Nutrients2016, 8(8), 456; doi:10.3390/nu8080456 (registering DOI) - published 28 July 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We evaluated the role of iron deficiency (ID) without anemia on hearing function and cochlear pathophysiology of young rats before and after noise exposure. We used rats at developmental stages as an animal model to induce ID without anemia by dietary iron restriction. We have established this dietary restriction model in the rat that should enable us to study the effects of iron deficiency in the absence of severe anemia on hearing and ribbon synapses. Hearing function was measured on Postnatal Day (PND) 21 after induction of ID using auditory brainstem response (ABR). Then, the young rats were exposed to loud noise on PND 21. After noise exposure, hearing function was again measured. We observed the morphology of ribbon synapses, hair cells and spiral ganglion cells (SGCs), and assessed the expression of myosin VIIa, vesicular glutamate transporter 3 and prestin in the cochlea. ID without anemia did not elevate ABR threshold shifts, but reduced ABR wave I peak amplitude of young rats. At 70, 80, and 90 dB SPL, amplitudes of wave I (3.11 ± 0.96 µV, 3.52 ± 1.31 µV, and 4.37 ± 1.08 µV, respectively) in pups from the ID group were decreased compared to the control (5.92 ± 1.67 µV, 6.53 ± 1.70 µV, and 6.90 ± 1.76 µV, respectively) (p < 0.05). Moreover, ID without anemia did not impair the morphology hair cells and SGCs, but decreased the number of ribbon synapses. Before noise exposure, the mean number of ribbon synapses per inner hair cell (IHC) was significantly lower in the ID group (8.44 ± 1.21) compared to that seen in the control (13.08 ± 1.36) (p < 0.05). In addition, the numbers of ribbon synapses per IHC of young rats in the control (ID group) were 6.61 ± 1.59, 3.07 ± 0.83, 5.85 ± 1.63 and 12.25 ± 1.97 (3.75 ± 1.45, 2.03 ± 1.08, 3.81 ± 1.70 and 4.01 ± 1.65) at 1, 4, 7 and 14 days after noise exposure, respectively. Moreover, ABR thresholds at 4 and 8 kHz in young rats from the ID group were significantly elevated at 7 and 14 days after noise exposure compared to control (p < 0.05). The average number of young rat SGCs from the ID group were significantly decreased in the basal turn of the cochlea compared to the control (p < 0.05). Therefore, ID without anemia delayed the recovery from noise-induced hearing loss and ribbon synapses damage, increased SGCs loss, and upregulated prestin after noise exposure. Thus, the cochleae in rat pups with ID without anemia were potentially susceptible to loud noise exposure, and this deficit may be attributed to the reduction of ribbon synapses and SGCs.
Nutrients2016, 8(8), 454; doi:10.3390/nu8080454 (registering DOI) - published 28 July 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This study aimed to examine the reproducibility and validity of a new food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in a birth cohort study to estimate the usual consumption frequencies of foods during pregnancy. The reference measure was the average of three inconsecutive 24 h diet recalls (24 HR) administrated between two FFQs, and the reproducibility was measured by repeating the first FFQ (FFQ1) approximately eight weeks later (FFQ2). A total of 210 pregnant women from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study (BIGCS) with full data were included in the analysis. The Spearman’s correlation coefficients of FFQ1 and FFQ2 ranged from 0.33 to 0.71. The intraclass correlation coefficients of the two FFQs ranged from 0.22 to 0.71. The Spearman’s correlation coefficients of the 24 HR and FFQ2 ranged from 0.23 to 0.62. Cross-classification analysis showed 65.1% of participants were classified into same and contiguous quintiles, while only 3.2% were misclassified into the distant quintiles. Bland-Altman methods showed good agreement for most food groups across the range of frequencies between FFQ1 and FFQ2. Our findings indicated that the reproducibility and validity of the FFQ used in BIGCS for assessing the usual consumption frequencies of foods during pregnancy were acceptable.
Nutrients2016, 8(8), 458; doi:10.3390/nu8080458 (registering DOI) - published 28 July 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Tea leaf (Camellia sinensis) is rich in catechins, which endow tea with various health benefits. There are more than ten catechin compounds in tea, among which epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) is the most abundant. Epidemiological studies on the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast cancer were summarized, and the inhibitory effects of tea catechins on breast cancer, with EGCG as a representative compound, were reviewed in the present paper. The controversial results regarding the role of tea in breast cancer and areas for further study were discussed.
Nutrients2016, 8(8), 457; doi:10.3390/nu8080457 (registering DOI) - published 28 July 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Background/Aims: Vitamin D has been investigated for many non-skeletal effects. The objective of this study was to determine whether circulating lipids, systemic inflammation, and biomarkers of endothelial cell activation varied with the vitamin D status of older Australians. Methods: One hundred and one participants were proportionately and randomly sampled across tertiles of 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) from a larger cohort of free living older adults (T1 median = 97; T2 median = 74.5; T3 median = 56.8 nmol/L). Overnight fasting blood samples were assayed for 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), insulin, triacylglycerol (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Markers of systemic inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) and endothelial activation (hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), P-selectin and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM), soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)) were determined. A general linear model multivariate analysis with a backward elimination procedure was performed. Results: Eighty-three participants (48 women, 35 men), aged 65 ± 7.7 years, BMI 28 ± 4.5 kg/m2, with complete data were analyzed. The final parsimonious model controlled for age, gender, BMI, and McAuley’s index, but excluded season, medications, and PTH. There were significant differences across 25(OH)D tertiles in TC (T1 < T3, p = 0.003; T2 < T3, p = 0.001), LDL-C (T1 < T3, p = 0.005; T2 < T3, p = 0.001), TAG (T2 < T3, p = 0.026), HGF (T1 > T3, p = 0.009) and sVCAM (T1 > T3, P = 0.04). Conclusions: Higher vitamin D status may protect the endothelium through reduced dyslipidaemia and increased HGF.
Nutrients2016, 8(8), 455; doi:10.3390/nu8080455 (registering DOI) - published 28 July 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of diet on changes in parameters describing the body size phenotype of metabolically healthy obese subjects. The databases Medline, Scopus, Web of Knowledge and Embase were searched for clinical studies carried out between 1958 and June 2016 that reported the effect of dietary intervention on BMI, blood pressure, concentration of fasting triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting glucose level, the homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP) in metabolically healthy, obese subjects. Twelve clinical studies met inclusion criteria. The combined analyzed population consists of 1827 subjects aged 34.4 to 61.1 with a BMI > 30 kg/m2. Time of intervention ranged from eight to 104 weeks. The baseline characteristics related to lipid profile were more favorable for metabolically healthy obese than for metabolically unhealthy obese. The meta-analyses revealed a significant associations between restricted energy diet and BMI (95% confidence interval (CI): −0.88, −0.19), blood pressure (systolic blood pressure (SBP): −4.73 mmHg; 95% CI: −7.12, −2.33; and diastolic blood pressure (DBP): −2.75 mmHg; 95% CI: −4.30, −1.21) and TG (−0.11 mmol/l; 95% CI: −0.16, −0.06). Changes in fasting glucose, HOMA-IR and hsCRP did not show significant changes. Sufficient evidence was not found to support the use of specific diets in metabolically healthy obese subjects. This analysis suggests that the effect of caloric restriction exerts its effects through a reduction in BMI, blood pressure and triglycerides in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) patients.
Nutrients2016, 8(8), 453; doi:10.3390/nu8080453 - published 27 July 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Dear Editor, We read with interest the recently published original article entitled “Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with TotalWater and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study” by Nissensohn et al.  in Nutrients.[...]