Open AccessArticle
High Fat Diet with a High Monounsaturated Fatty Acid and Polyunsaturated/Saturated Fatty Acid Ratio Suppresses Body Fat Accumulation and Weight Gain in Obese Hamsters
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1148; doi:10.3390/nu9101148 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a high fat diet with experimental oil consisting of 60% MUFAs (monounsaturated fatty acids) with a P/S ratio of 5 on fat deposition and lipid metabolism in obese hamsters. Hamsters were randomly
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a high fat diet with experimental oil consisting of 60% MUFAs (monounsaturated fatty acids) with a P/S ratio of 5 on fat deposition and lipid metabolism in obese hamsters. Hamsters were randomly assigned to a control group and a diet-induced obesity group for nine weeks. Then an additional eight-week experimental period began, during which obese hamsters were randomly divided into three groups and fed different amounts of the experimental oil mixture in their diets as follows: 5%, 15%, and 20% w/w (OB-M5, OB-M15, and OB-M20 groups, respectively). The results showed that the OB-M15 and OB-M20 groups had significantly lower blood cholesterol and higher insulin levels. Compared to the control group, the three obese groups exhibited higher hepatic fatty acid synthase activity; however, the acyl-CoA oxidase activities were also enhanced. Although dietary fat content differed, there were no differences in energy intake, final body weights, and epididymal fat weights among the four groups. These results suggest that regardless of whether the specimens had a high fat intake or not, dietary fat containing high MUFAs with a high P/S ratio had beneficial effects on maintaining blood lipid profiles and may not result in body fat accumulation in obese hamsters, possibly by promoting lipolytic enzyme activities. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Curcumin on the Diversity of Gut Microbiota in Ovariectomized Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1146; doi:10.3390/nu9101146 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Curcumin has been proven to have a weight-loss effect in a menopausal rat model induced by ovariectomy. However, the effects of curcumin on gut microfloral communities of ovariectomized (OVX) rats remains unclear. Here, we used high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing to explore the effects
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Curcumin has been proven to have a weight-loss effect in a menopausal rat model induced by ovariectomy. However, the effects of curcumin on gut microfloral communities of ovariectomized (OVX) rats remains unclear. Here, we used high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing to explore the effects of curcumin on microbial diversity in the gut of OVX rats. Female Wistar rats were subjected to either ovariectomy or a sham operation (SHAM group). The OVX rats were treated with vehicle (OVX group) or curcumin (CUR group) by oral gavage. After 12-week treatments, the weights of the bodies and uteri of rats were recorded, the levels of estradiol in the serum were assayed by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Then, the fragments encompassing V3–V4 16S rDNA hypervariable regions were PCR amplified from fecal samples, and the PCR products of V3–V4 were sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq for characterization of the gut microbiota. Our results showed that, compared to rats in the SHAM group, rats in the OVX group had more weight gain and lower levels of estradiol in the serum, and curcumin could cause significant weight loss in OVX rats but did not increase the levels of estradiol. Sequencing results revealed the presence of 1120, 1114, and 1119 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found in the SHAM, OVX, and CUR groups, respectively. The percentage of shared OTUs was 86.1603%. Gut microbiota of rats from the SHAM or CUR group had higher levels of biodiversity and unevenness estimations than those from the OVX group. At the phyla level, compared to rats in SHAM group, rats in the OVX group had a higher ratio of phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the gut; at the genus level, four differential gut microbiota (Incertae_Sedis, Anaerovorax, Anaerotruncus, and Helicobacter) between SHAM and OVX groups were found, whereas seven differential gut microbiota (Serratia, Anaerotruncus, Shewanella, Pseudomonas, Papillibacter, Exiguobacterium, and Helicobacter) between OVX and CUR groups were found. In conclusion, estrogen deficiency induced by ovariectomy caused changes in the distribution and structure of intestinal microflora in rats, and curcumin could partially reverse changes in the diversity of gut microbiota. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Brain and Hepatic Mt mRNA Is Reduced in Response to Mild Energy Restriction and n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Deficiency in Juvenile Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1145; doi:10.3390/nu9101145 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Metallothioneins (MTs) perform important regulatory and cytoprotective functions in tissues including the brain. While it is known that energy restriction (ER) and dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency impact postnatal brain growth and development, little data exist regarding the impact of
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Metallothioneins (MTs) perform important regulatory and cytoprotective functions in tissues including the brain. While it is known that energy restriction (ER) and dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency impact postnatal brain growth and development, little data exist regarding the impact of undernutrition upon MT expression in growing animals. We tested the hypothesis that ER with and without dietary n-3 PUFA deficiency reduces MT expression in juvenile rats. ER rats were individually pair-fed at 75% of the ad libitum (AL) intake of control rats provided diets consisting of either soybean oil (SO) that is α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3) sufficient or corn oil (CO; ALA-deficient). Fatty acids (FA) and metal concentrations of liver and brain regions were analyzed. Tissue expression of MTs (Mt1-3) and modulators of MT expression including glucocorticoid receptors (Nr3c1 and Nr3c2) and several mediators of thyroid hormone regulation (Dio1-3, Mct8, Oatp1c1, Thra, and Thrb) were measured. Plasma corticosterone and triiodothyronine levels were also evaluated. ER, but not metal deficiency, reduced Mt2 expression in the cerebellum (50%) and cerebral cortex (23%). In liver, a reduction in dietary n-3 PUFA reduced Mt1, Mt2, Nr3c1, Mct8, and Thrb. ER elevated Nr3c1, Dio1, and Thrb and reduced Thra in the liver. Given MT’s role in cellular protection, further studies are needed to evaluate whether ER or n-3 PUFA deficiency may leave the juvenile brain and/or liver more susceptible to endogenous or environmental stressors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Chronic High Dose Zinc Supplementation Induces Visceral Adipose Tissue Hypertrophy without Altering Body Weight in Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1138; doi:10.3390/nu9101138 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The trace element zinc plays an important role in human life. Zinc deficiency impairs growth, reproduction, metabolism and immunity in both human and animals. Thus, zinc supplementation is recommended in daily life. However, the effect of long-term chronic zinc supplementation on adipose homeostasis
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The trace element zinc plays an important role in human life. Zinc deficiency impairs growth, reproduction, metabolism and immunity in both human and animals. Thus, zinc supplementation is recommended in daily life. However, the effect of long-term chronic zinc supplementation on adipose homeostasis has not been well elucidated. In the current study, mice were supplemented with zinc sulfate in the drinking water for 20 weeks. The results suggested that chronic zinc supplementation impaired systemic glucose clearance after exogenous insulin or glucose challenges, as compared to the control mice. Further study revealed that chronic zinc supplementation made no difference to body weight, but increased visceral adipose tissue weight and adipocyte size. In addition, gene expression of leptin and IL6 in the visceral adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice were higher than those of control mice. Moreover, serum level of leptin of the zinc-supplemented mice was twice as high as that of the control mice. Besides, phosphorylation level of AKT T308 was attenuated in the perirenal adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice. In comparison, the expression of macrophage marker genes and lipogenic genes were not affected by chronic zinc supplementation, but the protein levels of FAS and SCD1 decreased or tended to decrease in the perirenal adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice, as compared to the control mice. Our findings suggest that chronic high dose zinc supplementation induces visceral adipose tissue hypertrophy and impairs AKT signaling in perirenal adipose tissue. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A National Dietary Assessment Reference Database (NDARD) for the Dutch Population: Rationale behind the Design
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1136; doi:10.3390/nu9101136 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The development of reliable Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) requires detailed information about the level and variation of dietary intake of the target population. However, these data are often limited. To facilitate the development of new high quality FFQs and validation of existing FFQs,
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The development of reliable Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) requires detailed information about the level and variation of dietary intake of the target population. However, these data are often limited. To facilitate the development of new high quality FFQs and validation of existing FFQs, we developed a comprehensive National Dietary Assessment Reference Database (NDARD) detailing information about the level and variation in dietary intake of people 20–70 years old in the general Dutch population. This paper describes the methods and characteristics of the population included in the NDARD database. A total of 1063 men and 985 women agreed to participate in this study. Dietary intake data were collected using different FFQs, web-based and telephone-based 24-h recalls, as well as blood and urine-based biomarkers. The baseline FFQ was completed by 1647 participants with a mean age of 51 ± 12 years, BMI of 26 ± 4 kg/m2, and energy intake of 2051 ± 605 kcal/day. The percentage of total energy intake from proteins, carbohydrates, and fats were 15 ± 2, 43 ± 6, and 36 ± 5 En%, respectively. A total of 1113 participants completed telephone-based recalls and 1783 participants completed web-based recalls. This database will enable researchers to validate existing national FFQs and to develop new high quality dietary assessment methods. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Predictors Associated with Increase in Skeletal Muscle Mass after Sustained Virological Response in Chronic Hepatitis C Treated with Direct Acting Antivirals
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1135; doi:10.3390/nu9101135 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Aims: We aimed to examine changes in skeletal muscle mass in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients undergoing interferon (IFN)-free direct acting antivirals (DAAs) therapy who achieved sustained virological response (SVR). Patients and methods: A total of 69 CHC patients treated with DAAs were
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Aims: We aimed to examine changes in skeletal muscle mass in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients undergoing interferon (IFN)-free direct acting antivirals (DAAs) therapy who achieved sustained virological response (SVR). Patients and methods: A total of 69 CHC patients treated with DAAs were analyzed. We compared the changes in skeletal muscle index (SMI) using bio-impedance analysis at baseline and SMI at SVR. SMI was calculated as the sum of skeletal muscle mass in upper and lower extremities divided by height squared (cm2/m2). Further, we identified pretreatment parameters contributing to the increased SMI at SVR. Results: SMI in males at baseline ranged from 6.73 to 9.08 cm2/m2 (median, 7.65 cm2/m2), while that in females ranged from 4.45 to 7.27 cm2/m2 (median, 5.81 cm2/m2). At SVR, 36 patients (52.2%) had increased SMI as compared with baseline. In the univariate analysis, age (p = 0.0392), hyaluronic acid (p = 0.0143), and branched-chain amino acid to tyrosine ratio (BTR) (p = 0.0024) were significant pretreatment factors linked to increased SMI at SVR. In the multivariate analysis, only BTR was an independent predictor linked to the increased SMI at SVR (p = 0.0488). Conclusion: Pretreatment BTR level can be helpful for predicting increased SMI after SVR in CHC patients undergoing IFN-free DAAs therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association of Vitamin E Levels with Metabolic Syndrome, and MRI-Derived Body Fat Volumes and Liver Fat Content
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1143; doi:10.3390/nu9101143 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
We aimed to relate circulating α- and γ-tocopherol levels to a broad spectrum of adiposityrelated traits in a cross-sectional Northern German study. Anthropometric measures were obtained, and adipose tissue volumes and liver fat were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging in 641 individuals (mean
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We aimed to relate circulating α- and γ-tocopherol levels to a broad spectrum of adiposityrelated traits in a cross-sectional Northern German study. Anthropometric measures were obtained, and adipose tissue volumes and liver fat were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging in 641 individuals (mean age 61 years; 40.6% women). Concentrations of α- and γ-tocopherol were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Multivariable-adjusted linear and logistic regression were used to assess associations of circulating α- and γ-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio levels with visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), liver signal intensity (LSI), fatty liver disease (FLD), metabolic syndrome (MetS), and its individual components. The α- tocopherol/cholesterol ratio was positively associated with VAT (β scaled by interquartile range (IQR): 0.036; 95%Confidence Interval (CI): 0.0003; 0.071) and MetS (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.83; 95% CI: 1.21–2.76 for 3rd vs. 1st tertile), and the γ-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio was positively associated with VAT (β scaled by IQR: 0.066; 95% CI: 0.027; 0.104), SAT (β scaled by IQR: 0.048; 95% CI: 0.010; 0.087) and MetS (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.23–2.84 for 3rd vs. 1st tertile). α- and γ-tocopherol levels were positively associated with high triglycerides and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (all Ptrend < 0.05). No association of α- and γ-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio with LSI/FLD was observed. Circulating vitamin E levels displayed strong associations with VAT and MetS. These observations lay the ground for further investigation in longitudinal studies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Indications and Use of the Gluten Contamination Elimination Diet for Patients with Non-Responsive Celiac Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1129; doi:10.3390/nu9101129 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
For the majority of patients diagnosed with celiac disease, once a gluten-free diet is initiated, symptoms improve within weeks and may completely resolve in months. However, up to 30% of patients may show signs, symptoms or persistent small intestinal damage after one year
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For the majority of patients diagnosed with celiac disease, once a gluten-free diet is initiated, symptoms improve within weeks and may completely resolve in months. However, up to 30% of patients may show signs, symptoms or persistent small intestinal damage after one year on a gluten-free diet. These patients require evaluation for other common GI etiologies and assessment of their celiac disease status in order to make a diagnosis and suggest treatment. Here, we propose an approach to evaluating patients with celiac disease with persistent symptoms, persistently elevated serology, and or persistent villous atrophy despite a gluten-free diet. We detail how to diagnose and distinguish between non-responsive and refractory celiac disease. Finally, we introduce the indications for use of the gluten contamination elimination diet and provide information for practitioners to implement the diet when necessary in their practice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Nutritional Implications: Special Focus on Copper
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1137; doi:10.3390/nu9101137 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excess lipids in hepatocytes, due to excessive fatty acid influx from adipose tissue, de novo hepatic lipogenesis, in addition to excessive dietary fat and carbohydrate intake. Chronic hepatic lipid overload induces mitochondrial oxidative stress and
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excess lipids in hepatocytes, due to excessive fatty acid influx from adipose tissue, de novo hepatic lipogenesis, in addition to excessive dietary fat and carbohydrate intake. Chronic hepatic lipid overload induces mitochondrial oxidative stress and cellular damage leading the development of NAFLD into a more severe liver disease condition, non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH). In turn, this can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Among others, copper is one of the main bio-metals required for the preponderance of the enzymes involved in physiological redox reactions, which primarily occurs during mitochondrial respiration. Thus, copper homeostasis could be considered a target point for counteracting the progression of NAFLD. Accordingly, many diseases are correlated to unbalanced copper levels and, actually, some clinical trials are examining the use of copper chelating agents. Currently, no pharmacological interventions are approved for NAFLD, but nutritional and lifestyle modifications are always recommended. Fittingly, antioxidant food agents recognized to improve NAFLD and its complications have been described in the literature to bind copper. Therefore, this review describes the role of nutrition in the development and progression of NAFLD with a particular focus on copper and to copper-binding antioxidant compounds against NAFLD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Intrauterine Zn Deficiency Favors Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone-Increasing Effects on Thyrotropin Serum Levels and Induces Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Weaned Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1139; doi:10.3390/nu9101139 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Individuals who consume a diet deficient in zinc (Zn-deficient) develop alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function, i.e., a low metabolic rate and cold insensitivity. Although those disturbances are related to primary hypothyroidism, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficient adults have an increased thyrotropin (TSH) concentration, but
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Individuals who consume a diet deficient in zinc (Zn-deficient) develop alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function, i.e., a low metabolic rate and cold insensitivity. Although those disturbances are related to primary hypothyroidism, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficient adults have an increased thyrotropin (TSH) concentration, but unchanged thyroid hormone (TH) levels and decreased body weight. This does not support the view that the hypothyroidism develops due to a low Zn intake. In addition, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficiency in weaned and adult rats reduces the activity of pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase II (PPII) in the medial-basal hypothalamus (MBH). PPII is an enzyme that degrades thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). This hypothalamic peptide stimulates its receptor in adenohypophysis, thereby increasing TSH release. We analyzed whether earlier low TH is responsible for the high TSH levels reported in adults, or if TRH release is enhanced by Zn deficiency at weaning. Dams were fed a 2 ppm Zn-deficient diet in the period from one week prior to gestation and up to three weeks after delivery. We found a high release of hypothalamic TRH, which along with reduced MBH PPII activity, increased TSH levels in Zn-deficient pups independently of changes in TH concentration. We found that primary hypothyroidism did not develop in intrauterine Zn-deficient weaned rats and we confirmed that metal deficiency enhances TSH levels since early-life, favoring subclinical hypothyroidism development which remains into adulthood. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Citrulline Malate Does Not Improve Muscle Recovery after Resistance Exercise in Untrained Young Adult Men
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1132; doi:10.3390/nu9101132 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The effects of citrulline malate (CM) on muscle recovery from resistance exercise remains unknown. We aimed to determine if citrulline malate supplementation improves muscle recovery after a single session of high-intensity resistance exercise (RE) in untrained young adult men. Nine young adult men
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The effects of citrulline malate (CM) on muscle recovery from resistance exercise remains unknown. We aimed to determine if citrulline malate supplementation improves muscle recovery after a single session of high-intensity resistance exercise (RE) in untrained young adult men. Nine young adult men (24.0 ± 3.3 years) participated in a double-blind crossover study in which they received 6 g of CM and placebo (PL) on two occasions, separated by a seven-day washout period. Each occasion consisted of a single session of high-intensity RE (0 h) and three subsequent fatigue tests sessions (at 24, 48, and 72 h) to assess the time course of muscle recovery. During the tests sessions, we assessed the following variables: number of maximum repetitions, electromyographic signal (i.e., root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MF)), muscle soreness and perceived exertion, as well as blood levels of creatine kinase (CK), lactate, insulin, and testosterone:cortisol ratio. CK levels increased at 24 h post-exercise and remained elevate at 48 and 72 h, with no difference between CM and PL conditions. Muscle soreness increased at 24 h post-exercise, which progressively returned to baseline at 72 h in both conditions. Lactate levels increased immediately post-exercise and remained elevated at 24, 48, and 72 h in both conditions. No significant treatment × time interaction was found for all dependents variables (maximum repetitions, perceived exertion, CK, lactate, RMS, MF, and testosterone:cortisol ratio) during the recovery period. In conclusion, our data indicate that CM supplementation (single 6 g dose pre-workout) does not improve the muscle recovery process following a high-intensity RE session in untrained young adult men. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Qualitative Studies of Infant and Young Child Feeding in Lower-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Dietary Patterns
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1140; doi:10.3390/nu9101140 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Continued high rates of both under- and over-nutrition in low- and low-middle-income countries highlight the importance of understanding dietary practices such as early and exclusive breastfeeding, and dietary patterns such as timely, appropriate complementary feeding—these behaviors are rooted in complex cultural ecologies. A
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Continued high rates of both under- and over-nutrition in low- and low-middle-income countries highlight the importance of understanding dietary practices such as early and exclusive breastfeeding, and dietary patterns such as timely, appropriate complementary feeding—these behaviors are rooted in complex cultural ecologies. A systematic review and synthesis of available qualitative research related to infant and young child dietary patterns and practices from the perspective of parents and families in low income settings is presented, with a focus on barriers and facilitators to achieving international recommendations. Data from both published and grey literature from 2006 to 2016 was included in the review. Quality assessment consisted of two phases (Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) guidelines and assessment using GRADE-CERQual), followed by synthesis of the studies identified, and subsequent thematic analysis and interpretation. The findings indicated several categories of both barriers and facilitators, spanning individual and system level factors. The review informs efforts aimed at improving child health and nutrition, and represents the first such comprehensive review of the qualitative literature, uniquely suited to understanding complex behaviors leading to infant and young child dietary patterns. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation for Prevention of Preeclampsia: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1141; doi:10.3390/nu9101141 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Vitamin D supplementation effects with or without calcium in pregnancy for reducing risk of preeclampsia and gestational or pregnancy induced hypertension are controversial. Literature was systematically searched in Medline, Scopus and Cochrane databases from inception to July 2017. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs)
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Vitamin D supplementation effects with or without calcium in pregnancy for reducing risk of preeclampsia and gestational or pregnancy induced hypertension are controversial. Literature was systematically searched in Medline, Scopus and Cochrane databases from inception to July 2017. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in English were selected if they had any pair of interventions (calcium, vitamin D, both, or placebo). Systematic review with two-step network-meta-analysis was used to indirectly estimate supplementary effects. Twenty-seven RCTs with 28,000 women were eligible. A direct meta-analysis suggested that calcium, vitamin D, and calcium plus vitamin D could lower risk of preeclampsia when compared to placebo with the pooled risk ratios (RRs) of 0.54 (0.41, 0.70), 0.47 (0.24, 0.89) and 0.50 (0.32, 0.78), respectively. Results of network meta-analysis were similar with the corresponding RRs of 0.49 (0.35, 0.69), 0.43 (0.17, 1.11), and 0.57 (0.30, 1.10), respectively. None of the controls were significant. Efficacy of supplementation, which was ranked by surface under cumulative ranking probabilities, were: vitamin D (47.4%), calcium (31.6%) and calcium plus vitamin D (19.6%), respectively. Calcium supplementation may be used for prevention for preeclampsia. Vitamin D might also worked well but further large scale RCTs are warranted to confirm our findings. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Piceatannol from Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis) Seeds on Metabolic Health in Humans
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1142; doi:10.3390/nu9101142 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Animal studies have shown the beneficial effects of piceatannol on metabolic health; however, there is a lack of human studies designed to examine these effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of piceatannol on metabolic health in humans. This
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Animal studies have shown the beneficial effects of piceatannol on metabolic health; however, there is a lack of human studies designed to examine these effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of piceatannol on metabolic health in humans. This randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 39 subjects, including 10 overweight men and 9 overweight women (BMI ≥ 25), as well as 10 non-overweight men and 10 non-overweight women (BMI < 25). Subjects received piceatannol (20 mg/day) or placebo capsules for eight weeks in a random order. The primary outcome was the effect of piceatannol on glucose-metabolism, including insulin sensitivity. The secondary outcomes were the effects on other parameters, including blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), endothelial function, lipids, inflammation, oxidative stress, mood status, and Sirt1 and phospho-AMP-activated kinase (p-AMPK) expression in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs). Supplementation with piceatannol in overweight men reduced serum insulin levels, HOMA-IR, BP and HR. Other groups, including non-overweight men, as well as overweight and non-overweight women, showed no beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity, BP and HR. Furthermore, piceatannol is not associated with other data, including body weight (BW), body composition, endothelial function, lipids, inflammation, oxidative stress, mood status, and Sirt1/p-AMPK expression in PBMNCs. In conclusion, supplementation with piceatannol can improve metabolic health, including insulin sensitivity, BP and HR, in overweight men. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Milk Intake at Midlife and Cognitive Decline over 20 Years. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1134; doi:10.3390/nu9101134 -
Abstract
Background: Faster rates of cognitive decline are likely to result in earlier onset of cognitive impairment and dementia. d-galactose, a derivative of lactose, is used in animal studies to induce neurodegeneration. Milk is the primary source of lactose in the human
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Background: Faster rates of cognitive decline are likely to result in earlier onset of cognitive impairment and dementia. d-galactose, a derivative of lactose, is used in animal studies to induce neurodegeneration. Milk is the primary source of lactose in the human diet, and its effects on cognitive decline have not been fully evaluated. Objective: Assess the association of milk intake with change in cognitive function over 20 years. Methods: A total of 13,751 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort completed a food frequency questionnaire and three neurocognitive evaluations from 1990 through 2013. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to determine lactase persistence (LCT-13910 C/T for Whites and LCT-14010 G/C for Blacks). Mixed-effects models were used to study the association of milk intake with cognitive change. Multiple imputations by chained equations were used to account for attrition. Results: Milk intake greater than 1 glass/day was associated with greater decline in the global z-score over a 20-year period. The difference in decline was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.03) z-scores, or an additional 10% decline, relative to the group reporting “almost never” consuming milk. Conclusions: Replication of these results is warranted in diverse populations with greater milk intake and higher variability of lactase persistence genotype. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Validation of the Celiac Disease-Children’s Activities Report (CD-Chart) for Promoting Self-Management among Children and Adolescents
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1130; doi:10.3390/nu9101130 -
Abstract
Adherence to a restrictive gluten-free diet is the only known treatment for celiac disease (CD). Children and adolescents with CD encounter challenges while managing the diet in daily activities. Understanding their participation characteristics is lacking. The aim was to describe the development and
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Adherence to a restrictive gluten-free diet is the only known treatment for celiac disease (CD). Children and adolescents with CD encounter challenges while managing the diet in daily activities. Understanding their participation characteristics is lacking. The aim was to describe the development and validation process of the Celiac Disease-Children’s Activities Report (CD-Chart). The final CD-Chart includes nine food-related activities that are measured by six core dimensions: frequency, preference, preparation, involvement, help, and self-determination. Participants were 126 children (8–11 years) and adolescents (12–18 years) with CD, and 30 healthy matched controls. Factor analysis was performed and psychometric properties were measured. Content and face validity was established and the CD-Chart showed adequate internal consistency as measured by the preference dimension (α = 0.81). Factor analysis revealed two distinct factors, social environment and close family environment. Construct validity demonstrated that the group with CD required significantly more pre-preparation for food-related activities than controls, (t(38) = 76.25, p < 0.001) and further differences as well as similarities were found between groups. Primary results indicate that the CD-Chart may serve as a practical tool for acquiring information about participation characteristics in food-related activities, strengths and challenges of children and adolescents with CD, to promote self-management, diet adherence, and well-being. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stability of Commercially Available Macular Carotenoid Supplements in Oil and Powder Formulations
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1133; doi:10.3390/nu9101133 -
Abstract
We previously identified that the concentration of zeaxanthin in some commercially available carotenoid supplements did not agree with the product’s label claim. The conclusion of this previous work was that more quality assurance was needed to guarantee concordance between actual and declared concentrations
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We previously identified that the concentration of zeaxanthin in some commercially available carotenoid supplements did not agree with the product’s label claim. The conclusion of this previous work was that more quality assurance was needed to guarantee concordance between actual and declared concentrations of these nutrients i.e., lutein (L) zeaxanthin (Z) and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ) in commercially available supplements. Since this publication, we performed further analyses using different commercially available macular carotenoid supplements. Three capsules from one batch of eight products were analysed at two different time points. The results have been alarming. All of the powder filled products (n = 3) analysed failed to comply with their label claim (L: 19–74%; Z: 57–73%; MZ: 83–97%); however, the oil filled soft gel products (n = 5) met or were above their label claim (L: 98–122%; Z: 117–162%; MZ: 97–319%). We also identified that the carotenoid content of the oil filled capsules were stable over time (e.g., L average percentage change: −1.7%), but the powder filled supplements degraded over time (e.g., L average percentage change: −17.2%). These data are consistent with our previous work, and emphasize the importance of using carotenoid interventions in oil based formulas rather than powder filled formulas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of an Advocacy Trial on Food Industry Salt Reduction Efforts—An Interim Process Evaluation
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1128; doi:10.3390/nu9101128 -
Abstract
The decisions made by food companies are a potent factor shaping the nutritional quality of the food supply. A number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) advocate for corporate action to reduce salt levels in foods, but few data define the effectiveness of advocacy. This
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The decisions made by food companies are a potent factor shaping the nutritional quality of the food supply. A number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) advocate for corporate action to reduce salt levels in foods, but few data define the effectiveness of advocacy. This present report describes the process evaluation of an advocacy intervention delivered by one Australian NGO directly to food companies to reduce the salt content of processed foods. Food companies were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 22) or control (n = 23) groups. Intervention group companies were exposed to pre-planned and opportunistic communications, and control companies to background activities. Seven pre-defined interim outcome measures provided an indication of the effect of the intervention and were assessed using intention-to-treat analysis. These were supplemented by qualitative data from nine semi-structured interviews. The mean number of public communications supporting healthy food made by intervention companies was 1.5 versus 1.8 for control companies (p = 0.63). Other outcomes, including the mean number of news articles, comments and reports (1.2 vs. 1.4; p = 0.72), a published nutrition policy (23% vs. 44%; p = 0.21), public commitment to the Australian government’s Food and Health Dialogue (FHD) (41% vs. 61%; p = 0.24), evidence of a salt reduction plan (23% vs. 30%; p = 0.56), and mean number of communications with the NGO (15 vs. 11; p = 0.28) were also not significantly different. Qualitative data indicated the advocacy trial had little effect. The absence of detectable effects of the advocacy intervention on the interim markers indicates there may be no impact of the NGO advocacy trial on the primary outcome of salt reduction in processed foods. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Nutrients in Infancy: Progress and Prospects
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1131; doi:10.3390/nu9101131 -
Abstract
This monograph, based on a special issue of Nutrients, contains 31 papers—5 reviews and 26 original publications—that reflect the wide spectrum of current research on nutrients and infancy [...]
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Open AccessReview
Gut Microbiota and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Insights on Mechanisms and Therapy
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1124; doi:10.3390/nu9101124 -
Abstract
The gut microbiota plays critical roles in development of obese-related metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), type 2 diabetes(T2D), and insulin resistance(IR), highlighting the potential of gut microbiota-targeted therapies in these diseases. There are various ways that gut microbiota can
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The gut microbiota plays critical roles in development of obese-related metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), type 2 diabetes(T2D), and insulin resistance(IR), highlighting the potential of gut microbiota-targeted therapies in these diseases. There are various ways that gut microbiota can be manipulated, including through use of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and some active components from herbal medicines. In this review, we review the main roles of gut microbiota in mediating the development of NAFLD, and the advances in gut microbiota-targeted therapies for NAFLD in both the experimental and clinical studies, as well as the conclusions on the prospect of gut microbiota-targeted therapies in the future. Full article
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