Molecules2015, 20(3), 4055-4070; doi:10.3390/molecules20034055 (registering DOI) - published 3 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In situ EPR spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures has been used to observe and identify paramagnetic species produced when titania is irradiated in the presence of reactants used in the photocatalytic alkylation of maleimide with t-butyl carboxylic acid or phenoxyacetic acid. It is shown that maleimide acts as an acceptor of conduction band electrons. Valence band holes oxidise t-butyl carboxylic acid to the t-butyl radical and phenoxyacetic acid to the phenoxyacetic acid radical cation. In the presence of maleimide, the phenoxymethyl radical is formed from phenoxyacetic acid. The relevance of these observations to the mechanisms of titania photocatalyst-promoted alkylation of alkenes is discussed.
Molecules2015, 20(3), 4042-4054; doi:10.3390/molecules20034042 (registering DOI) - published 3 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This work concerns a comparison of experimental and theoretical results of the electron charge density distribution and the electrostatic potential around the m-nitrophenol molecule (m-NPH) known for its interesting physical characteristics. The molecular experimental results have been obtained from a high-resolution X-ray diffraction study. Theoretical investigations were performed using the Density Functional Theory at B3LYP level of theory at 6-31G* in the Gaussian program. The multipolar model of Hansen and Coppens was used for the experimental electron charge density distribution around the molecule, while we used the DFT methods for the theoretical calculations. The electron charge density obtained in both methods allowed us to find out different molecular properties such us the electrostatic potential and the dipole moment, which were finally subject to a comparison leading to a good match obtained between both methods. The intramolecular charge transfer has also been confirmed by an HOMO-LUMO analysis.
Molecules2015, 20(3), 4020-4041; doi:10.3390/molecules20034020 (registering DOI) - published 3 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In further study of our series of six-membered ring-containing nucleic acids, different 1',3'-di-O-methyl altropyranoside nucleoside analogs (DMANA) were synthesized comprising all four base moieties, adenine, cytosine, uracil and guanine. Following assembly into oligonucleotides (ONs), their affinity for natural oligonucleotides was evaluated by thermal denaturation of the respective duplexes. Data were compared with results obtained previously for both anhydrohexitol (HNAs) and 3'-O-methylated altrohexitol modified ONs (MANAs). We hereby demonstrate that ONs modified with DMANA monomers, unlike some of our previously described analogues with constrained 6-membered hexitol rings, did not improve thermodynamic stability of dsRNA complexes, most probably in view of an energetic penalty when forced in the required 1C4 pairing conformation. Overall, a single incorporation was more or less tolerated or even positive for the adenine congener, but incorporation of a second modification afforded a slight destabilization (except for A), while a fully modified sequence displayed a thermal stability of −0.3 °C per modification. The selectivity of pairing remained very high, and the new modification upon incorporation into a DNA strand, strongly destabilized the corresponding DNA duplexes. Unfortunately, this new modification does not bring any advantage to be further evaluated for antisense or siRNA applications.
Molecules2015, 20(3), 4007-4019; doi:10.3390/molecules20034007 (registering DOI) - published 3 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In the present study we have developed a new version (ND-NIRs) of a polychromator-type near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer with a high-resolution photo diode array detector, which we built before (D-NIRs). The new version has four 5 W halogen lamps compared with the three lamps for the older version. The new version also has a condenser lens with a shorter focal point length. The increase in the number of the lamps and the shortening of the focal point of the condenser lens realize high signal-to-noise ratio and high-speed NIR imaging measurement. By using the ND-NIRs we carried out the in-line monitoring of pharmaceutical blending and determined an end point of the blending process. Moreover, to determinate a more accurate end point, a NIR image of the blending sample was acquired by means of a portable NIR imaging device based on ND-NIRs. The imaging result has demonstrated that the mixing time of 8 min is enough for homogeneous mixing. In this way the present study has demonstrated that ND-NIRs and the imaging system based on a ND-NIRs hold considerable promise for process analysis.
Abstract: In the present study, sawdust bio-oil (SBO) manufactured by fast pyrolysis of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Siebold and Zucc.) sawdust was analyzed for its volatile chemical compound composition and evaluated for its free radical scavenging potential, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy revealed 29 volatile compounds, comprising 97.6% of the total volatile compounds in SBO. The antioxidant potential of SBO in terms of IC50 values was 48.44 µg/mL for hydroxyl radical scavenging, 89.52 µg/mL for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydraxyl radical scavenging, 94.23 µg/mL for 2,2'-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] radical scavenging, and 136.06 µg/mL for superoxide radical scavenging activity. The total phenol content in SBO was 5.7% gallic acid equivalent. Based on the composition of its volatile compounds, high free radical scavenging potential and antioxidant properties, SBO could be used as a source of antioxidant compounds, flavoring agents and nutraceuticals in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to probe the potential anti-H. pylori activity of the synthetic antimicrobial peptide pexiganan, which is an analog of the peptide magainin, and its nanoparticles (PNPs) that were prepared in our laboratory. To compare their antibacterial effects in vitro and in vivo, studies of H. pylori growth inhibition, kinetics and resistance assays were undertaken. The gastric mucoadhesive efficiency and H. pylori clearance efficiency of pexiganan and PNPs were evaluated in rats and mice infected with H. pylori. The eradication of H. pyloriwas determined using urease tests and a microbial culture method. We observed that PNPs adhered to gastric mucosa more effectively owing to a prolonged stay in the stomach, which resulted in a more effective H. pylori clearance. In addition, PNPs had greater anti-H. pylori effect than pexiganan in infected mice. The amount of pexiganan required to eradicate H. pylori was significantly less using PNPs than the corresponding pexiganan suspension. The results confirmed that PNPs improved peptide stability in the stomach and more effectively eradicated H. pylori from mice stomachs than pexiganan.