Open AccessReview
The Dual Antioxidant/Prooxidant Effect of Eugenol and Its Action in Cancer Development and Treatment
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1367; doi:10.3390/nu9121367 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during metabolism is a normal process usually compensated for by the antioxidant defense system of an organism. However, ROS can cause oxidative damage and have been proposed to be the main cause of age-related clinical complications
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The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during metabolism is a normal process usually compensated for by the antioxidant defense system of an organism. However, ROS can cause oxidative damage and have been proposed to be the main cause of age-related clinical complications and diseases such as cancer. In recent decades, the relationship between diet and cancer has been more studied, especially with foods containing antioxidant compounds. Eugenol is a natural compound widely found in many aromatic plant species, spices and foods and is used in cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Eugenol has a dual effect on oxidative stress, which can action as an antioxidant or prooxidant agent. In addition, it has anti-carcinogenic, cytotoxic and antitumor properties. Considering the importance of eugenol in the area of food and human health, in this review, we discuss the role of eugenol on redox status and its potential use in the treatment and prevention of cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Patterns in Relation to Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in Poland: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1366; doi:10.3390/nu9121366 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In several populations the associations between diet and the risk of metabolic syndrome have not been fully examined yet. The aim of the study is to identify the main dietary patterns among Polish adults and the evaluation of the relationships of these patterns
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In several populations the associations between diet and the risk of metabolic syndrome have not been fully examined yet. The aim of the study is to identify the main dietary patterns among Polish adults and the evaluation of the relationships of these patterns with metabolic syndrome and its components. The study was conducted on a group of 7997 participants, aged between 37 and 66 years old. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Three dietary patterns were identified and designated as: “Healthy”, “Westernized” and “Traditional-carbohydrate”. In the adjusted model, a higher score in the “Westernized” pattern aligns with a higher risk of abnormal glucose concentration (ptrend = 0.000), but with a lower risk of abnormal High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol HDL-cholesterol concentration (ptrend = 0.024). Higher scores in the “Traditional-carbohydrate” pattern were connected with the risk of abdominal obesity (ptrend = 0.001) and increased triglycerides concentration (ptrend = 0.050). Our results suggest that adherence to the “Traditional-carbohydrate” dietary pattern, characterized by higher intakes of refined grains, potatoes, sugar and sweets is associated with a higher risk of abdominal obesity and triglyceridemia. A “Westernized” dietary pattern on the other hand, is related to hyperglycemia. The study results can be used for community-based health promotion and intervention programs to prevent or better manage chronic diseases. Full article
Open AccessReview
Capsaicin: Friend or Foe in Skin Cancer and Other Related Malignancies?
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1365; doi:10.3390/nu9121365 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Capsaicin is the main pungent in chili peppers, one of the most commonly used spices in the world; its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties have been proven in various cultures for centuries. It is a lipophilic substance belonging to the class of vanilloids and
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Capsaicin is the main pungent in chili peppers, one of the most commonly used spices in the world; its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties have been proven in various cultures for centuries. It is a lipophilic substance belonging to the class of vanilloids and an agonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor. Taking into consideration the complex neuro-immune impact of capsaicin and the potential link between inflammation and carcinogenesis, the effect of capsaicin on muco-cutaneous cancer has aroused a growing interest. The aim of this review is to look over the most recent data regarding the connection between capsaicin and muco-cutaneous cancers, with emphasis on melanoma and muco-cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Preeclampsia: Trials Say “No,” but Is It the Final Word?
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1364; doi:10.3390/nu9121364 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Preeclampsia is a dangerous disorder of pregnancy, defined as hypertension with proteinuria. Its nature remains elusive, and measures of prevention and treatment are limited. Observational studies have suggested that preeclampsia is associated with low intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). In
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Preeclampsia is a dangerous disorder of pregnancy, defined as hypertension with proteinuria. Its nature remains elusive, and measures of prevention and treatment are limited. Observational studies have suggested that preeclampsia is associated with low intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). In recent decades, researchers studied LCPUFA supplementation as a measure to prevent preeclampsia. Most of these trials and later systematic reviews yielded negative results. However, these trials had several important limitations associated with heterogeneity and other issues. Recent research suggests that preeclampsia trials should take into consideration the gender of the fetus (and thus sexual dimorphism of placenta), the positive effect of smoking on preeclampsia prevalence, and the possibility that high doses of LCPUFA mid-term or later may promote the disorder instead of keeping it at bay. In this review, we discuss these issues and future prospects for LCPUFA in preeclampsia research. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Prebiotic Dietary Fiber and Gut Health: Comparing the in Vitro Fermentations of Beta-Glucan, Inulin and Xylooligosaccharide
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1361; doi:10.3390/nu9121361 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Prebiotic dietary fiber supplements are commonly consumed to help meet fiber recommendations and improve gastrointestinal health by stimulating beneficial bacteria and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), molecules beneficial to host health. The objective of this research project was to compare potential
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Prebiotic dietary fiber supplements are commonly consumed to help meet fiber recommendations and improve gastrointestinal health by stimulating beneficial bacteria and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), molecules beneficial to host health. The objective of this research project was to compare potential prebiotic effects and fermentability of five commonly consumed fibers using an in vitro fermentation system measuring changes in fecal microbiota, total gas production and formation of common SCFAs. Fecal donations were collected from three healthy volunteers. Materials analyzed included: pure beta-glucan, Oatwell (commercially available oat-bran containing 22% oat β-glucan), xylooligosaccharides (XOS), WholeFiber (dried chicory root containing inulin, pectin, and hemi/celluloses), and pure inulin. Oatwell had the highest production of propionate at 12 h (4.76 μmol/mL) compared to inulin, WholeFiber and XOS samples (p < 0.03). Oatwell’s effect was similar to those of the pure beta-glucan samples, both samples promoted the highest mean propionate production at 24 h. XOS resulted in a significant increase in the genus Bifidobacterium after 24 h of fermentation (0 h:0.67 OTUs (operational taxonomic unit); 24 h:5.22 OTUs; p = 0.038). Inulin and WholeFiber increased the beneficial genus Collinsella, consistent with findings in clinical studies. All analyzed compounds were fermentable and promoted the formation of beneficial SCFAs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Frequency of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life among Japanese Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study from the Kyoto-Kameoka Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1362; doi:10.3390/nu9121362 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Objective: Many previous studies have reported that fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a reduced risk of various disease, but whether or not their consumption is associated with the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is unclear. The objective of this study
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Objective: Many previous studies have reported that fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a reduced risk of various disease, but whether or not their consumption is associated with the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the association between the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and the OHRQoL in elderly subjects by sex. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data from a population-based Kyoto-Kameoka Study in 2012 of 3112 men and 3439 women (age ≥ 65 years). The frequencies of fruit and vegetable consumption were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We evaluated the OHRQoL using the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), a self-reported measure designed to assess the oral health problems in old adults. Results: After adjusting for age, body mass index, alcohol, smoking, education, socioeconomic status, history of disease, medication use, mobility disability, and total energy intake, a higher frequency of combined fruit and vegetable consumption showed a significant positive association with the GOHAI score in both men and women (p-trend < 0.001 in both sexes). These associations remained significant after adjustment for poor mastication and denture use (p-trend all < 0.05 in both sexes). We observed a significant positive association even when the frequencies of fruit or vegetable consumption were analyzed separately (all p-trend < 0.05 in both sexes). Conclusions: A higher frequency of fruit and/or vegetable consumption independently showed a strong positive association with the OHRQoL in both men and women. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Hematological and Hemodynamic Responses to Acute and Short-Term Creatine Nitrate Supplementation
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1359; doi:10.3390/nu9121359 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In a double-blind, crossover, randomized and placebo-controlled trial; 28 men and women ingested a placebo (PLA), 3 g of creatine nitrate (CNL), and 6 g of creatine nitrate (CNH) for 6 days. Participants repeated the experiment with the alternate supplements after a 7-day
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In a double-blind, crossover, randomized and placebo-controlled trial; 28 men and women ingested a placebo (PLA), 3 g of creatine nitrate (CNL), and 6 g of creatine nitrate (CNH) for 6 days. Participants repeated the experiment with the alternate supplements after a 7-day washout. Hemodynamic responses to a postural challenge, fasting blood samples, and bench press, leg press, and cycling time trial performance and recovery were assessed. Data were analyzed by univariate, multivariate, and repeated measures general linear models (GLM). No significant differences were found among treatments for hemodynamic responses, clinical blood markers or self-reported side effects. After 5 days of supplementation, one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press improved significantly for CNH (mean change, 95% CI; 6.1 [3.5, 8.7] kg) but not PLA (0.7 [−1.6, 3.0] kg or CNL (2.0 [−0.9, 4.9] kg, CNH, p = 0.01). CNH participants also tended to experience an attenuated loss in 1RM strength during the recovery performance tests following supplementation on day 5 (PLA: −9.3 [−13.5, −5.0], CNL: −9.3 [−13.5, −5.1], CNH: −3.9 [−6.6, −1.2] kg, p = 0.07). After 5 days, pre-supplementation 1RM leg press values increased significantly, only with CNH (24.7 [8.8, 40.6] kg, but not PLA (13.9 [−15.7, 43.5] or CNL (14.6 [−0.5, 29.7]). Further, post-supplementation 1RM leg press recovery did not decrease significantly for CNH (−13.3 [−31.9, 5.3], but did for PLA (−30.5 [−53.4, −7.7] and CNL (−29.0 [−49.5, −8.4]). CNL treatment promoted an increase in bench press repetitions at 70% of 1RM during recovery on day 5 (PLA: 0.4 [−0.8, 1.6], CNL: 0.9 [0.35, 1.5], CNH: 0.5 [−0.2, 0.3], p = 0.56), greater leg press endurance prior to supplementation on day 5 (PLA: −0.2 [−1.6, 1.2], CNL: 0.9 [0.2, 1.6], CNH: 0.2 [−0.5, 0.9], p = 0.25) and greater leg press endurance during recovery on day 5 (PLA: −0.03 [−1.2, 1.1], CNL: 1.1 [0.3, 1.9], CNH: 0.4 [−0.4, 1.2], p = 0.23). Cycling time trial performance (4 km) was not affected. Results indicate that creatine nitrate supplementation, up to a 6 g dose, for 6 days, appears to be safe and provide some ergogenic benefit. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on a 30-s High-Intensity Inertial Cycle Ergometer Test
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1360; doi:10.3390/nu9121360 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Background: Beetroot juice (BJ) is rich in inorganic nitrates and has proved effective at increasing blood nitric oxide (NO) levels. When used as a supplement BJ has shown an ergogenic effect on cardiorespiratory resistance exercise modalities, yet few studies have examined its impact
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Background: Beetroot juice (BJ) is rich in inorganic nitrates and has proved effective at increasing blood nitric oxide (NO) levels. When used as a supplement BJ has shown an ergogenic effect on cardiorespiratory resistance exercise modalities, yet few studies have examined its impact on high intensity efforts. Objective: To assess the effects of BJ intake on anaerobic performance in a Wingate test. Methods: Fifteen trained men (age 21.46 ± 1.72 years, height 1.78 ± 0.07 cm and weight 76.90 ± 8.67 kg) undertook a 30-s maximum intensity test on an inertial cycle ergometer after drinking 70 mL of BJ (5.6 mmol NO3) or placebo. Results: Despite no impacts of BJ on the mean power recorded during the test, improvements were produced in peak power (6%) (p = 0.034), average power 0–15 s (6.7%) (p = 0.048) and final blood lactate levels (82.6%) (p < 0.001), and there was a trend towards a shorter time taken to attain peak power (−8.4%) (p = 0.055). Conclusions: Supplementation with BJ has an ergonomic effect on maximum power output and on average power during the first 15 s of a 30-s maximum intensity inertial cycle ergometer test. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spirulina Extract Enhanced a Protective Effect in Type 1 Diabetes by Anti-Apoptosis and Anti-ROS Production
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1363; doi:10.3390/nu9121363 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Interest in the nutritional value and pharmacological activities of blue-green algae has gradually increased. Spirulina extracts show protective effects against apoptosis and inflammatory damage in various cell types. Here, we investigated the protective effects of extracts from Spirulina maxima in a cytokine-mediated type
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Interest in the nutritional value and pharmacological activities of blue-green algae has gradually increased. Spirulina extracts show protective effects against apoptosis and inflammatory damage in various cell types. Here, we investigated the protective effects of extracts from Spirulina maxima in a cytokine-mediated type 1 diabetes model in vitro and in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats in vivo. Interleukin-1β and interferon-gamma induced substantial cytotoxicity to RINm5F rat insulinoma cells, increasing nitric oxide (NO) production, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity, the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress genes, and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and key genes related apoptosis. However, the cytotoxicity of cytokines was significantly attenuated by Spirulina extract, which effectively prevented NO production by inhibiting the synthesis of cytokine-activated NO synthase (iNOS), and apoptosis was suppressed. These results suggest that Spirulina extract might be effective to preserve the viability and function of pancreatic β-cells against cytotoxic conditions. Moreover, diabetic mice orally administered Spirulina extract showed decreased glucose levels, increased insulin, and improvement in liver enzyme markers. The antioxidant effect of Spirulina extract may be helpful in treating type 1 diabetes by enhancing the survival, and reducing or delaying cytokine-mediated β-cells destruction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Amniotic Fluid Arginine from Gestational Weeks 13 to 15 Is a Predictor of Birth Weight, Length, and Head Circumference
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1357; doi:10.3390/nu9121357 -
Abstract
Arginine is a constituent of proteins and a precursor for polyamines and nitric oxide, and is essential for placentation, angiogenesis, and growth. Maternal plasma arginine concentrations are found to be lower in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction, and arginine supplementation in later
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Arginine is a constituent of proteins and a precursor for polyamines and nitric oxide, and is essential for placentation, angiogenesis, and growth. Maternal plasma arginine concentrations are found to be lower in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction, and arginine supplementation in later pregnancy is reported to increase birth weight. We measured arginine and the metabolites asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in the amniotic fluid obtained in pregnancy weeks 13 to 15 from 363 pregnancies with a documented normal outcome and related the concentrations to birth weight, length, and head circumference. Arginine was higher in the amniotic fluid from female (mean 40.8 (SD 10.6) µmol/L) compared to male fetuses (37.4 (SD 11.2) µmol/L, p = 0.003). Despite the gender difference, arginine in the amniotic fluid from gestational weeks 13–15 was the strongest predictor for birth weight, length, and head circumference. ADMA was a strong predictor for birth weight and length, SDMA for birth weight, while Arg/ADMA and Arg/SDMA only predicted head circumference in multiple linear regression models. Due to increased arginine demands, pregnancy is considered a state of relative arginine deficiency. Our findings reflect the importance of a good maternal arginine status in early pregnancy, an observation that should be evaluated in an intervention study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Amount, Distribution, and Quality of Protein Intake Are Not Associated with Muscle Mass, Strength, and Power in Healthy Older Adults without Functional Limitations—An enable Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1358; doi:10.3390/nu9121358 -
Abstract
To maintain muscle mass in older age, several aspects regarding the amount and distribution of protein intake have been suggested. Our objective was to investigate single and combined associations of daily protein intake, evenness of protein distribution across the three main meals, number
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To maintain muscle mass in older age, several aspects regarding the amount and distribution of protein intake have been suggested. Our objective was to investigate single and combined associations of daily protein intake, evenness of protein distribution across the three main meals, number of meals providing ≥0.4 g protein/kg body weight (BW), and number of meals providing ≥2.5 g leucine, with muscle mass, strength, and power in successful agers. In this cross-sectional study in 97 healthy community-dwelling adults without functional limitations aged 75–85 years, protein intake was assessed using 7-day food records. Muscle mass, leg muscle strength, leg muscle power, and handgrip strength were measured according to standardized protocols. Mean daily protein intake was 0.97 ± 0.28 g/kg BW and the coefficient of variance between main meals was 0.53 ± 0.19. Per day, 0.72 ± 0.50 meals providing ≥0.4 g protein/kg BW and 1.11 ± 0.76 meals providing ≥2.5 g leucine were consumed. No correlations between single or combined aspects of protein intake and skeletal muscle index, leg muscle power, leg muscle strength, or handgrip strength were observed (Spearman’s r of −0.280 to 0.291). In this sample of healthy older adults without functional limitations, aspects of protein intake were not associated with muscle mass, strength, or power. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Flavonolignans in Different Cellular Models
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1356; doi:10.3390/nu9121356 -
Abstract
Flavonolignans are the main components of silymarin, which represents 1.5–3% of the dry fruit weight of Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaernt.). In ancient Greece and Romania, physicians and herbalists used the Silybum marianum to treat a range of liver diseases. Besides
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Flavonolignans are the main components of silymarin, which represents 1.5–3% of the dry fruit weight of Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaernt.). In ancient Greece and Romania, physicians and herbalists used the Silybum marianum to treat a range of liver diseases. Besides their hepatoprotective action, silymarin flavonolignans have many other healthy properties, such as anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effect of flavonolignans on blood platelets, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and human lung cancer cell line—A549—using different molecular techniques. We established that three major flavonolignans: silybin, silychristin and silydianin, in concentrations of up to 100 µM, have neither a cytotoxic nor genotoxic effect on blood platelets, PMBCs and A549. We also saw that silybin and silychristin have a protective effect on cellular mitochondria, observed as a reduction of spontaneous mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in A549, measured as mtDNA copies, and mtDNA lesions in ND1 and ND5 genes. Additionally, we observed that flavonolignans increase the blood platelets’ mitochondrial membrane potential and reduce the generation of reactive oxygen species in blood platelets. Our current findings show for the first time that the three major flavonolignans, silybin, silychristin and silydianin, do not have any cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in various cellular models, and that they actually protect cellular mitochondria. This proves that the antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory effect of these compounds is part of our molecular health mechanisms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Gastric Emptying and Gastrointestinal Transit Compared among Native and Hydrolyzed Whey and Casein Milk Proteins in an Aged Rat Model
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1351; doi:10.3390/nu9121351 -
Abstract
Little is known about how milk proteins affect gastrointestinal (GI) transit, particularly for the elderly, in whom digestion has been observed to be slowed. We tested the hypothesis that GI transit is faster for whey than for casein and that this effect is
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Little is known about how milk proteins affect gastrointestinal (GI) transit, particularly for the elderly, in whom digestion has been observed to be slowed. We tested the hypothesis that GI transit is faster for whey than for casein and that this effect is accentuated with hydrolysates, similar to soy. Adult male rats (18 months old) were fed native whey or casein, hydrolyzed whey (WPH) or casein (CPH), hydrolyzed blend (HB; 60% whey:40% casein), or hydrolyzed soy for 14 days then treated with loperamide, prucalopride, or vehicle-control for 7 days. X-ray imaging tracked bead-transit for: gastric emptying (GE; 4 h), small intestine (SI) transit (9 h), and large intestine (LI) transit (12 h). GE for whey was 33 ± 12% faster than that for either casein or CPH. SI transit was decreased by 37 ± 9% for casein and 24 ± 6% for whey compared with hydrolyzed soy, and persisted for casein at 12 h. Although CPH and WPH did not alter transit compared with their respective intact counterparts, fecal output was increased by WPH. Slowed transit by casein was reversed by prucalopride (9-h), but not loperamide. However, rapid GE and slower SI transit for the HB compared with intact forms were inhibited by loperamide. The expected slower GI transit for casein relative to soy provided a comparative benchmark, and opioid receptor involvement was corroborated. Our findings provide new evidence that whey slowed SI transit compared with soy, independent of GE. Increased GI transit from stomach to colon for the HB compared with casein suggests that including hydrolyzed milk proteins in foods may benefit those with slowed intestinal transit. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Short-Communication: A Comparison of the In Vitro Angiotensin-1-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Capacity of Dairy and Plant Protein Supplements
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1352; doi:10.3390/nu9121352 -
Abstract
The consumption of supplements based on dairy or plant proteins may be associated with bioactive potential, including angiotensin-1-converting enzyme inhibitory (ACE-1i) activity, which is linked with blood pressure reduction in vivo. To gain insight into this proposed mechanism, the ACE-1i potential of protein-based
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The consumption of supplements based on dairy or plant proteins may be associated with bioactive potential, including angiotensin-1-converting enzyme inhibitory (ACE-1i) activity, which is linked with blood pressure reduction in vivo. To gain insight into this proposed mechanism, the ACE-1i potential of protein-based supplements, including a selection of dairy (n = 10) and plant (n = 5) proteins were in vitro digested. The total digest was filtered and permeate and retentate were obtained. ACE-1i activity was measured as the ability of proteins (pre-digestion, ‘gastric’, permeate, and retentate) to decrease the hydrolysis of furanacroloyl-Phe-Glu-Glu (FAPGG) substrate for the ACE-1 enzyme. Permeate and retentate of dairy proteins exerted a significantly higher ACE-1i activity (mean of 10 proteins: 27.05 ± 0.2% and 20.7 ± 0.2%, respectively) compared with pre-digestion dairy proteins (16.7 ± 0.3%). Plant protein exhibited high ACE-1i in ‘gastric’ and retentate fractions (mean of five proteins: 54.9 ± 0.6% and 35.7 ± 0.6%, respectively). The comparison of the in vitro ACE-1i activity of dairy and plant proteins could provide valuable knowledge regarding their specific bioactivities, which could inform their use in the formulation of specific functional supplements that would require testing for blood pressure control in human randomly-controlled studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Monthly, High-Dose, Long-Term Vitamin D on Lung Function: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1353; doi:10.3390/nu9121353 -
Abstract
Although observational studies suggest positive vitamin D-lung function associations, randomized trials are inconsistent. We examined effects of vitamin D supplementation on lung function. We recruited 442 adults (50–84 years, 58% male) into a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Participants received, for 1.1 years (median;
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Although observational studies suggest positive vitamin D-lung function associations, randomized trials are inconsistent. We examined effects of vitamin D supplementation on lung function. We recruited 442 adults (50–84 years, 58% male) into a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Participants received, for 1.1 years (median; range = 0.9–1.5 years), either (1) vitamin D3 200,000 IU, followed by monthly 100,000 IU doses (n = 226); or (2) placebo monthly (n = 216). At baseline and follow-up, spirometry yielded forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1; primary outcome). Mean (standard deviation) 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased from 61 (24) nmol/L at baseline to 119 (45) nmol/L at follow-up in the vitamin D group, but was unchanged in the placebo group. There were no significant lung function improvements (vitamin D versus placebo) in the total sample, vitamin D-deficient participants or asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) participants. However, among ever-smokers (n = 217), the mean (95% confidence interval) FEV1 increase in the vitamin D versus placebo was 57 (4, 109) mL (p = 0.03). FEV1 increases were larger among vitamin D-deficient ever-smokers (n = 54): 122 (8, 236) mL (p = 0.04). FEV1 improvements were largest among ever-smokers with asthma/COPD (n = 60): 160 (53, 268) mL (p = 0.004). Thus, vitamin D supplementation did not improve lung function among everyone, but benefited ever-smokers, especially those with vitamin D deficiency or asthma/COPD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reduced Educational Outcomes Persist into Adolescence Following Mild Iodine Deficiency in Utero, Despite Adequacy in Childhood: 15-Year Follow-Up of the Gestational Iodine Cohort Investigating Auditory Processing Speed and Working Memory
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1354; doi:10.3390/nu9121354 -
Abstract
There is increasing evidence that even mild gestational iodine deficiency (GID) results in adverse neurocognitive impacts on offspring. It’s unclear, however, if these persist long-term and whether they can be ameliorated by iodine sufficiency in childhood. We followed a unique cohort (Gestational Iodine
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There is increasing evidence that even mild gestational iodine deficiency (GID) results in adverse neurocognitive impacts on offspring. It’s unclear, however, if these persist long-term and whether they can be ameliorated by iodine sufficiency in childhood. We followed a unique cohort (Gestational Iodine Cohort, n = 266) where gestation occurred during a period of mild population iodine deficiency, with children subsequently growing-up in an iodine replete environment. We investigated whether associations between mild GID and reductions in literacy outcomes, observed at age 9-years, persisted into adolescence. Comparisons were made between offspring of mothers with gestational urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) ≥ 150 μg/L and < 150 μg/L. Educational outcomes were measured using Australian National Assessment Program—Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) tests. Children whose mothers had UICs < 150 μg/L exhibited persistent reductions in spelling from Year 3 (10%, −41.4 points (95% Confidence Interval −65.1 to −17.6, p = 0.001)) to Year 9 (5.6%, −31.6 (−57.0 to −6.2, p = 0.015)) compared to children whose mothers had UICs ≥ 150 μg/L. Associations remained after adjustment for biological factors, socioeconomic status and adolescent UIC. Results support the hypothesis that mild GID may impact working memory and auditory processing speed. The findings have important public health implications for management of iodine nutrition in pregnancy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Risks and Benefits of Increased Nut Consumption: Cardiovascular Health Benefits Outweigh the Burden of Carcinogenic Effects Attributed to Aflatoxin B1 Exposure
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1355; doi:10.3390/nu9121355 -
Abstract
Nuts are rich in nutrients and mounting evidence shows that consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence. Nuts may also be a major source of aflatoxin B1, a potent liver carcinogen and the risk/benefit balance is unknown. Based on national statistics and
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Nuts are rich in nutrients and mounting evidence shows that consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence. Nuts may also be a major source of aflatoxin B1, a potent liver carcinogen and the risk/benefit balance is unknown. Based on national statistics and data from the PREDIMED intervention trial, we estimated the potential CVD-reduction if Swedes aged 55–79 consumed 30 g nuts/day, instead of the current national average of five grams per day. We also assessed the reduction in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. We estimated the aflatoxin B1 exposure from nuts and calculated the margin of exposure. The approximation that one nanogram aflatoxin B1/kg body weight/day results in one additional liver cancer case/10 million person-years was used to estimate the number of liver cancer cases. The increased nut consumption scenario prevented more than 7000 CVDs in 2013 (306/100,000 person-years) and contributed to about 55,000 saved DALYs for stroke and 22,000 for MI. The concomitant increase in aflatoxin B1 exposure caused an estimated zero to three additional cases of liver cancer, corresponding to 159 DALYs spent, emphasizing the associated risks. Increased nut consumption, as part of a varied healthy diet, is warranted even when aflatoxin B1 exposure is taken into account. However, efforts to reduce aflatoxin exposure from food are essential. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Assessment of a Salt Reduction Intervention on Adult Population Salt Intake in Fiji
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1350; doi:10.3390/nu9121350 -
Abstract
Reducing population salt intake is a global public health priority due to the potential to save lives and reduce the burden on the healthcare system through decreased blood pressure. This implementation science research project set out to measure salt consumption patterns and to
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Reducing population salt intake is a global public health priority due to the potential to save lives and reduce the burden on the healthcare system through decreased blood pressure. This implementation science research project set out to measure salt consumption patterns and to assess the impact of a complex, multi-faceted intervention to reduce population salt intake in Fiji between 2012 and 2016. The intervention combined initiatives to engage food businesses to reduce salt in foods and meals with targeted consumer behavior change programs. There were 169 participants at baseline (response rate 28.2%) and 272 at 20 months (response rate 22.4%). The mean salt intake from 24-h urine samples was estimated to be 11.7 grams per day (g/d) at baseline and 10.3 g/d after 20 months (difference: −1.4 g/day, 95% CI −3.1 to 0.3, p = 0.115). Sub-analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in female salt intake in the Central Division but no differential impact in relation to age or ethnicity. Whilst the low response rate means it is not possible to draw firm conclusions about these changes, the population salt intake in Fiji, at 10.3 g/day, is still twice the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommended maximum intake. This project also assessed iodine intake levels in women of child-bearing age and found that they were within recommended guidelines. Existing policies and programs to reduce salt intake and prevent iodine deficiency need to be maintained or strengthened. Monitoring to assess changes in salt intake and to ensure that iodine levels remain adequate should be built into future surveys. Full article
Open AccessReview
Short Chain Fatty Acids in the Colon and Peripheral Tissues: A Focus on Butyrate, Colon Cancer, Obesity and Insulin Resistance
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1348; doi:10.3390/nu9121348 -
Abstract
Increased dietary fiber consumption has been associated with many beneficial effects, including amelioration of obesity and insulin resistance. These effects may be due to the increased production of short chain fatty acids, including propionate, acetate and butyrate, during fermentation of the dietary fiber
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Increased dietary fiber consumption has been associated with many beneficial effects, including amelioration of obesity and insulin resistance. These effects may be due to the increased production of short chain fatty acids, including propionate, acetate and butyrate, during fermentation of the dietary fiber in the colon. Indeed, oral and dietary supplementation of butyrate alone has been shown to prevent high fat-diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. This review focuses on sources of short chain fatty acids, with emphasis on sources of butyrate, mechanisms of fiber and butyrate metabolism in the gut and its protective effects on colon cancer and the peripheral effects of butyrate supplementation in peripheral tissues in the prevention and reversal of obesity and insulin resistance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Involvement of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases and Sulfotransferases in the Excretion and Tissue Distribution of Resveratrol in Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1347; doi:10.3390/nu9121347 -
Abstract
Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound with various pharmacological activities. It is unknown whether the expression of metabolizing enzymes correlates with resveratrol levels in organs and tissues. Therefore, we investigated the metabolism and tissue distribution of resveratrol in mice and assessed its
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Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound with various pharmacological activities. It is unknown whether the expression of metabolizing enzymes correlates with resveratrol levels in organs and tissues. Therefore, we investigated the metabolism and tissue distribution of resveratrol in mice and assessed its association with the expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (Ugt) and sulfotransferase (Sult) genes. Plasma, urine, feces, and various organs were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography at up to 8 h after intragastric resveratrol administration. The metabolism of resveratrol was pronounced, leading to the formation of resveratrol glucuronides and sulfates. Concentrations of resveratrol and its metabolites were high in the gastrointestinal organs, urine, and feces, but low in the liver and kidneys. In lung, heart, thymus, and brain tissues, parent resveratrol levels exceeded the sulfate and glucuronide concentrations. The formation of resveratrol conjugates correlated with the expression of certain Ugt and Sult genes. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed high mRNA expression of Ugt1a1 and Ugt1a6a in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon, leading to high concentrations of resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide in these organs. Strong correlations of resveratrol-3-O-sulfate and resveratrol-3-O-4′-O-disulfate formation with Sult1a1 mRNA expression were also observed, particularly in the liver and colon. In summary, our data revealed organ-specific expression of Sults and Ugts in mice that strongly affects resveratrol concentrations; this may also be predictive in humans following oral uptake of dietary resveratrol. Full article
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