Nutrients2015, 7(4), 2311-2323; doi:10.3390/nu7042311 (registering DOI) - published 1 April 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: There is controversy surrounding the designation of vitamin D adequacy as defined by circulating levels of the metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Depending on the cutoff level chosen, dietary intakes of vitamin D may or may not provide sufficient impact upon vitamin D status measured as improvement in serum levels of 25(OH)D. We sought to examine whether modest daily doses (5–20 μg) as found in fortified foods or multivitamin supplements had a measureable impact on vitamin D status, defined as moving from below to above 50 nmol/L, or from less than 30 nmol/L to above 30 nmol/L. Published literature was searched for relevant articles describing randomized controlled trials. Exclusion criteria were: studies not involving humans; review articles; studies lacking blood level data pre- and post-treatment; no control group; bolus treatments (weekly, monthly, yearly); vitamin D <5 μg or >20 μg; baseline 25(OH)D ≥75 nmol/L; subjects not defined as healthy; studies <8 weeks; and age <19 years. Of the 127 studies retrieved, 18 publications with 25 separate comparisons met criteria. The mean rate constant, defined as change in 25(OH)D in nmol/L per μg vitamin D administered, was calculated as 2.19 ± 0.97 nmol/L per μg. There was a significant negative correlation (r = −0.65, p = 0.0004) between rate constant and administered dose. To determine impact of the dose reflecting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of 10 μg administered in nine studies (10 comparisons), in every case mean 25(OH)D status rose either from “insufficient” (30–50 nmol/L) to “sufficient” (>50 nmol/L) or from “deficient” (<30 nmol/L) to “insufficient” (>30 but <50 nmol/L). Our study shows that when baseline levels of groups were <75 nmol/L, for every microgram of vitamin D provided, 25(OH)D levels can be raised by 2 nmol/L; and further, when groups were deficient or insufficient in vitamin D, there was significant value in providing additional 10 μg per day of vitamin D.
Nutrients2015, 7(4), 2297-2310; doi:10.3390/nu7042297 (registering DOI) - published 1 April 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Target fortification (TFO) reduces natural macronutrient variation in breast milk (BM). Daily BM analysis for TFO increases neonatal intensive care unit work load by 10–15 min/patient/day and may not be feasible in all nurseries. The variation of macronutrient intake when BM analysis is done for various schedules was studied. In an observational study, we analyzed 21 subsequent samples of native 24-h BM batches, which had been prepared for 10 healthy infants (gestational age 26.1 ± 1.3 weeks, birth weight: 890 ± 210 g). Levels of protein and fat (validated near-infrared milk analyzer), as well as lactose (UPLC-MS/MS) generated the database for modelling TFO to meet recommendations of European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition. Intake of macronutrients and energy were calculated for different schedules of BM measurements for TFO (n = 1/week; n = 2/week; n = 3/week; n = 5/week; n = 7/week) and compared to native and fixed dose fortified BM. Day-to-day variation of macronutrients (protein 20%, carbohydrate 13%, fat 17%, energy 10%) decreased as the frequency of milk analysis increased and was almost zero for protein and carbohydrate with daily measurements. Measurements two/week led to mean macronutrient intake within a range of ±5% of targeted levels. A reduced schedule for macronutrient measurement may increase the practical use of TFO. To what extent the day-to-day variation affects growth while mean intake is stable needs to be studied.
Nutrients2015, 7(4), 2274-2296; doi:10.3390/nu7042274 - published 31 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Iron and ascorbate are vital cellular constituents in mammalian systems. The bulk-requirement for iron is during erythropoiesis leading to the generation of hemoglobin-containing erythrocytes. Additionally; both iron and ascorbate are required as co-factors in numerous metabolic reactions. Iron homeostasis is controlled at the level of uptake; rather than excretion. Accumulating evidence strongly suggests that in addition to the known ability of dietary ascorbate to enhance non-heme iron absorption in the gut; ascorbate regulates iron homeostasis. The involvement of ascorbate in dietary iron absorption extends beyond the direct chemical reduction of non-heme iron by dietary ascorbate. Among other activities; intra-enterocyte ascorbate appears to be involved in the provision of electrons to a family of trans-membrane redox enzymes; namely those of the cytochrome b561 class. These hemoproteins oxidize a pool of ascorbate on one side of the membrane in order to reduce an electron acceptor (e.g., non-heme iron) on the opposite side of the membrane. One member of this family; duodenal cytochrome b (DCYTB); may play an important role in ascorbate-dependent reduction of non-heme iron in the gut prior to uptake by ferrous-iron transporters. This review discusses the emerging relationship between cellular iron homeostasis; the emergent “IRP1-HIF2α axis”; DCYTB and ascorbate in relation to iron metabolism.
Nutrients2015, 7(4), 2261-2273; doi:10.3390/nu7042261 - published 31 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: To determine whether treatment with omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FA) provides benefits to patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database were searched. Data analysis was performed using Revman 5.2 software. A total of eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Overall, ω-3 FA treatment resulted in a significantly reduced risk of mortality (RR 0.35; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.75, p < 0.05), infectious complications (RR 0.54; 95% CI 0.34 to 0.85, p < 0.05) and length of hospital stay (MD –6.50; 95% CI −9.54 to −3.46, p < 0.05), but not length of ICU stay (MD −1.98; 95% CI −6.92 to 2.96, p > 0.05). In subgroup analysis, only patients who received ω-3 FA parenterally had some statistically significant benefits in terms of mortality (risk ratio (RR) 0.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16 to 0.86, p < 0.05), infectious complications (RR 0.5; 95% CI 0.28 to 0.9, p < 0.05) and length of hospital stay (mean difference (MD) −8.13; 95% CI −10.39 to −5.87, p < 0.001). The administration of ω-3 FA may be beneficial for decreasing mortality, infectious complications, and length of hospital stay in AP, especially when used parenterally. Large and rigorously designed RCTs are required to elucidate the efficacy of parenteral or enteral ω-3 FA treatment in AP.
Nutrients2015, 7(4), 2237-2260; doi:10.3390/nu7042237 - published 31 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Increasing globally, particularly in children, obesity is a serious public health issue and risk factor for overweight and metabolic disease in later life. Both in experimental animal and human studies, advances in gene sequencing technologies have yielded intriguing possibilities for the role of the gut microbiome in later development of overweight status. Before translating study findings into practice, we must first reconcile inconsistencies between animal experimentation, and human adult and infant studies. Recent evidence for associations with gut microbiota and infant weight gain or child weight status, implicate Bacteroides and Lactobacillus species. Dietary manipulation with human milk and pre/probiotic formulations holds promise for preventing obesity.
Nutrients2015, 7(4), 2209-2236; doi:10.3390/nu7042209 - published 31 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The essential trace element, selenium (Se), has multiple biological activities, which depend on the level of Se intake. Relatively low Se intakes determine the expression of selenoenzymes in which it serves as an essential constituent. Higher intakes have been shown to have anti-tumorigenic potential; and very high Se intakes can produce adverse effects. This hierarchy of biological activities calls for biomarkers informative at different levels of Se exposure. Some Se-biomarkers, such as the selenoproteins and particularly GPX3 and SEPP1, provide information about function directly and are of value in identifying nutritional Se deficiency and tracking responses of deficient individuals to Se-treatment. They are useful under conditions of Se intake within the range of regulated selenoprotein expression, e.g., for humans <55 μg/day and for animals <20 μg/kg diet. Other Se-biomarkers provide information indirectly through inferences based on Se levels of foods, tissues, urine or feces. They can indicate the likelihood of deficiency or adverse effects, but they do not provide direct evidence of either condition. Their value is in providing information about Se status over a wide range of Se intake, particularly from food forms. There is need for additional Se biomarkers particularly for assessing Se status in non-deficient individuals for whom the prospects of cancer risk reduction and adverse effects risk are the primary health considerations. This would include determining whether supranutritional intakes of Se may be required for maximal selenoprotein expression in immune surveillance cells. It would also include developing methods to determine low molecular weight Se-metabolites, i.e., selenoamino acids and methylated Se-metabolites, which to date have not been detectable in biological specimens. Recent analytical advances using tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry suggest prospects for detecting these metabolites.