Open AccessArticle
Mapping Molecular Function to Biological Nanostructure: Combining Structured Illumination Microscopy with Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (SIM + FLIM)
Photonics 2017, 4(3), 40; doi:10.3390/photonics4030040 -
Abstract
We present a new microscope integrating super-resolved imaging using structured illumination microscopy (SIM) with wide-field optically sectioned fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) to provide optical mapping of molecular function and its correlation with biological nanostructure below the conventional diffraction limit. We illustrate this SIM
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We present a new microscope integrating super-resolved imaging using structured illumination microscopy (SIM) with wide-field optically sectioned fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) to provide optical mapping of molecular function and its correlation with biological nanostructure below the conventional diffraction limit. We illustrate this SIM + FLIM capability to map FRET readouts applied to the aggregation of discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) in Cos 7 cells following ligand stimulation and to the compaction of DNA during the cell cycle. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Potential of Airyscan Microscopy for Live Cell Imaging
Photonics 2017, 4(3), 41; doi:10.3390/photonics4030041 -
Abstract
Biological research increasingly demands the use of non-invasive and ultra-sensitive imaging techniques. The Airyscan technology was recently developed to bridge the gap between conventional confocal and super-resolution microscopy. This technique combines confocal imaging with a 0.2 Airy Unit pinhole, deconvolution and the pixel-reassignment
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Biological research increasingly demands the use of non-invasive and ultra-sensitive imaging techniques. The Airyscan technology was recently developed to bridge the gap between conventional confocal and super-resolution microscopy. This technique combines confocal imaging with a 0.2 Airy Unit pinhole, deconvolution and the pixel-reassignment principle in order to enhance both the spatial resolution and signal-to-noise-ratio without increasing the excitation power and acquisition time. Here, we present a detailed study evaluating the performance of Airyscan as compared to confocal microscopy by imaging a variety of reference samples and biological specimens with different acquisition and processing parameters. We found that the processed Airyscan images at default deconvolution settings have a spatial resolution similar to that of conventional confocal imaging with a pinhole setting of 0.2 Airy Units, but with a significantly improved signal-to-noise-ratio. Further gains in the spatial resolution could be achieved by the use of enhanced deconvolution filter settings, but at a steady loss in the signal-to-noise ratio, which at more extreme settings resulted in significant data loss and image distortion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Phase Mask-Based Multimodal Superresolution Microscopy
Photonics 2017, 4(3), 39; doi:10.3390/photonics4030039 -
Abstract
We demonstrate a multimodal superresolution microscopy technique based on a phase masked excitation beam in combination with spatially filtered detection. The theoretical foundation for calculating the focus from a non-paraxial beam with an arbitrary azimuthally symmetric phase mask is presented for linear and
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We demonstrate a multimodal superresolution microscopy technique based on a phase masked excitation beam in combination with spatially filtered detection. The theoretical foundation for calculating the focus from a non-paraxial beam with an arbitrary azimuthally symmetric phase mask is presented for linear and two-photon excitation processes as well as the theoretical resolution limitations. Experimentally this technique is demonstrated using two-photon luminescence from 80 nm gold particle as well as two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging of fluorescent polystyrene beads. Finally to illustrate the versatility of this technique we acquire two-photon fluorescence lifetime, two-photon luminescence, and second harmonic images of a mixture of fluorescent molecules and 80 nm gold particles with <120 nm resolution (λ/7). Since this approach exclusively relies on engineering the excitation and collection volumes, it is suitable for a wide range of scanning-based microscopies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analytical Model of the Optical Vortex Scanning Microscope with a Simple Phase Object
Photonics 2017, 4(2), 38; doi:10.3390/photonics4020038 -
Abstract
An analytical model of an optical vortex microscope, in which a simple phase object was inserted into the illuminating beam, is presented. In this microscope, the focused vortex beam interacts with an object and transmits the corresponding information to the detection plane. It
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An analytical model of an optical vortex microscope, in which a simple phase object was inserted into the illuminating beam, is presented. In this microscope, the focused vortex beam interacts with an object and transmits the corresponding information to the detection plane. It was shown that the beam at the detection plane can be separated analytically into two parts: a non-disturbed vortex part and an object beam part. The intensity of the non-disturbed part spreads out over the center; hence, the small disturbance introduced by the object can be detected at the image center. A first procedure for recovering information about the object from this set-up was proposed. The theory was verified experimentally. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Blind Phase Search with Angular Quantization Noise Mitigation for Efficient Carrier Phase Recovery
Photonics 2017, 4(2), 37; doi:10.3390/photonics4020037 -
Abstract
The inherent discrete phase search nature of the conventional blind phase search (C-BPS) algorithm is found to introduce angular quantization noise in its phase noise estimator. The angular quantization noise found in the C-BPS is shown to limit its achievable performance and its
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The inherent discrete phase search nature of the conventional blind phase search (C-BPS) algorithm is found to introduce angular quantization noise in its phase noise estimator. The angular quantization noise found in the C-BPS is shown to limit its achievable performance and its potential low complexity implementation. A novel filtered BPS algorithm (F-BPS) is proposed and demonstrated to mitigate this quantization noise by performing a low pass filter operation on the C-BPS phase noise estimator. The improved performance of the proposed F-BPS algorithm makes it possible to significantly reduce the number of necessary test phases to achieve the C-BPS performance, thereby allowing for a drastic reduction of its practical implementation complexity. The proposed F-BPS scheme performance is evaluated on a 28-Gbaud 16QAM and 64QAM both in simulations and experimentally. Results confirm a substantial improvement of the performance along with a significant reduction of its potential implementation complexity compared to that of the C-BPS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Label-Free Saturated Structured Excitation Microscopy
Photonics 2017, 4(2), 36; doi:10.3390/photonics4020036 -
Abstract
Micro- and nanoscale chemical and structural heterogeneities, whether they are intrinsic material properties like grain boundaries or intentionally encoded via nanoscale fabrication techniques, pose a challenge to current material characterization methods. To precisely interrogate the electronic structure of these complex materials systems, spectroscopic
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Micro- and nanoscale chemical and structural heterogeneities, whether they are intrinsic material properties like grain boundaries or intentionally encoded via nanoscale fabrication techniques, pose a challenge to current material characterization methods. To precisely interrogate the electronic structure of these complex materials systems, spectroscopic techniques with high spatial resolution are required. However, conventional optical microscopies are limited to probe volumes of ~200 nm due to the diffraction limit of visible light. While a variety of sub-diffraction-limited techniques have been developed, many rely on fluorescent contrast agents. Herein we describe label-free saturated structured excitation microscopy (LF-SSEM) applicable to nonlinear imaging approaches such as stimulated Raman and pump-probe microscopy. By exploiting the nonlinear sample response of saturated excitation, LF-SSEM provides theoretically limitless resolution enhancement without the need for a photoluminescent sample. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evanescently Coupled Rectangular Microresonators in Silicon-on-Insulator with High Q-Values: Experimental Characterization
Photonics 2017, 4(2), 34; doi:10.3390/photonics4020034 -
Abstract
We report on evanescently coupled rectangular microresonators with dimensions up to 20 × 10 μm2 in silicon-on-insulator in an add-drop filter configuration. The influence of the geometrical parameters of the device was experimentally characterized and a high Q value of 13,000 was
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We report on evanescently coupled rectangular microresonators with dimensions up to 20 × 10 μm2 in silicon-on-insulator in an add-drop filter configuration. The influence of the geometrical parameters of the device was experimentally characterized and a high Q value of 13,000 was demonstrated as well as the multimode optical resonance characteristics in the drop port. We also show a 95% energy transfer between ports when the device is operated in TM-polarization and determine the full symmetry of the device by using an eight-port configuration, allowing the drop waveguide to be placed on any of its sides, providing a way to filter and route optical signals. We used the FDTD method to analyze the device and e-beam lithography and dry etching techniques for fabrication. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Coupling of Surface Plasmon Polariton in Al-Doped ZnO with Fabry-Pérot Resonance for Total Light Absorption
Photonics 2017, 4(2), 35; doi:10.3390/photonics4020035 -
Abstract
Al-doped ZnO (AZO) can be used as an electrically tunable plasmonic material in the near infrared range. This paper presents finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations on total light absorption (TLA) resulting from the coupling of a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) with Fabry-Pérot (F-P) resonance
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Al-doped ZnO (AZO) can be used as an electrically tunable plasmonic material in the near infrared range. This paper presents finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations on total light absorption (TLA) resulting from the coupling of a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) with Fabry-Pérot (F-P) resonance in a three-layer structure consisting of an AZO square lattice hole array, a spacer, and a layer of silver. Firstly, we identified that the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) that will couple to the F-P resonance because of an SPP standing wave in the (1,0) direction of the square lattice. Two types of coupling between SPP and F-P resonance are observed in the simulations. In order to achieve TLA, an increase in the refractive index of the spacer material leads to a decrease in the thickness of the spacer. Additionally, it is shown that the replacement of silver by other, more cost-effective metals has no significance influence on the TLA condition. It is observed in the simulations that post-fabrication tunability of the TLA wavelength is possible via the electrical tunability of the AZO. Finally, electric field intensity distributions at specific wavelengths are computed to further prove the coupling of SPP with F-P resonance. This work will contribute to the design principle for future device fabrication for TLA applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
XL-SIM: Extending Superresolution into Deeper Layers
Photonics 2017, 4(2), 33; doi:10.3390/photonics4020033 -
Abstract
Of all 3D-super resolution techniques, structured illumination microscopy (SIM) provides the best compromise with respect to resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), speed and cell viability. Its ability to achieve double resolution in all three dimensions enables resolving 3D-volumes almost 10× smaller than with a
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Of all 3D-super resolution techniques, structured illumination microscopy (SIM) provides the best compromise with respect to resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), speed and cell viability. Its ability to achieve double resolution in all three dimensions enables resolving 3D-volumes almost 10× smaller than with a normal light microscope. Its major drawback is noise contained in the out-of-focus-signal, which—unlike the out-of-focus signal itself—cannot be removed mathematically. The resulting “noise-pollution” grows bigger the more light is removed, thus rendering thicker biological samples unsuitable for SIM. By using a slit confocal pattern, we employ optical means to suppress out-of-focus light before its noise can spoil SIM mathematics. This not only increases tissue penetration considerably, but also provides a better S/N performance and an improved confocality. The SIM pattern we employ is no line grid, but a two-dimensional hexagonal structure, which makes pattern rotation between image acquisitions obsolete and thus simplifies image acquisition and yields more robust fit parameters for SIM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Photothermal Microscopy for High Sensitivity and High Resolution Absorption Contrast Imaging of Biological Tissues
Photonics 2017, 4(2), 32; doi:10.3390/photonics4020032 -
Abstract
Photothermal microscopy is useful to visualize the distribution of non-fluorescence chromoproteins in biological specimens. Here, we developed a high sensitivity and high resolution photothermal microscopy with low-cost and compact laser diodes as light sources. A new detection scheme for improving signal to noise
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Photothermal microscopy is useful to visualize the distribution of non-fluorescence chromoproteins in biological specimens. Here, we developed a high sensitivity and high resolution photothermal microscopy with low-cost and compact laser diodes as light sources. A new detection scheme for improving signal to noise ratio more than 4-fold is presented. It is demonstrated that spatial resolution in photothermal microscopy is up to nearly twice as high as that in the conventional widefield microscopy. Furthermore, we demonstrated the ability for distinguishing or identifying biological molecules with simultaneous muti-wavelength imaging. Simultaneous photothermal and fluorescence imaging of mouse brain tissue was conducted to visualize both neurons expressing yellow fluorescent protein and endogenous non-fluorescent chromophores. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High Harmonics with Controllable Polarization by a Burst of Linearly-Polarized Driver Pulses
Photonics 2017, 4(2), 31; doi:10.3390/photonics4020031 -
Abstract
We theoretically explore a scheme for generation of bright circularly and elliptically polarized high-order harmonics by bursts of linearly polarized pulses with a rotating polarization axis. Circularly polarized harmonics are formed if the bursts are comprised of N pulses that uphold an N
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We theoretically explore a scheme for generation of bright circularly and elliptically polarized high-order harmonics by bursts of linearly polarized pulses with a rotating polarization axis. Circularly polarized harmonics are formed if the bursts are comprised of N pulses that uphold an N-fold rotational symmetry, for N > 2. Rotating the polarization axes of the comprising pulses can generate elliptical harmonics with a collectively tunable ellipticity, from circular through elliptic to linear. The method preserves the single-cycle, single-atom and macroscopic physics of ‘standard’ linearly polarized high harmonic generation, with a high yield and cutoff energy. We investigate the method from a time-domain perspective, as well as a photonic perspective, and formulate the energy and spin-angular momentum conservation laws for this scheme. We find that the case of N = 4 is optimal for this method, resulting with the highest conversion efficiency of elliptical photons. The new features of this source offer new applications to helical ultrafast spectroscopy and ellipsometry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Polarization Characterization of Soft X-Ray Radiation at FERMI FEL-2
Photonics 2017, 4(2), 29; doi:10.3390/photonics4020029 -
Abstract
The control of polarization state in soft and hard X-ray light is of crucial interest to probe structural and symmetry properties of matter. Thanks to their Apple-II type undulators, the FERMI-Free Electron Lasers are able to provide elliptical, circular or linearly polarized light
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The control of polarization state in soft and hard X-ray light is of crucial interest to probe structural and symmetry properties of matter. Thanks to their Apple-II type undulators, the FERMI-Free Electron Lasers are able to provide elliptical, circular or linearly polarized light within the extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray range. In this paper, we report the characterization of the polarization state of FERMI FEL-2 down to 5 nm. The results show a high degree of polarization of the FEL pulses, typically above 95%. The campaign of measurements was performed at the Low Density Matter beamline using an electron Time-Of-Flight based polarimeter. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High-Resolution Arrayed-Waveguide-Gratings in Astronomy: Design and Fabrication Challenges
Photonics 2017, 4(2), 30; doi:10.3390/photonics4020030 -
Abstract
A comprehensive design of a folded-architecture arrayed-waveguide-grating (AWG)-device, targeted at applications as integrated photonic spectrographs (IPS) in near-infrared astronomy, is presented. The AWG structure is designed for the astronomical H-band (1500 nm–1800 nm) with a theoretical maximum resolving power R = 60,000 at
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A comprehensive design of a folded-architecture arrayed-waveguide-grating (AWG)-device, targeted at applications as integrated photonic spectrographs (IPS) in near-infrared astronomy, is presented. The AWG structure is designed for the astronomical H-band (1500 nm–1800 nm) with a theoretical maximum resolving power R = 60,000 at 1630 nm. The geometry of the device is optimized for a compact structure with a footprint of 5.5 cm × 3.93 cm on SiO2 platform. To evaluate the fabrication challenges of such high-resolution AWGs, effects of random perturbations of the effective refractive index (RI) distribution in the free propagation region (FPR), as well as small variations of the array waveguide optical lengths are numerically investigated. The results of the investigation show a dramatic degradation of the point spread function (PSF) for a random effective RI distribution with variance values above 10-4 for both the FPR and the waveguide array. Based on the results, requirements on the fabrication technology for high-resolution AWG-based spectrographs are given in the end. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ultra-High-Capacity Optical Packet Switching Networks with Coherent Polarization Division Multiplexing QPSK/16QAM Modulation Formats
Photonics 2017, 4(2), 27; doi:10.3390/photonics4020027 -
Abstract
Optical packet switching (OPS) networks and its subsystems, like the burst-mode receiver, are an essential technology currently used in passive optical networks (PONs). Moreover, OPS may play a fundamental role on future hybrid optical circuit switching (OCS)/OPS networks and datacenter networks. This paper
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Optical packet switching (OPS) networks and its subsystems, like the burst-mode receiver, are an essential technology currently used in passive optical networks (PONs). Moreover, OPS may play a fundamental role on future hybrid optical circuit switching (OCS)/OPS networks and datacenter networks. This paper focuses on two fundamental subsystems of packetized optical networks: the digital coherent burst-mode receiver and the electro-optical switch. We describe and experimentally characterize a novel digital coherent burst-mode receiver that makes uses of the Stokes parametrization to rapidly estimate the state of polarization (SOP) and optimize the equalizer convergence time. This burst-mode receiver is suitable for optical packetized networks that make use of advanced modulation formats such as quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). We study the suitability of (Pb,La)(Zr,La)O3 (PLZT) optical switches for amplitude-variable coherent polarization division multiplexing (PDM) 16QAM modulation format and demonstrate a switching capacity of 10.24 Tb/s/port. We demonstrate a full 2 × 2 OPS node with a control plane capable of solving packet contention by means of packet dropping or buffering with a switching capacity of 10.24 Tb/s/port. Finally, we demonstrate the operation of the 2 × 2 OPS node with a record capacity of 12.8 Tb/s/port plus 100 km of dispersion-compensated fiber transmission. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Generation and Applications of Extreme-Ultraviolet Vortices
Photonics 2017, 4(2), 28; doi:10.3390/photonics4020028 -
Abstract
Vortex light beams are structures of the electromagnetic field with a spiral phase ramp around a point-phase singularity. These vortices have many applications in the optical regime, ranging from optical trapping and quantum information to spectroscopy and microscopy. The extension of vortices into
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Vortex light beams are structures of the electromagnetic field with a spiral phase ramp around a point-phase singularity. These vortices have many applications in the optical regime, ranging from optical trapping and quantum information to spectroscopy and microscopy. The extension of vortices into the extreme-ultraviolet (XUV)/X-ray regime constitutes a significant step forward to bring those applications to the nanometer or even atomic scale. The recent development of a new generation of X-ray sources, and the refinement of other techniques, such as harmonic generation, have boosted the interest of producing vortex beams at short wavelengths. In this manuscript, we review the recent studies in the subject, and we collect the major prospects of this emerging field. We also focus on the unique and promising applications of ultrashort XUV/X-ray vortex pulses. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Generation of Attosecond Light Pulses from Gas and Solid State Media
Photonics 2017, 4(2), 26; doi:10.3390/photonics4020026 -
Abstract
Real-time observation of ultrafast dynamics in the microcosm is a fundamental approach for understanding the internal evolution of physical, chemical and biological systems. Tools for tracing such dynamics are flashes of light with duration comparable to or shorter than the characteristic evolution times
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Real-time observation of ultrafast dynamics in the microcosm is a fundamental approach for understanding the internal evolution of physical, chemical and biological systems. Tools for tracing such dynamics are flashes of light with duration comparable to or shorter than the characteristic evolution times of the system under investigation. While femtosecond (fs) pulses are successfully used to investigate vibrational dynamics in molecular systems, real time observation of electron motion in all states of matter requires temporal resolution in the attosecond (1 attosecond (asec) = 10−18 s) time scale. During the last decades, continuous efforts in ultra-short pulse engineering led to the development of table-top sources which can produce asec pulses. These pulses have been synthesized by using broadband coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectral region generated by the interaction of matter with intense fs pulses. Here, we will review asec pulses generated by the interaction of gas phase media and solid surfaces with intense fs IR laser fields. After a brief overview of the fundamental process underlying the XUV emission form these media, we will review the current technology, specifications and the ongoing developments of such asec sources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization and Characterization of High-Harmonic Generation for Probing Solid Density Plasmas
Photonics 2017, 4(2), 25; doi:10.3390/photonics4020025 -
Abstract
The creation of high energy density plasma states produced during laser–solid interaction on a sub-picosecond timescale opens a way to create astrophysical plasmas in the lab to investigate their properties, such as the frequency-dependent refractive index. Available probes to measure absorption and phase-changes
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The creation of high energy density plasma states produced during laser–solid interaction on a sub-picosecond timescale opens a way to create astrophysical plasmas in the lab to investigate their properties, such as the frequency-dependent refractive index. Available probes to measure absorption and phase-changes given by the complex refractive index of the plasma state are extreme-UV (EUV) and soft X-ray (XUV) ultra-short pulses from high harmonic generation (HHG). For demanding imaging applications such as single-shot measurements of solid density plasmas, the HHG probe has to be optimized in photon number and characterized in intensity and wavefront stability from shot-to-shot. In an experiment, a coherent EUV source based on HHG driven by a compact diode-pumped laser is optimized in photons per pulse for argon and xenon, and the shot-to-shot intensity stability and wavefront changes are characterized. The experimental results are compared to an analytical model estimating the HHG yield, showing good agreement. The obtained values are compared to available data for solid density plasmas to confirm the feasibility of HHG as a probe. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Study of the Effect of Nematic Order Degradation in Liquid Crystal-Based Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors
Photonics 2017, 4(2), 24; doi:10.3390/photonics4020024 -
Abstract
This paper presents a new analysis of optical sensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomenon and nematic liquid crystal (LC) sensitive layer in the partially ordered state. In particular, the paper studies the influence of degradation in the LC ordering state on
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This paper presents a new analysis of optical sensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomenon and nematic liquid crystal (LC) sensitive layer in the partially ordered state. In particular, the paper studies the influence of degradation in the LC ordering state on the behavior of the plasmon resonance parameters. The degradation in the LC ordering is represented by the order parameter. The explicit treatment of the order parameter is critical when trying to differentiate between a change in alignment and a degradation of alignment in LC in response to the presence of an external stimulus in LC based sensors. When a reduction in ordering occurs, ignoring the order parameter can produce misleading results. This sensor has potential applications in chemical and biological systems. The paper presents a tracking method for the state of alignment and degree of ordering of the partially ordered LC film. This can be achieved via the SPR propagation constant and the critical angle at the interface between a metal and an LC film. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Transient EUV Reflectivity Measurements of Carbon upon Ultrafast Laser Heating
Photonics 2017, 4(2), 23; doi:10.3390/photonics4020023 -
Abstract
Time resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) transient reflectivity measurements on non-equilibrium amorphous carbon (a-C) have been carried out by combining optical and free electron laser (FEL) sources. The EUV probing was specifically sensitive to lattice dynamics, since the EUV reflectivity is essentially unaffected by
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Time resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) transient reflectivity measurements on non-equilibrium amorphous carbon (a-C) have been carried out by combining optical and free electron laser (FEL) sources. The EUV probing was specifically sensitive to lattice dynamics, since the EUV reflectivity is essentially unaffected by the photo-excited surface plasma. Data have been interpreted in terms of the dynamics of an expanding surface, i.e., a density gradient rapidly forming along the normal surface. This allowed us to determine the characteristic time (τ 1 ps) for hydrodynamic expansion in photo-excited a-C. This finding suggests an extremely narrow time window during which the system can be assumed to be in the isochoric regime, a situation that may complicate the study of photo-induced metastable phases of carbon. Data also showed a weak dependence on the probing EUV wavelength, which was used to estimate the electronic temperature (Te 0.8 eV) of the excited sample. This experimental finding compares fairly well with the results of calculations, while a comparison of our data and calculations with previous transient optical reflectivity measurements highlights the complementarities between optical and EUV probing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Minimizing Blocking Probability in Elastic Optical Networks by Varying the Bandwidth Granularity Based on Optical Path Fragmentation
Photonics 2017, 4(2), 20; doi:10.3390/photonics4020020 -
Abstract
Elastic optical networks (EONs) based on orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) are considered a promising solution for the next optical network’s generation. These networks make it possible to choose an adequate portion of the available spectrum to satisfy the requested capacity. In this paper,
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Elastic optical networks (EONs) based on orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) are considered a promising solution for the next optical network’s generation. These networks make it possible to choose an adequate portion of the available spectrum to satisfy the requested capacity. In this paper, we consider the impact of spectrum fragmentation along the optical single/multipath routing transmission on the efficiency of the EONs. This involves reducing the fragmentation effects by dynamically updating and controlling the minimum bandwidth allocation granularity (ɡ). We adopt linear and nonlinear dynamic mechanisms, which are denoted as LDAɡ and NLDAɡ, respectively, to choose proper bandwidth granularities that are proportional to the optical link/path bandwidth fragmentation status. In order to avoid either splitting the capacity request over many routing paths, which would increase the management complexity, or encouraging single path transmission, the proposed schemes aim to choose a proper bandwidth allocation granularity (ɡ) for a predefined set of suggested values. Simulation results show that varying the bandwidth granularity based on the optical path fragmentation status can offer an improved performance over fixed granularity with respect to the bandwidth blocking probability, the number of path splitting actions, the throughput, and the differential delay constraint issue in terms of: the network bandwidth utilization and multipath distribution. Full article
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