Open AccessArticle
Cognitive Food Processing in Binge-Eating Disorder: An Eye-Tracking Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 903; doi:10.3390/nu9080903 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Studies indicate an attentional bias towards food in binge-eating disorder (BED); however, more evidence on attentional engagement and disengagement and processing of multiple attention-competing stimuli is needed. This study aimed to examine visual attention to food and non-food stimuli in BED. In n
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Studies indicate an attentional bias towards food in binge-eating disorder (BED); however, more evidence on attentional engagement and disengagement and processing of multiple attention-competing stimuli is needed. This study aimed to examine visual attention to food and non-food stimuli in BED. In n = 23 participants with full-syndrome and subsyndromal BED and n = 23 individually matched healthy controls, eye-tracking was used to assess attention to food and non-food stimuli during a free exploration paradigm and a visual search task. In the free exploration paradigm, groups did not differ in their initial fixation position. While both groups fixated non-food stimuli significantly longer than food stimuli, the BED group allocated significantly more attention towards food than controls. In the visual search task, groups did not differ in detection times. However, a significant detection bias for food was found in full-syndrome BED, but not in controls. An increased initial attention towards food was related to greater BED symptomatology and lower body mass index (BMI) only in full-syndrome BED, while a greater maintained attention to food was associated with lower BMI in controls. The results suggest food-biased visual attentional processing in adults with BED. Further studies should clarify the implications of attentional processes for the etiology and maintenance of BED. Full article
Open AccessReview
Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating Symptoms in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 906; doi:10.3390/nu9080906 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Eating problems in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) can be divided into two groups. The first includes the diagnosed eating disorders (EDs), i.e., diseases specifically identified by defined signs and symptoms for which a degree of severity has been established, such as
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Eating problems in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) can be divided into two groups. The first includes the diagnosed eating disorders (EDs), i.e., diseases specifically identified by defined signs and symptoms for which a degree of severity has been established, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, pica, and rumination. The second is the group of disordered eating symptoms (DES), which include behaviors such as dieting for weight loss, binge eating, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and laxative or diuretic use; these behaviors cannot be categorized as complete diseases, and, although apparently mild, they must be closely evaluated because they can evolve into true EDs. In this review, present knowledge about the clinical relevance of EDs and DES and the possible preventive and therapeutic measures used to reduce their impact on the course of T1D will be discussed. As adolescents with diabetes are at higher risk of eating disturbances and consequently for higher rates of disease complications, care providers should pay attention to clinical warning signs that raise suspicion of disturbed eating to refer these patients early to an expert in nutrition and mental health disorders. To ensure the best care for adolescents with T1D, diabetes teams should be multidisciplinary and include a pediatric diabetologist, a skilled nurse, a dietician, and a psychologist. Full article
Open AccessReview
The Role of MicroRNAs in the Chemopreventive Activity of Sulforaphane from Cruciferous Vegetables
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 902; doi:10.3390/nu9080902 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Colorectal cancer is an increasingly significant cause of mortality whose risk is linked to diet and inversely correlated with cruciferous vegetable consumption. This is likely to be partly attributable to the isothiocyanates derived from eating these vegetables, such as sulforaphane, which is extensively
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Colorectal cancer is an increasingly significant cause of mortality whose risk is linked to diet and inversely correlated with cruciferous vegetable consumption. This is likely to be partly attributable to the isothiocyanates derived from eating these vegetables, such as sulforaphane, which is extensively characterised for cytoprotective and tumour-suppressing activities. However, its bioactivities are likely to extend in complexity beyond those currently known; further insight into these bioactivities could aid the development of sulforaphane-based chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic strategies. Evidence suggests that sulforaphane modulates the expression of microRNAs, many of which are known to regulate genes involved at various stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. Based upon existing knowledge, there exist many plausible mechanisms by which sulforaphane may regulate microRNAs. Thus, there is a strong case for the further investigation of the roles of microRNAs in the anti-cancer effects of sulforaphane. There are several different types of approach to the wide-scale profiling of microRNA differential expression. Array-based methods may involve the use of RT-qPCR or complementary hybridisation probe chips, and tend to be relatively fast and economical. Cloning and deep sequencing approaches are more expensive and labour-intensive, but are worth considering where viable, for their greater sensitivity and ability to detect novel microRNAs. Full article
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Open AccessConcept Paper
Dynamic Energy Balance: An Integrated Framework for Discussing Diet and Physical Activity in Obesity Prevention—Is it More than Eating Less and Exercising More?
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 905; doi:10.3390/nu9080905 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Understanding the dynamic nature of energy balance, and the interrelated and synergistic roles of diet and physical activity (PA) on body weight, will enable nutrition educators to be more effective in implementing obesity prevention education. Although most educators recognize that diet and PA
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Understanding the dynamic nature of energy balance, and the interrelated and synergistic roles of diet and physical activity (PA) on body weight, will enable nutrition educators to be more effective in implementing obesity prevention education. Although most educators recognize that diet and PA are important for weight management, they may not fully understand their impact on energy flux and how diet alters energy expenditure and energy expenditure alters diet. Many nutrition educators have little training in exercise science; thus, they may not have the knowledge essential to understanding the benefits of PA for health or weight management beyond burning calories. This paper highlights the importance of advancing nutrition educators’ understanding about PA, and its synergistic role with diet, and the value of incorporating a dynamic energy balance approach into obesity-prevention programs. Five key points are highlighted: (1) the concept of dynamic vs. static energy balance; (2) the role of PA in weight management; (3) the role of PA in appetite regulation; (4) the concept of energy flux; and (5) the integration of dynamic energy balance into obesity prevention programs. The rationale for the importance of understanding the physiological relationship between PA and diet for effective obesity prevention programming is also reviewed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Resveratrol in Hepatitis C Patients Treated with Pegylated-Interferon-α-2b and Ribavirin Reduces Sleep Disturbance
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 897; doi:10.3390/nu9080897 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Background: Hepatitis C virus infection and interferon treatment have shown to be risk factors for sleep disorder health-related quality of life. Aim: To determine whether the effects of resveratrol on sleep disorders were associated with different tests in subjects with chronic hepatitis C
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Background: Hepatitis C virus infection and interferon treatment have shown to be risk factors for sleep disorder health-related quality of life. Aim: To determine whether the effects of resveratrol on sleep disorders were associated with different tests in subjects with chronic hepatitis C treated with Peg-IFN-α and RBV. Patients and Methods: In this prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial, 30 subjects (Group A) with chronic hepatitis received Pegylated-Interferon-α2b (1.5 mg/kg per week), Ribavirin and placebo (N-acetylcysteine 600 mg and lactoferrin 23.6 g), while 30 subjects (Group B) received the same dosage of Pegylated-Interferon-α2b, Ribavirin and association of N-acetylcysteine 600 mg, lactoferrin 23.6 g and Resveratrol 19.8 mg for 12 months. All subjects underwent laboratory exams and questionnaires to evaluate mood and sleep disorders (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Profile of Mood States (POMS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)). Results: The comparison between Group A and Group B showed significant differences after six months in C-reactive protein (p < 0.0001); after 12 months in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (p < 0.0001) Viremia (p < 0.0001), HAI (p < 0.0012) and C-reactive protein (p < 0.0001); and at follow up in AST (p < 0.0001), Viremia (p < 0.0026) and C-reactive protein (p < 0.0001). Significant differences were observed after 12 month and follow-up in General Health Questionnaire, after 1, 6, 12 and follow-up in Profile of Mood States, after 6, 12, follow-up in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Conclusions: Supplementation with Resveratrol decreased General Health Questionnaire score and reduced sleep disorders in patients treated with Peg–IFN-α and RBV. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Choline Supplementation Normalizes Fetal Adiposity and Reduces Lipogenic Gene Expression in a Mouse Model of Maternal Obesity
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 899; doi:10.3390/nu9080899 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Maternal obesity increases fetal adiposity which may adversely affect metabolic health of the offspring. Choline regulates lipid metabolism and thus may influence adiposity. This study investigates the effect of maternal choline supplementation on fetal adiposity in a mouse model of maternal obesity. C57BL/6J
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Maternal obesity increases fetal adiposity which may adversely affect metabolic health of the offspring. Choline regulates lipid metabolism and thus may influence adiposity. This study investigates the effect of maternal choline supplementation on fetal adiposity in a mouse model of maternal obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat (HF) diet or a control (NF) diet and received either 25 mM choline supplemented (CS) or control untreated (CO) drinking water for 6 weeks before timed-mating and throughout gestation. At embryonic day 17.5, HF feeding led to higher (p < 0.05) percent total body fat in fetuses from the HFCO group, while the choline supplemented HFCS group did not show significant difference versus the NFCO group. Similarly, HF feeding led to higher (p < 0.05) hepatic triglyceride accumulation in the HFCO but not the HFCS fetuses. mRNA levels of lipogenic genes such as Acc1, Fads1, and Elovl5, as well as the transcription factor Srebp1c that favors lipogenesis were downregulated (p < 0.05) by maternal choline supplementation in the HFCS group, which may serve as a mechanism to reduce fat accumulation in the fetal liver during maternal HF feeding. In summary, maternal choline supplementation improves indices of fetal adiposity in obese dams at late gestation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Genome-Wide Interaction Study of Omega-3 PUFAs and Other Fatty Acids on Inflammatory Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Health in the Framingham Heart Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 900; doi:10.3390/nu9080900 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Numerous genetic loci have been identified as being associated with circulating fatty acid (FA) levels and/or inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular health (e.g., C-reactive protein). Recently, using red blood cell (RBC) FA data from the Framingham Offspring Study, we conducted a genome-wide association study
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Numerous genetic loci have been identified as being associated with circulating fatty acid (FA) levels and/or inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular health (e.g., C-reactive protein). Recently, using red blood cell (RBC) FA data from the Framingham Offspring Study, we conducted a genome-wide association study of over 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 22 RBC FAs (and associated ratios), including the four Omega-3 FAs (ALA, DHA, DPA, and EPA). Our analyses identified numerous causal loci. In this manuscript, we investigate the extent to which polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels moderate the relationship of genetics to cardiovascular health biomarkers using a genome-wide interaction study approach. In particular, we test for possible gene–FA interactions on 9 inflammatory biomarkers, with 2.5 million SNPs and 12 FAs, including all Omega-3 PUFAs. We identified eighteen novel loci, including loci which demonstrate strong evidence of modifying the impact of heritable genetics on biomarker levels, and subsequently cardiovascular health. The identified genes provide increased clarity on the biological functioning and role of Omega-3 PUFAs, as well as other common fatty acids, in cardiovascular health, and suggest numerous candidate loci for future replication and biological characterization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Omega 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Improve Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Renal Failure: Role of eNOS Activation and of Oxidative Stress
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 895; doi:10.3390/nu9080895 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Background: Endothelial dysfunction is a key vascular alteration in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Omega 3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduce vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. We investigated whether n-3 PUFA could reverse endothelial dysfunction in CKD by improving endothelial
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Background: Endothelial dysfunction is a key vascular alteration in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Omega 3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduce vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. We investigated whether n-3 PUFA could reverse endothelial dysfunction in CKD by improving endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function and oxidative stress. Methods: 5/6 nephrectomized male Wistar rats (CKD; n = 10) and sham operated animals (SHAM; n = 10) were treated for 6 weeks with standard diet. An additional group of CKD rats were fed an n-3 PUFA enriched diet (CKD + PUFA; n = 10). We then measured endothelium-dependent (EDD) and -independent vasodilation, markers of endothelial function and of oxidative stress in thoracic aortas. Results: Compared to SHAM, in CKD aortas EDD and eNOS expression were reduced (p < 0.05) and 3-nitrotyrosine levels were increased, while expression of NADPH oxidase subunits NOX4 and p22phox was similar. In-vitro incubation with Tiron failed to reverse endothelial dysfunction in CKD. In CKD + PUFA, EDD improved (p < 0.05) compared with CKD rats, while blockade of eNOS by L-NAME worsened EDD. These effects were accompanied by increased (p < 0.05) eNOS and reduced (p < 0.05) expression of NOX4 and 3-nitrotyrosine levels. Conclusion: Collectively, these findings indicate that n-3 PUFA improve endothelial dysfunction by restoring NO bioavailability in CKD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Choline Intake and Its Food Sources in the Diet of Romanian Kindergarten Children
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 896; doi:10.3390/nu9080896 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The objective of this study is to assess the usual intake and food sources of choline in a group of Romanian kindergarten children. A cross-sectional study was performed among 71 children aged 4–6 years from four kindergartens from Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Dietary intake data
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The objective of this study is to assess the usual intake and food sources of choline in a group of Romanian kindergarten children. A cross-sectional study was performed among 71 children aged 4–6 years from four kindergartens from Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Dietary intake data were collected by means of three-day food records. The mean (SD) daily intake of choline was 215 (32) mg/day, 22.5% of the participants fulfilling the adequate intake (AI) for children 4–6 years of age of 250 mg of choline per day. The main food sources were meat (mainly poultry), eggs, grains, cereals, and baked products (mainly bread), and dairy products (mainly milk). The results of the logistic regression analyses show that an appropriate consumption of choline/day was statistically significantly associated with the consumption of at least one egg per three days (OR = 7.5, p < 0.05), a minimum of two portions of milk or dairy products per day (500 mL milk or yoghurt, or 60 g of cheese/day) (OR = 4.4, p < 0.05), and at least one portion of meat/day (90 g/day) (OR = 14.4, p < 0.05). The results underline the need for future surveys in this field, as well as actions to encourage an appropriate diet for children, including an appropriate content of choline. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D Status of Residents in Taiyuan, China and Influencing Factors
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 898; doi:10.3390/nu9080898 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has been reported worldwide. Residents of Taiyuan, China, were predicted to be at high risk of vitamin D deficiency due to its high latitude, heavy air pollution, and cultural sun avoidance. This study investigated the vitamin D
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High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has been reported worldwide. Residents of Taiyuan, China, were predicted to be at high risk of vitamin D deficiency due to its high latitude, heavy air pollution, and cultural sun avoidance. This study investigated the vitamin D status of office workers, and explored the potential determinants of capillary 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration as well as the relationship between 25(OH)D and metabolic syndrome. Two hundred participants, aged 20 to 80 years, were recruited. Capillary dried blood spot (DBS) 25(OH)D was measured; together with anthropometric (height, weight, and waist circumference), biochemical (serum lipid profile and fasting glucose) measures and a lifestyle questionnaire. Thirty-four percent of participants had 25(OH)D concentrations below 30 nmol/L, indicating deficient vitamin D status. Women’s 25(OH)D (median; 32.7 nmol/L (upper and lower quartile; 25.8, 43.8)) was significantly lower than men (44.0 nmol/L (32.3, 55.4)) (p < 0.01). Female gender, higher fasting glucose, and increased smoking (p < 0.05) were negatively associated with 25(OH)D concentration. However, there was no association found between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and 25(OH)D concentration and no significant difference in vitamin D status between men or women with MetS compared to healthy individuals. Vitamin D deficiency was common in urban residents of Taiyuan in winter and more so in women than men. Full article
Open AccessReview
Applying a Consumer Behavior Lens to Salt Reduction Initiatives
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 901; doi:10.3390/nu9080901 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Reformulation of food products to reduce salt content has been a central strategy for achieving population level salt reduction. In this paper, we reflect on current reformulation strategies and consider how consumer behavior determines the ultimate success of these strategies. We consider the
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Reformulation of food products to reduce salt content has been a central strategy for achieving population level salt reduction. In this paper, we reflect on current reformulation strategies and consider how consumer behavior determines the ultimate success of these strategies. We consider the merits of adopting a ‘health by stealth’, silent approach to reformulation compared to implementing a communications strategy which draws on labeling initiatives in tandem with reformulation efforts. We end this paper by calling for a multi-actor approach which utilizes co-design, participatory tools to facilitate the involvement of all stakeholders, including, and especially, consumers, in making decisions around how best to achieve population-level salt reduction. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Changes in Lipids and Inflammatory Markers after Consuming Diets High in Red Meat or Dairy for Four Weeks
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 886; doi:10.3390/nu9080886 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
There is a body of evidence linking inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. Our previous research found that insulin sensitivity decreased after a four-week diet high in dairy compared to a control diet and to one high in red meat. Our aim
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There is a body of evidence linking inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. Our previous research found that insulin sensitivity decreased after a four-week diet high in dairy compared to a control diet and to one high in red meat. Our aim was to determine whether a relationship exists between changes in insulin sensitivity and inflammatory biomarkers, or with lipid species. Fasting Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor II (sTNF-RII), C-reactive protein (CRP), and lipids were measured at the end of each diet. TNF-α and the ratio TNF-α/sTNF-RII were not different between diets and TNF-α, sTNF-RII, or the ratio TNF-α/sTNF-RII showed no association with homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). A number of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) species differed between dairy and red meat and dairy and control diets, as did many phosphatidylcholine (PC) species and cholesteryl ester (CE) 14:0, CE15:0, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) 14:0, and LPC15:0. None had a significant relationship (p = 0.001 or better) with log homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), although LPC14:0 had the strongest relationship (p = 0.004) and may be the main mediator of the effect of dairy on insulin sensitivity. LPC14:0 and the whole LPC class were correlated with CRP. The correlations between dietary change and the minor plasma phospholipids PI32:1 and PE32:1 are novel and may reflect significant changes in membrane composition. Inflammatory markers were not altered by changes in protein source while the correlation of LPC with CRP confirms a relationship between changes in lipid profile and inflammation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Attenuation of Multiple Organ Damage by Continuous Low-Dose Solvent-Free Infusions of Resveratrol after Severe Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 889; doi:10.3390/nu9080889 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Therapeutic effects of continuous intravenous infusions of solvent-free low doses of resveratrol on organ injury and systemic consequences resulting from severe hemorrhagic shock in rats were studied. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by withdrawing arterial blood until a mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of
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Therapeutic effects of continuous intravenous infusions of solvent-free low doses of resveratrol on organ injury and systemic consequences resulting from severe hemorrhagic shock in rats were studied. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by withdrawing arterial blood until a mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of 25–30 mmHg was reached. Following a shock phase of 60 min, rats were resuscitated with the withdrawn blood plus lactated Ringer’s. Resveratrol (20 or 60 μg/kg × h) was continuously infused intravenously starting with the resuscitation phase (30 min) and continued until the end of the experiment (total treatment time 180 min). Animals of the shock control group received 0.9% NaCl solution. After the observation phase (150 min), rats were sacrificed. Resveratrol significantly stabilized the MAP and peripheral oxygen saturation after hemorrhagic shock, decreased the macroscopic injury of the small intestine, significantly attenuated the shock-induced increase in tissue myeloperoxidase activity in the small intestine, liver, kidney and lung, and diminished tissue hemorrhages (particularly in the small intestine and liver) as well as the rate of hemolysis. Already very low doses of resveratrol, continuously infused during resuscitation after severe hemorrhagic shock, can significantly improve impaired systemic parameters and attenuate multiple organ damage in rats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Consistency of Eating Rate, Oral Processing Behaviours and Energy Intake across Meals
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 891; doi:10.3390/nu9080891 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Faster eating has been identified as a risk factor for obesity and the current study tested whether eating rate is consistent within an individual and linked to energy intake across multiple meals. Measures of ad libitum intake, eating rate, and oral processing at
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Faster eating has been identified as a risk factor for obesity and the current study tested whether eating rate is consistent within an individual and linked to energy intake across multiple meals. Measures of ad libitum intake, eating rate, and oral processing at the same or similar test meal were recorded on four non-consecutive days for 146 participants (117 male, 29 female) recruited across four separate studies. All the meals were video recorded, and oral processing behaviours were derived through behavioural coding. Eating behaviours showed good to excellent consistency across the meals (intra-class correlation coefficients > 0.76, p < 0.001) and participants who ate faster took larger bites (β ≥ 0.39, p < 0.001) and consistently consumed more energy, independent of meal palatability, sex, body composition and reported appetite (β ≥ 0.17, p ≤ 0.025). Importantly, eating faster at one meal predicted faster eating and increased energy intake at subsequent meals (β > 0.20, p < 0.05). Faster eating is relatively consistent within individuals and is predictive of faster eating and increased energy intake at subsequent similar meals consumed in a laboratory context, independent of individual differences in body composition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Familial Resemblance in Dietary Intakes of Children, Adolescents, and Parents: Does Dietary Quality Play a Role?
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 892; doi:10.3390/nu9080892 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Information on familial resemblance is important for the design of effective family-based interventions. We aimed to quantify familial correlations and estimate the proportion of variation attributable to genetic and shared environmental effects (i.e., familiality) for dietary intake variables and determine whether they vary
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Information on familial resemblance is important for the design of effective family-based interventions. We aimed to quantify familial correlations and estimate the proportion of variation attributable to genetic and shared environmental effects (i.e., familiality) for dietary intake variables and determine whether they vary by generation, sex, dietary quality, or by the age of the children. The study sample consisted of 1435 families (1007 mothers, 438 fathers, 1035 daughters, and 1080 sons) from the multi-center I.Family study. Dietary intake was assessed in parents and their 2–19 years old children using repeated 24-h dietary recalls, from which the usual energy and food intakes were estimated with the U.S. National Cancer Institute Method. Food items were categorized as healthy or unhealthy based on their sugar, fat, and fiber content. Interclass and intraclass correlations were calculated for relative pairs. Familiality was estimated using variance component methods. Parent–offspring (r = 0.11–0.33), sibling (r = 0.21–0.43), and spouse (r = 0.15–0.33) correlations were modest. Parent–offspring correlations were stronger for the intake of healthy (r = 0.33) than unhealthy (r = 0.10) foods. Familiality estimates were 61% (95% CI: 54–68%) for the intake of fruit and vegetables and the sum of healthy foods and only 30% (95% CI: 23–38%) for the sum of unhealthy foods. Familial factors explained a larger proportion of the variance in healthy food intake (71%; 95% CI: 62–81%) in younger children below the age of 11 than in older children equal or above the age of 11 (48%; 95% CI: 38–58%). Factors shared by family members such as genetics and/or the shared home environment play a stronger role in shaping children’s intake of healthy foods than unhealthy foods. This suggests that family-based interventions are likely to have greater effects when targeting healthy food choices and families with younger children, and that other sorts of intervention are needed to address the intake of unhealthy foods by children. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Omega–3 Long-Chain Fatty Acids in the Heart, Kidney, Liver and Plasma Metabolite Profiles of Australian Prime Lambs Supplemented with Pelleted Canola and Flaxseed Oils
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 893; doi:10.3390/nu9080893 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The objective of the study was to ascertain whether human health beneficial omega–3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) content in heart, kidney and liver can be enhanced by supplementing prime lambs with graded levels of canola and
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The objective of the study was to ascertain whether human health beneficial omega–3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) content in heart, kidney and liver can be enhanced by supplementing prime lambs with graded levels of canola and flaxseed oil. Health status of the lambs, as a consequence of the supplementation, was also investigated by examining their plasma metabolites. Sixty purebred and first-cross lambs were allocated to one of five treatments of lucerne hay basal diet supplemented with isocaloric and isonitrogenous wheat-based pellets without oil inclusion (Control) or graded levels of canola oil at 2.5% (2.5C), 5% (5C), flaxseed oil at 2.5% (2.5F) and 5% (5F) in a completely randomised design. Pre-slaughter blood, post-slaughter kidney, liver and heart samples were analysed for plasma metabolite and fatty acid profiles. Summations of docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 LC-PUFA were enhanced in the liver and kidney of 5F supplemented lambs with a marked decrease in n-6/n-3 ratio and significant breed differences detected. There were generally no deleterious impacts on animal health status. A combination of 5% oil supplementation and lamb genetics is an effective and strategic management tool for enhancing n-3 LC-PUFA contents of heart, kidney and liver without compromising lamb health. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) and Plasma Carotenoid Concentrations: A Validation Study in Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 888; doi:10.3390/nu9080888 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Diet quality indices can predict nutritional adequacy of usual intake, but validity should be determined. The aim was to assess the validity of total and sub-scale score within the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), in relation to fasting plasma carotenoid concentrations. Diet quality
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Diet quality indices can predict nutritional adequacy of usual intake, but validity should be determined. The aim was to assess the validity of total and sub-scale score within the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), in relation to fasting plasma carotenoid concentrations. Diet quality and fasting plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed in 99 overweight and obese adults (49.5% female, aged 44.6 ± 9.9 years) at baseline and after three months (198 paired observations). Associations were assessed using Spearman’s correlation coefficients and regression analysis, and agreement using weighted kappa (Kw). Small, significantly positive correlations were found between total ARFS and plasma concentrations of total carotenoids (r = 0.17, p < 0.05), β-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.18, p < 0.05), β-carotene (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and α-carotene (r = 0.19, p < 0.01). Significant agreement between ARFS categories and plasma carotenoid concentrations was found for total carotenoids (Kw 0.12, p = 0.02), β-carotene (Kw 0.14, p < 0.01), and α-carotene (Kw 0.13, p < 0.01). In fully-adjusted regression models the only signification association with ARFS total score was for α-carotene (β = 0.19, p < 0.01), while ARFS meat and fruit sub-scales demonstrated significant relationships with α-carotene, β-carotene, and total carotenoids (p < 0.05). The weak associations highlight the issues with self-reporting dietary intakes in overweight and obese populations. Further research is required to evaluate the use of the ARFS in more diverse populations. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Coffee Consumption Is Associated with Decreased Incidence of New-Onset Hypertension: A Dose–Response Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 890; doi:10.3390/nu9080890 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Objective: To perform a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies investigating the association between long-term coffee intake and risk of hypertension. Methods: An online systematic search of studies published up to November 2016 was performed. Linear and non-linear dose–response meta-analyses were conducted; potential
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Objective: To perform a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies investigating the association between long-term coffee intake and risk of hypertension. Methods: An online systematic search of studies published up to November 2016 was performed. Linear and non-linear dose–response meta-analyses were conducted; potential evidence of heterogeneity, publication bias, and confounding effect of selected variables were investigated through sensitivity and meta-regression analyses. Results: Seven cohorts including 205,349 individuals and 44,120 cases of hypertension were included. In the non-linear analysis, there was a 9% significant decreased risk of hypertension per seven cups of coffee a day, while, in the linear dose–response association, there was a 1% decreased risk of hypertension for each additional cup of coffee per day. Among subgroups, there were significant inverse associations for females, caffeinated coffee, and studies conducted in the US with longer follow-up. Analysis of potential confounders revealed that smoking-related variables weakened the strength of association between coffee consumption and risk of hypertension. Conclusions: Increased coffee consumption is associated with a modest decrease in risk of hypertension in prospective cohort studies. Smoking status is a potential effect modifier on the association between coffee consumption and risk of hypertension. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Human Milk and Allergic Diseases: An Unsolved Puzzle
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 894; doi:10.3390/nu9080894 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
There is conflicting evidence on the protective role of breastfeeding in relation to the development of allergic sensitisation and allergic disease. Studies vary in methodology and definition of outcomes, which lead to considerable heterogeneity. Human milk composition varies both within and between individuals,
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There is conflicting evidence on the protective role of breastfeeding in relation to the development of allergic sensitisation and allergic disease. Studies vary in methodology and definition of outcomes, which lead to considerable heterogeneity. Human milk composition varies both within and between individuals, which may partially explain conflicting data. It is known that human milk composition is very complex and contains variable levels of immune active molecules, oligosaccharides, metabolites, vitamins and other nutrients and microbial content. Existing evidence suggests that modulation of human breast milk composition has potential for preventing allergic diseases in early life. In this review, we discuss associations between breastfeeding/human milk composition and allergy development. Full article
Open AccessShort Note
The Efficacy of Bifidobacterium longum BORI and Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031 Probiotic Treatment in Infants with Rotavirus Infection
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 887; doi:10.3390/nu9080887 -
Abstract
A total of 57 infants hospitalized with rotavirus disease were included in this study. The children were randomly divided into the study’s two treatment groups: three days of the oral administration of (i) a probiotics formula containing both Bifidobacterium longum BORI and Lactobacillus
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A total of 57 infants hospitalized with rotavirus disease were included in this study. The children were randomly divided into the study’s two treatment groups: three days of the oral administration of (i) a probiotics formula containing both Bifidobacterium longum BORI and Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031 (N = 28); or (ii) a placebo (probiotic-free skim milk, N = 29) and the standard therapy for diarrhea. There were no differences in age, sex, or blood characteristics between the two groups. When the 57 cases completed the protocol, the duration of the patients’ diarrhea was significantly shorter in the probiotics group (4.38 ± 1.29, N = 28) than the placebo group (5.61 ± 1.23, N = 29), with a p-value of 0.001. Symptoms such as duration of fever (p = 0.119), frequency of diarrhea (p = 0.119), and frequency of vomiting (p = 0.331) tended to be ameliorated by the probiotic treatment; however, differences were not statistically significant between the two groups. There were no serious, adverse events and no differences in the frequency of adverse events in both groups. Full article