Open AccessFeature PaperConcept Paper
Patient-Centered Communication
Pharmacy 2018, 6(1), 18; doi:10.3390/pharmacy6010018 -
Abstract
As the population ages, morbidity and mortality associated with chronic disease will increase. Some patient-centered improvements have been made in health care services, but optimal health has not been fully realized. Only when pharmacists have a holistic understanding of an individual patient, including
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As the population ages, morbidity and mortality associated with chronic disease will increase. Some patient-centered improvements have been made in health care services, but optimal health has not been fully realized. Only when pharmacists have a holistic understanding of an individual patient, including their experience of illness and medication, can they effectively assess appropriateness, safety, efficacy, and adherence to medications and develop realistic treatment plans. When patients are involved in their care, they are better able to manage complex chronic conditions by understanding and adhering to their plan of care. Pharmacists can enable patients to participate fully using patient-centered communication. There are relatively few published articles on patient-centered communication specific to pharmacists, but the Calgary-Cambridge guide and Four Habits model have applicability to pharmacy practice. The Patient-Centered Communication Tools (PaCT), created for use in pharmacy education and loosely based on the Four Habits model, can assist pharmacists in developing their patient-centered communication skills. Lastly, best practices for patient-centered communication in pharmacy practice are described. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Barriers and Facilitators of Partner Treatment of Chlamydia: A Qualitative Investigation with Prescribers and Community Pharmacists
Pharmacy 2018, 6(1), 17; doi:10.3390/pharmacy6010017 -
Abstract
Chlamydia trachomatis is the most frequently-notified sexually transmitted infection in Australia. Effective and timely partner treatment of chlamydia is essential to reduce overall prevalence and the burden of infection. Currently in most of Australia, the only avenue for partner treatment of chlamydia (“standard
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Chlamydia trachomatis is the most frequently-notified sexually transmitted infection in Australia. Effective and timely partner treatment of chlamydia is essential to reduce overall prevalence and the burden of infection. Currently in most of Australia, the only avenue for partner treatment of chlamydia (“standard partner therapy”) is a tedious, and often inconvenient, process. The barriers and facilitators of standard partner therapy, and newer models of accelerated partner therapy (APT), need to be identified in the Australian setting. Additionally, the potential role of community pharmacists need to be explored. Semi-structured interview guides for two key stakeholder groups (prescribers and pharmacists) were developed and piloted. Eleven prescribers (general practitioners, sexual health clinicians and nurse practitioners) and twelve pharmacists practicing in the Perth metropolitan region were interviewed. Key reported barriers to standard partner therapy were lack of or delayed chlamydia testing. Key facilitators included ability to test and educate sexual partner. Key barriers for APT included prescribers’ legal responsibility and potential for medication-related adverse effects. Healthcare provider consultation and chlamydia testing were seen as potential facilitators of APT. Pharmacists were receptive to the idea of expanding their role in chlamydia treatment, however, barriers to privacy must be overcome in order to be acceptable to prescribers and pharmacists. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
An Active Learning Activity to Reinforce the Design Components of the Corticosteroids
Pharmacy 2018, 6(1), 16; doi:10.3390/pharmacy6010016 -
Abstract
Despite the popularity of active learning applications over the past few decades, few activities have been reported for the field of medicinal chemistry. The purpose of this study is to report a new active learning activity, describe participant contributions, and examine participant performance
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Despite the popularity of active learning applications over the past few decades, few activities have been reported for the field of medicinal chemistry. The purpose of this study is to report a new active learning activity, describe participant contributions, and examine participant performance on the assessment questions mapped to the objective covered by the activity. In this particular activity, students are asked to design two novel corticosteroids as a group (6–8 students per group) based on the design characteristics of marketed corticosteroids covered in lecture coupled with their pharmaceutics knowledge from the previous semester and then defend their design to the class through an interactive presentation model. Although class performance on the objective mapped to this material on the assessment did not reach statistical significance, use of this activity has allowed fruitful discussion of misunderstood concepts and facilitated multiple changes to the lecture presentation. As pharmacy schools continue to emphasize alternative learning pedagogies, publication of previously implemented activities demonstrating their use will help others apply similar methodologies. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Maintaining Vitality: Pharmacists’ Continuing Professional Education Decision-Making in the Upper Midwest
Pharmacy 2018, 6(1), 14; doi:10.3390/pharmacy6010014 -
Abstract
Continuing professional education (CPE) plays an important role in continuing professional development of pharmacists for providing quality pharmaceutical care but also to maintain professional and organizational vitality and meet changing community/population needs. The study objective was to describe and understand factors of importance
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Continuing professional education (CPE) plays an important role in continuing professional development of pharmacists for providing quality pharmaceutical care but also to maintain professional and organizational vitality and meet changing community/population needs. The study objective was to describe and understand factors of importance in selection of CPE credit hours among Upper Midwest pharmacists. A cross-sectional study of licensed pharmacists (n = 1239) in Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota included completion of a questionnaire on demographics and CPE decision-making. Factor analysis, t-test, and multivariate analyses were performed using Stata 10.1. Pharmacists placed greatest importance on maintaining licensure (mean = 2.72/3.00), personal interest (mean = 2.57), and self-improvement (mean = 2.42). Community/population need (mean = 1.83) was rated as slightly more important (p < 0.01) by retail/community pharmacists, females, and those with a Doctor of Pharmacy degree or pharmacy residency while business growth/development (mean = 1.33) was rated slightly more important (p < 0.01) by retail/community pharmacists. Despite findings that neither community/population need nor business development were among the most important factors in pharmacists’ CPE selection, there exists significant potential for pharmacists to utilize CPE to maintain professional and organizational vitality in the labor market, but more importantly to ensure continued provision of quality pharmaceutical care and patient education. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Patterns of Self-Medication Behavior for Oral Health Problems Among Adults Living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Pharmacy 2018, 6(1), 15; doi:10.3390/pharmacy6010015 -
Abstract
Abstract: Self-medication is a widespread behavior worldwide. It is defined as the practice of self-diagnosis and drug prescription without proper professional consultation. Aim: To determine the prevalence and predictors of self-medication for oral health problems among adults living in Riyadh city. Methods: A
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Abstract: Self-medication is a widespread behavior worldwide. It is defined as the practice of self-diagnosis and drug prescription without proper professional consultation. Aim: To determine the prevalence and predictors of self-medication for oral health problems among adults living in Riyadh city. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on a structured close-ended questionnaire was distributed among adults visiting shopping malls in all different five regions of Riyadh. A two-stage sampling technique was used: cluster and simple random sampling. The questionnaire was composed of two main sections: demographic characteristics and questions assessing the behavior of self-medication. Results: The prevalence of self-medication was found to be 63.25%, with a higher prevalence among females than males. Gender and nationality were significantly associated with self-medication. Salt in hot water locally (52.57%) and acetaminophen (47.43%), a type of an analgesic, were, systemically, the most frequently used. Pharmacy shops were the main source of these medicaments (66.01%). Similarly, the advice for using them was mainly given by pharmacists (53.36%). Lack of time was claimed to be the main reason for practicing self-medication (54.55%) with abscess, toothache, and gingival bleeding being the main predictors. Conclusions: Self-medication was found to be a common practice among the population of Riyadh city. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Giving Voice to the Medically Under-Served: A Qualitative Co-Production Approach to Explore Patient Medicine Experiences and Improve Services to Marginalized Communities
Pharmacy 2018, 6(1), 13; doi:10.3390/pharmacy6010013 -
Abstract
Background: With an aging population, the appropriate, effective and safe use of medicines is a global health priority. However, “‘medically under-served” patients continue to experience significant inequalities around access to healthcare services. Aim: This study forms part of a wider project
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Background: With an aging population, the appropriate, effective and safe use of medicines is a global health priority. However, “‘medically under-served” patients continue to experience significant inequalities around access to healthcare services. Aim: This study forms part of a wider project to co-develop and evaluate a digital educational intervention for community pharmacy. The aim of this paper is to explore the medicine needs of patients from marginalized communities and suggest practical way on how services could be better tailored to their requirements. Method: Following ethical approval, qualitative data was gathered from: (1) workshops with patients and professionals (n = 57 attendees); and (2) qualitative semi-structured interviews (10 patients and 10 pharmacists). Results: Our findings revealed that patients from marginalized communities reported poor management of their medical conditions and significant problems with adherence to prescribed medicines. Their experience of pharmacy services was found to be variable with many experiencing discrimination or disadvantage as a result of their status. Discussion: This study highlights the plight of medically under-served communities and the need for policy makers to tailor services to an individual’s needs and circumstances. Furthermore, patients and professionals can work in collaboration using a co-production approach to develop educational interventions for pharmacy service improvements. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Establishing a Pharmacy-Based Patient Registry System: A Pilot Study for Evaluating Pharmacist Intervention for Patients with Long-Term Medication Use
Pharmacy 2018, 6(1), 12; doi:10.3390/pharmacy6010012 -
Abstract
Background: In Japan, an increasing number of patients are prescribed a large amount of long-term medications by large hospitals that are then dispensed by a community pharmacy. This practice often leads to considerable wastage of medicine. As part of their professional role, community
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Background: In Japan, an increasing number of patients are prescribed a large amount of long-term medications by large hospitals that are then dispensed by a community pharmacy. This practice often leads to considerable wastage of medicine. As part of their professional role, community pharmacists are expected to contribute more to the appropriate use of medication by patients. Using a prospective cohort, we aimed to evaluate pharmacists’ role in the community. Methods: We created a patient registry system for community pharmacies to monitor long-term medication use by patients with chronic conditions. Patient drug adherence and potential problems were monitored through regular home visits or telephone calls by the pharmacist at least once a month between patient hospital visits. Patient data were collected and stored in an internet-based system. Results: Over a one-year follow-up, 28 out of 37 registered patients from 14 community pharmacies were continuously monitored. In total, we extracted 19 problems relating to medication use, 17 to physical complaints, eight to patient concerns, and two others. Conclusion: The registry system was useful for identifying medication-related problems as well as patient concerns and changes in their condition. Pharmacists might play a key role in improving patient care in the community. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Exploratory Study of Student Pharmacists’ Self-Reported Pain, Management Strategies, Outcomes, and Implications for Pharmacy Education
Pharmacy 2018, 6(1), 11; doi:10.3390/pharmacy6010011 -
Abstract
The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence, management strategies, and outcomes of pain experienced by student pharmacists, and to discuss implications for pharmacy education. A questionnaire administered to student pharmacists collected data about their experience, management strategies, and outcomes of
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The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence, management strategies, and outcomes of pain experienced by student pharmacists, and to discuss implications for pharmacy education. A questionnaire administered to student pharmacists collected data about their experience, management strategies, and outcomes of pain. Data were analyzed using t-tests, chi-square or Fisher’s tests, and logistic regression. Of the 218 student pharmacists who completed the survey, 79% experienced pain in the past five years. Chronic pain impacted students’ ability to work (15%) and attend school (9%). Respondents most commonly used prescription (38%) and over-the-counter (OTC, 78%) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and rest (69%) to manage pain. Men used more opioids, whereas women used more OTC NSAIDs (p < 0.05). Emergency department visits were associated with increased prescription drug use to manage pain. This study found that 15% of student pharmacists had chronic pain in the past five years, which was managed with medical and non-medical strategies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Treatment Strategy for Dyslipidemia in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: Focus on Old and New Drugs
Pharmacy 2018, 6(1), 10; doi:10.3390/pharmacy6010010 -
Abstract
Prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia should be considered as an integral part of individual cardiovascular prevention interventions, which should be addressed primarily to those at higher risk who benefit most. To date, statins remain the first-choice therapy, as they have been shown to
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Prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia should be considered as an integral part of individual cardiovascular prevention interventions, which should be addressed primarily to those at higher risk who benefit most. To date, statins remain the first-choice therapy, as they have been shown to reduce the risk of major vascular events by lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, due to adherence to statin therapy or statin resistance, many patients do not reach LDL-C target levels. Ezetimibe, fibrates, and nicotinic acid represent the second-choice drugs to be used in combination with statins if lipid targets cannot be reached. In addition, anti-PCSK9 drugs (evolocumab and alirocumab) provide an effective solution for patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and statin intolerance at very high cardiovascular risk. Recently, studies demonstrated the effects of two novel lipid-lowering agents (lomitapide and mipomersen) for the management of homozygous FH by decreasing LDL-C values and reducing cardiovascular events. However, the costs for these new therapies made the cost–effectiveness debate more complicated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pharmacy Practice and Education in Latvia
Pharmacy 2018, 6(1), 9; doi:10.3390/pharmacy6010009 -
Abstract
The PHARMINE (“Pharmacy Education in Europe”) project studied the organisation of pharmacy practice and education in the member states of the European Union (EU). The work was carried out using an electronic survey sent to chosen pharmacy representatives. The surveys of
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The PHARMINE (“Pharmacy Education in Europe”) project studied the organisation of pharmacy practice and education in the member states of the European Union (EU). The work was carried out using an electronic survey sent to chosen pharmacy representatives. The surveys of the individual member states are now being published as reference documents. This paper presents the results of the PHARMINE survey on pharmacy practice and education in Latvia. In the light of this, we examine the harmonisation of practice and education in Latvia with EU norms. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Pharmacists’ Interventions on Inappropriate Drug Use and Drug-Related Readmissions in People with Dementia—A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial
Pharmacy 2018, 6(1), 7; doi:10.3390/pharmacy6010007 -
Abstract
Age-associated physiological changes and extensive drug treatment including use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) pose a significant risk of drug–drug interactions and adverse drug events among elderly people with dementia. This study aimed at analysing the effects of clinical pharmacists’ interventions on use
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Age-associated physiological changes and extensive drug treatment including use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) pose a significant risk of drug–drug interactions and adverse drug events among elderly people with dementia. This study aimed at analysing the effects of clinical pharmacists’ interventions on use of PIMs, risk of emergency department visits, and time to institutionalization. Furthermore, a descriptive analysis was conducted of circumstances associated with drug-related readmissions. This is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled intervention study conducted in two hospitals in Northern Sweden. The study included patients (n = 460) 65 years or older with dementia or cognitive impairment. The intervention consisted of comprehensive medication reviews conducted by clinical pharmacists as part of a healthcare team. There was a larger decrease in PIMs in the intervention group compared with the control group (p = 0.011). No significant difference was found in time to first all-cause emergency department visits (HR = 0.994, 95% CI = 0.755–1.307 p = 0.963, simple Cox regression) or time to institutionalization (HR = 0.761, 95% CI = 0.409–1.416 p = 0.389, simple Cox regression) within 180 days. Common reasons for drug-related readmissions were negative effects of sedatives, opioids, antidepressants, and anticholinergic agents, resulting in confusion, falling, and sedation. Drug-related readmissions were associated with living at home, heart failure, and diabetes. Pharmacist-provided interventions were able to reduce PIMs among elderly people with dementia and cognitive impairment. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Pharmacy in 2017
Pharmacy 2018, 6(1), 8; doi:10.3390/pharmacy6010008 -
Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Pharmacy maintains high quality standards for its published papers.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Perceptions and Practice of Self-Medication among Bangladeshi Undergraduate Pharmacy Students
Pharmacy 2018, 6(1), 6; doi:10.3390/pharmacy6010006 -
Abstract
Objectives: To evaluate the perceptions and extent of practicing self-medication among undergraduate pharmacy students. Methods: This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted over a six month period (January to June 2016) among undergraduate pharmacy students in five reputable public universities of Bangladesh. It involved
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Objectives: To evaluate the perceptions and extent of practicing self-medication among undergraduate pharmacy students. Methods: This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted over a six month period (January to June 2016) among undergraduate pharmacy students in five reputable public universities of Bangladesh. It involved face-to-face interviews regarding self-medication of 250 respondents selected by simple random sampling. Results: Self-medication was reported by 88.0% of students. Antipyretics (58.40%) were mostly preferred for the treatment of fever and headaches. The major cause for self-medication was minor illness (59.60%, p = 0.73) while previous prescriptions were the main source of knowledge as well as the major factor (52.80%, p = 0.94) dominating the self-medication practice. The results also demonstrated 88.80% of students had previous knowledge on self-medication and 83.60% of students always checked the information on the label; mainly the expiry date before use (85.60%). A significant (p < 0.05) portion of the students (51% male and 43% female) perceived it was an acceptable practice as they considered self-medication to be a segment of self-care. Furthermore, students demonstrated differences in their response level towards the adverse effect of drugs, the health hazard by a higher dose of drug, a physician’s help in case of side effects, taking medicine without proper knowledge, and stopping selling medicine without prescription. Conclusions: Self-medication was commonly used among pharmacy students primarily for minor illnesses using over-the-counter medications. Although it is an inevitable practice for them it should be considered an important public health problem as this practice may increase the misuse or irrational use of medicines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pharmacy Practice and Education in Romania
Pharmacy 2018, 6(1), 5; doi:10.3390/pharmacy6010005 -
Abstract
The PHARMINE (“Pharmacy Education in Europe”) project examined the organisation of pharmacy practice and education in the European Union (EU). An electronic survey was sent out to representatives of different sectors (community, hospital, industrial pharmacists, university staff, and students) in each
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The PHARMINE (“Pharmacy Education in Europe”) project examined the organisation of pharmacy practice and education in the European Union (EU). An electronic survey was sent out to representatives of different sectors (community, hospital, industrial pharmacists, university staff, and students) in each individual EU member state. This paper presents the results of the PHARMINE survey on pharmacy practice and education in Romania. In the light of this data we examine to what extent harmonisation of practice and education with EU norms has occurred, whether this has promoted mobility of pharmacy professionals, academics and students, and what impact it has had on healthcare in Romania. The survey reveals the substantial changes in Romanian pharmacy practice and education since the 1989 change in government and Romania joining the EU in 2007. Romania remains, however, a poor country with expenditure on healthcare less than one-third of the EU average. This factor also impacts pharmacy practice. Although practice seems aligned with EU norms, this masks the substantial imbalance between the situation in the richer capital, Bucharest, and that of the poorer countryside. Harmonisation to EU norms in pharmacy education has not promoted student exchange and mobility but, rather, a brain drain in pharmaceutical graduates to other EU countries. Specialisation in industrial practice has been lost since 1989 with pharmacists being replaced by chemists. In hospitals the hospital pharmacist is being replaced by the clinical pharmacist. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development of a Communication Strategy to Increase Interprofessional Collaboration in the Outpatient Setting
Pharmacy 2018, 6(1), 4; doi:10.3390/pharmacy6010004 -
Abstract
Managing patient health is a complex task, requiring the support of an interprofessional healthcare team. Collaboration between neighboring community pharmacies and primary care practices can be an alternate solution for team-based patient care. The purpose of this project was to design and implement
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Managing patient health is a complex task, requiring the support of an interprofessional healthcare team. Collaboration between neighboring community pharmacies and primary care practices can be an alternate solution for team-based patient care. The purpose of this project was to design and implement a communication strategy for patients with diabetes and hypertension between a community pharmacy and physician practice. An interprofessional team for the practice settings was formed to develop a strategy for collaboration. After agreeing on the common goals and target patient population for the disease states, the team devised a way to communicate via electronic health record (EHR). The communication strategy allowed for more frequent follow-up with the patients which has the potential to result in better clinical outcomes. A communication strategy between a community pharmacy and a physician practice office can be achieved using EHR technology. The greatest outcome of this project was the formation of the collaborative team between the practice settings that continues to work together on additional patient-centered initiatives. Further research is warranted to allow for incorporation of patient perspectives in development of communication strategies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Knowledge and Perception of Generic Medicines among Final Year Undergraduate Medical, Pharmacy, and Nursing Students in Sierra Leone: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Approach
Pharmacy 2018, 6(1), 3; doi:10.3390/pharmacy6010003 -
Abstract
Most low-income nations have national medicine policy that emphasized the use of generic medicines in the public health sector. However, the use of generics is often debatable as there are concerns over its efficacy, quality, and safety compared to their branded counterparts. This
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Most low-income nations have national medicine policy that emphasized the use of generic medicines in the public health sector. However, the use of generics is often debatable as there are concerns over its efficacy, quality, and safety compared to their branded counterparts. This study was conducted to compare the knowledge and perception of generic medicines among final year undergraduate medical, pharmacy, and nursing students in Sierra Leone. We conducted a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study among these students at the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences University of Sierra Leone. Out of the 62 students, only two (2/62, 3.2%) knew about the acceptable bioequivalence limit. At least half of respondents in all three groups agreed that all generics are therapeutically equivalent to their innovator brand. At least half of the medicine (21/42, 50%) and nursing (6/9, 66.6%) students, compared to pharmacy students (5/11, 45.5%), believed that higher safety standards are required for proprietary medicines than for generic medicines. Most of them agreed that they need more information on the safety, quality, and efficacy aspects of generics (59/62, 95.2%). All three groups of healthcare students, despite variations in their responses, demonstrated a deficiency in knowledge and misconception regarding generic medicines. Training on issues surrounding generic drugs in healthcare training institutions is highly needed among future healthcare providers in Sierra Leone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Thinking in Pharmacy Practice: A Study of Community Pharmacists’ Clinical Reasoning in Medication Supply Using the Think-Aloud Method
Pharmacy 2018, 6(1), 1; doi:10.3390/pharmacy6010001 -
Abstract
Medication review and supply by pharmacists involves both cognitive and technical skills related to the safety and appropriateness of prescribed medicines. The cognitive ability of pharmacists to recall, synthesise and memorise information is a critical aspect of safe and optimal medicines use, yet
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Medication review and supply by pharmacists involves both cognitive and technical skills related to the safety and appropriateness of prescribed medicines. The cognitive ability of pharmacists to recall, synthesise and memorise information is a critical aspect of safe and optimal medicines use, yet few studies have investigated the clinical reasoning and decision-making processes pharmacists use when supplying prescribed medicines. The objective of this study was to examine the patterns and processes of pharmacists’ clinical reasoning and to identify the information sources used, when making decisions about the safety and appropriateness of prescribed medicines. Ten community pharmacists participated in a simulation in which they were required to review a prescription and make decisions about the safety and appropriateness of supplying the prescribed medicines to the patient, whilst at the same time thinking aloud about the tasks required. Following the simulation each pharmacist was asked a series of questions to prompt retrospective thinking aloud using video-stimulated recall. The simulated consultation and retrospective interview were recorded and transcribed for thematic analysis. All of the pharmacists made a safe and appropriate supply of two prescribed medicines to the simulated patient. Qualitative analysis identified seven core thinking processes used during the supply process: considering prescription in context, retrieving information, identifying medication-related issues, processing information, collaborative planning, decision making and reflection; and align closely with other health professionals. The insights from this study have implications for enhancing awareness of decision making processes in pharmacy practice and informing teaching and assessment approaches in medication supply. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Impact of Pharmacist-Conducted Comprehensive Medication Reviews for Older Adult Patients to Reduce Medication Related Problems
Pharmacy 2018, 6(1), 2; doi:10.3390/pharmacy6010002 -
Abstract
Older adults are demanding increased healthcare attention with regards to prescription use due in large part to highly complex medication regimens. As patients age, medications often have a more pronounced effect on older adults, negatively impacting patient safety and increasing healthcare costs. Comprehensive
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Older adults are demanding increased healthcare attention with regards to prescription use due in large part to highly complex medication regimens. As patients age, medications often have a more pronounced effect on older adults, negatively impacting patient safety and increasing healthcare costs. Comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs) optimize medications for elderly patients and help to avoid inappropriate medication use. Previous literature has shown that such CMRs can successfully identify and reduce the number of medication-related problems and improve acute healthcare utilization. The purpose of this pharmacy resident research study is to examine the impact of pharmacist-conducted geriatric medication reviews to reduce medication-related problems within a leading community health system in southwest Michigan. Furthermore, the study examines type of pharmacist interventions made during medication reviews, acute healthcare utilization, and physician assessment of the pharmacist’s value. The study was conducted as a retrospective post-hoc analysis on ambulatory patients who received a CMR by a pharmacist at a primary care practice. Inclusion criteria included patients over 65 years of age with concurrent use of at least five medications who were a recent recipient of a CMR. Exclusion criteria included patients with renal failure, or those with multiple providers involved in primary care. The primary outcome was the difference in number of medication-related problems, as defined by the START and STOPP Criteria (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment/Screening Tool of Older Persons’ Prescriptions). Secondary outcomes included hospitalizations, emergency department visits, number and type of pharmacist interventions, acceptance rate of pharmacist recommendations, and assessment of the pharmacist’s value by clinic providers. There were a total of 26 patients that received a comprehensive medication review from the pharmacist and were compared to a control group, patients that did not receive a CMR. The average patient age for both groups was 76 years old. A total of 11 medication-related problems in the intervention group patients were identified compared with 24 medication-related problems in the control group (p-value 0.002). Pharmacist-led comprehensive medication reviews were associated with a statistically significant different in the number of medication-related problems as defined by the START and STOPP criteria. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determinants of Hospital Pharmacists’ Job Satisfaction in Romanian Hospitals
Pharmacy 2017, 5(4), 66; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5040066 -
Abstract
Aim: The purpose of this study is to identify the level of job satisfaction among hospital pharmacists in Romania in relation to environmental, socio-demographic, and individual factors. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight hospital pharmacists were included in the research. The Job Satisfaction
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Aim: The purpose of this study is to identify the level of job satisfaction among hospital pharmacists in Romania in relation to environmental, socio-demographic, and individual factors. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight hospital pharmacists were included in the research. The Job Satisfaction Scale was used to measure the level of satisfaction with their current jobs, and the TAS-20 was used to evaluate emotional experience and awareness. Additionally, 12 items were formulated in order to identify the reasons for dissatisfaction with jobs, such as budget, number of working hours, legislation, relationships with colleagues, hospital departments, or stakeholders. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 23. Results: The analyses of the data revealed a low level of satisfaction regarding the pay–promotion subscale, a high level of satisfaction with the management–interpersonal relationship dimension, and a high level of satisfaction regarding the organization–communication subscale. Seventy-four percent of subjects are dissatisfied about the annual budget, and 86.3% are not at all satisfied with present legislation. Conclusions: These results are important for hospital pharmacists and hospital management in order to focus on health policies, management, and environmental issues, with the purpose of increasing the level of satisfaction among hospital pharmacists. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge and Attitude toward Registration Trials and Clinical Research: A Survey in a Japanese University Hospital
Pharmacy 2017, 5(4), 67; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5040067 -
Abstract
Clinical research plays a fundamental role in establishing new treatments. Clinical research coordinators are considered essential in clinical research, and medical professionals such as pharmacists often take on this role. Pharmacy students can be considered future candidates for this task. We used questionnaires
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Clinical research plays a fundamental role in establishing new treatments. Clinical research coordinators are considered essential in clinical research, and medical professionals such as pharmacists often take on this role. Pharmacy students can be considered future candidates for this task. We used questionnaires to survey the knowledge of and attitudes toward registration trials and clinical research of pharmacy students at Tokushima University Hospital. All pharmacy students (103) to whom questionnaires were sent responded. Almost all respondents were aware of registration trials and clinical research. More than 90% were aware of the existence of clinical research coordinators, and about half (48.6%) understood their role. In clinical research terminology, most respondents were aware of informed consent and related issues, but fewer than 20% were aware of more practical things. In total, 29.1% and 40.8% of the respondents were willing to carry out and coordinate research. These findings suggest that pharmacy students have basic knowledge of clinical research and that many students are willing to carry out and coordinate clinical research. More practical exposure to clinical research may help to strengthen their future contribution. Further studies may help to determine how to provide education on registration trials and clinical research to pharmacy students. Full article
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