Abstract: The 1985 European Economic Community (EEC) directive on the sectoral profession of pharmacy assumed that the comparability of pharmacy education across Europe could provide a basis for the mutual recognition of diplomas. A study by the European Association of Faculties of Pharmacy (EAFP) in 1994 showed, however, that there was large variability in course content. The 2011 PHARMINE study investigated whether such variability had decreased. Information from across the EU countries on the number of contact hours in specific subject areas was compared for the years of 1994 and 2011. Data was obtained from the original 1994 Bourlioux/EAFP study and the 2011 PHARMINE survey. As the latter was based on the 1994 survey, the questions and categories were similar. Results show that there has not been a fall in the variability of course content. Furthermore, EU pharmacy courses have become more “clinical” with an increase in contact hours in the subject area of medicinal sciences.
Abstract: Preventable adverse drug events occur frequently at transitions in care and are a problem for many patients following hospital discharge. Many of these problems can be attributed to poor medication reconciliation. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact that direct pharmacist involvement in the discharge medication reconciliation process had on medication discrepancies, patient outcomes, and satisfaction. A cohort study of 70 patients was designed to assess the impact of pharmacist facilitated discharge medication reconciliation at a 204-bed community hospital in Battle Creek, Michigan, USA. Discharge summaries were analyzed to compare patients who received standard discharge without pharmacist involvement to those having pharmacist involvement. The total number of discrepancies in the group without pharmacist involvement was significantly higher than that of the pharmacist facilitated group.
Abstract: Improvement methodology is based on processes to achieve quality and safety in health care in order to improve patient care, especially in management. The aim of this study was to identify differences regarding the method of estimating pain within palliative care in north-eastern Sweden. The study comprised three different data collections—questions from 22 staff members who worked in palliative care, data from the Swedish Palliative Registry, and patients’ medical records. Data were analyzed using a quantitative approach to measure the proportion of differences and similarities in everyday pain management. The two categories “Documentation of Pain Management” and “Pain Management Activities” were identified and illustrated how repeated pain management measurements contributed to a clearer view of pain management activities. The use of numbers instead of words contributed to a better, clearer, and more unified documentation of pain ratings. Use of validated rating tools regarding patients last week of life increased from 47%–100%. This study may inspire better routines to estimate pain and quantify no pain in palliative care. Evidence-based measurement tools from the patient’s perspective, can improve pain management.
Abstract: New developments in the pharmacy education structure in Pakistan led tothe formation of a separate department grouping high specialized services/subjects. However, inadequate planning has exposed a vacuity, as the educational authorities failed to develop a workforce before creating the specialized department. As a result, this vacuum is on the verge of being impinged by pharmacy professionals specialized in entirely different domains which would be detrimental to the future prospects of the development of pharmacy practice in Pakistan.
Abstract: Background: Peer to peer learning is a well-established learning modality which has been shown to improve learning outcomes, with positive implications for clinical practice. Surgical students from across Ireland were invited to upload learning points daily while paired with their peers in a peer-reviewing process. This study was designed to assess content accuracy and evaluate the benefit of the review process. Method: A reflective content sample was selected from the database representing all gastrointestinal (GI) surgical entries. All questions and answers were double corrected by four examiners, blinded to the “review” status of the entries. Statistical analysis was performed to compare accuracy between “reviewed” and “non-reviewed” entries. Results: There were 15,569 individual entries from 2009–2013, 2977 were GI surgery entries; 678 (23%) were peer reviewed. Marked out of 5, accuracy in the reviewed group was 4.24 and 4.14 in the non-reviewed group. This was not statistically different (p= 0.11). Accuracy did not differ between universities or grade of tutors. Conclusion: The system of student uploaded data is accurate and was not improved further through peer review. This represents an easy, valuable and safe method of capturing surgical oral ward based teaching.
Abstract: Professionalization of pharmacy students requires that they both recognize the dynamic social contract between the public and the profession and demonstrate themselves competent in professional attributes. This pilot aims to demonstrate and assess the attributes of reflective practice and teamwork in a manner that also demonstrates student recognition of the profession’s responsibilities towards addiction to medicines. The assessment of a series of 8 weekly workshops on addiction pharmacy was adapted to include an online reflection, or journal entry, after each workshop. Groups of up to five students also collaboratively prepared a letter, in the format of an online wiki or editable website, to a choice of the Minister for Health, a national newspaper or a popular television chat-show. Groups aimed to influence decision-makers in a manner supportive of society’s management of drug addiction. Online activity, grading and results of a student survey indicate that this novel assessment strategy provides a means by which aspects of the professionalization of pharmacy students might be effectively demonstrated and assessed. The article shares the assessment design, indicates how it may facilitate the demonstration and assessment of professional attributes, highlights the link with elements of the professionalization process and concludes that further investigations are merited.