Remote Sens.2014, 6(9), 8986-9013; doi:10.3390/rs6098986 (registering DOI) - published 22 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Developments in hyperspectral remote sensing techniques during the last decade have enabled the use of narrowband indices to evaluate the role of forest ecosystem variables in estimating carbon (C) fluxes. In this study, narrowband bio-indicators derived from EO-1 Hyperion data were investigated to determine whether they could capture the temporal variation and estimate the spatial variability of forest C fluxes derived from eddy covariance tower data. Nineteen indices were divided into four categories of optical indices: broadband, chlorophyll, red edge, and light use efficiency. Correlation tests were performed between the selected vegetation indices, gross primary production (GPP), and ecosystem respiration (Re). Among the 19 indices, five narrowband indices (Chlorophyll Index RedEdge 710, scaled photochemical reflectance index (SPRI)*enhanced vegetation index (EVI), SPRI*normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), MCARI/OSAVI[705, 750] and the Vogelmann Index), and one broad band index (EVI) had R-squared values with a good fit for GPP and Re. The SPRI*NDVI has the highest significant coefficients of determination with GPP and Re (R2 = 0.86 and 0.89, p < 0.0001, respectively). SPRI*NDVI was used in atmospheric inverse modeling at regional scales for the estimation of C fluxes. We compared the GPP spatial patterns inversed from our model with corresponding results from the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM), the Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator model, and MODIS MOD17A2 products. The inversed GPP spatial patterns from our model of SPRI*NDVI had good agreement with the output from the VPM model. The normalized difference nitrogen index was well correlated with measured C net ecosystem exchange. Our findings indicated that narrowband bio-indicators based on EO-1 Hyperion images could be used to predict regional C flux variations for Northeastern China’s temperate broad-leaved Korean pine forest ecosystems.
Remote Sens.2014, 6(9), 8966-8985; doi:10.3390/rs6098966 (registering DOI) - published 22 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Land surface albedo is an essential parameter for monitoring global/regional climate and land surface energy balance. Although many studies have been conducted on global or regional land surface albedo using various remote sensing data over the past few decades, land surface albedo product with a high spatio–temporal resolution is currently very scarce. This paper proposes a method for deriving land surface albedo with a high spatio–temporal resolution (space: 30 m and time: 2–4 days). The proposed method works by combining the land surface reflectance data at 30 m spatial resolution obtained from the charge-coupled devices in the Huanjing-1A and -1B (HJ-1A/B) satellites with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) parameters product (MCD43A1), which is at a spatial resolution of 500 m. First, the land surface BRDF parameters for HJ-1A/B land surface reflectance with a spatial–temporal resolutions of 30 m and 2–4 day are calculated on the basis of the prior knowledge from the MODIS BRDF product; then, the calculated high resolution BRDF parameters are integrated over the illuminating/viewing hemisphere to produce the white- and black-sky albedos at 30 m resolution. These results form the basis for the final land surface albedo derivation by accounting for the proportion of direct and diffuse solar radiation arriving at the ground. The albedo retrieved by this novel method is compared with MODIS land surface albedo products, as well as with ground measurements. The results show that the derived land surface albedo during the growing season of 2012 generally achieved a mean absolute accuracy of ±0.044, and a root mean square error of 0.039, confirming the effectiveness of the newly proposed method.
Remote Sens.2014, 6(9), 8945-8965; doi:10.3390/rs6098945 (registering DOI) - published 22 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) is the largest global CO2 flux and determines other ecosystem carbon cycle variables. Light use efficiency (LUE) models may have the most potential to adequately address the spatial and temporal dynamics of GPP, but recent studies have shown large model differences in GPP simulations. In this study, we investigated the GPP differences in the spatial and temporal patterns derived from seven widely used LUE models at the global scale. The result shows that the global annual GPP estimates over the period 2000–2010 varied from 95.10 to 139.71 Pg C∙yr−1 among models. The spatial and temporal variation of global GPP differs substantially between models, due to different model structures and dominant environmental drivers. In almost all models, water availability dominates the interannual variability of GPP over large vegetated areas. Solar radiation and air temperature are not the primary controlling factors for interannual variability of global GPP estimates for most models. The disagreement among the current LUE models highlights the need for further model improvement to quantify the global carbon cycle.
Remote Sens.2014, 6(9), 8923-8944; doi:10.3390/rs6098923 (registering DOI) - published 22 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Light and water use by vegetation at the ecosystem level, are key components for understanding the carbon and water cycles particularly in regions with high climate variability and dry climates such as Africa. The objective of this study is to examine recent trends over the last 30 years in Light Use Efficiency (LUE) and inherent Water Use Efficiency (iWUE*) for the major biomes of Africa, including their sensitivities to climate and CO2. LUE and iWUE* trends are analyzed using a combination of NOAA-AVHRR NDVI3g and fAPAR3g, and a data-driven model of monthly evapotranspiration and Gross Primary Productivity (based on flux tower measurements and remote sensing fAPAR, yet with no flux tower data in Africa) and the ORCHIDEE (ORganizing Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic EcosystEms) process-based land surface model driven by variable CO2 and two different gridded climate fields. The iWUE* data product increases by 10%–20% per decade during the 1982–2010 period over the northern savannas (due to positive trend of vegetation productivity) and the central African forest (due to positive trend of vapor pressure deficit). In contrast to the iWUE*, the LUE trends are not statistically significant. The process-based model simulations only show a positive linear trend in iWUE* and LUE over the central African forest. Additionally, factorial model simulations were conducted to attribute trends in iWUE and LUE to climate change and rising CO2 concentrations. We found that the increase of atmospheric CO2 by 52.8 ppm during the period of study explains 30%–50% of the increase in iWUE* and >90% of the LUE trend over the central African forest. The modeled iWUE* trend exhibits a high sensitivity to the climate forcing and environmental conditions, whereas the LUE trend has a smaller sensitivity to the selected climate forcing.
Remote Sens.2014, 6(9), 8904-8922; doi:10.3390/rs6098904 - published 19 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Remote sensing provides timely, economic, and objective data over a large area and has become the main data source for land cover/use area estimation. However, the classification results cannot be directly used to calculate the area of a given land cover/use type because of classification errors. The main purpose of this study is to explore the performance and stability of several model-assisted estimators in various overall accuracies of classification and sampling fractions. In this study, the confusion matrix calibration direct estimator, confusion matrix calibration inverse estimator, ratio estimator, and simple regression estimator were implemented to infer the areas of several land cover classes using simple random sampling without replacement in two experiments: a case study using simulation data based on RapidEye images and that using actual RapidEye and Huan Jing (HJ)-1A images. In addition, the simple estimator using a simple random sample without replacement was regarded as a basic estimator. The comparison results suggested that the confusion matrix calibration estimators, ratio estimator, and simple regression estimator could provide more accurate and stable estimates than the simple random sampling estimator. In addition, high-quality classification data played a positive role in the estimation, and the confusion matrix inverse estimators were more sensitive to the classification accuracy. In the simulated experiment, the average deviation of a confusion matrix calibration inverse estimator decreased by about 0.195 with the increasing overall accuracy of classification; otherwise, the variation of the other three model-assisted estimators was 0.102. Moreover, the simple regression estimator was slightly superior to the confusion matrix calibration estimators and required fewer sample units under acceptable classification accuracy levels of 70%–90%.
Remote Sens.2014, 6(9), 8878-8903; doi:10.3390/rs6098878 - published 19 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We introduce and test a new method to detect annual forest cover loss from time series estimates of percent tree cover. Our approach is founded on two realistic assumptions: (1) land cover disturbances are rare events over large geographic areas that occur within a short time frame; and (2) spatially discrete land cover disturbances are continuous processes over time. Applying statistically rigorous algorithms, we first detect disturbance pixels as outliers of an underlying chi-square distribution. Then, we fit nonlinear, logistic curves for each identified change pixel to simultaneously characterize the magnitude and timing of the disturbance. Our method is applied using the yearly Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF) tree cover product from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the resulting disturbance-year estimates are evaluated using a large sample of Landsat-based forest disturbance data. Temporal accuracy is ~65% at 250-m, annual resolution and increases to >85% when temporal resolution is relaxed to ±1 yr. The r2 of MODIS VCF-based disturbance rates against Landsat ranges from 0.7 to 0.9 at 5-km spatial resolution. The general approach developed in this study can be potentially applied at a global scale and to other land cover types characterized as continuous variables from satellite data.