Pharmaceuticals2016, 9(3), 52; doi:10.3390/ph9030052 - published 23 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective, Ca2+ permeable cation channel activated by noxious heat, and chemical ligands, such as capsaicin and resiniferatoxin (RTX). Many compounds have been developed that either activate or inhibit TRPV1, but none of them are in routine clinical practice. This review will discuss the rationale for antagonists and agonists of TRPV1 for pain relief and other conditions, and strategies to develop new, better drugs to target this ion channel, using the newly available high-resolution structures.
Pharmaceuticals2016, 9(3), 49; doi:10.3390/ph9030049 - published 18 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The plant maca, grown at 4000 m altitude in the Peruvian Central Andes, contains hypocotyls that have been used as food and in traditional medicine for centuries. The aim of this research was to provide results on some health effects of oral administration of spray-dried extracts of black or red maca (Lepidium meyenii) in adult human subjects living at low (LA) and high altitude (HA). A total of 175 participants were given 3 g of either placebo, black, or red maca extract daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in sexual desire, mood, energy, health-related quality of life score (HRQL), and chronic mountain sickness (CMS) score, or in glycaemia, blood pressure, and hemoglobin levels. Secondary outcomes were acceptability and safety, assessed using the Likert test and side effect self-recording, respectively, and the effect of altitude. At low altitude, 32, 30, and 32 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, or black maca, respectively. At high altitudes, 33, 35, and 31 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, and black maca, respectively. Consumption of spray-dried extracts of red and black maca resulted in improvement in mood, energy, and health status, and reduced CMS score. Fatty acids and macamides were higher in spray-dried extracts of black maca than in red maca. GABA predominated in spray-dried extracts of red maca. Effects on mood, energy, and CMS score were better with red maca. Black maca and, in smaller proportions, red maca reduced hemoglobin levels only in highlanders with abnormally high hemoglobin levels; neither variety of maca reduced hemoglobin levels in lowlanders. Black maca reduced blood glucose levels. Both varieties produced similar responses in mood, and HRQL score. Maca extracts consumed at LA or HA had good acceptability and did not show serious adverse effects. In conclusion, maca extract consumption relative to the placebo improved quality of life parameters. Differences in the level of improvement between red and black maca are probably due to differences in the composition of these two plant varieties. Both maca extracts were well tolerated and safe.
Pharmaceuticals2016, 9(3), 50; doi:10.3390/ph9030050 - published 17 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: During the last three to four decades the prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus has greatly increased worldwide, including in the United States. Both the short- and long-term forecasts predict serious consequences for the near future, and encourage the development of solutions for the prevention and management of obesity and diabetes mellitus. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels were identified in tissues and organs important for the control of whole body metabolism. A variety of TRP channels has been shown to play a role in the regulation of hormone release, energy expenditure, pancreatic function, and neurotransmitter release in control, obese and/or diabetic conditions. Moreover, dietary supplementation of natural ligands of TRP channels has been shown to have potential beneficial effects in obese and diabetic conditions. These findings raised the interest and likelihood for potential drug development. In this mini-review, we discuss possibilities for better management of obesity and diabetes mellitus based on TRP-dependent mechanisms.
Pharmaceuticals2016, 9(3), 51; doi:10.3390/ph9030051 - published 17 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Column-switching high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is extensively used for the critical analysis of radiolabeled ligands and their metabolites in plasma. However, the lack of streamlined apparatus and consequently varying protocols remain as a challenge among positron emission tomography laboratories. We report here the prototype apparatus and implementation of a fully automated and simplified column-switching procedure to allow for the easy and automated determination of radioligands and their metabolites in up to 5 mL of plasma. The system has been used with conventional UV and coincidence radiation detectors, as well as with a single quadrupole mass spectrometer.
Pharmaceuticals2016, 9(3), 48; doi:10.3390/ph9030048 - published 12 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Benefits to health from a high consumption of fruits and vegetables are well established and have been attributed to bioactive secondary metabolites present in edible plants. However, the effects of specific health-related phytochemicals within a complex food matrix are difficult to assess. In an attempt to address this problem, we have used elicitation to improve the nutraceutical content of seedlings of Brassica oleracea grown under controlled conditions. Analysis, by LC-MS, of the glucosinolate, isothiocyanate and phenolic compound content of juices obtained from sprouts indicated that elicitation induces an enrichment of several phenolics, particularly of the anthocyanin fraction. To test the biological activity of basal and enriched juices we took advantage of a recently developed in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium. Both sprouts’ juices protected intestinal barrier integrity in Caco-2 cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor α under marginal zinc deprivation, with the enriched juice showing higher protection. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that the extent of rescue from stress-induced epithelial dysfunction correlated with the composition in bioactive molecules of the juices and, in particular, with a group of phenolic compounds, including several anthocyanins, quercetin-3-Glc, cryptochlorogenic, neochlorogenic and cinnamic acids.
Pharmaceuticals2016, 9(3), 47; doi:10.3390/ph9030047 - published 11 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Control of chronic pain is frequently inadequate or can be associated with debilitating side effects. Ablation of certain nociceptive neurons, while retaining all other sensory modalities and motor function, represents a new therapeutic approach to controlling severe pain while avoiding off-target side effects. transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) is a calcium permeable nonselective cation channel expressed on the peripheral and central terminals of small-diameter sensory neurons. Highly selective chemoablation of TRPV1-containing peripheral nerve endings, or the entire TRPV1-expressing neuron itself, can be used to control chronic pain. Administration of the potent TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX) to neuronal perikarya or nerve terminals induces calcium cytotoxicity and selective lesioning of the TRPV1-expressing nociceptive primary afferent population. This selective neuroablation has been coined “molecular neurosurgery” and has the advantage of sparing motor, proprioceptive, and other somatosensory functions that are so important for coordinated movement, performing activities of daily living, and maintaining quality of life. This review examines the mechanisms and preclinical data underlying the therapeutic use of RTX and examples of such use for the management of chronic pain in clinical veterinary and human pain states.