Open AccessArticle
Exploration of Learning during an International Health Elective Using Photovoice Methodology
Pharmacy 2016, 4(4), 39; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4040039 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Based on surveys and structured interviews, International Health Experiences (IHEs) improve cultural sensitivity, communication, and self-confidence among health professions students. However, open-ended methods to explore student learning during an IHE are not widely utilized. We sought to explore pharmacy student-identified learning during an
[...] Read more.
Based on surveys and structured interviews, International Health Experiences (IHEs) improve cultural sensitivity, communication, and self-confidence among health professions students. However, open-ended methods to explore student learning during an IHE are not widely utilized. We sought to explore pharmacy student-identified learning during an IHE in an open-ended fashion using Photovoice methodology. Pharmacy students on an IHE in Guatemala were given disposable cameras and asked to photograph images that reflected their learning. Through the application of Photovoice methodology students captured, reflected upon, and presented photos to describe the learning they experienced. Themes were drawn from the reflective and focus group data collected. During three IHEs, six students captured seventy-seven photos. Four main learning themes emerged: culture/cultural competence, professional growth, shifting of attitudes, and meaningful/emotional experiences. Pharmacy students documented learning in expected (cultural competence, professional growth) and unexpected (emotional experiences) domains during an IHE. Photovoice may be an effective methodology for the exploration of learning, allowing students to capture their own learning including and beyond what is expected by their instructors. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Medication Safety: Experiential Learning for Pharmacy Students and Staff in a Hospital Setting
Pharmacy 2016, 4(4), 38; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4040038 -
Abstract
Medication Safety has been an established pharmacy specialty in Australian hospitals since the early 2000s and is now one of the ten Australian hospital accreditation standards. Although advances have occurred, medication-related patient harm has not been eradicated. Victorian undergraduate pharmacy programs include some
[...] Read more.
Medication Safety has been an established pharmacy specialty in Australian hospitals since the early 2000s and is now one of the ten Australian hospital accreditation standards. Although advances have occurred, medication-related patient harm has not been eradicated. Victorian undergraduate pharmacy programs include some aspects of medication safety, however clinical pharmacy experience, along with interpersonal and project management skills, are required to prepare pharmacists to be confident medication safety practitioners. This article outlines the range of medication safety-related training offered at an Australian tertiary teaching hospital, including; on-site tutorial for undergraduate students, experiential placement for pharmacy interns, orientation for pharmacy staff and resources for credentialing pharmacists for extended roles. Improvements continue to be made, such as electronic medication management systems, which increase the safe use of medications and facilitate patient care. Implementation and evaluation of these systems require medication safety expertise. Patients’ engaging in their own care is an acknowledged safety improvement strategy and is enhanced by pharmacist facilitation. Building educator skills and integrating experiential teaching with university curricula should ensure pharmacists have both the knowledge and experience early in their careers, in order to have a leading role in future medication management. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Early Vancomycin Concentrations and the Applications of a Pharmacokinetic Extrapolation Method to Recognize Sub-Therapeutic Outcomes
Pharmacy 2016, 4(4), 37; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4040037 -
Abstract
Vancomycin trough concentrations should be measured within 30 min of the next dose, but studies have shown that troughs are often measured too early, producing erroneous results that could lead to dosing errors. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency
[...] Read more.
Vancomycin trough concentrations should be measured within 30 min of the next dose, but studies have shown that troughs are often measured too early, producing erroneous results that could lead to dosing errors. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency of early trough measurements and to evaluate whether pharmacokinetically extrapolating mistimed concentrations may locate sub-therapeutic concentrations. Vancomycin troughs were retrospectively reviewed. For troughs ≥10 mg/L and measured >0.5 h early, the true trough was estimated using pharmacokinetic extrapolation methods to identify sub-therapeutic outcomes. Differences ≥2 mg/L between the measured and estimated true trough level was considered to have potential clinical significance. Of 143 troughs evaluated, 62 (43%) were measured too early and 48 of those troughs were ≥10 mg/L. 25% of those 48 troughs were sub-therapeutic. The potential for a difference ≥2 mg/L between the measured and estimated true trough was found to be greatest when the measured trough was ≥10 mg/L, the patient’s creatinine clearance (CrCl) was ≥60 mL/min, and the timing error was ≥2 h. To increase the therapeutic utility of early vancomycin trough concentrations, estimated true troughs can be determined by extrapolating measured values based on the time difference and CrCl. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Using Continuing Professional Development with Portfolio in a Pharmaceutics Course
Pharmacy 2016, 4(4), 36; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4040036 -
Abstract
The introduction of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) to encourage individual life-long learning as a way of maintaining professional competency in pharmacy has faced resistance. To investigate ways to address this barrier we included CPD with portfolio in a university Pharmaceutics course. Underpinning knowledge
[...] Read more.
The introduction of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) to encourage individual life-long learning as a way of maintaining professional competency in pharmacy has faced resistance. To investigate ways to address this barrier we included CPD with portfolio in a university Pharmaceutics course. Underpinning knowledge for the course was delivered using a flipped classroom approach and students used the CPD model to address clinical scenarios presented in a simulated pharmacy setting. Students produced portfolio items for the different case scenarios and submitted these for assessment. This provided the opportunity for students to carry out repeated application of the CPD cycle and, in so doing, develop skills in critical thinking for self-reflection and self-evaluation. This course was designed to encourage the development of higher level learning skills for future self-directed learning. Thirty six students submitted a completed portfolio. Twenty nine students achieved a result of >70%, five students scored between 57%–69%, one student obtained a mark of 50% and one student failed. The end of course survey revealed that while students found portfolio development challenging (40%), they also reported that it was effective for self-learning (54%). Differentiating between the concepts “reflection” and “evaluation” in CPD was problematic for some students and the use of clearer, simpler language should be used to explain these processes in future CPD work. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Irrational Use of Medicines—A Summary of Key Concepts
Pharmacy 2016, 4(4), 35; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4040035 -
Abstract
Medicines play an integral part of healthcare delivery. However, they are expensive commodities and account for a significant proportion of overall health expenditure in most countries. Irrational use of medicines is a major challenge facing many health systems across the world. Such practices
[...] Read more.
Medicines play an integral part of healthcare delivery. However, they are expensive commodities and account for a significant proportion of overall health expenditure in most countries. Irrational use of medicines is a major challenge facing many health systems across the world. Such practices are likely to lead to poor health delivery that may put patients at risk and result in wastage of scarce resources that could have been used to tackle other pressing health needs. The concept of “rational use of medicine” can at times be confusing and not easily appreciated by patients, healthcare providers, policy makers, or the public, all of whom need to collaborate effectively to address this challenge. In this article, we summarize basic concepts such as rational medicine use, good prescribing and dispensing, and explore some of the factors that contribute to irrational use of medicines as well as potential impacts of such practices. This article has been written with the intention of offering a clear, concise, and easy to understand explanation of basic medicine use concepts for health professionals, patients, policy makers, and the public. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Replicable Interprofessional Competency Outcomes from High-Volume, Inter-Institutional, Interprofessional Simulation
Pharmacy 2016, 4(4), 34; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4040034 -
Abstract
There are significant limitations among the few prior studies that have examined the development and implementation of interprofessional education (IPE) experiences to accommodate a high volume of students from several disciplines and from different institutions. The present study addressed these gaps by seeking
[...] Read more.
There are significant limitations among the few prior studies that have examined the development and implementation of interprofessional education (IPE) experiences to accommodate a high volume of students from several disciplines and from different institutions. The present study addressed these gaps by seeking to determine the extent to which a single, large, inter-institutional, and IPE simulation event improves student perceptions of the importance and relevance of IPE and simulation as a learning modality, whether there is a difference in students’ perceptions among disciplines, and whether the results are reproducible. A total of 290 medical, nursing, pharmacy, and physical therapy students participated in one of two large, inter-institutional, IPE simulation events. Measurements included student perceptions about their simulation experience using the Attitude Towards Teamwork in Training Undergoing Designed Educational Simulation (ATTITUDES) Questionnaire and open-ended questions related to teamwork and communication. Results demonstrated a statistically significant improvement across all ATTITUDES subscales, while time management, role confusion, collaboration, and mutual support emerged as significant themes. Results of the present study indicate that a single IPE simulation event can reproducibly result in significant and educationally meaningful improvements in student perceptions towards teamwork, IPE, and simulation as a learning modality. Full article
Open AccessCommentary
Serving with Pharmacy Students: Reflections from a Medical Mission Team Leader and Preceptor
Pharmacy 2016, 4(4), 33; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4040033 -
Abstract
The medical mission field is an innovative setting for training and evaluating health care professional students. The motivating factor of serving indigent populations as a means of a humanitarian, or oftentimes a spiritual act, makes medical missions an attractive option for student participation.
[...] Read more.
The medical mission field is an innovative setting for training and evaluating health care professional students. The motivating factor of serving indigent populations as a means of a humanitarian, or oftentimes a spiritual act, makes medical missions an attractive option for student participation. At the Gregory School of Pharmacy, medical mission teams are an integral part of the pharmacy program, including the opportunity for students to earn elective credit during their fourth year. This commentary provides five key elements to consider when serving with, training and evaluating pharmacy students from the perspective of a team leader and preceptor. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Retrospective Evaluation of Pharmacist Interventions on Use of Antimicrobials Using a Clinical Surveillance Software in a Small Community Hospital
Pharmacy 2016, 4(4), 32; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4040032 -
Abstract
The Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America “Guidelines for Developing an Institutional Program to Enhance Antimicrobial Stewardship” recommend the use of computer-based surveillance programs for efficient and thorough identification of potential interventions as part of an
[...] Read more.
The Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America “Guidelines for Developing an Institutional Program to Enhance Antimicrobial Stewardship” recommend the use of computer-based surveillance programs for efficient and thorough identification of potential interventions as part of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP). This retrospective study examined the benefit of utilizing a clinical surveillance software program to help guide antimicrobial therapy in an inpatient setting, in a small community hospital, without a formal ASP. The electronic health record (EHR) was used to retrieve documentations for the following types of antibiotic interventions: culture surveillance, duplicate therapy, duration of therapy and renal dose adjustments. The numbers of interventions made during the three-month periods before and after implementation of the clinical surveillance software were compared. Antibiotic related interventions aggregated to 144 and 270 in the pre- and post-implementation time frame, respectively (p < 0.0001). The total number of antibiotic interventions overall and interventions in three of the four sub-categories increased significantly from the pre-implementation to post-implementation period. Clinical surveillance software is a valuable tool to assist pharmacists in evaluating antimicrobial therapy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Making the Transition from Student to Resident: A Method to Individualize a PGY1 Program
Pharmacy 2016, 4(4), 31; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4040031 -
Abstract
A Postgraduate Year One (PGY1) resident’s concerns, limitations, and strengths may be self-identified early in the residency year but are reliant on self-awareness and insight. Program directors commonly find difficulty in identifying a resident’s specific knowledge deficits at the beginning of the program.
[...] Read more.
A Postgraduate Year One (PGY1) resident’s concerns, limitations, and strengths may be self-identified early in the residency year but are reliant on self-awareness and insight. Program directors commonly find difficulty in identifying a resident’s specific knowledge deficits at the beginning of the program. A standardized resident examination can identify limitations early in training and these results can be incorporated into a tailored resident development plan. A total of sixty-two PGY1 residents completed the examination pre- and post-training over a five-year timespan. Scores increased in most core disciplines in each of the five years, indicating an overall improvement in resident knowledge throughout their PGY1 year. The approach of utilizing the scores for the resident’s individualized plan allows for customization to ensure that the resident addresses knowledge gaps where necessary. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Perceived Barriers to Herpes Zoster Vaccination among Geriatric Primary Care Providers
Pharmacy 2016, 4(4), 30; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4040030 -
Abstract
The herpes zoster vaccine is recommended for use in adults 60 years of age and older to reduce the incidence and morbidity associated with infection. Its limited uptake has been attributed to logistical barriers, but uncertain efficacy and safety in subsets of this
[...] Read more.
The herpes zoster vaccine is recommended for use in adults 60 years of age and older to reduce the incidence and morbidity associated with infection. Its limited uptake has been attributed to logistical barriers, but uncertain efficacy and safety in subsets of this patient population could also be contributing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current vaccination practices, barriers to vaccination, knowledge of vaccination reimbursement and strategies to evaluate for insurance coverage among an urban, safety net, teaching hospital, geriatric primary care provider group through a survey administered via paper and online platforms. Survey participants (n = 10) reported lack of availability of the vaccine in their practice settings (6/10), with half of providers (5/10) referring patients to outside pharmacies or to other practice settings (2/10) for vaccine administration. Reimbursement issues and storage requirements were perceived as major barriers by 40% (4/10) of providers, whereas 80% (8/10) of providers reported that concerns about safety and effectiveness of the vaccine were not major barriers to vaccination. Logistical barriers, rather than concerns about safety and effectiveness of the vaccine, were reported as major barriers to vaccination by a significant portion of providers. Lack of availability and reimbursement problems for practice sites allow for gaps in care. Partnership with community and long-term care pharmacies could serve as a possible solution. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Perception of the Professional Knowledge of and Education on the Medical Technology Products among the Pharmacists in the Baltic and Nordic Countries—A Cross-Sectional Exploratory Study
Pharmacy 2016, 4(4), 29; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4040029 -
Abstract
With increased development of medical technology (MT), new challenges emerge related to education and training of pharmacists and other healthcare specialists. Currently, only a few universities in the EU promote MT education and research. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate
[...] Read more.
With increased development of medical technology (MT), new challenges emerge related to education and training of pharmacists and other healthcare specialists. Currently, only a few universities in the EU promote MT education and research. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the current status, views on, and need for the education on MT for the pharmacy students and practicing pharmacists in the Baltic and Nordic countries. Methods: The representatives of higher education institutions and community/hospital pharmacists from six Baltic and Nordic countries participated in a qualitative cross-sectional exploratory internet-based study from May to October 2014. Results: Approximately two-third of the respondents considered professional knowledge about MT products important for pharmacists, but half of them had never participated in any MT courses. More practicing pharmacists than representatives of academia underlined the need for increased MT education for pharmacy students in the future. Conclusions: The pharmacists in the Baltic and Nordic countries consider the professional knowledge about MT as pertinent in their education and work. The limited number and status of MT courses available today, however, is a major concern among both pharmacy students and practicing pharmacists in these countries. In the future, increasing education combining theory and practice about MT products would be one possible solution to overcome this challenge. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Interprofessional Education (IPE) and Pharmacy in the UK. A Study on IPE Activities across Different Schools of Pharmacy
Pharmacy 2016, 4(4), 28; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4040028 -
Abstract
Interprofessional education (IPE) has been recognised internationally as a way to improve healthcare professional interactions and team working in order to enhance patient care. Since pharmacists are increasingly part of multi-professional healthcare teams and are expanding their clinical roles, many pharmacy regulators have
[...] Read more.
Interprofessional education (IPE) has been recognised internationally as a way to improve healthcare professional interactions and team working in order to enhance patient care. Since pharmacists are increasingly part of multi-professional healthcare teams and are expanding their clinical roles, many pharmacy regulators have stipulated IPE must be included in educational curricula. This study aimed to examine how different Schools of Pharmacy (SOPs) in the UK implement IPE within their pharmacy course. Information about IPE was mainly obtained through interviews with staff from various SOPs. Nine telephone interviews were conducted which were analysed using a thematic analysis approach in order to derive common categories. These were identified as students, activities, barriers and facilitators and benefits of IPE. It was found that teaching methods used for IPE varied across SOPs. No standard strategy to deliver IPE was identified. Students were thought to value the IPE experience, especially the interaction with other professionals. The main barriers to implementing IPE arose from limited financial and organisational support. In general, many SOPs in the UK are undertaking IPE but challenges remain in establishing it as a routine part of the course, something which seems to echo difficulties in implementation of IPE both nationally and internationally. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Second Round of the PHAR-QA Survey of Competences for Pharmacy Practice
Pharmacy 2016, 4(3), 27; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4030027 -
Abstract
This paper presents the results of the second European Delphi round on the ranking of competences for pharmacy practice and compares these data to those of the first round already published. A comparison of the numbers of respondents, distribution by age group, country
[...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of the second European Delphi round on the ranking of competences for pharmacy practice and compares these data to those of the first round already published. A comparison of the numbers of respondents, distribution by age group, country of residence, etc., shows that whilst the student population of respondents changed from Round 1 to 2, the populations of the professional groups (community, hospital and industrial pharmacists, pharmacists in other occupations and academics) were more stable. Results are given for the consensus of ranking and the scores of ranking of 50 competences for pharmacy practice. This two-stage, large-scale Delphi process harmonized and validated the Quality Assurance in European Pharmacy Education and Training (PHAR-QA) framework and ensured the adoption by the pharmacy profession of a framework proposed by the academic pharmacy community. The process of evaluation and validation of ranking of competences by the pharmacy profession is now complete, and the PHAR-QA consortium will now put forward a definitive PHAR-QA framework of competences for pharmacy practice. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Shared Focus: Comparing the Australian, Canadian, United Kingdom and United States Pharmacy Learning Outcome Frameworks and the Global Competency Framework
Pharmacy 2016, 4(3), 26; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4030026 -
Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of the end of degree expectations, expressed as learning outcomes, for pharmacy graduates from Australia, Canada, United Kingdom and United States. The authors compare the end of degree expectations, through mapping these requirements to the International Pharmaceutical Federation
[...] Read more.
This paper presents an analysis of the end of degree expectations, expressed as learning outcomes, for pharmacy graduates from Australia, Canada, United Kingdom and United States. The authors compare the end of degree expectations, through mapping these requirements to the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) Global Competency Framework (GbCF). The anticipated end of degree expectations are similar but also reveal some individual characteristics. Irrespective of degree title, achievement of learning outcomes specified in any one of the four jurisdictions should enable students to become pharmacists who are patient-orientated medicines experts. The mapping provides impetus for cross-border institutional networking to generate a dependable set of assessment tools across national borders developing a common metric for outcome assessment irrespective of different program delivery. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Short History of the Development of Hospital Pharmacy in Belgium
Pharmacy 2016, 4(3), 25; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4030025 -
Abstract
The Belgian Association of Hospital Pharmacists (BAHP) is a professional and scientific association representing all pharmacists who work in hospital institutions, whether private or public, university, general or psychiatric. This association was created in 1953. The aim of this short paper is to
[...] Read more.
The Belgian Association of Hospital Pharmacists (BAHP) is a professional and scientific association representing all pharmacists who work in hospital institutions, whether private or public, university, general or psychiatric. This association was created in 1953. The aim of this short paper is to tell the history of its continuous development in a few words. The main development is reviewed from 1950 to now including: regulation, professional association roles, agreement and continuing education, development of clinical pharmacy, and updating of university training program. A new decree for the hospital pharmacist is in the course of being finalized, including new technologies: automated dispensing, automated compounding, centralization of sterile compounding, e-learning, traceability of medical devices and clinical pharmacy. Full article
Open AccessReview
Factors Influencing Successful Prescribing by Intern Doctors: A Qualitative Systematic Review
Pharmacy 2016, 4(3), 24; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4030024 -
Abstract
As the majority of prescribing in hospital is undertaken by intern doctors, the aims of this systematic review were to compile the evidence of the qualitative literature on the views and experiences of intern doctors and to examine the role of the pharmacist
[...] Read more.
As the majority of prescribing in hospital is undertaken by intern doctors, the aims of this systematic review were to compile the evidence of the qualitative literature on the views and experiences of intern doctors and to examine the role of the pharmacist in assisting in prescribing by interns. A systematic review of the qualitative literature was done according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement. The findings were synthesized using thematic analysis. Seven publications were included. Factors influencing prescribing behaviour were related to the environment; collaboration in medical teams; hierarchical structures; and patient and individual factors. This review confirmed that interns’ prescribing behaviour is influenced by multiple factors, and further highlighted the need for an educational intervention that supports the intern completing the prescribing task in a complex environment, and not just addresses the presumed knowledge gap(s). Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
How Do Pharmacists Construct, Facilitate and Consolidate Their Professional Identity?
Pharmacy 2016, 4(3), 23; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4030023 -
Abstract
The pharmacy profession continues to experience change regarding roles and responsibilities. The supply of medicines still remains a central function, but patient-facing, clinical roles are now becoming more commonplace, where pharmacists use their expert knowledge to maximise patient use of medicines. This transitional
[...] Read more.
The pharmacy profession continues to experience change regarding roles and responsibilities. The supply of medicines still remains a central function, but patient-facing, clinical roles are now becoming more commonplace, where pharmacists use their expert knowledge to maximise patient use of medicines. This transitional state from supplier of medicines to medicines expert raises questions over the contemporary professional identity of pharmacists. This literature-informed commentary highlights the current situation regarding how pharmacists’ identity is formed and reinforced. The authors suggest that the profession needs to be clearer in articulating what pharmacy does, and advocate the need for strong branding that the profession, public and other healthcare practitioners understand. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Safety of Continuous Infusion Ketorolac in Postoperative Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients
Pharmacy 2016, 4(3), 22; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4030022 -
Abstract
Background:Continuous infusion ketorolac is sometimes utilized for analgesia in postoperative coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients despite contraindications for use. Limited literature surrounds this topic; therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the safety of this practice. Methods: This retrospective cohort study evaluated
[...] Read more.
Background:Continuous infusion ketorolac is sometimes utilized for analgesia in postoperative coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients despite contraindications for use. Limited literature surrounds this topic; therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the safety of this practice. Methods: This retrospective cohort study evaluated the primary outcome of mortality and secondary outcomes of incidence of bleeding and myocardial infarction (MI). All patients who underwent isolated CABG surgeries and received continuous infusion ketorolac during the study period were included. An equal number of randomly selected isolated CABG patients served as control patients. Electronic medical records and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) database were utilized to determine baseline characteristics and outcomes; Results: One hundred and seventy-eight patients met inclusion; 89 in each group. More patients in the control group underwent on-pump surgeries (78.6% vs. 29.2%, p = 0.01) and had higher STS risk scores (1.1% vs. 0.6%, p = 0.003). There was no difference in mortality between the ketorolac group and control group (2.2% vs. 3.3%, p = 0.605). Additionally, no patients experienced a MI and there was no difference in bleeding incidence (5.5% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.58); Conclusions: No association was found between continuous infusion ketorolac and increased risk of mortality, MI, or bleeding events in postoperative CABG patients. Considerations to differences in baseline characteristics must be made when interpreting results. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Hospital and Community Pharmacists’ Perceptions of Which Competences Are Important for Their Practice
Pharmacy 2016, 4(2), 21; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4020021 -
Abstract
The objective of the PHAR-QA (Quality assurance in European pharmacy education and training) project was to investigate how competence-based learning could be applied to a healthcare, sectoral profession such as pharmacy. This is the first study on evaluation of competences from the pharmacists’
[...] Read more.
The objective of the PHAR-QA (Quality assurance in European pharmacy education and training) project was to investigate how competence-based learning could be applied to a healthcare, sectoral profession such as pharmacy. This is the first study on evaluation of competences from the pharmacists’ perspective using an improved Delphi method with a large number of respondents from all over Europe. This paper looks at the way in which hospital pharmacists rank the fundamental competences for pharmacy practice. European hospital pharmacists (n = 152) ranked 68 competences for pharmacy practice of two types (personal and patient care), arranged into 13 clusters. Results were compared to those obtained from community pharmacists (n = 258). Generally, hospital and community pharmacists rank competences in a similar way. Nevertheless, differences can be detected. The higher focus of hospital pharmacists on knowledge of the different areas of science as well as on laboratory tests reflects the idea of a hospital pharmacy specialisation. The difference is also visible in the field of drug production. This is a necessary competence in hospitals with requests for drugs for rare diseases, as well as paediatric and oncologic drugs. Hospital pharmacists give entrepreneurship a lower score, but cost-effectiveness a higher one than community pharmacists. This reflects the reality of pharmacy practice where community pharmacists have to act as entrepreneurs, and hospital pharmacists are managers staying within drug budgets. The results are discussed in the light of a “hospital pharmacy” specialisation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Assessment of Demand for a Combined PharmD–MBA Program at the University of Saskatchewan
Pharmacy 2016, 4(2), 20; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4020020 -
Abstract
(1) Background: Combined MBA programs are becoming increasingly popular, and it is anticipated that there will be 60 combined pharmacy–MBA programs across North America in 2015. We aimed to see if there would be support for a combined PharmD–MBA program at the University
[...] Read more.
(1) Background: Combined MBA programs are becoming increasingly popular, and it is anticipated that there will be 60 combined pharmacy–MBA programs across North America in 2015. We aimed to see if there would be support for a combined PharmD–MBA program at the University of Saskatchewan. (2) Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 1st, 2nd, and 3rd year pharmacy students at the University of Saskatchewan. A separate questionnaire was developed and all practicing pharmacists in Saskatchewan were emailed a link to SurveyMonkey® (Palo Alto, CA, USA) to fill it out online. In-person and phone interviews were conducted with pharmacy stakeholders in Saskatchewan and across the country. (3) Results: Of the 265 students, 193 (72.8%) were present on the days the questionnaires were distributed, and they all completed the questionnaires. When asked if they would have pursued a combined degree if the U of S had offered it when they entered the pharmacy program, 16.6% (32/193) and 37.3% (72/193) either strongly agreed or agreed and 29.0% (56/193) were unsure. When pharmacists were asked if an MBA would be valuable or applicable in their current job, 42.2% (128/303) agreed and 13.9% (42/303) strongly agreed. When asked if they felt students graduating with a combined degree would be at an advantage for certain job opportunities upon graduation, 33.6% (100/298) strongly agreed and 55.4% (165/298) agreed. A total of 8 interviews were conducted with key stakeholders from across Canada. Of these 8 stakeholders, only 2 were aware that other combined programs were offered. All of the stakeholders were in favour of the idea of a combined degree. Some felt it was important for the program to have a clear value proposition and healthcare related content would be desirable. (4) Conclusions: Overall, pharmacist, pharmacy student, and stakeholder input indicate that a combined program could be supported at the University of Saskatchewan. Full article