Photonics2016, 3(2), 23; doi:10.3390/photonics3020023 (registering DOI) - published 30 April 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Photostimulable storage phosphors have been used in a wide range of applications including radiation measurements in one- and two-dimensional spaces, called point dosimetry and radiography. In this work, we report that an aluminum nitride (AlN) ceramic plate, which is practically used as a heat sink (SHAPAL®, Tokuyama Corp., Yamaguchi, Japan), shows good optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) properties with sufficiently large signal and capability for imaging applications, and we have characterized the AlN plate for OSL applications. Upon interaction with X-rays, the sample color turns yellowish, due to a radiation-induced photoabsorption band in the UV-blue range below ~500 nm. After irradiating the sample with X-rays, an intense OSL emission can be observed in the UV (360 nm) spectral region during stimulation by red light. Although our measurement setup is not optimized, dose detection was confirmed as low as ~3 mGy to over 20 Gy. Furthermore, we have successfully demonstrated that the SHAPAL® AlN ceramic plate has great potential to be used as an imaging plate in radiography.
Photonics2016, 3(2), 24; doi:10.3390/photonics3020024 (registering DOI) - published 30 April 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We report on the dynamic behavior of dual-wavelength distributed feedback (DFB) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in continuous wave and intermittent continuous wave operation. We investigate inherent etaloning effects based on spectrally resolved light-current-voltage (LIV) characterization and perform time-resolved spectral analysis of thermal chirping during long (>5 µs) current pulses. The theoretical aspects of the observed behavior are discussed using a combination of finite element method simulations and transfer matrix method calculations of dual-section DFB structures. Based on these results, we demonstrate how the internal etaloning can be minimized using anti-reflective (AR) coatings. Finally, the potential and benefits of these devices for high precision trace gas analysis are demonstrated using a laser absorption spectroscopic setup. Thereby, the atmospherically highly relevant compounds CO2 (including its major isotopologues), CO and N2O are simultaneously determined with a precision of 0.16 ppm, 0.22 ppb and 0.26 ppb, respectively, using a 1-s integration time and an optical path-length of 36 m. This creates exciting new opportunities in the development of compact, multi-species trace gas analyzers.
Abstract: Broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs) in combination with off-axis integrated cavity enhanced spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) provide high molecular gas sensitivity and selectivity. We used an EC-QCL in the region of 1150–1300 cm−1 in both broadband scan mode, as well as narrow scanning mode around 1216 cm−1, respectively, for detection of acetone in exhaled breath. This wavelength region is essential for accurate determination of breath acetone due to the relative low spectral influence of other endogenous molecules like water, carbon dioxide or methane. We demonstrated that ethanol has a strong spectroscopic influence on the acetone concentration in exhaled breath, an important detail that has been overlooked so far. An ethanol correction is proposed and validated with the reference measurements from a proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) for the same breath samples from ten persons. With the ethanol correction, both broadband and narrowband molecular spectroscopy represent an attractive way to accurately assess the exhaled breath acetone. The importance of considering spectroscopic ethanol influence is essential, especially for the narrowband scans, (e.g., 1216 cm−1), for which the error in determining the acetone concentrations can rise up to 39% if it is not considered.
Abstract: This paper presents the estimation of bit error ratio (BER) from error vector magnitude (EVM) for M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) formats in optical coherent systems employing carrier phase recovery with differential decoding to compensate for laser phase noise. Simulation results show that the relationship to estimate BER from EVM analysis for data-aided reception can also be applied to nondata-aided reception with a correction factor for different combined linewidth symbol duration product at the target BER of 10. It is demonstrated that the calibrated BER, which would otherwise be underestimated without the correction factor, can reliably monitor the performance of optical coherent systems near the target BER for quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK), 16-QAM, and 64-QAM.
Abstract: This work provides a detailed study on the growth of AlxIn1-xAsySb1-y lattice-matched to InAs by Molecular Beam Epitaxy. In order to find the conditions which lead to high crystal quality deep within the miscibility gap, AlxIn1-xAsySb1-y with x = 0.462 was grown at different growth temperatures as well as As2 and Sb2 beam equivalent pressures. The crystal quality of the grown layers was examined by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. It was found that the incorporation of Sb into Al0.462In0.538AsySb1-y is strongly temperature-dependent and reduced growth temperatures are necessary in order to achieve significant Sb mole fractions in the grown layers. At 480 lattice matching to InAs could not be achieved. At 410 lattice matching was possible and high quality films of Al0.462In0.538AsySb1-y were obtained.
Abstract: The recent demonstration of external cavity quantum cascade lasers with optical feedback, controlled by an acousto-optic modulator, paves the way to ruggedized infrared laser systems with the capability of tuning the emission wavelength on a microsecond scale. Such systems are of great importance for various critical applications requiring ultra-rapid wavelength tuning, including combustion and explosion diagnostics and standoff detection. In this paper, recent research results on these devices are summarized and the advantages of the new configuration are analyzed in the context of practical applications.