Polymers2016, 8(7), 250; doi:10.3390/polym8070250 (registering DOI) - published 1 July 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This study evaluated the physical and mechanical properties of resin matrices in dental adhesives with two photoinitiator systems. Resin matrix specimens were made with five different kinds of photoinitiators. Neat resin consisted of 60% 2,2-bis[4-2(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA) and 40% hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) by weight, along with camphorquinone (CQ, 1 mol %) and additional components (1 mol % each) as follows: Group 1, 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA); Group 2, ethyl-4-(dimethylamino) benzoate (EDMAB); Group 3, diphenyliodonium hexafluorphosphate (DPIHFP); Group 4, DMAEMA+DPIHFP; Group 5, EDMAB+DPIHFP. The degree of conversion (DC), flexural strength, flexural modulus, microhardness, and ultimate tensile strength were tested. The contribution of each photoinitiator to the DC in a selected group was analyzed with contour plots. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p < 0.05) were used for statistical analyses. The DC of Groups 2, 4, and 5 was similar. The flexural strength was similar in all groups, but flexural modulus was significantly different. Group 3 had the lowest values for all physical and mechanical properties. Among all methods, the microhardness test revealed the greatest degree of difference among the five specimens. CQ, EDMAB, and DPIHFP were the most effective photoinitiators and CQ was the most influential factor for the DC rate.
Polymers2016, 8(7), 239; doi:10.3390/polym8070239 (registering DOI) - published 1 July 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Influence of topographical features on mechanical properties of 0.1 wt % Multi-Layer Graphene (MLG)/clay-epoxy nanocomposites has been studied. Three different compositions were made: (1) 0.1 wt % MLG-EP; (2) 0.1 wt % clay-EP and (3) 0.05 wt % MLG-0.05 wt % clay-EP. The objective of making hybrid nanocomposites was to determine whether synergistic effects are prominent at low weight fraction of 0.1 wt % causing an improvement in mechanical properties. The topographical features studied include waviness (Wa), roughness average (Ra), root mean square value (Rq) and maximum roughness height (Rmax or Rz). The Rz of as-cast 0.1 wt % MLG-EP, clay-EP and 0.05 wt % MLG-0.05 wt % clay-EP nanocomposites were 43.52, 48.43 and 41.8 µm respectively. A decrease in Rz values was observed by treating the samples with velvet cloth and abrasive paper 1200P while increased by treating with abrasive papers 320P and 60P. A weight loss of up to 16% was observed in samples after the treatment with the abrasive papers. It was observed that MLG is more effective in improving the mechanical properties of epoxy than nanoclay. In addition, no significant improvement in mechanical properties was observed in hybrid nanocomposites indicating that 0.1 wt % is not sufficient to generate conspicuous synergistic effects.
Abstract: With the rising tide of antibiotic resistant bacteria, extending the longevity of the current antibiotic arsenal is becoming a necessity. Developing local, controlled release antibiotic strategies, particularly for difficult to penetrate tissues such as bone, may prove to be a better alternative. Previous efforts to develop an osteoconductive local antibiotic release device for bone were created as solid molded composites; however, intimate contact with host bone was found to be critical to support host bone regrowth; thus, an osteocondconductive antibiotic releasing bone void filling putty was developed. Furthermore, a controlled releasing polymer matrix was refined using pendant-functionalized diols to provide tailorable pharmacokinetics. In vitro pharmacokinetic and bioactivity profiles were compared for a putty formulation with an analogous composition as its molded counterpart as well as four new pendant-functionalized polymers. A best-fit analysis of polymer composition in either small cylindrical disks or larger spheres revealed that the new pendant-functionalized polymers appear to release vancomycin via both diffusion and erosion regardless of the geometry of the putty. In silico simulations, a valuable technique for diffusion mediated controlled release models, will be used to confirm and optimize this property.
Abstract: In recent years, conducting polymer (CP) nanomaterials have been used in a variety of fields, such as in energy, environmental, and biomedical applications, owing to their outstanding chemical and physical properties compared to conventional metal materials. In particular, nanobiosensors based on CP nanomaterials exhibit excellent performance sensing target molecules. The performance of CP nanobiosensors varies based on their size, shape, conductivity, and morphology, among other characteristics. Therefore, in this review, we provide an overview of the techniques commonly used to fabricate novel CP nanomaterials and their biosensor applications, including aptasensors, field-effect transistor (FET) biosensors, human sense mimicking biosensors, and immunoassays. We also discuss prospects for state-of-the-art nanobiosensors using CP nanomaterials by focusing on strategies to overcome the current limitations.
Abstract: The properties of a composite material depend on its constituent materials such as natural biopolymers or synthetic biodegradable polymers and inorganic or organic nanomaterials or nano-scale minerals. The significance of bio-based and synthetic polymers and their drawbacks on coating film application is currently being discussed in research papers and articles. Properties and applications vary for each novel synthetic bio-based material, and a number of such materials have been fabricated in recent years. This review provides an in-depth discussion on the properties and applications of biopolymer-based nanocomposite coating films. Recent works and articles are cited in this paper. These citations are ubiquitous in the development of novel bionanocomposites and their applications.
Abstract: Helical polymer bundles are an important fixture in biomolecular systems. The particular structural geometry of helix bundles is dependent on many factors including the length of the polymer chain. In this study, we performed Monte Carlo simulations of a coarse-grained model for helical polymers to determine the influence of polymer length on tertiary structure formation. Helical structures of semiflexible polymers are analyzed for several chain lengths under thermal conditions. Structural hyperphase diagrams, parametrized by torsion strength and temperature, are constructed and compared.