Abstract: Monolithically integrated, active photonic devices on Si are key components in Si-based large-scale electronic-photonic integration for future generations of high-performance, low-power computation and communication systems. Ge has become an interesting candidate for active photonic devices in Si photonics due to its pseudo-direct gap behavior and compatibility with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processing. In this paper, we present a review of the recent progress in Ge-on-Si active photonics materials and devices for photon detection, modulation, and generation. We first discuss the band engineering of Ge using tensile strain, n-type doping, Sn alloying, and separate confinement of Γ vs. L electrons in quantum well (QW) structures to transform the material towards a direct band gap semiconductor for enhancing optoelectronic properties. We then give a brief overview of epitaxial Ge-on-Si materials growth, followed by a summary of recent investigations towards low-temperature, direct growth of high crystallinity Ge and GeSn alloys on dielectric layers for 3D photonic integration. Finally, we review the most recent studies on waveguide-integrated Ge-on-Si photodetectors (PDs), electroabsorption modulators (EAMs), and laser diodes (LDs), and suggest possible future research directions for large-scale monolithic electronic-photonic integrated circuits on a Si platform.
Abstract: We demonstrate polarization-independent simultaneous all-optical phase-preserving amplitude regeneration and wavelength conversion of NRZ differential phase shift keying (DPSK) data by four-wave mixing (FWM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The dependence upon polarization state of the signals is eliminated by using a co-polarized dual-pump architecture. Investigation on the regenerative capability vs. pumps detuning shows significant BER threshold margin improvement over 6 nm conversion range.
Abstract: In this paper an all-optical system exploitable as the core structure for a photonic-based RF transceiver is presented. The proposed scheme is able to simultaneously perform either up- or down-conversion of multiple frequency Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) RF signals, employing a single Mode-Locking Laser (MLL). The system has been experimentally demonstrated and tested by up- and down-converting orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals over a bandwidth of about 4 GHz. The scheme’s performance has been validated by measuring the error vector magnitude (EVM) of the OFDM signals over the whole considered RF spectrum (from 5 GHz to 26.5 GHz), both in up-conversion and in down-conversion. The measurements show negligible power penalties, lower than 0.5 dB. Since the proposed scheme can act either as an up- or down-converter, and it is composed by easily integratable devices, two identical structures can be combined on a single integrated platform, sharing a single MLL, to build a compact and efficient UWB transceiver.
Abstract: The use of architectures that implement optical switching without any need of optoelectronic conversion allows us to overcome the limits imposed by today’s electronic backplane, such as power consumption and dissipation, as well as power supply and footprint requirements. We propose a ring-resonator based optical backplane for router line-card interconnection. In particular we investigate how the scalability of the architecture is affected by the following parameters: number of line cards, switching-element round-trip losses, frequency drifting due to thermal variations, and waveguide-crossing effects. Moreover, to quantify the signal distortions introduced by filtering operations, the bit error rate for the different parameter conditions are shown in case of an on-off keying non-return-to-zero (OOK-NRZ) input signal at 10 Gb/s.
Abstract: We review work on self-homodyne detection (SHD) for optical communication systems. SHD uses a transmitted pilot-tone (PT), originating from the transmitter laser, to exploit phase noise cancellation at a coherent receiver and to enable transmitter linewidth tolerance and potential energy savings. We give an overview of SHD performance, outlining the key contributors to the optical signal-to-noise ratio penalty compared to equivalent intradyne systems, and summarize the advantages, differences and similarities between schemes using polarization-division multiplexed PTs (PDM-SHD) and those using space-division multiplexed PTs (SDM-SHD). For PDM-SHD, we review the extensive work on the transmission of advanced modulation formats and techniques to minimize the trade-off with spectral efficiency, as well as recent work on digital SHD, where the SHD receiver is combined with an polarization-diversity ID front-end receiver to provide both polarization and modulation format alignment. We then focus on SDM-SHD systems, describing experimental results using multi-core fibers (MCFs) with up to 19 cores, including high capacity transmission with broad-linewidth lasers and experiments incorporating SDM-SHD in networking. Additionally, we discuss the requirement for polarization tracking of the PTs at the receiver and path length alignment and review some variants of SHD before outlining the future challenges of self-homodyne optical transmission and gaps in current knowledge.
Abstract: In vivo fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) has been a popular functional imaging modality in research labs in the past two decades. One of the major difficulties of FMT lies in the ill-posed and ill-conditioned nature of the inverse problem in reconstructing the distribution of fluorophores inside objects. The popular regularization methods based on L2, L1 and total variation (TV ) norms have been applied in FMT reconstructions. The non-convex Lq(0 < q < 1) semi-norm and Log function have also been studied recently. In this paper, we adopt a uniform optimization transfer framework for these regularization methods in FMT and compare their individual, as well as the combined effects on both small, localized targets, such as tumors in the early stage, and large targets, such as liver. Numerical simulation studies and phantom experiments have been carried out, and we found that Lq with q near 1/2 performs the best in reconstructing small targets, while joint L2 and Log performs the best for large targets.