Abstract: Myeloid leukemia (ML) is one of the major health concerns from exposure to radiation. However, the risk assessment for developing ML after exposure to space radiation remains uncertain. To reduce the uncertainty in risk prediction for ML, a much increased understanding of space radiation-induced changes in the target cells, i.e., hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), is critically important. We used the label-free quantitative mass spectrometry (LFQMS) proteomic approach to determine the expression of protein in HSPC-derived myeloid colonies obtained at an early time-point (one week) and a late time-point (six months) after an acute whole body exposure of CBA/CaJ mice to a total dose of 0, 0.1, 0.25, or 0.5 Gy of heavy-ion titanium (48Ti ions), which are the important component of radiation found in the space environment. Mice exposed to 0 Gy of 48Ti ions served as non-irradiated sham controls. There were five mice per treatment groups at each harvest time. The Trans-Proteomic Pipeline (TPP) was used to assign a probability of a particular protein being in the sample. A proof-of-concept based Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to characterize the functions, pathways, and networks of the identified proteins. Alterations of expression levels of proteins detected in samples collected at one week (wk) post-irradiation reflects acute effects of exposure to 48Ti ions, while those detected in samples collected at six months (mos) post-irradiation represent protein expression profiles involved in the induction of late-occurring damage (normally referred to as genomic instability). Our results obtained by using the IPA analyses indicate a wide array of signaling pathways involved in response to 1 GeV/n 48Ti ions at both harvest times. Our data also demonstrate that the patterns of protein expression profiles are dose and time dependent. The majority of proteins with altered expression levels are involved in cell cycle control, cellular growth and proliferation, cell death and survival, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction. The IPA analyses indicate several important processes involved in responses to exposure to 48Ti ions. These include the proteosme/ubiquination, protein synthesis, post-translation modification, and lipid metabolism. The IPA analyses also indicate that exposure to 1 GeV/n 48Ti ions affects the development and function of hematological system, immune cell trafficking, including the cytoskeleton. Further, the IPA analyses strongly demonstrate that the NF-κB and MAPKs (ERKs, JNKs, and p38MAPK) pathways play an essential role in signal transduction after exposure to 1 GeV/n 48Ti ions. At an early time-point (1 week), the top networks identified by the IPA analyses are related to metabolic disease, lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry, and development disorder. In contrast, the top networks identified in samples collected at a late time-point (6 mos post-irradiation) by the IPA analyses are related to cancer, hematological disorders, and immunological diseases. In summary, the proteomic findings from our study provide a foundation to uncover compounds potentially be highly effective in radiation countermeasures.
Abstract: Partial body irradiation during cancer radiotherapy (RT) induces a response of irradiated tissues that could be observed at the level of serum proteome. Here we aimed to characterize the response to RT in group of patients treated because of prostate cancer. Five consecutive blood samples were collected before, during, and after the end of RT in a group of 126 patients who received definitive treatment with a maximum dose of 76 Gy. Serum peptidome, which was profiled in the 2000–16,000 Da range using MALDI-MS. Serum proteins were identified and quantified using the shotgun LC-MS/MS approach. The majority of changes in serum peptidome were detected between pre-treatment samples and samples collected after 3–4 weeks of RT (~25% of registered peptides changed their abundances significantly), yet the intensity of observed changes was not correlated significantly with the degree of acute radiation toxicity or the volume of irradiated tissues. Furthermore, there were a few serum proteins identified, the abundances of which were different in pre-RT and post-RT samples, including immunity and inflammation-related factors. Observed effects were apparently weaker than in comparable groups of head and neck cancer patients in spite of similar radiation doses and volumes of irradiated tissues in both groups. We concluded that changes observed at the level of serum proteome were low for this cohort of prostate cancer patients, although the specific components involved are associated with immunity and inflammation, and reflect the characteristic acute response of the human body to radiation.
Abstract: The eukaryotic protein kinase (ePK) paradigm provides integral components for signal transduction cascades throughout nature. However, while so-called typical ePKs permeate the Eucarya and Bacteria, atypical ePKs dominate the kinomes of the Archaea. Intriguingly, the catalytic domains of the handful of deduced typical ePKs from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 exhibit significant resemblance to the protein kinases that phosphorylate translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) in response to cellular stresses. We cloned and expressed one of these archaeal eIF2α protein kinases, SsoPK4. SsoPK4 exhibited protein-serine/threonine kinase activity toward several proteins, including the S. solfataricus homolog of eIF2α, aIF2α. The activity of SsoPK4 was inhibited in vitro by 3ʹ,5ʹ-cyclic AMP (Ki of ~23 µM) and was activated by oxidized Coenzyme A, an indicator of oxidative stress in the Archaea. Activation enhanced the apparent affinity for protein substrates, Km, but had little effect on Vmax. Autophosphorylation activated SsoPK4 and rendered it insensitive to oxidized Coenzyme A.
Abstract: Neurotransmitter release as well as structural and functional dynamics at the presynaptic active zone (PAZ) comprising synaptic vesicles attached to the presynaptic plasma membrane are mediated and controlled by its proteinaceous components. Here we describe a novel experimental design to immunopurify the native PAZ-complex from individual mouse brain regions such as olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and cerebellum with high purity that is essential for comparing their proteome composition. Interestingly, quantitative immunodetection demonstrates significant differences in the abundance of prominent calcium-dependent PAZ constituents. Furthermore, we characterized the proteomes of the immunoisolated PAZ derived from the three brain regions by mass spectrometry. The proteomes of the release sites from the respective regions exhibited remarkable differences in the abundance of a large variety of PAZ constituents involved in various functional aspects of the release sites such as calcium homeostasis, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. On the one hand, our data support an identical core architecture of the PAZ for all brain regions and, on the other hand, demonstrate that the proteinaceous composition of their presynaptic active zones vary, suggesting that changes in abundance of individual proteins strengthen the ability of the release sites to adapt to specific functional requirements.
Abstract: The covalent addition of nitric oxide (NO•) onto cysteine thiols, or S-nitrosylation, modulates the activity of key signaling proteins. The dysregulation of normal S-nitrosylation contributes to degenerative conditions and to cancer. To gain insight into the biochemical changes induced by low-dose ionizing radiation, we determined global S-nitrosylation by the “biotin switch” assay coupled with mass spectrometry analyses in organs of C57BL/6J mice exposed to acute 0.1 Gy of 137Cs γ-rays. The dose of radiation was delivered to the whole body in the presence or absence of iopamidol, an iodinated contrast agent used during radiological examinations. To investigate whether similar or distinct nitrosylation patterns are induced following high-dose irradiation, mice were exposed in parallel to acute 4 Gy of 137Cs g rays. Analysis of modulated S-nitrosothiols (SNO-proteins) in freshly-harvested organs of animals sacrificed 13 days after irradiation revealed radiation dose- and contrast agent-dependent changes. The major results were as follows: (i) iopamidol alone had significant effects on S-nitrosylation in brain, lung and liver; (ii) relative to the control, exposure to 0.1 Gy without iopamidol resulted in statistically-significant SNO changes in proteins that differ in molecular weight in liver, lung, brain and blood plasma; (iii) iopamidol enhanced the decrease in S-nitrosylation induced by 0.1 Gy in brain; (iv) whereas a decrease in S-nitrosylation occurred at 0.1 Gy for proteins of ~50 kDa in brain and for proteins of ~37 kDa in liver, an increase was detected at 4 Gy in both organs; (v) mass spectrometry analyses of nitrosylated proteins in brain revealed differential modulation of SNO proteins (e.g., sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-1; beta tubulins; ADP-ribosylation factor 5) by low- and high-dose irradiation; and (vi) ingenuity pathway analysis identified major signaling networks to be modulated, in particular the neuronal nitric oxide synthase signaling pathway was differentially modulated by low- and high-dose γ-irradiation.
Abstract: Affinity electrophoresis is an important technique that is widely used to separate and analyze biomolecules in the fields of biology and medicine. Both quantitative and qualitative information can be gained through affinity electrophoresis. Affinity electrophoresis can be applied through a variety of strategies, such as mobility shift electrophoresis, charge shift electrophoresis or capillary affinity electrophoresis. These strategies are based on changes in the electrophoretic patterns of biological macromolecules that result from interactions or complex-formation processes that induce changes in the size or total charge of the molecules. Nucleic acid fragments can be characterized through their affinity to other molecules, for example transcriptional factor proteins. Hydrophobic membrane proteins can be identified by means of a shift in the mobility induced by a charged detergent. The various strategies have also been used in the estimation of association/disassociation constants. Some of these strategies have similarities to affinity chromatography, in that they use a probe or ligand immobilized on a supported matrix for electrophoresis. Such methods have recently contributed to profiling of major posttranslational modifications of proteins, such as glycosylation or phosphorylation. Here, we describe advances in analytical techniques involving affinity electrophoresis that have appeared during the last five years.