = 0.737; RMSE = 0.036). Compared to our retrievals, both the MODIS DT and DB retrievals are subject to severe underestimation. Sensitivity analyses reveal that the proposed method may perform better over non-vegetated than vegetated surfaces, which can offer a complement to MODIS operational algorithms. In an analytical form, the proposed method also has advantages in computational efficiency, and therefore can be employed for fine-scale (relative to operational 10 km MODIS product) MODIS aerosol retrieval. Overall, this study provides insight into aerosol retrievals and other applications regarding TERRA-AQUA MODIS data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Effects of Drought on Vegetation Cover in a Mediterranean Region through the Use of SPOT-VGT and TERRA-MODIS Long Time Series
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(12), 992; doi:10.3390/rs8120992 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The analysis of vegetation dynamics and agricultural production is essential in semi-arid regions, in particular as a consequence of the frequent occurrence of periods of drought. In this paper, a multi-temporal series of the Normalized Difference of Vegetation Index (NDVI), derived from SPOT-VEGETATION
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The analysis of vegetation dynamics and agricultural production is essential in semi-arid regions, in particular as a consequence of the frequent occurrence of periods of drought. In this paper, a multi-temporal series of the Normalized Difference of Vegetation Index (NDVI), derived from SPOT-VEGETATION (between September 1998 and August 2013) and TERRA-MODIS satellite data (between September 2000 and August 2013), was used to analyze the vegetation dynamics over the central region of Tunisia in North Africa, which is characterized by a semi-arid climate. Products derived from these two satellite sensors are generally found to be coherent. Our analysis of land use and NDVI anomalies, based on the Vegetation Anomaly Index (VAI), reveals a strong level of agreement between estimations made with the two satellites, but also some discrepancies related to the spatial resolution of these two products. The vegetation’s behavior is also analyzed during years affected by drought through the use of the Windowed Fourier Transform (WFT). Discussions of the dynamics of annual agricultural areas show that there is a combined effect between climate and farmers’ behavior, leading to an increase in the prevalence of bare soils during dry years. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Suitability Evaluation for Products Generation from Multisource Remote Sensing Data
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(12), 995; doi:10.3390/rs8120995 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
With the arrival of the big data era in Earth observation, the remote sensing communities have accumulated a large amount of invaluable and irreplaceable data for global monitoring. These massive remote sensing data have enabled large-area and long-term series Earth observation, and have,
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With the arrival of the big data era in Earth observation, the remote sensing communities have accumulated a large amount of invaluable and irreplaceable data for global monitoring. These massive remote sensing data have enabled large-area and long-term series Earth observation, and have, in particular, made standard, automated product generation more popular. However, there is more than one type of data selection for producing a certain remote sensing product; no single remote sensor can cover such a large area at one time. Therefore, we should automatically select the best data source from redundant multisource remote sensing data, or select substitute data if data is lacking, during the generation of remote sensing products. However, the current data selection strategy mainly adopts the empirical model, and has a lack of theoretical support and quantitative analysis. Hence, comprehensively considering the spectral characteristics of ground objects and spectra differences of each remote sensor, by means of spectrum simulation and correlation analysis, we propose a suitability evaluation model for product generation. The model will enable us to obtain the Production Suitability Index (PSI) of each remote sensing data. In order to validate the proposed model, two typical value-added information products, NDVI and NDWI, and two similar or complementary remote sensors, Landsat-OLI and HJ1A-CCD1, were chosen, and the verification experiments were performed. Through qualitative and quantitative analysis, the experimental results were consistent with our model calculation results, and strongly proved the validity of the suitability evaluation model. The proposed production suitability evaluation model could assist with standard, automated, serialized product generation. It will play an important role in one-station, value-added information services during the big data era of Earth observation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Retrieving XCO2 from GOSAT FTS over East Asia Using Simultaneous Aerosol Information from CAI
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(12), 994; doi:10.3390/rs8120994 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In East Asia, where aerosol concentrations are persistently high throughout the year, most satellite CO2 retrieval algorithms screen out many measurements during quality control in order to reduce retrieval errors. To reduce the retrieval errors associated with aerosols, we have modified YCAR
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In East Asia, where aerosol concentrations are persistently high throughout the year, most satellite CO2 retrieval algorithms screen out many measurements during quality control in order to reduce retrieval errors. To reduce the retrieval errors associated with aerosols, we have modified YCAR (Yonsei Carbon Retrieval) algorithm to YCAR-CAI to retrieve XCO2 from GOSAT FTS measurements using aerosol retrievals from simultaneous Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) measurements. The CAI aerosol algorithm provides aerosol type and optical depth information simultaneously for the same geometry and optical path as FTS. The YCAR-CAI XCO2 retrieval algorithm has been developed based on the optimal estimation method. The algorithm uses the VLIDORT V2.6 radiative transfer model to calculate radiances and Jacobian functions. The XCO2 results retrieved using the YCAR-CAI algorithm were evaluated by comparing them with ground-based TCCON measurements and current operational GOSAT XCO2 retrievals. The retrievals show a clear annual cycle, with an increasing trend of 2.02 to 2.39 ppm per year, which is higher than that measured at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. The YCAR-CAI results were validated against the Tsukuba and Saga TCCON sites and show an root mean square error of 2.25, a bias of −0.81 ppm, and a regression line closer to the linear identity function compared with other current algorithms. Even after post-screening, the YCAR-CAI algorithm provides a larger dataset of XCO2 compared with other retrieval algorithms by 21% to 67%, which could be substantially advantageous in validation and data analysis for the area of East Asia. Retrieval uncertainty indicates a 1.39 to 1.48 ppm at the TCCON sites. Using Carbon Tracker-Asia (CT-A) data, the sampling error was analyzed and was found to be between 0.32 and 0.36 ppm for each individual sounding. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Inversion of Land Surface Temperature (LST) Using Terra ASTER Data: A Comparison of Three Algorithms
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(12), 993; doi:10.3390/rs8120993 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Land Surface Temperature (LST) is an important measurement in studies related to the Earth surface’s processes. The Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument onboard the Terra spacecraft is the currently available Thermal Infrared (TIR) imaging sensor with the highest spatial
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Land Surface Temperature (LST) is an important measurement in studies related to the Earth surface’s processes. The Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument onboard the Terra spacecraft is the currently available Thermal Infrared (TIR) imaging sensor with the highest spatial resolution. This study involves the comparison of LSTs inverted from the sensor using the Split Window Algorithm (SWA), the Single Channel Algorithm (SCA) and the Planck function. This study has used the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) data to model and compare the results from the three algorithms. The data from the sensor have been processed by the Python programming language in a free and open source software package (QGIS) to enable users to make use of the algorithms. The study revealed that the three algorithms are suitable for LST inversion, whereby the Planck function showed the highest level of accuracy, the SWA had moderate level of accuracy and the SCA had the least accuracy. The algorithms produced results with Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) of 2.29 K, 3.77 K and 2.88 K for the Planck function, the SCA and SWA respectively. Full article
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Open AccessLetter
Improving the Imaging Quality of Ghost Imaging Lidar via Sparsity Constraint by Time-Resolved Technique
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(12), 991; doi:10.3390/rs8120991 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Ghost imaging via sparsity constraint (GISC)—which is developing into a new staring imaging lidar—can obtain both the range information and spatial distribution of a remote target with the use of the measurements below the Nyquist limit. In this work, schematics of both two-dimensional
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Ghost imaging via sparsity constraint (GISC)—which is developing into a new staring imaging lidar—can obtain both the range information and spatial distribution of a remote target with the use of the measurements below the Nyquist limit. In this work, schematics of both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) GISC lidar are introduced. Compared with the 2D GISC lidar, we demonstrate by both simulation and experimentally that the signal-to-noise ratio of the 3D GISC lidar can be dramatically enhanced when a time-resolved technique is used to record the target’s reflection signals and the orthogonal characteristic of the target’s 3D surface structure is taken as a priori in the image reconstruction process. Some characteristics of the 2D and 3D GISC lidar systems are also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Flow Routing for Delineating Supraglacial Meltwater Channel Networks
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(12), 988; doi:10.3390/rs8120988 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Growing interest in supraglacial channels, coupled with the increasing availability of high-resolution remotely sensed imagery of glacier surfaces, motivates the development and testing of new approaches to delineating surface meltwater channels. We utilized a high-resolution (2 m) digital elevation model of parts of
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Growing interest in supraglacial channels, coupled with the increasing availability of high-resolution remotely sensed imagery of glacier surfaces, motivates the development and testing of new approaches to delineating surface meltwater channels. We utilized a high-resolution (2 m) digital elevation model of parts of the western margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and retention of visually identified sinks (i.e., moulins) to investigate the ability of a standard D8 flow routing algorithm to delineate supraglacial channels. We compared these delineated channels to manually digitized channels and to channels extracted from multispectral imagery. We delineated GrIS supraglacial channel networks in six high-elevation (above 1000 m) and one low-elevation (below 1000 m) catchments during and shortly after peak melt (July and August 2012), and investigated the effect of contributing area threshold on flow routing performance. We found that, although flow routing is sensitive to data quality and moulin identification, it can identify 75% to 99% of channels observed with multispectral analysis, as well as low-order, high-density channels (up to 15.7 km/km2 with a 0.01 km2 contributing area threshold) in greater detail than multispectral methods. Additionally, we found that flow routing can delineate supraglacial channel networks on rough ice surfaces with widespread crevassing. Our results suggest that supraglacial channel density is sufficiently high during peak melt that low contributing area thresholds can be employed with little risk of overestimating the channel network extent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
MAPSM: A Spatio-Temporal Algorithm for Merging Soil Moisture from Active and Passive Microwave Remote Sensing
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(12), 990; doi:10.3390/rs8120990 (registering DOI) -
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Open AccessArticle
Integration of Optical and X-Band Radar Data for Pasture Biomass Estimation in an Open Savannah Woodland
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(12), 989; doi:10.3390/rs8120989 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Pasture biomass is an important quantity globally in livestock industries, carbon balances, and bushfire management. Quantitative estimates of pasture biomass or total standing dry matter (TSDM) at the field scale are much desired by land managers for land-resource management, forage budgeting, and conservation
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Pasture biomass is an important quantity globally in livestock industries, carbon balances, and bushfire management. Quantitative estimates of pasture biomass or total standing dry matter (TSDM) at the field scale are much desired by land managers for land-resource management, forage budgeting, and conservation purposes. Estimates from optical satellite imagery alone tend to saturate in the cover-to-mass relationship and fail to differentiate standing dry matter from litter. X-band radar imagery was added to complement optical imagery with a structural component to improve TSDM estimates in rangelands. High quality paddock-scale field data from a northeastern Australian cattle grazing trial were used to establish a statistical TSDM model by integrating optical satellite image data from the Landsat sensor with observations from the TerraSAR-X (TSX) radar satellite. Data from the dry season of 2014 and the wet season of 2015 resulted in models with adjusted r2 of 0.81 in the dry season and 0.74 in the wet season. The respective models had a mean standard error of 332 kg/ha and 240 kg/ha. The wet and dry season conditions were different, largely due to changed overstorey vegetation conditions, but not greatly in a pasture ‘growth’ sense. A more robust combined-season model was established with an adjusted r2 of 0.76 and a mean standard error of 358 kg/ha. A clear improvement in the model performance could be demonstrated when integrating HH polarised TSX imagery with optical satellite image products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Using Ground Targets to Validate S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night Band Calibration
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(12), 984; doi:10.3390/rs8120984 -
Abstract
In this study, the observations from S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night band (DNB) and Moderate resolution bands (M bands) of Libya 4 and Dome C over the first four years of the mission are used to assess the DNB low gain calibration stability. The Sensor
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In this study, the observations from S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night band (DNB) and Moderate resolution bands (M bands) of Libya 4 and Dome C over the first four years of the mission are used to assess the DNB low gain calibration stability. The Sensor Data Records produced by NASA Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (PEATE) are acquired from nearly nadir overpasses for Libya 4 desert and Dome C snow surfaces. A kernel-driven bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) correction model is used for both Libya 4 and Dome C sites to correct the surface BRDF influence. At both sites, the simulated top-of-atmosphere (TOA) DNB reflectances based on SCIAMACHY spectral data are compared with Land PEATE TOA reflectances based on modulated Relative Spectral Response (RSR). In the Libya 4 site, the results indicate a decrease of 1.03% in Land PEATE TOA reflectance and a decrease of 1.01% in SCIAMACHY derived TOA reflectance over the period from April 2012 to January 2016. In the Dome C site, the decreases are 0.29% and 0.14%, respectively. The consistency between SCIAMACHY and Land PEATE data trends is good. The small difference between SCIAMACHY and Land PEATE derived TOA reflectances could be caused by changes in the surface targets, atmosphere status, and on-orbit calibration. The reflectances and radiances of Land PEATE DNB are also compared with matching M bands and the integral M bands based on M4, M5, and M7. The fitting trends of the DNB to integral M bands ratios indicate a 0.75% decrease at the Libya 4 site and a 1.89% decrease at the Dome C site. Part of the difference is due to an insufficient number of sampled bands available within the DNB wavelength range. The above results indicate that the Land PEATE VIIRS DNB product is accurate and stable. The methods used in this study can be used on other satellite instruments to provide quantitative assessments for calibration stability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancing Noah Land Surface Model Prediction Skill over Indian Subcontinent by Assimilating SMOPS Blended Soil Moisture
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(12), 976; doi:10.3390/rs8120976 -
Abstract
In the present study, soil moisture assimilation is conducted over the Indian subcontinent, using the Noah Land Surface Model (LSM) and the Soil Moisture Operational Products System (SMOPS) observations by utilizing the Ensemble Kalman Filter. The study is conducted in two stages involving
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In the present study, soil moisture assimilation is conducted over the Indian subcontinent, using the Noah Land Surface Model (LSM) and the Soil Moisture Operational Products System (SMOPS) observations by utilizing the Ensemble Kalman Filter. The study is conducted in two stages involving assimilation of soil moisture and simulation of brightness temperature (Tb) using radiative transfer scheme. The results of data assimilation in the form of simulated Surface Soil Moisture (SSM) maps are evaluated for the Indian summer monsoonal months of June, July, August, September (JJAS) using the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) AMSR-E soil moisture as reference. Results of comparative analysis using the Global land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) SSM is also discussed over India. Data assimilation using SMOPS soil moisture shows improved prediction over the Indian subcontinent, with an average correlation of 0.96 and average root mean square difference (RMSD) of 0.0303 m3/m3. The results are promising in comparison with the GLDAS SSM, which has an average correlation of 0.93 and average RMSD of 0.0481 m3/m3. In the second stage of the study, the assimilated soil moisture is used to simulate X-band brightness temperature (Tb) at an incidence angle of 55° using the Community Microwave Emission Model (CMEM) Radiative transfer Model (RTM). This is aimed to study the sensitivity of the parameterization scheme on Tb simulation over the Indian subcontinent. The result of Tb simulation shows that the CMEM parameterization scheme strongly influences the simulated top of atmosphere (TOA) brightness temperature. Furthermore, the Tb simulations from Wang dielectric model and Kirdyashev vegetation model shows better similarity with the actual AMSR-E Tb over the study region. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Robust Hyperspectral Image Classification by Multi-Layer Spatial-Spectral Sparse Representations
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(12), 985; doi:10.3390/rs8120985 -
Abstract
Sparse representation (SR)-driven classifiers have been widely adopted for hyperspectral image (HSI) classification, and many algorithms have been presented recently. However, most of the existing methods exploit the single layer hard assignment based on class-wise reconstruction errors on the subspace assumption; moreover, the
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Sparse representation (SR)-driven classifiers have been widely adopted for hyperspectral image (HSI) classification, and many algorithms have been presented recently. However, most of the existing methods exploit the single layer hard assignment based on class-wise reconstruction errors on the subspace assumption; moreover, the single-layer SR is biased and less stable due to the high coherence of the training samples. In this paper, motivated by category sparsity, a novel multi-layer spatial-spectral sparse representation (mlSR) framework for HSI classification is proposed. The mlSR assignment framework effectively classifies the test samples based on the adaptive dictionary assembling in a multi-layer manner and intrinsic class-dependent distribution. In the proposed framework, three algorithms, multi-layer SR classification (mlSRC), multi-layer collaborative representation classification (mlCRC) and multi-layer elastic net representation-based classification (mlENRC) for HSI, are developed. All three algorithms can achieve a better SR for the test samples, which benefits HSI classification. Experiments are conducted on three real HSI image datasets. Compared with several state-of-the-art approaches, the increases of overall accuracy (OA), kappa and average accuracy (AA) on the Indian Pines image range from 3.02% to 17.13%, 0.034 to 0.178 and 1.51% to 11.56%, respectively. The improvements in OA, kappa and AA for the University of Pavia are from 1.4% to 21.93%, 0.016 to 0.251 and 0.12% to 22.49%, respectively. Furthermore, the OA, kappa and AA for the Salinas image can be improved from 2.35% to 6.91%, 0.026 to 0.074 and 0.88% to 5.19%, respectively. This demonstrates that the proposed mlSR framework can achieve comparable or better performance than the state-of-the-art classification methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Potential of PROBA-V Satellite Image Time Series for Improving LC Classification in Semi-Arid African Landscapes
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(12), 987; doi:10.3390/rs8120987 -
Abstract
Satellite based land cover classification for Africa’s semi-arid ecosystems is hampered commonly by heterogeneous landscapes with mixed vegetation and small scale land use. Higher spatial resolution remote sensing time series data can improve classification results under these difficult conditions. While most large scale
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Satellite based land cover classification for Africa’s semi-arid ecosystems is hampered commonly by heterogeneous landscapes with mixed vegetation and small scale land use. Higher spatial resolution remote sensing time series data can improve classification results under these difficult conditions. While most large scale land cover mapping attempts rely on moderate resolution data, PROBA-V provides five-daily time series at 100 m spatial resolution. This improves spatial detail and resilience against high cloud cover, but increases the data load. Cloud-based processing platforms can leverage large scale land cover monitoring based on such finer time series. We demonstrate this with PROBA-V 100 m time series data from 2014–2015, using temporal metrics and cloud filtering in combination with in-situ training data and machine learning, implemented on the ESA (European Space Agency) Cloud Toolbox infrastructure. We apply our approach to two use cases for a large study area over West Africa: land- and forest cover classification. Our land cover classification reaches a 7% to 21% higher overall accuracy when compared to four global land cover maps (i.e., Globcover-2009, Cover-CCI-2010, MODIS-2010, and Globeland30). Our forest cover classification shows 89% correspondence with the Tropical Ecosystem Environment Observation System (TREES)-3 forest cover data which is based on spatially finer Landsat data. This paper illustrates a proof of concept for cloud-based “big-data” driven land cover monitoring. Furthermore, we show that a wide range of temporal metrics can be extracted from detailed PROBA-V 100 m time series data to continuously optimize land cover monitoring. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Potential of Sentinel Satellites for Burnt Area Mapping and Monitoring in the Congo Basin Forests
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(12), 986; doi:10.3390/rs8120986 -
Abstract
In this study, the recently launched Sentinel-2 (S2) optical satellite and the active radar Sentinel-1 (S1) satellite supported by active fire data from the MODIS sensor were used to detect and monitor forest fires in the Congo Basin. In the context of a
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In this study, the recently launched Sentinel-2 (S2) optical satellite and the active radar Sentinel-1 (S1) satellite supported by active fire data from the MODIS sensor were used to detect and monitor forest fires in the Congo Basin. In the context of a very strong El Niño event, an unprecedented outbreak of fires was observed during the first months of 2016 in open forests formations in the north of the Republic of Congo. The anomalies of the recent fires and meteorological situation compared to historical data show the severity of the drought. Burnt areas mapped by the S1 SAR and S2 Multi Spectral Instrument (MSI) sensors highlight that the fires occurred mainly in Marantaceae forests, characterized by open tree canopy cover and an extensive tall herbaceous layer. The maps show that the origin of the fires correlates with accessibility to the forest, suggesting an anthropogenic origin. The combined use of the two independent and fundamentally different satellite systems of S2 and S1 captured an extent of 36,000 ha of burnt areas, with each sensor compensating for the weakness (cloud perturbations for S2, and sensitivity to ground moisture for S1) of the other. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Modified SEBAL for Mapping Daily Spatial Evapotranspiration of South Korea Using Three Flux Towers and Terra MODIS Data
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(12), 983; doi:10.3390/rs8120983 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Evapotranspiration (ET) is expected to increase by a considerable amount because of the impact of future temperature increase. Nowadays, the daily to seasonal ET maps can be used to provide information for a sustainable and adaptive watershed eco-environment. This study attempts to estimate
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Evapotranspiration (ET) is expected to increase by a considerable amount because of the impact of future temperature increase. Nowadays, the daily to seasonal ET maps can be used to provide information for a sustainable and adaptive watershed eco-environment. This study attempts to estimate the spatial ET of South Korea (99,900 km2), located within the latitudes of 33°06′N to 43°01′N and the longitudes of 124°04′E to 131°05′E, on a daily basis. The satellite-based image-processing model Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land (SEBAL) was adopted and modified to generate the spatial ET data. The SEBAL was calibrated using two years (2012–2013) of measured ETs by an eddy covariance (EC) flux tower at three locations (two in a mixed forest area and one in a rice paddy area). The primary inputs for the model were land surface temperature/emissivity (LST/E), the Normalized Distribution Vegetation Index (NDVI), albedo (Ab) from a Terra Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite, a digital elevation model, and wind speed and solar radiation (Rs) from 76 ground-based weather stations. When LST data were unavailable because of clouds and/or snow, the bias-corrected ground temperature measured at the weather stations was used. The NDVI and Ab were used as the monthly average value to maintain relatively stable values rather than using the original time interval data. The determination coefficient (R2) between SEBAL and the flux tower ET was 0.45–0.54 for the two mixed forest towers and 0.79 for the rice paddy tower reflecting the known characteristics of closed and open space ET estimation. The spatial distribution of SEBAL showed that the spatial ET reflected the geographical characteristics, revealing that the ET of lowland areas was higher than that of highland areas. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Dupuy, E., et al. Comparison of XH2O Retrieved from GOSAT Short-Wavelength Infrared Spectra with Observations from the TCCON Network. Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 414
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(12), 982; doi:10.3390/rs8120982 (registering DOI) -
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Open AccessArticle
Automatic and Self-Adaptive Stem Reconstruction in Landslide-Affected Forests
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(12), 974; doi:10.3390/rs8120974 -
Abstract
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is a promising technique for plot-wise acquisition of geometric attributes of forests. However, there still exists a need for TLS applications in mountain forests where tree stems’ growing directions are not vertical. This paper presents a novel method to
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Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is a promising technique for plot-wise acquisition of geometric attributes of forests. However, there still exists a need for TLS applications in mountain forests where tree stems’ growing directions are not vertical. This paper presents a novel method to model tree stems precisely in an alpine landslide-affected forest using TLS. Tree stems are automatically detected by a two-layer projection method. Stems are modeled by fitting a series of cylinders based on a 2D-3D random sample consensus (RANSAC)-based approach. Diameter at breast height (DBH) was manually measured in the field, and stem curves were measured from the point cloud as reference data. The results showed that all trees in the test area can be detected. The root mean square error (RMSE) of estimated DBH was 1.80 cm (5.5%). Stem curves were automatically generated and compared with reference data, as well as stem volumes. The results imply that the proposed method is able to map and model the stem curve precisely in complex forest conditions. The resulting stem parameters can be employed in single tree biomass estimation, tree growth quantification and other forest-related studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Variability of Surface Albedo and Its Correlation with Climatic Variables over Antarctica
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(12), 981; doi:10.3390/rs8120981 -
Abstract
The cryosphere is an essential part of the earth system for understanding climate change. Components of the cryosphere, such as ice sheets and sea ice, are generally decreasing over time. However, previous studies have indicated differing trends between the Antarctic and the Arctic.
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The cryosphere is an essential part of the earth system for understanding climate change. Components of the cryosphere, such as ice sheets and sea ice, are generally decreasing over time. However, previous studies have indicated differing trends between the Antarctic and the Arctic. The South Pole also shows internal differences in trends. These phenomena indicate the importance of continuous observation of the Polar Regions. Albedo is a main indicator for analyzing Antarctic climate change and is an important variable with regard to the radiation budget because it can provide positive feedback on polar warming and is related to net radiation and atmospheric heating in the mainly snow- and ice-covered Antarctic. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed long-term temporal and spatial variability of albedo and investigated the interrelationships between albedo and climatic variables over Antarctica. We used broadband surface albedo data from the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring and data for several climatic variables such as temperature and Antarctic oscillation index (AAO) during the period of 1983 to 2009. Time series analysis and correlation analysis were performed through linear regression using albedo and climatic variables. The results of this research indicated that albedo shows two trends, west trend and an east trend, over Antarctica. Most of the western side of Antarctica showed a negative trend of albedo (about −0.0007 to −0.0015 year−1), but the other side showed a positive trend (about 0.0006 year−1). In addition, albedo and surface temperature had a negative correlation, but this relationship was weaker in west Antarctica than in east Antarctica. The correlation between albedo and AAO revealed different relationships in the two regions; west Antarctica had a negative correlation and east Antarctica showed a positive correlation. In addition, the correlation between albedo and AAO was weaker in the west. This suggests that the eastern area is influenced by the atmosphere, but that the western area is influenced more strongly by other factors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mapping Arctic Tundra Vegetation Communities Using Field Spectroscopy and Multispectral Satellite Data in North Alaska, USA
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(12), 978; doi:10.3390/rs8120978 -
Abstract
The Arctic is currently undergoing intense changes in climate; vegetation composition and productivity are expected to respond to such changes. To understand the impacts of climate change on the function of Arctic tundra ecosystems within the global carbon cycle, it is crucial to
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The Arctic is currently undergoing intense changes in climate; vegetation composition and productivity are expected to respond to such changes. To understand the impacts of climate change on the function of Arctic tundra ecosystems within the global carbon cycle, it is crucial to improve the understanding of vegetation distribution and heterogeneity at multiple scales. Information detailing the fine-scale spatial distribution of tundra communities provided by high resolution vegetation mapping, is needed to understand the relative contributions of and relationships between single vegetation community measurements of greenhouse gas fluxes (e.g., ~1 m chamber flux) and those encompassing multiple vegetation communities (e.g., ~300 m eddy covariance measurements). The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine whether dominant Arctic tundra vegetation communities found in different locations are spectrally distinct and distinguishable using field spectroscopy methods; and (2) to test which combination of raw reflectance and vegetation indices retrieved from field and satellite data resulted in accurate vegetation maps and whether these were transferable across locations to develop a systematic method to map dominant vegetation communities within larger eddy covariance tower footprints distributed along a 300 km transect in northern Alaska. We showed vegetation community separability primarily in the 450–510 nm, 630–690 nm and 705–745 nm regions of the spectrum with the field spectroscopy data. This is line with the different traits of these arctic tundra communities, with the drier, often non-vascular plant dominated communities having much higher reflectance in the 450–510 nm and 630–690 nm regions due to the lack of photosynthetic material, whereas the low reflectance values of the vascular plant dominated communities highlight the strong light absorption found here. High classification accuracies of 92% to 96% were achieved using linear discriminant analysis with raw and rescaled spectroscopy reflectance data and derived vegetation indices. However, lower classification accuracies (~70%) resulted when using the coarser 2.0 m WorldView-2 data inputs. The results from this study suggest that tundra vegetation communities are separable using plot-level spectroscopy with hand-held sensors. These results also show that tundra vegetation mapping can be scaled from the plot level (<1 m) to patch level (<500 m) using spectroscopy data rescaled to match the wavebands of the multispectral satellite remote sensing. We find that developing a consistent method for classification of vegetation communities across the flux tower sites is a challenging process, given the spatial variability in vegetation communities and the need for detailed vegetation survey data for training and validating classification algorithms. This study highlights the benefits of using fine-scale field spectroscopy measurements to obtain tundra vegetation classifications for landscape analyses and use in carbon flux scaling studies. Improved understanding of tundra vegetation distributions will also provide necessary insight into the ecological processes driving plant community assemblages in Arctic environments. Full article
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