Nutrients2014, 6(3), 1016-1028; doi:10.3390/nu6031016 (doi registration under processing) - published online 7 March 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The effect of Pediococcus acidilactici M76 (lactic acid bacteria) isolated from makgeolli on mice fed a high fat diet was investigated to clarify the lipid lowering function. C57BL/6J male mice were randomly divided into a normal diet (ND) group, high fat diet (HD) group, HD plus Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 20284 reference strain (PR) group, and HD plus Pediococcus acidilactici M76 strain (PA) groups. The lyophilized PA and PR strain were dissolved in distilled water at a final concentration of 1.25 × 109 cfu/mL and was given orally to animals at a dose of 4 mL/kg body weight for 12 weeks. The PA group had a lower final body weight, adipose tissue weight, and lipid profile than those in the HD group. Additionally, level of ACC, FAS and PPAR-γ, a key lipid synthesis enzyme, was markedly suppressed in the PA compared to those in the HD group. These data suggest that P. acidilactici M76 may exert a lipid-lowering effect in high fat diet- induced obese mice.
Nutrients2014, 6(3), 1003-1015; doi:10.3390/nu6031003 (doi registration under processing) - published online 7 March 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: As previously reported, high temperature- and high pressure-treated red ginseng (HRG) contain higher contents of phenolic compounds and protect C2C12 muscle cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes against oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of HRG on oxidative stress using a mouse model. Our results show that the levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase, hepatic malondialdehyde in the HRG group were significantly lower than those of the exercise groups supplemented with commercial red ginseng (CRG) or not supplemented. The muscular glycogen level, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activities of the HGR group were higher than that of the CGR group. Furthermore, the HRG treatment group displayed upregulated mRNA expression of Cu/Zn-SOD and muscle regulatory factor 4. These results indicate that HRG may protect oxidative stress induced by exercise as well as improve exercise performance capacity.
Nutrients2014, 6(3), 985-1002; doi:10.3390/nu6030985 - published online 4 March 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Food availability and associated sensory cues such as olfaction are known to trigger a range of hormonal and behavioural responses. When food availability is predictable these physiological and behavioural responses can become entrained to set times and occur in anticipation of food rather than being dependent on the food-related cues. Here we summarise the range of physiological and behavioural responses to food when the time of its availability is unpredictable, and consider the potential to manipulate feeding patterns for benefit in metabolic and mental health.
Nutrients2014, 6(3), 974-984; doi:10.3390/nu6030974 - published online 3 March 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Cross-sectional studies have reported positive relationships between serum lutein concentrations and higher physical activity levels. The purpose of the study was to determine whether increasing plasma lutein levels increases physical activity. Forty-four older adults (BMI, 25.3 ± 2.6 kg/m2; age, 68.8 ± 6.4 year) not meeting Australian physical activity guidelines (150 min/week of moderate to vigorous activity) were randomized to consume capsules containing 21 mg of lutein or placebo with 250 mL of full-cream milk per day for 4 weeks and encouraged to increase physical activity. Physical activity was assessed by self-report, pedometry and accelerometry (daily activity counts and sedentary time). Exercise self-efficacy was assessed by questionnaire. Thirty-nine participants competed the study (Lutein = 19, Placebo = 20). Lutein increased plasma lutein concentrations compared with placebo (p < 0.001). Absolute and percentage changes in plasma lutein were inversely associated with absolute (r = −0.36, p = 0.03) and percentage changes (r = −0.39, p = 0.02) in sedentary time. Percentage change in plasma lutein was positively associated with the percentage change in average daily activity counts (r = 0.36, p = 0.03). Exercise self-efficacy did not change (p = 0.16). Lutein increased plasma lutein, which was associated with increased physical activity and reduced sedentary time in older adults. Larger trials should evaluate whether Lutein can provide health benefits over the longer term.
Nutrients2014, 6(3), 950-973; doi:10.3390/nu6030950 - published online 3 March 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding vitamin A-dependent regulation of sex-specific differences in metabolic diseases, inflammation, and certain cancers. We focus on the characterization of the aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 family of enzymes (ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3) that catalyze conversion of retinaldehyde to retinoic acid. Additionally, we propose a “horizontal transfer of signaling” from estrogen to retinoids through the action of ALDH1A1. Although estrogen does not directly influence expression of Aldh1a1, it has the ability to suppress Aldh1a2 and Aldh1a3, thereby establishing a female-specific mechanism for retinoic acid generation in target tissues. ALDH1A1 regulates adipogenesis, abdominal fat formation, glucose tolerance, and suppression of thermogenesis in adipocytes; in B cells, ALDH1A1 plays a protective role by inducing oncogene suppressors Rara and Pparg. Considering the conflicting responses of Aldh1a1 in a multitude of physiological processes, only tissue-specific regulation of Aldh1a1 can result in therapeutic effects. We have shown through successful implantation of tissue-specific Aldh1a1−/− preadipocytes that thermogenesis can be induced in wild-type adipose tissues to resolve diet-induced visceral obesity in females. We will briefly discuss the emerging role of ALDH1A1 in multiple myeloma, the regulation of reproduction, and immune responses, and conclude by discussing the role of ALDH1A1 in future therapeutic applications.
Nutrients2014, 6(3), 931-949; doi:10.3390/nu6030931 - published online 28 February 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Antioxidant vitamins supplements have been suggested as a strategy to decrease the risk of age-related cataract development. However, the results from observational studies and interventional trials of associations between antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and cataract development have been inconsistent. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of multivitamin/mineral supplements for decreasing the risk of age-related cataracts by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. In September 2013, we searched multiple databases to identify relevant studies including both cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled relative risks (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Twelve prospective cohort studies and two RCTs were included. Pooled results from the cohort studies indicated that multivitamin/mineral supplements have a significant beneficial effect in decreasing the risk of nuclear cataracts (RR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.64–0.82), cortical cataracts (RR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.68–0.94), and any cataracts (RR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.39–0.93). In addition, there were no decreases in the risk of posterior capsular cataracts (RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.72–1.20) or cataract surgery (RR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.92–1.08). The two RCTs demonstrated that multivitamin/mineral supplements could decrease the risk of nuclear cataracts. There is sufficient evidence to support the role of dietary multivitamin/mineral supplements for the decreasing the risk of age-related cataracts.