Open AccessArticle
Effect of Catechol Content in Catechol-Conjugated Dextrans on Antiplatelet Performance
Polymers 2017, 9(8), 376; doi:10.3390/polym9080376 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The surface coating of solid substrates using dextrans has gained a great deal of attention, because dextran-coated surfaces show excellent anti-fouling property as well as biocompatibility behavior. Much effort has been made to develop efficient methods for grafting dextrans on solid surfaces. This
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The surface coating of solid substrates using dextrans has gained a great deal of attention, because dextran-coated surfaces show excellent anti-fouling property as well as biocompatibility behavior. Much effort has been made to develop efficient methods for grafting dextrans on solid surfaces. This led to the development of catechol-conjugated dextrans (Dex-C) which can adhere to a number of solid surfaces, inspired by the underwater adhesion behavior of marine mussels. The present study is a systematic investigation of the characteristics of surface coatings developed with Dex-C. Various Dex-C with different catechol contents were synthesized and used as a surface coating material. The effect of catechol content on surface coating and antiplatelet performance was investigated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Treatments on the Tensile Strength and the Interphase Quality of Hemp Core Fiber-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites
Polymers 2017, 9(8), 377; doi:10.3390/polym9080377 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The formulation of greener composite materials by substituting glass fibers with natural fibers is a current field of research. If such natural fiber reinforcements come from industrial side streams, as hemp core fibers (HCFs) come from the extraction of hemp strands for the
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The formulation of greener composite materials by substituting glass fibers with natural fibers is a current field of research. If such natural fiber reinforcements come from industrial side streams, as hemp core fibers (HCFs) come from the extraction of hemp strands for the textile industry, an additional advantage can be identified. Nonetheless, such by-product fibers show some drawbacks, such as high lignin contents, which can make it difficult to obtain a good interphase between the fibers and the matrix and to obtain a good fiber individualization. A digestion treatment at different NaOH contents is proposed to eliminate soluble lignin and extractives from the surface of the fibers. At the same time, the use of a coupling agent solves incompatibilities between the fibers and the matrix. The composites were tensile tested and the impact of the proposed treatments is evaluated and discussed. Later, the Kelly-Tyson modified equation and a modified rule of mixtures—the micro-mechanic models—is used to study the impact of such treatments on the quality of the interphase between the polymer and the reinforcement. Both treatments showed a high impact on the tensile strength and the quality of the interphase, obtaining competitive composite materials reinforced with HCFs derived from a by-product. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Network Solvation on the Viscoelastic Response of Polymer Hydrogels
Polymers 2017, 9(8), 379; doi:10.3390/polym9080379 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The majority of investigations consider the deformation response of hydrogels, fully controlled by the deformation behavior of their polymer network, neglecting the contribution caused by the presence of water. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulation in an attempt to include the effect of
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The majority of investigations consider the deformation response of hydrogels, fully controlled by the deformation behavior of their polymer network, neglecting the contribution caused by the presence of water. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulation in an attempt to include the effect of physically bound water via polymer chain solvation on the viscoelastic response of hydrogels. Our model allows us to control the solvation of chains as an independent variable. The solvation of the chain is independent of other factors, mainly the effect (pH) which interferes significantly in experiments. The solvation of hydrophilic chains was controlled by setting a partial charge on the chains and quantified by the Bjerrum length (BL). The BL was calculated from the partial electric charge of the solvent and macromolecular network. When the BL is short, the repulsive Van der Waals interactions are predominant in the vicinity of macromolecules and solvation is not observed. For a long BL, the water molecules in the solvation zone of network are in the same range as attractive intermolecular forces and the solvation occurs. The model also allows the consideration of molecules of water attached to two chains simultaneously, forming a temporary bridging. By elucidating the relations between solvation of the network and structural changes during the network deformation, one may predict the viscoelastic properties of hydrogels knowing the molecular structure of its polymer chains. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanical Properties of Composite Hydrogels of Alginate and Cellulose Nanofibrils
Polymers 2017, 9(8), 378; doi:10.3390/polym9080378 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Alginate and cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) are attractive materials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. CNF gels are generally weaker and more brittle than alginate gels, while alginate gels are elastic and have high rupture strength. Alginate properties depend on their guluronan and mannuronan
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Alginate and cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) are attractive materials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. CNF gels are generally weaker and more brittle than alginate gels, while alginate gels are elastic and have high rupture strength. Alginate properties depend on their guluronan and mannuronan content and their sequence pattern and molecular weight. Likewise, CNF exists in various qualities with properties depending on, e.g., morphology and charge density. In this study combinations of three types of alginate with different composition and two types of CNF with different charge and degree of fibrillation have been studied. Assessments of the composite gels revealed that attractive properties like high rupture strength, high compressibility, high gel rigidity at small deformations (Young’s modulus), and low syneresis was obtained compared to the pure gels. The effects varied with relative amounts of CNF and alginate, alginate type, and CNF quality. The largest effects were obtained by combining oxidized CNF with the alginates. Hence, by combining the two biopolymers in composite gels, it is possible to tune the rupture strength, Young’s modulus, syneresis, as well as stability in physiological saline solution, which are all important properties for the use as scaffolds in tissue engineering. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Correlation-Based Multiplexing of Complex Amplitude Data Pages in a Holographic Storage System Using Digital Holographic Techniques
Polymers 2017, 9(8), 375; doi:10.3390/polym9080375 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Holographic recording media can store the amplitude and the phase, or the complex amplitude, of a beam on the basis of holography. Owing to this characteristic, digital data can be encoded onto the complex amplitude of a signal beam in holographic data storage.
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Holographic recording media can store the amplitude and the phase, or the complex amplitude, of a beam on the basis of holography. Owing to this characteristic, digital data can be encoded onto the complex amplitude of a signal beam in holographic data storage. However, most of conventional holographic storage systems encode digital data onto the amplitude alone because there are difficulties for modulating and detecting the phase. To solve the difficulties, a holographic storage system using digital holographic techniques has been proposed. With the help of digital holographic techniques, it is possible to modulate and detect the complex amplitude of a signal beam. Moreover, the proposed system can modulate the complex amplitude of a reference beam. In this paper, by making use of the capability, a correlation-based multiplexing with uncorrelated reference beams is demonstrated in the proposed system. Multiple holograms can be recorded in the same volume of a recording medium with no need for mechanical movements. Experimental results show that the proposed system with a correlation-based multiplexing can improve the storage capacity and can utilize the full potential of a recording medium without crosstalk noise stem from the optical setup. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Surface Modification of Poly(lactic acid) Fabrics with Plasma Pretreatment and Chitosan/Siloxane Polyesters Coating for Color Strength Improvement
Polymers 2017, 9(8), 371; doi:10.3390/polym9080371 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
As people in the 21st century become increasingly environmentally aware, environmentally friendly products have come into focus. As such, environmentally friendly textiles and eco-textiles have become an international trend in research and development. Poly(lactic acid) fiber, which is biodegradable, holds much promise, but
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As people in the 21st century become increasingly environmentally aware, environmentally friendly products have come into focus. As such, environmentally friendly textiles and eco-textiles have become an international trend in research and development. Poly(lactic acid) fiber, which is biodegradable, holds much promise, but it is difficult to deep dye. This study used chitosan, succine anhydride, siloxane, and polyethylene glycol to produce a series of chitosan/siloxane polyesters that have a hydrophilic component (chitosan) and a hydrophobic component (siloxane), and this chitosan/siloxane polyester can be coated on poly(lactic acid) fiber, which we had subjected to Argon plasma treatment to increase their antimicrobial properties and to increase the fibers dyeing efficiency. The study shows that, after the surface plasma treatment, longer PEG chain lengths resulted in higher K/S values. This result suggests that the surface plasma pretreatment and chitosan/siloxane polyesters coating showed that lower ∆E values result in more leveling dyeing of poly(lactic acid) fiber. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Molecular Dynamics Study on the Effect of Surface Hydroxyl Groups on Three-Phase Wettability in Oil-Water-Graphite Systems
Polymers 2017, 9(8), 370; doi:10.3390/polym9080370 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In this paper, a hydroxylated graphite surface is generated as a hydrophilic oleophobic material for the application of oil-water separation, and the effects of hydroxyl density on the three-phase wettability are studied in oil-water-graphite systems. We analyze the adsorption of water molecules on
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In this paper, a hydroxylated graphite surface is generated as a hydrophilic oleophobic material for the application of oil-water separation, and the effects of hydroxyl density on the three-phase wettability are studied in oil-water-graphite systems. We analyze the adsorption of water molecules on the hydroxylated surfaces and obtain the relationship between water-oil-solid interfacial properties and the hydroxyl density, which results from the synthetic effects of the orientation of molecules and hydrogen bonds. With the increase of hydroxyl density, the water-solid contact angle first decreases rapidly, and then remains constant. The density of the hydrogen bond formed between hydroxyls and water molecules in the adsorption layer can explain the regularity of the three-phase wettability. The orientation of the water molecules in the adsorption layer shows insignificant variation, owing to the hydrogen bond network formed between the water molecules; thus, little change is observed in the hydrogen bond density in the adsorption layer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructural and Mechanical Implications of Microscaled Assembly in Droplet-based Multi-Material Additive Manufacturing
Polymers 2017, 9(8), 372; doi:10.3390/polym9080372 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
To reveal the potential and limits of multi-material three-dimensional (3D) printed parts in droplet-based additive manufacturing, a study combining tensile experiments and 3D imaging technique is proposed. A polymeric composite structure made of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and thermoplastic polyurethane is manufactured using a
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To reveal the potential and limits of multi-material three-dimensional (3D) printed parts in droplet-based additive manufacturing, a study combining tensile experiments and 3D imaging technique is proposed. A polymeric composite structure made of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and thermoplastic polyurethane is manufactured using a two extrusion head printer. The quality of the interface between the two thermoplastics is quantified by adjusting the number of intertwining droplets at the interface. Tensile experiments assisted with digital image correlation are performed with two-interface orientation to discriminate shearing and traction at the interface. The 3D imaging results, which are based on X-ray micro-tomography, show the distinct features of droplet-based additive manufacturing in terms of porosity content and connectivity. Interface properties are found to control, in an incomparable way, the mechanical response. It is found that the interface quality is determinant for enhancing the ultimate performance whereas the interface orientation is found to be the perfect leverage for varying the slope of the linear part. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Synthesis of Humin-Phenol-Formaldehyde Adhesive
Polymers 2017, 9(8), 373; doi:10.3390/polym9080373 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Humins are low-value-added byproducts from the biomass acid hydrolysis process. In the present work, humins were first employed as a phenol replacement for synthesis of modified phenol-formaldehyde adhesives through a two-step process. In this process, humins were first utilized to obtain alkaline soluble
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Humins are low-value-added byproducts from the biomass acid hydrolysis process. In the present work, humins were first employed as a phenol replacement for synthesis of modified phenol-formaldehyde adhesives through a two-step process. In this process, humins were first utilized to obtain alkaline soluble products, mainly consisting of phenolics, through a hydrothermal process. The obtained alkaline soluble products then reacted with phenol and formaldehyde to produce humin-phenol-formaldehyde adhesive (HPFA). The physicochemical properties of HPFA, including viscosity, bonding strength, pH, free formaldehyde level, free phenol level and solid content, met the requirements of the GB/T 14732-2006 Chinese National Standard. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bacterial Nanocellulose from Side-Streams of Kombucha Beverages Production: Preparation and Physical-Chemical Properties
Polymers 2017, 9(8), 374; doi:10.3390/polym9080374 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
We focused on preparing cellulose nanofibrils by purification, separation, and mechanical treatment of Kombucha membranes (KM) resulted as secondary product from beverage production by fermentation of tea broth with symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY). We purified KM using two alkaline solutions,
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We focused on preparing cellulose nanofibrils by purification, separation, and mechanical treatment of Kombucha membranes (KM) resulted as secondary product from beverage production by fermentation of tea broth with symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY). We purified KM using two alkaline solutions, 1 and 4 M NaOH, which afterwards were subjected to various mechanical treatments. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were employed to evaluate the purification degree, the size and aspect of cellulose fibrils after each treatment step, the physical-chemical properties of intermediary and final product, and for comparison with micro-crystalline cellulose from wooden sources. We determined that 1 M NaOH solution leads to approx. 85% purification, while a higher concentration assures almost 97% impurities removal. XRD analysis evidenced an increase in crystallinity from 37% to 87% after purification, the characteristic diffractograms of Iα and Iβ cellulose allomorphs, and a further decrease in crystallinity to 46% after microfluidization, fact correlated with a drastically decrease in fibrils’ size. FTIR analysis evidenced the appearance of new chain ends by specific transmission bands at 2941 and 2843cm−1. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
pH-Induced Association and Dissociation of Intermolecular Complexes Formed by Hydrogen Bonding between Diblock Copolymers
Polymers 2017, 9(8), 367; doi:10.3390/polym9080367 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Poly(sodium styrenesulfonate)–block–poly(acrylic acid) (PNaSS–b–PAA) and poly(sodium styrenesulfonate)–blockpoly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNaSS–bPNIPAM) were prepared via reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) radical polymerization using a PNaSS-based macro-chain transfer agent. The molecular weight distributions (Mw/M
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Poly(sodium styrenesulfonate)–block–poly(acrylic acid) (PNaSS–b–PAA) and poly(sodium styrenesulfonate)–blockpoly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNaSS–bPNIPAM) were prepared via reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) radical polymerization using a PNaSS-based macro-chain transfer agent. The molecular weight distributions (Mw/Mn) of PNaSS–b–PAA and PNaSS–bPNIPAM were 1.18 and 1.39, respectively, suggesting that these polymers have controlled structures. When aqueous solutions of PNaSS–b–PAA and PNaSS–bPNIPAM were mixed under acidic conditions, water-soluble PNaSS–bPAA/PNaSS–bPNIPAM complexes were formed as a result of hydrogen bonding interactions between the pendant carboxylic acids in the PAA block and the pendant amide groups in the PNIPAM block. The complex was characterized by 1H NMR, dynamic light scattering, static light scattering, and transmission electron microscope measurements. The light scattering intensity of the complex depended on the mixing ratio of PNaSS–b–PAA and PNaSS–bPNIPAM. When the molar ratio of the N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) and acrylic acid (AA) units was near unity, the light scattering intensity reached a maximum, indicating stoichiometric complex formation. The complex dissociated at a pH higher than 4.0 because the hydrogen bonding interactions disappeared due to deprotonation of the pendant carboxylic acids in the PAA block. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Effect of Hydrogen Bonding on Radical Semi-Batch Copolymerization of Butyl Acrylate and 2-Hydroxyethyl Acrylate
Polymers 2017, 9(8), 368; doi:10.3390/polym9080368 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The radical copolymerization of butyl acrylate (BA) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) was investigated under batch and semi-batch operations, with a focus on the influence of hydrogen-bonding on acrylate backbiting. The effect of hydrogen bonding on HEA to BA relative incorporation rates during copolymerization,
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The radical copolymerization of butyl acrylate (BA) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) was investigated under batch and semi-batch operations, with a focus on the influence of hydrogen-bonding on acrylate backbiting. The effect of hydrogen bonding on HEA to BA relative incorporation rates during copolymerization, previously seen in low-conversion kinetic studies, was also observed under high-conversion semi-batch conditions. However, overall reaction rates (as indicated by free monomer concentrations), polymer molar masses, and branching levels did not vary as copolymer HEA content was increased from 0 to 40 wt % in the semi-batch system. In contrast, introduction of a H-bonding solvent, n-pentanol, led to an observable decrease in branching levels, and branching levels were also reduced in batch (co)polymerizations with HEA. These differences can be attributed to the low levels of unreacted HEA in the starved-feed semi-batch system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Constraining Polymers into β-Turns: Miscibility and Phase Segregation Effects in Lipid Monolayers
Polymers 2017, 9(8), 369; doi:10.3390/polym9080369 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Abstract: Investigation of model biomembranes and their interactions with natural or synthetic macromolecules are of great interest to design membrane systems with specific properties such as drug-delivery. Here we study the behavior of amphiphilic β-turn mimetic polymer conjugates at the air–water interface
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Abstract: Investigation of model biomembranes and their interactions with natural or synthetic macromolecules are of great interest to design membrane systems with specific properties such as drug-delivery. Here we study the behavior of amphiphilic β-turn mimetic polymer conjugates at the air–water interface and their interactions with lipid model membranes. For this endeavor we synthesized two different types of conjugates containing either hydrophobic polyisobutylene (PIB, Mn = 5000 g·mol−1) or helical poly(n-hexyl isocyanate) (PHIC, Mn = 4000 g·mol−1), both polymers being immiscible, whereas polyisobutylene as a hydrophobic polymer can incorporate into lipid membranes. The conjugates were investigated using Langmuir-film techniques coupled with epifluorescence microscopy and AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy), in addition to their phase behavior in mixed lipid/polymer membranes composed of DPPC (dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine). It was found that the DPPC monolayers are strongly disturbed by the presence of the polymer conjugates and that domain formation of the polymer conjugates occurs at high surface pressures (π > 30 mN·m−1). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biodegradation Studies of Novel Fluorinated Di-Vinyl Urethane Monomers and Interaction of Biological Elements with Their Polymerized Films
Polymers 2017, 9(8), 365; doi:10.3390/polym9080365 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The monomeric components of resin composites in dental restorative materials are susceptible to hydrolysis in the oral cavity. The main objective of this study was to assess the bio-stability of fluorinated urethane dimethacrylates and determine the nature of fluoro-chemistry interactions with protein and
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The monomeric components of resin composites in dental restorative materials are susceptible to hydrolysis in the oral cavity. The main objective of this study was to assess the bio-stability of fluorinated urethane dimethacrylates and determine the nature of fluoro-chemistry interactions with protein and bacterial adhesion (both sources of hydrolytic activity) onto cured resin. Degradation studies were performed in the presence of either albumin (in a mildly alkaline pH) or cholesterol esterase (CE). The surface chemistry of the polymers was assessed by water contact angle measurements, pre- and post- incubation with albumin. Adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to cured resin was investigated. The fluorinated monomers were more stable against degradation when compared to the commercial monomer bisphenol A-diglycidyl methacrylate (BisGMA). While fluorinated monomers showed hydrolytic stability with respect to CE, all fluorinated monomers underwent some degree of degradation with albumin. The fluoro-chemistry did not reduce protein and/or bacterial adhesion onto the surface, however post incubation with albumin, the fluorinated surfaces still presented hydrophobic character as determined by the high contact angle values ranging from 79° to 86°. These monomers could potentially be used to increase the hydrophobicity of polymeric composites and provide a means to moderate esterolytic degradation associated with the monomeric component of the polymers within the oral cavity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pulp Fines—Characterization, Sheet Formation, and Comparison to Microfibrillated Cellulose
Polymers 2017, 9(8), 366; doi:10.3390/polym9080366 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In the pulp and paper industry different types of pulp or fiber fines are generated during the pulping (primary fines, mechanical fines), and/or the refining process (secondary fines). Besides fibers, these cellulosic microparticles are a further component of the paper network. Fines, which
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In the pulp and paper industry different types of pulp or fiber fines are generated during the pulping (primary fines, mechanical fines), and/or the refining process (secondary fines). Besides fibers, these cellulosic microparticles are a further component of the paper network. Fines, which are defined as the fraction of pulp that is able to pass through a mesh screen or a perforated plate having a hole diameter of 76 μm, are known to influence the properties of the final paper product. To better understand the effect and properties of this material, fines have to be separated from the pulp and investigated as an independent material. In the present study, fines are isolated from the pulp fraction by means of a laboratory pressure screen. To allow for further processing, the solids content of the produced fines suspension was increased using dissolved air flotation. Morphological properties of different types of fines and other cellulosic microparticles, such as microfibrillated celluloses (MFC) are determined and compared to each other. Furthermore, handsheets are prepared from these materials and properties, such as apparent density, contact angle, modulus of elasticity, and strain are measured giving similar results for the analyzed types of fines in comparison to the tested MFC grades. The analysis of the properties of fiber fines contributes on the one hand to a better understanding of how these materials influences the final paper products, and on the other hand, helps in identifying other potential applications of this material. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Hydrogel Based Sensors for Biomedical Applications: An Updated Review
Polymers 2017, 9(8), 364; doi:10.3390/polym9080364 -
Abstract
Biosensors that detect and convert biological reactions to a measurable signal have gained much attention in recent years. Between 1950 and 2017, more than 150,000 papers have been published addressing the applications of biosensors in different industries, but to the best of our
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Biosensors that detect and convert biological reactions to a measurable signal have gained much attention in recent years. Between 1950 and 2017, more than 150,000 papers have been published addressing the applications of biosensors in different industries, but to the best of our knowledge and through careful screening, critical reviews that describe hydrogel based biosensors for biomedical applications are rare. This review discusses the biomedical application of hydrogel based biosensors, based on a search performed through Web of Science Core, PubMed (NLM), and Science Direct online databases for the years 2000–2017. In this review, we consider bioreceptors to be immobilized on hydrogel based biosensors, their advantages and disadvantages, and immobilization techniques. We identify the hydrogels that are most favored for this type of biosensor, as well as the predominant transduction strategies. We explain biomedical applications of hydrogel based biosensors including cell metabolite and pathogen detection, tissue engineering, wound healing, and cancer monitoring, and strategies for small biomolecules such as glucose, lactate, urea, and cholesterol detection are identified. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrogen-Bonded Polymer Complex Thin Film of Poly(2-oxazoline) and Poly(acrylic acid)
Polymers 2017, 9(8), 363; doi:10.3390/polym9080363 -
Abstract
The hydrogen-bonded polymer complex thin film of poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOX) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was fabricated with layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. The film shows exponential growth at early stage and transfers to linear growth after 10 assembling cycles, and the stable thickness increment per assembling
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The hydrogen-bonded polymer complex thin film of poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOX) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was fabricated with layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. The film shows exponential growth at early stage and transfers to linear growth after 10 assembling cycles, and the stable thickness increment per assembling cycle in the linear region could be higher than 100 nm. The film growth should be related with polymer chain diffusion during LbL assembly. The effects of assembling time, rinsing time, temperature, pH value, concentration and molecular weight on the thin film growth were investigated. Increasing the assembly time, the temperature and the concentration is favorable to produce the thick film. Prolonging rinsing time is good for preparing smooth film. The film can be constructed below pH 4.5 while the prepared film will not completely dissolve until pH value elevates to 7.0. Molecular weight has a subtle effect on the PEOX/PAA film growth. The PEOX-PAA pair that has a big molecular weight contrast shows fast film growth in the linear region. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Aromatic Modification of Low Molecular Weight PEI for Enhanced Gene Delivery
Polymers 2017, 9(8), 362; doi:10.3390/polym9080362 -
Abstract
Low molecular weight polyethylenimine (1800 Da, also referred to as oligoethylenimines, OEI) was modified with amino acids, including two aromatic amino acids (tryptophan, phenylalanine) and an aliphatic amino acid (leucine). The substitution degree of amino acids could be controlled by adjusting the feeding
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Low molecular weight polyethylenimine (1800 Da, also referred to as oligoethylenimines, OEI) was modified with amino acids, including two aromatic amino acids (tryptophan, phenylalanine) and an aliphatic amino acid (leucine). The substitution degree of amino acids could be controlled by adjusting the feeding mole ratio of the reactants. Fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism experiments demonstrated that the indole ring of tryptophan may intercalate into the DNA base pairs and contribute to efficient DNA condensation. In vitro gene expression results revealed that the modified OEIs (OEI-AAs) may provide higher transfection efficiency even than high molecular weight polyethylenimine (25 kDa, PEI), especially the aromatic tryptophan substituted OEI. Moreover, OEI-AAs exhibited excellent serum tolerance, and up to 137 times higher transfection efficiency than PEI 25 kDa that was obtained in the presence of serum. The cytotoxicity of OEI-AAs is much lower than PEI 25 kDa. This study may afford a new method for the development of low molecular weight oligomeric non-viral gene vectors with both high efficiency and biocompatibility. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Application of Novel Magnetic Ion-Imprinted Polymers for Selective Solid Phase Extraction of Cadmium (II)
Polymers 2017, 9(8), 360; doi:10.3390/polym9080360 -
Abstract
Ion-imprinted polymers (IIPs) have received much attention in the fields of separation and purification. Nevertheless, selectivity of IIPs for trace target ions in complicated matrix remains a challenge. In this work, a cadmium magnetic ion-imprinted polymer (MIIP) was synthesized via surface imprinting, using
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Ion-imprinted polymers (IIPs) have received much attention in the fields of separation and purification. Nevertheless, selectivity of IIPs for trace target ions in complicated matrix remains a challenge. In this work, a cadmium magnetic ion-imprinted polymer (MIIP) was synthesized via surface imprinting, using methacrylic acid and acrylamide as dual functional monomers, vinyltrimethoxysilane as ligand, Fe3O4@SiO2 as support, azodiisobutyronitrile as initiator, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinker. The MIIP was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and a vibrating sample magnetometer. The maximum adsorption capacities of the MIIP and magnetic non-imprinted polymer for Cd(II) were 46.8 and 14.7 mg·g−1, respectively. The selectivity factors of Pb(II), Cu(II), and Ni(II) were 3.17, 2.97, and 2.57, respectively, which were greater than 1. The adsorption behavior of Cd(II) followed the Freundlich isotherm and a pseudo second order model. The MIIP was successfully used for the selective extraction and determination of trace Cd(II) in representative rice samples. The limit of detection and recovery of the method was 0.05 µg·L−1 and 80–103%, respectively, with a relative standard deviation less than 4.8%. This study shows that MIIP provides an attractive strategy for heavy metal detection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Surface Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Film with Poly(p-aminothiophenol) Outer Layer Coated on Gold Nanoparticles Inner Layer for Highly Sensitive and Selective Sensing Paraoxon
Polymers 2017, 9(8), 359; doi:10.3390/polym9080359 -
Abstract
This paper presents the fabrication of a molecularly imprinted, polymer-based disposable electrochemical sensor for paraoxon (PO) determination. The sensor was based on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified with a surface molecularly imprinted poly (p-aminothiophenol) (PATP)/gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) composite film, which
[...] Read more.
This paper presents the fabrication of a molecularly imprinted, polymer-based disposable electrochemical sensor for paraoxon (PO) determination. The sensor was based on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified with a surface molecularly imprinted poly (p-aminothiophenol) (PATP)/gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) composite film, which consisted of a PATP outer layer and an AuNPs inner layer. We report a novel strategy, combining surface molecularly imprinting and self-assembly directed electro-polymerization with high densely imprinting PO molecules in the PATP/AuNPs film. Firstly, AuNPs were in situ electrodeposited at the electrode surface, and then assembled with electropolmerizable functional monomer p-aminothiophenol (ATP). Subsequently, PO molecules were assembled onto the ATP monolayer-modified AuNPs, forming a basis of surface molecular imprinting. After that, replenished PO molecules were embedded in the PATP/AuNPs film by PO and the ATP molecular self-assembly directed electro-polymerization in the polymerization precursor mixture. The resulting imprinted PATP/AuNPs/SPCE possesses high sensitivity, affinity, and selectivity toward PO, with a low detection limit of 1 × 10−9 M. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for the determination of PO in fruit and vegetables, giving satisfactory recoveries. The strategy reported herein can be further expected to fabricate various molecular imprinted sensors for the determination of other pesticide residuals. Full article
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