Open AccessReview
Does Competency-Based Education Have a Role in Academic Pharmacy in the United States?
Pharmacy 2017, 5(1), 13; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5010013 -
Abstract
Competency-based Education (CBE) is an educational model that allows students to learn and demonstrate their abilities at their own pace. CBE is growing in popularity in undergraduate educational programs and its role in pharmacy education in the United States (US) is under review.
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Competency-based Education (CBE) is an educational model that allows students to learn and demonstrate their abilities at their own pace. CBE is growing in popularity in undergraduate educational programs and its role in pharmacy education in the United States (US) is under review. In comparison, medical education is utilizing competency-based approaches (such as competencies and Entrustable Professional Activities) to ensure that students possess the required knowledge, skills, and attitudes prior to graduation or program completion. The concept of competency-based approaches is growing in use in pharmacy education in the US, but the future related to aspects of this concept (e.g., mandatory Entrustable Professional Activities) is not certain. A review of pharmacy education’s evolution in the US and a comparison of competency-related terms offers insight into the future use of competency-based approaches and CBE in pharmacy education in the US through the lens of benefits and challenges. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
CPD Aligned to Competency Standards to Support Quality Practice
Pharmacy 2017, 5(1), 12; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5010012 -
Abstract
As medication experts, pharmacists are key members of the patient’s healthcare team. Pharmacists must maintain their competence to practice to remain responsive to the increasingly complex healthcare sector. This paper seeks to determine how competence training for pharmacists may enhance quality in their
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As medication experts, pharmacists are key members of the patient’s healthcare team. Pharmacists must maintain their competence to practice to remain responsive to the increasingly complex healthcare sector. This paper seeks to determine how competence training for pharmacists may enhance quality in their professional development. Results of two separately administered surveys (2012 and 2013) were compared to examine the reported continued professional development (CPD) practices of Australian pharmacists. Examination of results from both studies enabled a focus on how the competency standards inform CPD practice.In the survey administered in 2012, 91% (n = 253/278) pharmacists reported that they knew their current registration requirements. However, in the survey administered in 2013, only 43% (n = 46/107) reported utilization of the National Competency Standards Framework for Pharmacists in Australia (NCS) to self-asses their practice as part of their annual re-registration requirements. Fewer, 23% (n = 25/107), used the NCS to plan their CPD. This may be symptomatic of poor familiarity with the NCS, uncertainty around undertaking self-directed learning as part of a structured learning plan and/or misunderstandings around what CPD should include. This is supported by thematic analysis of pharmacists’ social media comments. Initial and ongoing competence training to support meaningful CPD requires urgent attention in Australia. The competence (knowledge, skills and attributes) required to engage in meaningful CPD practice should be introduced and developed prior to entry into practice; other countries may find they are in a similar position. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Knowledge of Diabetes Mellitus in the Urban Areas of Klang District, Malaysia
Pharmacy 2017, 5(1), 11; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5010011 -
Abstract
Diabetes is the most common cause of non-traumatic lower limb amputations and cardiovascular diseases. However, only a negligible percentage of the patients and subjects knew that the feet are affected in diabetes and diabetes affects the heart. Hence, a cross-sectional study was carried
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Diabetes is the most common cause of non-traumatic lower limb amputations and cardiovascular diseases. However, only a negligible percentage of the patients and subjects knew that the feet are affected in diabetes and diabetes affects the heart. Hence, a cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the knowledge of diabetes mellitus among the public of different age group, gender, ethnicity, and education level. A sample of 400 participants was randomly selected and data was collected using a structured questionnaire under non-contrived setting. The results showed that there is a statistically significant difference in knowledge on diabetes mellitus among different age groups and different ethnic origin but there is no significant difference in the knowledge among different gender and education level. Out of 400 respondents, 284 respondents (71%) knew that diabetes mellitus is actually a condition characterized by raised blood sugar. Age and education level of respondents were found to be the predominant predictive factors on diabetes knowledge, whereas the gender of respondents did not affect the findings of this study. An improved and well-structured educational programme that tackles the areas of weaknesses should be recommended to increase the level of knowledge on diabetes among Malaysians. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Perceived Preparedness of Health Care Students for Providing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment and Management
Pharmacy 2017, 5(1), 9; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5010009 -
Abstract
Early assessment and management of risk factors is known to have significant impact in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its associated burden. Cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management (CVDRAM) is best approached by teamwork across health care professionals. This study aimed at assessing
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Early assessment and management of risk factors is known to have significant impact in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its associated burden. Cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management (CVDRAM) is best approached by teamwork across health care professionals. This study aimed at assessing health care students’ (HCSs) knowledge about the parameters needed for estimating CVD risk, their self-assessed preparedness/confidence and perceived barriers for the provision of CVDRAM services through a survey administered to third and fourth year pharmacy, medical, and nursing students in Qatar. Although all student cohorst achieved similar knowledge scores, less than half (n = 38, 47%) were able to identify all of the six main risk factors necessary to estimate absolute CVD risk, and a third (32%) were unable to identify total cholesterol as an independent risk factor necessary to estimate CVD risk. Training on the use of CVD risk assessment tools differed among the three student cohorts. All student cohorts also perceived similar levels of preparedness in CVDRAM. However, pharmacy students reported the highest preparedness/confidence with the use of the latest CVDRAM guidelines. The majority of statements listed under the barriers scale were perceived by the students as being moderate (median score = 3). Poor public acceptance or unawareness of importance of estimating CVD risk was the only barrier perceived as major by nursing students. Future integration of interprofessional educational (IPE) activities in the CVDRAM curricula of HCSs may be a suitable strategy to minimize barriers and foster collaborative practice for the provision of CVDRAM services in Qatar. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparison of Competences for Healthcare Professions in Europe
Pharmacy 2017, 5(1), 8; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5010008 -
Abstract
In Europe and elsewhere, there is increasing interest in competence-based education (CBE) and training for professional practice in healthcare. This review presents competences for pharmacy practice in Europe and compares them with those for medicine and dentistry. Comparisons amongst competence frameworks were made
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In Europe and elsewhere, there is increasing interest in competence-based education (CBE) and training for professional practice in healthcare. This review presents competences for pharmacy practice in Europe and compares them with those for medicine and dentistry. Comparisons amongst competence frameworks were made by matching the European Directive for Professional Qualifications in sectoral professions such as healthcare (EU directive) with the frameworks of competences elaborated by European consortia in pharmacy (PHAR-QA), medicine (MEDINE), and dentistry (ADEE). The results show that the recommendations of the EU directive for all three professions are similar. There is also widespread similarity in the formulation of competences for all healthcare professions. Furthermore, for medicine and pharmacy, the rankings by practitioners of the vast majority of competences are similar. These results lay the foundations for the design of more interdisciplinary educational programs for healthcare professionals, and for the development of team-based care. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Implementation of Competency-Based Pharmacy Education (CBPE)
Pharmacy 2017, 5(1), 10; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5010010 -
Abstract
Implementation of competency-based pharmacy education (CBPE) is a time-consuming, complicated process, which requires agreement on the tasks of a pharmacist, commitment, institutional stability, and a goal-directed developmental perspective of all stakeholders involved. In this article the main steps in the development of a
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Implementation of competency-based pharmacy education (CBPE) is a time-consuming, complicated process, which requires agreement on the tasks of a pharmacist, commitment, institutional stability, and a goal-directed developmental perspective of all stakeholders involved. In this article the main steps in the development of a fully-developed competency-based pharmacy curriculum (bachelor, master) are described and tips are given for a successful implementation. After the choice for entering into CBPE is made and a competency framework is adopted (step 1), intended learning outcomes are defined (step 2), followed by analyzing the required developmental trajectory (step 3) and the selection of appropriate assessment methods (step 4). Designing the teaching-learning environment involves the selection of learning activities, student experiences, and instructional methods (step 5). Finally, an iterative process of evaluation and adjustment of individual courses, and the curriculum as a whole, is entered (step 6). Successful implementation of CBPE requires a system of effective quality management and continuous professional development as a teacher. In this article suggestions for the organization of CBPE and references to more detailed literature are given, hoping to facilitate the implementation of CBPE. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Curriculum Challenge—The Need for Outcome (Competence) Descriptors
Pharmacy 2017, 5(1), 7; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5010007 -
Abstract
Some outcomes around, for example, communication have been extensively theorised; others such as accountability have been relatively neglected in the teaching and learning literature. The question therefore is: if we do not have a clear understanding of the outcome, can we systematically apply
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Some outcomes around, for example, communication have been extensively theorised; others such as accountability have been relatively neglected in the teaching and learning literature. The question therefore is: if we do not have a clear understanding of the outcome, can we systematically apply good practice principles in course design such that students are able to achieve the outcomes the community and the profession expect? This paper compares and contrasts the literature around competency outcomes regarding students’ communication skills and the development of accountability and proposes a model to guide the selection of teaching and assessment approaches for accountability, based on the students’ sphere of influence. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Developing a Model for Pharmaceutical Palliative Care in Rural Areas—Experience from Scotland
Pharmacy 2017, 5(1), 6; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5010006 -
Abstract
Palliative care is increasingly delivered in the community but access to medicines, particularly ‘out of hours’ remains problematic. This paper describes the experience of developing a model to deliver pharmaceutical palliative care in rural Scotland via the MacMillan Rural Palliative Care Pharmacist Practitioner
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Palliative care is increasingly delivered in the community but access to medicines, particularly ‘out of hours’ remains problematic. This paper describes the experience of developing a model to deliver pharmaceutical palliative care in rural Scotland via the MacMillan Rural Palliative Care Pharmacist Practitioner (MRPP) project. The focus of the service was better integration of the MRPP into different care settings and professional teams, and to develop educational resources for the wider MDT including Care Home and Social Care staff on medicine related issues in palliative care. A variety of integration activities are reported in the paper with advice on how to achieve this. Similarly, many resources were developed, including bespoke training on pharmaceutical matters for Care Home staff. The experience allowed for a three step service and sustainability model for community pharmacy palliative care services to be developed. Moving through the steps, the key roles and responsibilities of the MRPP gradually shift towards the local Community Pharmacist(s), with the MRPP starting from a locality-based hands-on role to a wider supportive facilitating role for local champions. It is acknowledged that successful delivery of the model is dependent on alignment of resources, infrastructure and local community support. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pharmacy Students’ Attitudes and Perceptions of “Virtual Worlds” as an Instructional Tool for Clinical Pharmacy Teaching
Pharmacy 2017, 5(1), 5; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5010005 -
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to explore pharmacy students’ perceptions and experiences of three-dimensional virtual worlds (3DVWs) as an instructional tool for clinical pharmacy teaching. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with Master of Science in Pharmacy students who had participated in communicative
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The objectives of this study were to explore pharmacy students’ perceptions and experiences of three-dimensional virtual worlds (3DVWs) as an instructional tool for clinical pharmacy teaching. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with Master of Science in Pharmacy students who had participated in communicative exercises in a 3DVW. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. More than half of the students were positive to using 3DVWs for educational purposes and see the advantages of having a setting where communication can be practiced in an authentic but ‘safe’ environment available online. However, many students also reported technical difficulties in using the 3DVW which impacted negatively on the learning experience. Perceived ease of use and usefulness of 3DVWs appears to play an important role for students. The students’ level of engagement relates to not only their computer skills, but also to the value they place on 3DVWs as an instructional tool. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Soothing Properties of Glycerol in Cough Syrups for Acute Cough Due to Common Cold
Pharmacy 2017, 5(1), 4; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5010004 -
Abstract
The treatment and management of acute cough due to common cold costs billions of dollars of healthcare expenditure and there is a growing opinion that a simple linctus containing glycerol with flavourings such as honey and lemon is a safe and effective treatment
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The treatment and management of acute cough due to common cold costs billions of dollars of healthcare expenditure and there is a growing opinion that a simple linctus containing glycerol with flavourings such as honey and lemon is a safe and effective treatment for acute cough in children and adults. Glycerol is a component of most cough syrups, and although it is often thought of only as a solvent or thickening agent in cough syrups, it may be a major component for the efficacy of cough syrups due to its special properties of lubrication, demulcency, sweetness, and acting as a humectant. The major benefit of cough syrups in soothing cough is likely due to the properties of the syrup rather than the active ingredients and this review discusses the special properties of glycerol in relation to the treatment of acute cough. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
From Learning to Decision-Making: A Cross-Sectional Survey of a Clinical Pharmacist-Steered Journal Club
Pharmacy 2017, 5(1), 3; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5010003 -
Abstract
Journal clubs have been traditionally incorporated into academic training programs to enhance competency in the interpretation of literature. We designed a structured journal club (JC) to improve skills in the interpretation of literature; however, we were not aware of how learners (interns, residents,
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Journal clubs have been traditionally incorporated into academic training programs to enhance competency in the interpretation of literature. We designed a structured journal club (JC) to improve skills in the interpretation of literature; however, we were not aware of how learners (interns, residents, clinical pharmacists, etc.) would perceive it. We aimed to assess the perception of learners at different levels of pharmacy training. A cross-sectional design was used. A self-administered online survey was emailed to JC attendees from 2010–2014 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The survey questions included: introduction sessions, topic selection, JC layout, interaction with the moderator, and decision-making skills by clinical pharmacists. The response rate was 58/89 (65%); 52/54 (96%) respondents believed that JC adds to their knowledge in interpreting literature. Topic selection met the core curriculum requirements for credentials exams for 16/36 (44.4%), while 16/22 (73%) presenters had good to excellent interaction with the moderator. JC facilitated decision-making for 10/12 (83%) of clinical pharmacists. The results suggest that clinical pharmacist-steered JC may serve as an effective tool to empower learners at different levels of pharmacy practice, with evidence-based principles for interpretation of literature and guide informed decision-making. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Pharmacy in 2016
Pharmacy 2017, 5(1), 2; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5010002 -
Open AccessCase Report
Fondaparinux Outpatient Use for Patients with a Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia History: A Case Report and Review
Pharmacy 2017, 5(1), 1; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5010001 -
Abstract
The purpose of this article is to report a case of fondaparinux outpatient utilization for anticoagulation in a patient with a past medical history of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and discuss the options and need for future anticoagulation research in this unique patient population.
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The purpose of this article is to report a case of fondaparinux outpatient utilization for anticoagulation in a patient with a past medical history of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and discuss the options and need for future anticoagulation research in this unique patient population. A 63-year-old Caucasian female with a previous medical history of HIT thromboprophylaxed with warfarin for a pulmonary embolism presented to an anticoagulation clinic with a subtherapeutic international normalized ratio (INR) after missed warfarin doses. The patient was instructed to increase her warfarin dose and was prescribed fondaparinux daily injections until her INR was in range. The patient tolerated the fondaparinux therapy without thromboembolic, thrombocytopenia or bleeding occurrence. Fondaparinux therapy for HIT is controversial and differs between established guidelines. Currently, there is no studied use of fondaparinux for thromboprophylaxis in warfarin therapy outpatients with a HIT history who need thromboprophylaxis while undergoing therapy for a procedure, or those who have a subtherapeutic INR. Further study of the outpatient use of fondaparinux for this patient subset is needed to explore the potential benefit of an outpatient, less invasive, less expensive and potentially better tolerated option. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Exploration of Learning during an International Health Elective Using Photovoice Methodology
Pharmacy 2016, 4(4), 39; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4040039 -
Abstract
Based on surveys and structured interviews, International Health Experiences (IHEs) improve cultural sensitivity, communication, and self-confidence among health professions students. However, open-ended methods to explore student learning during an IHE are not widely utilized. We sought to explore pharmacy student-identified learning during an
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Based on surveys and structured interviews, International Health Experiences (IHEs) improve cultural sensitivity, communication, and self-confidence among health professions students. However, open-ended methods to explore student learning during an IHE are not widely utilized. We sought to explore pharmacy student-identified learning during an IHE in an open-ended fashion using Photovoice methodology. Pharmacy students on an IHE in Guatemala were given disposable cameras and asked to photograph images that reflected their learning. Through the application of Photovoice methodology students captured, reflected upon, and presented photos to describe the learning they experienced. Themes were drawn from the reflective and focus group data collected. During three IHEs, six students captured seventy-seven photos. Four main learning themes emerged: culture/cultural competence, professional growth, shifting of attitudes, and meaningful/emotional experiences. Pharmacy students documented learning in expected (cultural competence, professional growth) and unexpected (emotional experiences) domains during an IHE. Photovoice may be an effective methodology for the exploration of learning, allowing students to capture their own learning including and beyond what is expected by their instructors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Medication Safety: Experiential Learning for Pharmacy Students and Staff in a Hospital Setting
Pharmacy 2016, 4(4), 38; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4040038 -
Abstract
Medication Safety has been an established pharmacy specialty in Australian hospitals since the early 2000s and is now one of the ten Australian hospital accreditation standards. Although advances have occurred, medication-related patient harm has not been eradicated. Victorian undergraduate pharmacy programs include some
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Medication Safety has been an established pharmacy specialty in Australian hospitals since the early 2000s and is now one of the ten Australian hospital accreditation standards. Although advances have occurred, medication-related patient harm has not been eradicated. Victorian undergraduate pharmacy programs include some aspects of medication safety, however clinical pharmacy experience, along with interpersonal and project management skills, are required to prepare pharmacists to be confident medication safety practitioners. This article outlines the range of medication safety-related training offered at an Australian tertiary teaching hospital, including; on-site tutorial for undergraduate students, experiential placement for pharmacy interns, orientation for pharmacy staff and resources for credentialing pharmacists for extended roles. Improvements continue to be made, such as electronic medication management systems, which increase the safe use of medications and facilitate patient care. Implementation and evaluation of these systems require medication safety expertise. Patients’ engaging in their own care is an acknowledged safety improvement strategy and is enhanced by pharmacist facilitation. Building educator skills and integrating experiential teaching with university curricula should ensure pharmacists have both the knowledge and experience early in their careers, in order to have a leading role in future medication management. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Early Vancomycin Concentrations and the Applications of a Pharmacokinetic Extrapolation Method to Recognize Sub-Therapeutic Outcomes
Pharmacy 2016, 4(4), 37; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4040037 -
Abstract
Vancomycin trough concentrations should be measured within 30 min of the next dose, but studies have shown that troughs are often measured too early, producing erroneous results that could lead to dosing errors. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency
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Vancomycin trough concentrations should be measured within 30 min of the next dose, but studies have shown that troughs are often measured too early, producing erroneous results that could lead to dosing errors. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency of early trough measurements and to evaluate whether pharmacokinetically extrapolating mistimed concentrations may locate sub-therapeutic concentrations. Vancomycin troughs were retrospectively reviewed. For troughs ≥10 mg/L and measured >0.5 h early, the true trough was estimated using pharmacokinetic extrapolation methods to identify sub-therapeutic outcomes. Differences ≥2 mg/L between the measured and estimated true trough level was considered to have potential clinical significance. Of 143 troughs evaluated, 62 (43%) were measured too early and 48 of those troughs were ≥10 mg/L. 25% of those 48 troughs were sub-therapeutic. The potential for a difference ≥2 mg/L between the measured and estimated true trough was found to be greatest when the measured trough was ≥10 mg/L, the patient’s creatinine clearance (CrCl) was ≥60 mL/min, and the timing error was ≥2 h. To increase the therapeutic utility of early vancomycin trough concentrations, estimated true troughs can be determined by extrapolating measured values based on the time difference and CrCl. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Using Continuing Professional Development with Portfolio in a Pharmaceutics Course
Pharmacy 2016, 4(4), 36; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4040036 -
Abstract
The introduction of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) to encourage individual life-long learning as a way of maintaining professional competency in pharmacy has faced resistance. To investigate ways to address this barrier we included CPD with portfolio in a university Pharmaceutics course. Underpinning knowledge
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The introduction of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) to encourage individual life-long learning as a way of maintaining professional competency in pharmacy has faced resistance. To investigate ways to address this barrier we included CPD with portfolio in a university Pharmaceutics course. Underpinning knowledge for the course was delivered using a flipped classroom approach and students used the CPD model to address clinical scenarios presented in a simulated pharmacy setting. Students produced portfolio items for the different case scenarios and submitted these for assessment. This provided the opportunity for students to carry out repeated application of the CPD cycle and, in so doing, develop skills in critical thinking for self-reflection and self-evaluation. This course was designed to encourage the development of higher level learning skills for future self-directed learning. Thirty six students submitted a completed portfolio. Twenty nine students achieved a result of >70%, five students scored between 57%–69%, one student obtained a mark of 50% and one student failed. The end of course survey revealed that while students found portfolio development challenging (40%), they also reported that it was effective for self-learning (54%). Differentiating between the concepts “reflection” and “evaluation” in CPD was problematic for some students and the use of clearer, simpler language should be used to explain these processes in future CPD work. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Irrational Use of Medicines—A Summary of Key Concepts
Pharmacy 2016, 4(4), 35; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4040035 -
Abstract
Medicines play an integral part of healthcare delivery. However, they are expensive commodities and account for a significant proportion of overall health expenditure in most countries. Irrational use of medicines is a major challenge facing many health systems across the world. Such practices
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Medicines play an integral part of healthcare delivery. However, they are expensive commodities and account for a significant proportion of overall health expenditure in most countries. Irrational use of medicines is a major challenge facing many health systems across the world. Such practices are likely to lead to poor health delivery that may put patients at risk and result in wastage of scarce resources that could have been used to tackle other pressing health needs. The concept of “rational use of medicine” can at times be confusing and not easily appreciated by patients, healthcare providers, policy makers, or the public, all of whom need to collaborate effectively to address this challenge. In this article, we summarize basic concepts such as rational medicine use, good prescribing and dispensing, and explore some of the factors that contribute to irrational use of medicines as well as potential impacts of such practices. This article has been written with the intention of offering a clear, concise, and easy to understand explanation of basic medicine use concepts for health professionals, patients, policy makers, and the public. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Replicable Interprofessional Competency Outcomes from High-Volume, Inter-Institutional, Interprofessional Simulation
Pharmacy 2016, 4(4), 34; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4040034 -
Abstract
There are significant limitations among the few prior studies that have examined the development and implementation of interprofessional education (IPE) experiences to accommodate a high volume of students from several disciplines and from different institutions. The present study addressed these gaps by seeking
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There are significant limitations among the few prior studies that have examined the development and implementation of interprofessional education (IPE) experiences to accommodate a high volume of students from several disciplines and from different institutions. The present study addressed these gaps by seeking to determine the extent to which a single, large, inter-institutional, and IPE simulation event improves student perceptions of the importance and relevance of IPE and simulation as a learning modality, whether there is a difference in students’ perceptions among disciplines, and whether the results are reproducible. A total of 290 medical, nursing, pharmacy, and physical therapy students participated in one of two large, inter-institutional, IPE simulation events. Measurements included student perceptions about their simulation experience using the Attitude Towards Teamwork in Training Undergoing Designed Educational Simulation (ATTITUDES) Questionnaire and open-ended questions related to teamwork and communication. Results demonstrated a statistically significant improvement across all ATTITUDES subscales, while time management, role confusion, collaboration, and mutual support emerged as significant themes. Results of the present study indicate that a single IPE simulation event can reproducibly result in significant and educationally meaningful improvements in student perceptions towards teamwork, IPE, and simulation as a learning modality. Full article
Open AccessCommentary
Serving with Pharmacy Students: Reflections from a Medical Mission Team Leader and Preceptor
Pharmacy 2016, 4(4), 33; doi:10.3390/pharmacy4040033 -
Abstract
The medical mission field is an innovative setting for training and evaluating health care professional students. The motivating factor of serving indigent populations as a means of a humanitarian, or oftentimes a spiritual act, makes medical missions an attractive option for student participation.
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The medical mission field is an innovative setting for training and evaluating health care professional students. The motivating factor of serving indigent populations as a means of a humanitarian, or oftentimes a spiritual act, makes medical missions an attractive option for student participation. At the Gregory School of Pharmacy, medical mission teams are an integral part of the pharmacy program, including the opportunity for students to earn elective credit during their fourth year. This commentary provides five key elements to consider when serving with, training and evaluating pharmacy students from the perspective of a team leader and preceptor. Full article