Nutrients2015, 7(7), 5497-5514; doi:10.3390/nu7075233 (registering DOI) - published 7 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Reduced rank regression (RRR) is an innovative technique to establish dietary patterns related to biochemical risk factors for type 2 diabetes, but has not been applied in sub-Saharan Africa. In a hospital-based case-control study for type 2 diabetes in Kumasi (diabetes cases, 538; controls, 668) dietary intake was assessed by a specific food frequency questionnaire. After random split of our study population, we derived a dietary pattern in the training set using RRR with adiponectin, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides as responses and 35 food items as predictors. This pattern score was applied to the validation set, and its association with type 2 diabetes was examined by logistic regression. The dietary pattern was characterized by a high consumption of plantain, cassava, and garden egg, and a low intake of rice, juice, vegetable oil, eggs, chocolate drink, sweets, and red meat; the score correlated positively with serum triglycerides and negatively with adiponectin. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of type 2 diabetes for the highest quintile compared to the lowest was 4.43 (95% confidence interval: 1.87–10.50, p for trend < 0.001). The identified dietary pattern increases the odds of type 2 diabetes in urban Ghanaians, which is mainly attributed to increased serum triglycerides.
Nutrients2015, 7(7), 5484-5496; doi:10.3390/nu7075231 (registering DOI) - published 7 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Nutrition therapy is essential for diabetes treatment, and assessment of dietary intake can be time consuming. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument to measure diabetic patients’ adherence to Canadian diabetes nutrition recommendations. Specific information derived from three, repeated 24-h dietary recalls of 64 type 2 diabetic patients, aged 59.2 ± 9.7 years, was correlated with a total score and individual items of the Perceived Dietary Adherence Questionnaire (PDAQ). Test-retest reliability was completed by 27 type 2 diabetic patients, aged 62.8 ± 8.4 years. The correlation coefficients for PDAQ items versus 24-h recalls ranged from 0.46 to 0.11. The intra-class correlation (0.78) was acceptable, indicating good reliability. The results suggest that PDAQ is a valid and reliable measure of diabetes nutrition recommendations. Because it is quick to administer and score, it may be useful as a screening tool in research and as a clinical tool to monitor dietary adherence.
Nutrients2015, 7(7), 5469-5483; doi:10.3390/nu7075232 (registering DOI) - published 7 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder caused by abnormal carbohydrate metabolism, and closely associated with abnormal lipid metabolism and hepato-renal dysfunction. This study investigated the anti-diabetic and hepato-renal protective properties of ziyuglycoside I (ZG01) derivative on type 2 diabetes. ZG01 was isolated from roots of Sanguisorba officinalis and chemically modified by deglycosylation and esterification to obtained ziyuglycoside II methyl ester (ZG02-ME). Here, we showed that ZG02-ME has stronger anti-diabetic activity than the original compound (ZG01) through decreasing blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and insulin levels in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes (db/db mice). We further found that ZG02-ME treatment effectively ameliorated serum insulin, leptin and C-peptide levels, which are key metabolic hormones, in db/db mice. In addition, we showed that elevated basal blood lipid levels were decreased by ZG02-ME treatment in db/db mice. Furthermore, treatment of ZG02-ME significantly decreased serum AST, ALT, BUN, creatinine, and liver lipid peroxidation in db/db mice. These results demonstrated that compared to ZG01, chemically modified ZG02-ME possess improved anti-diabetic properties, and has hepato-renal protective activities in type 2 diabetes.
Nutrients2015, 7(7), 5443-5468; doi:10.3390/nu7075230 (registering DOI) - published 7 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Obesity and being overweight are linked with a cluster of metabolic and vascular disorders that have been termed the metabolic syndrome. This syndrome promotes the incidence of cardiovascular diseases that are an important public health problem because they represent a major cause of death worldwide. Whereas there is not a universally-accepted set of diagnostic criteria, most expert groups agree that this syndrome is defined by an endothelial dysfunction, an impaired insulin sensitivity and hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity and hypertension. Epidemiological studies suggest that the beneficial cardiovascular health effects of diets rich in green tea are, in part, mediated by their flavonoid content, with particular benefits provided by members of this family such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Although their bioavailability is discussed, various studies suggest that EGCG modulates cellular and molecular mechanisms of various symptoms leading to metabolic syndrome. Therefore, according to in vitro and in vivo model data, this review attempts to increase our understanding about the beneficial properties of EGCG to prevent metabolic syndrome.
Nutrients2015, 7(7), 5423-5442; doi:10.3390/nu7075229 - published 6 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We examined the effect of nutritional supplements (modified Age Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS)-II formulation containing vitamins, minerals, lutein, resveratrol, and omega-3 fatty acids) on choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Supplements were administered alone and combined with intravitreal anti-VEGF in an early-CNV (diode laser-induced) murine model. Sixty mice were evenly divided into group V (oral vehicle, intravitreal saline), group S (oral supplement, intravitreal saline), group V+aVEGF (oral vehicle, intravitreal anti-VEGF), and group S+aVEGF (oral supplement, intravitreal anti-VEGF). Vehicle and nutritional supplements were administered daily for 38 days beginning 10 days before laser. Intravitreal injections were administered 48 h after laser. Fluorescein angiography (FA) and flat-mount CD31 staining evaluated leakage and CNV lesion area. Expression of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity, and NLRP3 were evaluated with RT-PCR, zymography, and western-blot. Leakage, CNV size, VEGF gene and protein expression were lowerin groups V+aVEGF, S+aVEGF, and S than in V (all p < 0.05). Additionally, MMP-9 gene expression differed between groups S + aVEGF and V (p < 0.05) and MMP-9 activity was lower in S + aVEGF than in V and S (both p < 0.01). Levels of MMP-2 and NLRP3 were not significantly different between groups. Nutritional supplements either alone or combined with anti-VEGF may mitigate CNV development and inhibit retinal disease involving VEGF overexpression and CNV.
Nutrients2015, 7(7), 5413-5422; doi:10.3390/nu7075227 - published 3 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Many people worldwide are vitamin D (VTD) deficient or insufficient, and there is still no consensus on the dose of VTD that should be administered to achieve a 25(OH)D concentration of 20 or 30 ng/mL. In this study, we aimed to determine an adapted supplementation of VTD able to quickly and safely increase the vitamin D status of healthy adults with low 25(OH)D. One hundred and fifty (150) subjects were randomized into three groups, each to receive, orally, a loading dose of 50,000, 100,000 or 200,000 IU of VTD3 at Week 0, followed by 25,000, 50,000 or 100,000 IU at Week 4 and Week 8. Whereas 25(OH)D baseline values were not different between groups (p = 0.42), a significant increase was observed at Week 12 (p < 0.0001) with a mean change from baseline of 7.72 ± 5.08, 13.3 ± 5.88 and 20.12 ± 7.79 ng/mL. A plateau was reached after eight weeks. No related adverse event was recorded. This study demonstrated a linear dose-response relationship with an increase in 25(OH)D levels proportional to the dose administered. In conclusion, a loading dose of 200,000 IU VTD3 followed by a monthly dose of 100,000 IU is the best dosing schedule to quickly and safely correct the VTD status.