Nanomaterials2015, 5(3), 1284-1296; doi:10.3390/nano5031284 (registering DOI) - published 31 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Synthetic calcium phosphate (CaP)-based materials have attracted much attention in the biomedical field. In this study, we have investigated the effect of pH values on CaP nanostructures prepared using a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The hierarchical nanosheet-assembled hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanostructure was prepared under weak acidic conditions (pH 5), while the HAP nanorod was prepared under neutral (pH 7) and weak alkali (pH 9) condition. However, when the pH value increases to 11, a mixed product of HAP nanorod and tri-calcium phosphate nanoparticle was obtained. The results indicated that the pH value of the initial reaction solution played an important role in the phase and structure of the CaP. Furthermore, the protein adsorption and release performance of the as-prepared CaP nanostructures were investigated by using hemoglobin (Hb) as a model protein. The sample that was prepared at pH = 11 and consisted of mixed morphologies of nanorods and nanoprisms showed a higher Hb protein adsorption capacity than the sample prepared at pH 5, which could be explained by its smaller size and dispersed structure. The results revealed the relatively high protein adsorption capacity of the as-prepared CaP nanostructures, which show promise for applications in various biomedical fields such as drug delivery and protein adsorption.
Nanomaterials2015, 5(3), 1256-1283; doi:10.3390/nano5031256 (registering DOI) - published 31 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In the present study, Mg (1.98 and 2.5) vol % TiO2 nanocomposites are primarily synthesized utilizing solid-phase blend-press-sinter powder metallurgy (PM) technique and liquid-phase disintegrated melt deposition technique (DMD) followed by hot extrusion. Microstructural characterization of the synthesized Mg-TiO2 nanocomposites indicated significant grain refinement with DMD synthesized Mg nanocomposites exhibiting as high as ~47% for 2.5 vol % TiO2 NPs addition. X-ray diffraction studies indicated that texture randomization of pure Mg depends not only on the critical amount of TiO2 NPs added to the Mg matrix but also on the adopted synthesis methodology. Irrespective of the processing technique, theoretically predicted tensile yield strength of Mg-TiO2 nanocomposites was found to be primarily governed by Hall-Petch mechanism. Among the synthesized Mg materials, solid-phase synthesized Mg 1.98 vol % TiO2 nanocomposite exhibited a maximum tensile fracture strain of ~14.5%. Further, the liquid-phase synthesized Mg-TiO2 nanocomposites exhibited higher tensile and compression properties than those primarily processed by solid-phase synthesis. The tensile-compression asymmetry values of the synthesized Mg-TiO2 nanocomposite was found to be lower than that of pure Mg with solid-phase synthesized Mg 1.98 vol % TiO2 nanocomposite exhibiting as low as 1.06.
Nanomaterials2015, 5(3), 1250-1255; doi:10.3390/nano5031250 - published 22 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Recently hierarchical architectures, consisting of two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures, are of great interest for potential applications in energy and environmental. Here, novel rose-like WO3 hierarchical architectures were successfully synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. The as-prepared WO3 hierarchical architectures were in fact assembled by numerous nanosheets with an average thickness of ~30 nm. We found that the oxalic acid played a significant role in governing morphologies of WO3 during hydrothermal process. Based on comparative studies, a possible formation mechanism was also proposed in detail. Furthermore, gas-sensing measurement showed that the well-defined 3D WO3 hierarchical architectures exhibited the excellent gas sensing properties towards CO.
Nanomaterials2015, 5(3), 1223-1249; doi:10.3390/nano5031223 - published 22 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Increasing use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in consumer products may result in widespread human inhalation exposures. Due to their high surface area per unit mass, inhaled ENMs interact with multiple components of the pulmonary system, and these interactions affect their ultimate fate in the body. Modeling of ENM transport and clearance in vivo has traditionally treated tissues as well-mixed compartments, without consideration of nanoscale interaction and transformation mechanisms. ENM agglomeration, dissolution and transport, along with adsorption of biomolecules, such as surfactant lipids and proteins, cause irreversible changes to ENM morphology and surface properties. The model presented in this article quantifies ENM transformation and transport in the alveolar air to liquid interface and estimates eventual alveolar cell dosimetry. This formulation brings together established concepts from colloidal and surface science, physics, and biochemistry to provide a stochastic framework capable of capturing essential in vivo processes in the pulmonary alveolar lining layer. The model has been implemented for in vitro solutions with parameters estimated from relevant published in vitro measurements and has been extended here to in vivo systems simulating human inhalation exposures. Applications are presented for four different ENMs, and relevant kinetic rates are estimated, demonstrating an approach for improving human in vivo pulmonary dosimetry.
Nanomaterials2015, 5(3), 1211-1222; doi:10.3390/nano5031211 - published 21 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: High affinity thiolate-based polymeric capping ligands are known to impart stability onto nanosized gold nanoparticles. Due to the stable gold-sulfur bond, the ligand forms a protective layer around the gold core and subsequently controls the physicochemical properties of the resultant nanogold mononuclear protected clusters (AuMPCs). The choice of ligands to use as surfactants for AuMPCs largely depends on the desired degree of hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of the MPCs, normally dictated by the intended application. Subsequent surface modification of AuMPCs allows further conjugation of additional biomolecules yielding bilayer or multilayered clusters suitable for bioanalytical applications ranging from targeted drug delivery to diagnostics. In this study, we discuss our recent laboratory findings on a simple route for the introduction of Trans-Activator of Transcription (TAT) peptide onto the surface of biotin-derivatised gold MPCs via the biotin-strepavidin interaction. By changing the surface loading of biotin, controlled amounts of TAT could be attached. This bioconjugate system is very attractive as a carrier in intercellular delivery of various delivery cargoes such as antibodies, proteins and oligonucleotides.
Nanomaterials2015, 5(3), 1200-1210; doi:10.3390/nano5031200 - published 17 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: One aspect of carbon nanotube (CNT) synthesis that remains an obstacle to realize industrial mass production is the growth efficiency. Many approaches have been reported to improve the efficiency, either by lengthening the catalyst lifetime or by increasing the growth rate. We investigated the applicability of dwell time and carbon flux control to optimize yield, growth rate, and catalyst lifetime of water-assisted chemical vapor deposition of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) forests using acetylene as a carbon feedstock. Our results show that although acetylene is a precursor to CNT synthesis and possesses a high reactivity, the SWCNT forest growth efficiency is highly sensitive to dwell time and carbon flux similar to ethylene. Through a systematic study spanning a wide range of dwell time and carbon flux levels, the relationship of the height, growth rate, and catalyst lifetime is found. Further, for the optimum conditions for 10 min growth, SWCNT forests with ~2500 μm height, ~350 μm/min initial growth rates and extended lifetimes could be achieved by increasing the dwell time to ~5 s, demonstrating the generality of dwell time control to highly reactive gases.