Open AccessArticle
Dietary Compound Chrysin Inhibits Retinal Neovascularization with Abnormal Capillaries in db/db Mice
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 782; doi:10.3390/nu8120782 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) develops in a significant proportion of patients with chronic diabetes, characterized by retinal macular edema and abnormal retinal vessel outgrowth leading to vision loss. Chrysin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid found in herb and honeycomb, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties. This
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Diabetic retinopathy (DR) develops in a significant proportion of patients with chronic diabetes, characterized by retinal macular edema and abnormal retinal vessel outgrowth leading to vision loss. Chrysin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid found in herb and honeycomb, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties. This study sought to determine the protective effects of chrysin on retinal neovascularization with abnormal vessels and blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown in 33 mM glucose-exposed human retinal endothelial cells and in db/db mouse eyes. High glucose caused retinal endothelial apoptotic injury, which was inhibited by submicromolar chrysin. This compound diminished the enhanced induction of HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) in high glucose-exposed retinal endothelial cells. Consistently, oral administration of 10 mg/kg chrysin reduced the induction of these proteins in db/db mouse eye tissues. In addition, chrysin restored the decrement of VE-cadherin and ZO-1 junction proteins and PECAM-1 in hyperglycemia-stimulated retinal endothelial cells and diabetic mouse retina, possibly maintaining tight cell-cell interactions of endothelial cells and pericytes. Anti-apoptotic chrysin reduced the up-regulation of Ang-1, Ang-2, and Tie-2 crucial to retinal capillary occlusion and BRB permeability. Furthermore, orally treating chrysin inhibited acellular capillary formation, neovascularization, and vascular leakage observed in diabetic retinas. These observations demonstrate, for the first time, that chrysin had a capability to encumber diabetes-associated retinal neovascularization with microvascular abnormalities and BRB breakdown. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D Status and Efficacy of Vitamin D Supplementation in Atopic Dermatitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 789; doi:10.3390/nu8120789 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Recent literature has highlighted the possible role of vitamin D in atopic dermatitis (AD), and that vitamin D supplementation might help to treat AD. This study determined the relationship between vitamin D level and AD, and assessed the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation.
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Recent literature has highlighted the possible role of vitamin D in atopic dermatitis (AD), and that vitamin D supplementation might help to treat AD. This study determined the relationship between vitamin D level and AD, and assessed the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases up to May 2015. Observational studies and randomized controlled trials were included based on the available data on the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and quantified data available for severity assessed using the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index or Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) score. Compared with healthy controls, the serum 25(OH)D level was lower in the AD patients of all ages (standardized mean difference = −2.03 ng/mL; 95% confidence interval (CI) = −2.52 to −0.78), and predominantly in the pediatric AD patients (standardized mean difference = −3.03 ng/mL; 95% CI = −4.76 to −1.29). In addition, the SCORAD index and EASI score decreased after vitamin D supplementation (standardized mean difference = −5.85; 95% CI = −7.66 to −4.05). This meta-analysis showed that serum vitamin D level was lower in the AD patients and vitamin D supplementation could be a new therapeutic option for AD. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Polyphenols and DNA Damage: A Mixed Blessing
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 785; doi:10.3390/nu8120785 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Polyphenols are a very broad group of chemicals, widely distributed in plant foods, and endowed with antioxidant activity by virtue of their numerous phenol groups. They are widely studied as putative cancer-protective agents, potentially contributing to the cancer preventive properties of fruits and
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Polyphenols are a very broad group of chemicals, widely distributed in plant foods, and endowed with antioxidant activity by virtue of their numerous phenol groups. They are widely studied as putative cancer-protective agents, potentially contributing to the cancer preventive properties of fruits and vegetables. We review recent publications relating to human trials, animal experiments and cell culture, grouping them according to whether polyphenols are investigated in whole foods and drinks, in plant extracts, or as individual compounds. A variety of assays are in use to study genetic damage endpoints. Human trials, of which there are rather few, tend to show decreases in endogenous DNA damage and protection against DNA damage induced ex vivo in blood cells. Most animal experiments have investigated the effects of polyphenols (often at high doses) in combination with known DNA-damaging agents, and generally they show protection. High concentrations can themselves induce DNA damage, as demonstrated in numerous cell culture experiments; low concentrations, on the other hand, tend to decrease DNA damage. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Tempters and Gluten-Free Diet
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 786; doi:10.3390/nu8120786 (registering DOI) -
Open AccessLetter
Translational Difficulties in Studying the TRPA1 Receptor
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 790; doi:10.3390/nu8120790 (registering DOI) -
Open AccessArticle
Potential of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 in Protecting against Aluminum Toxicity Mediated by Intestinal Barrier Function and Oxidative Stress
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 783; doi:10.3390/nu8120783 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Aluminum (Al) is a ubiquitous metal that can seriously harm the health of animals and humans. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 can decrease Al burden in the tissues of mice by inhibiting intestinal Al absorption. The main aim
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Aluminum (Al) is a ubiquitous metal that can seriously harm the health of animals and humans. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 can decrease Al burden in the tissues of mice by inhibiting intestinal Al absorption. The main aim of the present research was to investigate whether the protection by the strain is also associated with enhancement of the intestinal barrier, alleviation of oxidative stress and modulation of the inflammatory response. In an in vitro cell model, two protection modes (intervention and therapy) were examined and the results indicated that L. plantarum CCFM639 alleviated Al-induced cytotoxicity. In a mouse model, L. plantarum CCFM639 treatment was found to significantly alleviate oxidative stress in the intestinal tract, regulate the function of the intestinal mucosal immune system, restore the integrity of tight junction proteins and maintain intestinal permeability. These results suggest that in addition to Al sequestration, L. plantarum CCFM639 can also inhibit Al absorption by protecting the intestinal barrier, alleviating Al-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Therefore, L. plantarum CCFM639 has the potential to be a dietary supplement ingredient that provides protection against Al-induced gut injury. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Eggs and Health Special Issue
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 784; doi:10.3390/nu8120784 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In 1968, the American Heart Association recommended the consumption of no more than 300 mg/day of dietary cholesterol and emphasized that no more than 3 eggs should be eaten per week, resulting in substantial reductions in egg consumption, not just by diseased populations
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In 1968, the American Heart Association recommended the consumption of no more than 300 mg/day of dietary cholesterol and emphasized that no more than 3 eggs should be eaten per week, resulting in substantial reductions in egg consumption, not just by diseased populations but alsobyhealthyindividuals,andmoreimportantlybypoorcommunitiesinundevelopedcountieswho were advised against consuming a highly nutritious food.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Health Behaviours in Childhood on Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescence
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 788; doi:10.3390/nu8120788 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents is a global public health burden. Identification of health-related behavioral risk factors including diet quality and physical and sedentary activities for ADHD is important for prioritizing behavioral intervention strategies to improve mental health. This
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Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents is a global public health burden. Identification of health-related behavioral risk factors including diet quality and physical and sedentary activities for ADHD is important for prioritizing behavioral intervention strategies to improve mental health. This study aimed to examine the association of diet quality, physical activity, and sedentary behaviours in childhood with ADHD throughout adolescence. We linked data from grade five students aged primarily 10 and 11 years old who participated in a population-based lifestyle survey in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia with their administrative health care data. We applied negative binomial regression methods to examine the associations between health behaviours and ADHD. Of the 4875 students, 9.7% had one or more diagnoses of ADHD between the ages of 10/11 and 18 years. The number of primary diagnoses with ADHD was statistically significantly lower among students with better diet quality, higher levels of physical activity, and those that spent less time playing computers and video games (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that health promotion programs aiming to improve children’s diets and active lifestyles may also reduce the public health burden of ADHD. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Do Health Claims and Front-of-Pack Labels Lead to a Positivity Bias in Unhealthy Foods?
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 787; doi:10.3390/nu8120787 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Health claims and front-of-pack labels (FoPLs) may lead consumers to hold more positive attitudes and show a greater willingness to buy food products, regardless of their actual healthiness. A potential negative consequence of this positivity bias is the increased consumption of unhealthy foods.
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Health claims and front-of-pack labels (FoPLs) may lead consumers to hold more positive attitudes and show a greater willingness to buy food products, regardless of their actual healthiness. A potential negative consequence of this positivity bias is the increased consumption of unhealthy foods. This study investigated whether a positivity bias would occur in unhealthy variations of four products (cookies, corn flakes, pizzas and yoghurts) that featured different health claim conditions (no claim, nutrient claim, general level health claim, and higher level health claim) and FoPL conditions (no FoPL, the Daily Intake Guide (DIG), Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL), and the Health Star Rating (HSR)). Positivity bias was assessed via measures of perceived healthiness, global evaluations (incorporating taste, quality, convenience, etc.) and willingness to buy. On the whole, health claims did not produce a positivity bias, while FoPLs did, with the DIG being the most likely to elicit this bias. The HSR most frequently led to lower ratings of unhealthy foods than the DIG and MTL, suggesting that this FoPL has the lowest risk of creating an inaccurate positivity bias in unhealthy foods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease Are Associated with Decreased Serum Selenium Concentrations and Increased Cardiovascular Risk
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 780; doi:10.3390/nu8120780 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and associated oxidative stress is increasing. The antioxidant mineral selenium (Se) was measured in serum samples from 106 IBD patients (53 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 53 with Crohn’s disease (CD)) and from 30 healthy controls.
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The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and associated oxidative stress is increasing. The antioxidant mineral selenium (Se) was measured in serum samples from 106 IBD patients (53 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 53 with Crohn’s disease (CD)) and from 30 healthy controls. Serum Se concentrations were significantly lower in UC and CD patients than in healthy controls (p < 0.001) and significantly lower in CD patients than in UC patients (p = 0.006). Se concentrations in patients were significantly influenced by sex, body mass index (BMI), the inflammatory biomarker α-1-antitrypsin, surgery, medical treatment, the severity, extent, and form of the disease and the length of time since onset (p < 0.05). Se concentrations in IBD patients were positively and linearly correlated with nutritional (protein, albumin, prealbumin, cholinesterase and total cholesterol) and iron status-related (hemoglobin, Fe and hematocrit) parameters (p < 0.05). A greater impairment of serum Se and cardiovascular status was observed in CD than in UC patients. An adequate nutritional Se status is important in IBD patients to minimize the cardiovascular risk associated with increased inflammation biomarkers, especially in undernourished CD patients, and is also related to an improved nutritional and body iron status. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin B12 Status among Pregnant Women in the UK and Its Association with Obesity and Gestational Diabetes
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 768; doi:10.3390/nu8120768 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Background: To evaluate vitamin B12 and folate status in pregnancy and their relationship with maternal obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and offspring birthweight. Methods: A retrospective case-control study of 344 women (143 GDM, 201 no-GDM) attending a district general hospital and that had
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Background: To evaluate vitamin B12 and folate status in pregnancy and their relationship with maternal obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and offspring birthweight. Methods: A retrospective case-control study of 344 women (143 GDM, 201 no-GDM) attending a district general hospital and that had B12 and folate levels measured in the early 3rd trimester was performed. Maternal history including early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and neonatal data (birthweight, sex, and gestational age) was recorded for all subjects. Results: 26% of the cohort had B12 levels <150 pmol/L (32% vs. 22% in the two groups respectively, p < 0.05) while 1.5% were folate deficient. After adjusting for confounders, 1st trimester BMI was negatively associated with 3rd trimester B12 levels. Women with B12 insufficiency had higher odds of obesity and GDM (aOR (95% CI) 2.40 (1.31, 4.40), p = 0.004, and 2.59 (1.35, 4.98), p = 0.004, respectively), although the latter was partly mediated by BMI. In women without GDM, the lowest quartile of B12 and highest quartile of folate had significantly higher adjusted risk of fetal macrosomia (RR 5.3 (1.26, 21.91), p = 0.02 and 4.99 (1.15, 21.62), p = 0.03 respectively). Conclusion: This is the first study from the UK to show that maternal B12 levels are associated with BMI, risk of GDM, and additionally may have an independent effect on macrosomia. Due to the increasing burden of maternal obesity and GDM, longitudinal studies with B12 measurements in early pregnancy are needed to explore this link. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Compliance with WHO IYCF Indicators and Dietary Intake Adequacy in a Sample of Malaysian Infants Aged 6–23 Months
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 778; doi:10.3390/nu8120778 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Background: The 2010 World Health Organisation (WHO) Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators are useful for monitoring feeding practices. Methods: A total sample of 300 subjects aged 6 to 23 months was recruited from urban suburbs of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. Compliance
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Background: The 2010 World Health Organisation (WHO) Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators are useful for monitoring feeding practices. Methods: A total sample of 300 subjects aged 6 to 23 months was recruited from urban suburbs of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. Compliance with each IYCF indicator was computed according to WHO recommendations. Dietary intake based on two-day weighed food records was obtained from a sub-group (N = 119) of the total sample. The mean adequacy ratio (MAR) value was computed as an overall measure of dietary intake adequacy. Contributions of core IYCF indicators to MAR were determined by multinomial logistic regression. Results: Generally, the subjects showed high compliance for (i) timely introduction of complementary foods at 6 to 8 months (97.9%); (ii) minimum meal frequency among non-breastfed children aged 6 to 23 months (95.2%); (iii) consumption of iron-rich foods at 6 to 23 months (92.3%); and minimum dietary diversity (78.0%). While relatively high proportions achieved the recommended intake levels for protein (87.4%) and iron (71.4%), lower proportions attained the recommendations for calcium (56.3%) and energy (56.3%). The intake of micronutrients was generally poor. The minimum dietary diversity had the greatest contribution to MAR (95% CI: 3.09, 39.87) (p = 0.000) among the core IYCF indicators. Conclusion: Malaysian urban infants and toddlers showed moderate to high compliance with WHO IYCF indicators. The robustness of the analytical approach in this study in quantifying contributions of IYCF indicators to MAR should be further investigated. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Sleep Duration and Chronic Fatigue Are Differently Associated with the Dietary Profile of Shift Workers
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 771; doi:10.3390/nu8120771 -
Abstract
Shift work has been associated with dietary changes. This study examined factors associated with the dietary profiles of shift workers from several industries (n = 118, 57 male; age = 43.4 ± 9.9 years) employed on permanent mornings, nights, or rotating 8-h
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Shift work has been associated with dietary changes. This study examined factors associated with the dietary profiles of shift workers from several industries (n = 118, 57 male; age = 43.4 ± 9.9 years) employed on permanent mornings, nights, or rotating 8-h or 12-h shifts. The dietary profile was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Shift-related (e.g., sleep duration and fatigue), work-related (e.g., industry), and demographic factors (e.g., BMI) were measured using a modified version of the Standard Shift work Index. Mean daily energy intake was 8628 ± 3161 kJ. As a percentage of daily energy intake, all workers reported lower than recommended levels of carbohydrate (CHO, 45%–65%). Protein was within recommended levels (15%–25%). Permanent night workers were the only group to report higher than recommended fat intake (20%–35%). However, all workers reported higher than recommended levels of saturated fat (>10%) with those on permanent nights reporting significantly higher levels than other groups (Mean = 15.5% ± 3.1%, p < 0.05). Shorter sleep durations and decreased fatigue were associated with higher CHO intake (p ≤ 0.05) whereas increased fatigue and longer sleep durations were associated with higher intake of fat (p ≤ 0.05). Findings demonstrate sleep duration, fatigue, and shift schedule are associated with the dietary profile of shift workers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Associations of Vitamin D with Inter- and Intra-Muscular Adipose Tissue and Insulin Resistance in Women with and without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 774; doi:10.3390/nu8120774 -
Abstract
Low vitamin D and insulin resistance are common in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and associated with higher inter- and intra-muscular adipose tissue (IMAT). We investigated associations between vitamin D, IMAT and insulin resistance in a cross-sectional study of 40 women with PCOS and
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Low vitamin D and insulin resistance are common in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and associated with higher inter- and intra-muscular adipose tissue (IMAT). We investigated associations between vitamin D, IMAT and insulin resistance in a cross-sectional study of 40 women with PCOS and 30 women without PCOS, and pre- and post-exercise in a 12-week intervention in 16 overweight participants (10 with PCOS and six without PCOS). A non-classical body mass index (BMI) threshold was used to differentiate lean and overweight women (BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2). Measurements included plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), insulin resistance (glucose infusion rate (GIR; mg/m2/min), fasting glucose and insulin, and glycated haemoglobin), visceral fat, mid-thigh IMAT (computed tomography) and total body fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Women with both PCOS and low 25OHD levels had the lowest GIR (all p < 0.05). Higher IMAT was associated with lower 25OHD (B = −3.95; 95% CI −6.86, −1.05) and GIR (B = −21.3; 95% CI −37.16, −5.44) in women with PCOS. Overweight women with pre-exercise 25OHD ≥30 nmol/L had significant increases in GIR, and decreases in total and visceral fat (all p < 0.044), but no associations were observed when stratified by PCOS status. Women with PCOS and low 25OHD levels have increased insulin resistance which may be partly explained by higher IMAT. Higher pre-training 25OHD levels may enhance exercise-induced changes in body composition and insulin resistance in overweight women. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Relationship between Soft Drink Consumption and Obesity in 9–11 Years Old Children in a Multi-National Study
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 770; doi:10.3390/nu8120770 -
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the association between regular (sugar containing) and diet (artificially sweetened) soft drink consumption and obesity in children from 12 countries ranging in levels of economic and human development. The sample included 6162 children aged 9–11
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The purpose of this study was to determine the association between regular (sugar containing) and diet (artificially sweetened) soft drink consumption and obesity in children from 12 countries ranging in levels of economic and human development. The sample included 6162 children aged 9–11 years. Information on soft drink consumption was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Percentage body fat (%BF) was estimated by bio-electrical impedance analysis, body mass index (BMI) z-scores were computed using World Health Organization reference data, and obesity was defined as a BMI > +2 standard deviations (SD). Multi-level models were used to investigate trends in BMI z-scores, %BF and obesity across categories of soft drink consumption. Age, sex, study site, parental education and physical activity were included as covariates. There was a significant linear trend in BMI z-scores across categories of consumption of regular soft drinks in boys (p = 0.049), but not in girls; there were no significant trends in %BF or obesity observed in either boys or girls. There was no significant linear trend across categories of diet soft drink consumption in boys, but there was a graded, positive association in girls for BMI z-score (p = 0.0002) and %BF (p = 0.0001). Further research is required to explore these associations using longitudinal research designs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Predictive Validity of the Body Adiposity Index in Overweight and Obese Adults Using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 737; doi:10.3390/nu8120737 -
Abstract
The body adiposity index (BAI) is a recent anthropometric measure proven to be valid in predicting body fat percentage (BF%) in some populations. However, the results have been inconsistent across populations. This study was designed to verify the validity of BAI in predicting
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The body adiposity index (BAI) is a recent anthropometric measure proven to be valid in predicting body fat percentage (BF%) in some populations. However, the results have been inconsistent across populations. This study was designed to verify the validity of BAI in predicting BF% in a sample of overweight/obese adults, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the reference method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 48 participants (54% women, mean age 41.0 ± 7.3 years old). DEXA was used as the “gold standard” to determine BF%. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the association between BAI and BF%, as assessed by DEXA. A paired sample t-test was used to test differences in mean BF% obtained with BAI and DEXA methods. To evaluate the concordance between BF% as measured by DEXA and as estimated by BAI, we used Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman agreement analysis. The correlation between BF% obtained by DEXA and that estimated by BAI was r = 0.844, p < 0.001. Paired t-test showed a significant mean difference in BF% between methods (BAI = 33.3 ± 6.2 vs. DEXA 39.0 ± 6.1; p < 0.001). The bias of the BAI was −6.0 ± 3.0 BF% (95% CI = −12.0 to 1.0), indicating that the BAI method significantly underestimated the BF% compared to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was considered stronger (ρc = 0.923, 95% CI = 0.862 to 0.957). In obese adults, BAI presented low agreement with BF% measured by DEXA; therefore, BAI is not recommended for BF% prediction in this overweight/obese sample studied. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Effect of Low Dose Iron and Zinc Intake on Child Micronutrient Status and Development during the First 1000 Days of Life: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 773; doi:10.3390/nu8120773 -
Abstract
Adequate supply of micronutrients during the first 1000 days is essential for normal development and healthy life. We aimed to investigate if interventions administering dietary doses up to the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) of iron and zinc within the window from conception to
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Adequate supply of micronutrients during the first 1000 days is essential for normal development and healthy life. We aimed to investigate if interventions administering dietary doses up to the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) of iron and zinc within the window from conception to age 2 years have the potential to influence nutritional status and development of children. To address this objective, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and quasi-randomized fortification, biofortification, and supplementation trials in women (pregnant and lactating) and children (6–23 months) delivering iron or zinc in doses up to the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) levels was conducted. Supplying iron or zinc during pregnancy had no effects on birth outcomes. There were limited or no data on the effects of iron/zinc during pregnancy and lactation on child iron/zinc status, growth, morbidity, and psychomotor and mental development. Delivering up to 15 mg iron/day during infancy increased mean hemoglobin by 4 g/L (p < 0.001) and mean serum ferritin concentration by 17.6 µg/L (p < 0.001) and reduced the risk for anemia by 41% (p < 0.001), iron deficiency by 78% (ID; p < 0.001) and iron deficiency anemia by 80% (IDA; p < 0.001), but had no effect on growth or psychomotor development. Providing up to 10 mg of additional zinc during infancy increased plasma zinc concentration by 2.03 µmol/L (p < 0.001) and reduced the risk of zinc deficiency by 47% (p < 0.001). Further, we observed positive effects on child weight for age z-score (WAZ) (p < 0.05), weight for height z-score (WHZ) (p < 0.05), but not on height for age z-score (HAZ) or the risk for stunting, wasting, and underweight. There are no studies covering the full 1000 days window and the effects of iron and zinc delivered during pregnancy and lactation on child outcomes are ambiguous, but low dose daily iron and zinc use during 6–23 months of age has a positive effect on child iron and zinc status. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D and Weight Cycling: Impact on Injury, Illness, and Inflammation in Collegiate Wrestlers
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 775; doi:10.3390/nu8120775 -
Abstract
This study explored the link between vitamin D status and frequency of skin infections, inflammation, and injury in college wrestlers during an academic year. Methods: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (n = 19), plasma cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10) (n = 18) concentrations,
[...] Read more.
This study explored the link between vitamin D status and frequency of skin infections, inflammation, and injury in college wrestlers during an academic year. Methods: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (n = 19), plasma cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10) (n = 18) concentrations, and body weight/composition were measured and injury/illness/skin infection data were collected in fall, winter, and spring. Results: In the fall, 74% of wrestlers had vitamin D concentrations <32 ng/mL which increased to 94% in winter and spring. Wrestlers lost an average of 3.4 ± 3.9 kg (p < 0.001) during the season with corresponding decreases in fat mass and increases in lean mass (p < 0.01). An inverse association between 25(OH)D concentrations and total body mass and body fat percentage was observed at all-time points (p < 0.01). Concentrations of cytokines were highly variable among individuals and did not change across time (p > 0.05). Correlations between vitamin D status, cytokines, or frequency of illness, injury, or skin infections were not observed. Conclusions: A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (<32 ng/mL) and deficiency (<20 ng/mL) was observed in wrestlers and was associated with higher adiposity. It remains unclear if higher vitamin D status would reduce injury, illness, and skin infection risk. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Site-Specific Bone Mineral Densities between Endurance Runners and Sprinters in Adolescent Women
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 781; doi:10.3390/nu8120781 -
Abstract
We aimed to compare site-specific bone mineral densities (BMDs) between adolescent endurance runners and sprinters and examine the relationship of fat-free mass (FFM) and nutrient intake on BMD. In this cross-sectional study, 37 adolescent female endurance runners and sprinters (16.1 ± 0.8 years)
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We aimed to compare site-specific bone mineral densities (BMDs) between adolescent endurance runners and sprinters and examine the relationship of fat-free mass (FFM) and nutrient intake on BMD. In this cross-sectional study, 37 adolescent female endurance runners and sprinters (16.1 ± 0.8 years) were recruited. BMD and FFM were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Nutrient intake and menstrual state were evaluated by questionnaires. After adjusting for covariates, spine and total bone less head (TBLH) BMDs were significantly higher in sprinters than endurance runners (TBLH, 1.02 ± 0.05 vs. 0.98 ± 0.06 g/cm2; spine, 0.99 ± 0.06 vs. 0.94 ± 0.06 g/cm2; p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between groups in other sites. The rate of menstrual abnormality was higher in endurance runners compared with sprinters (56.3% vs. 23.8%; p < 0.05). FFM was a significant covariate for BMD on all sites except the spine (p < 0.05). Dietary intake of vitamin D was identified as a significant covariate only for pelvic BMD (p < 0.05). The BMDs of different sites among endurance runners and sprinters were strongly related to FFM. However, the association of FFM with spine BMD cannot be explained by FFM alone. Other factors, including nutrition and/or mechanical loading, may affect the spine BMD. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Interaction between Dietary Fiber and Fat and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 779; doi:10.3390/nu8120779 -
Abstract
Combined intakes of specific dietary fiber and fat subtypes protect against colon cancer in animal models. We evaluated associations between self-reported individual and combinations of fiber (insoluble, soluble, and pectins, specifically) and fat (omega-6, omega-3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA),
[...] Read more.
Combined intakes of specific dietary fiber and fat subtypes protect against colon cancer in animal models. We evaluated associations between self-reported individual and combinations of fiber (insoluble, soluble, and pectins, specifically) and fat (omega-6, omega-3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), specifically) and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the Women’s Health Initiative prospective cohort (n = 134,017). During a mean 11.7 years (1993–2010), 1952 incident CRC cases were identified. Cox regression models computed multivariate adjusted hazard ratios to estimate the association between dietary factors and CRC risk. Assessing fiber and fat individually, there was a modest trend for lower CRC risk with increasing intakes of total and insoluble fiber (p-trend 0.09 and 0.08). An interaction (p = 0.01) was observed between soluble fiber and DHA + EPA, with protective effects of DHA + EPA with lower intakes of soluble fiber and an attenuation at higher intakes, however this association was no longer significant after correction for multiple testing. These results suggest a modest protective effect of higher fiber intake on CRC risk, but not in combination with dietary fat subtypes. Given the robust results in preclinical models and mixed results in observational studies, controlled dietary interventions with standardized intakes are needed to better understand the interaction of specific fat and fiber subtypes on colon biology and ultimately CRC susceptibility in humans. Full article