Molecules2014, 19(8), 11030-11044; doi:10.3390/molecules190811030 (doi registration under processing) - published online 28 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: DNA is constantly being oxidized, and oxidized DNA is prone to mutation; moreover, guanine is highly sensitive to several oxidative stressors. Several oxidatively damaged forms of guanine—including 2,2,4-triamino-5(2H)-oxazolone (Oz), iminoallantoin (Ia), and spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp)—can be paired with guanine, and cause G:C-C:G transversions. Previous findings indicate that guanine is incorporated more efficiently opposite Oz than opposite Ia or Sp, and that these differences in efficiency cannot be explained by differences in the stabilities of G:Oz, G:Ia, and G:Sp base pairs calculated abinitio. Here, to explain previous experimental result, we used a 3-base-pair model DNA duplex to calculate the difference in the stability and the distortion of DNA containing a G:Oz, G:Ia, or G:Sp base pair. We found that the stability of the structure containing 5ꞌ and 3ꞌ base pairs adjacent to G:Oz was more stable than that containing the respective base pairs adjacent to G:Ia or G:Sp. Moreover, the distortion of the structure in the DNA model duplex that contained a G:Oz was smaller than that containing a G:Ia or G:Sp. Therefore, our discussion can explain the previous results involving translesion synthesis past an oxidatively damaged guanine.
Molecules2014, 19(8), 10998-11029; doi:10.3390/molecules190810998 (doi registration under processing) - published online 28 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.
Molecules2014, 19(8), 10982-10997; doi:10.3390/molecules190810982 (doi registration under processing) - published online 28 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Commonly used herbicides, such as sulfentrazone, pose the risk of soil contamination due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity. Phytoremediation by green manure species has been tested using biomarkers, but analytical data are now required to confirm the extraction of sulfentrazone from soil. Thus, the present work was carried out to analyze sulfentrazone residues in soil based on liquid chromatography with a comparison of these values to the sensitivity of the bioindicator Pennisetumglaucum. The soil samples were obtained after cultivation of Crotalariajuncea and Canavaliaensiformis at four seeding densities and with three doses of sulfentrazone. The seedlings were collected into pots, at two different depths, after 75 days of phytoremediator sowing and then were used to determine the herbicide persistence in the soil. A bioassay with P.glaucum was carried out in the same pot. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), using UV-diode array detection (HPLC/UV-DAD), was used to determine the herbicide residues. The HPLC determination was optimized and validated according to the parameters of precision, accuracy, linearity, limit of detection and quantification, robustness and specificity. The bioindicator P.glaucum was more sensitive to sulfentrazone than residue determination by HPLC. Changes in sulfentrazone concentration caused by green manure phytoremediation were accurately identified by the bioindicator. However, a true correlation between the size of the species and the analyte content was not identified.
Molecules2014, 19(8), 10956-10981; doi:10.3390/molecules190810956 (doi registration under processing) - published online 28 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Because plants are estimated to produce over 200,000 metabolites, research into new natural substances that can be used in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical and agro-industrial production of drugs, biopesticides and food additives has grown in recent years. The global market for plant-derived drugs over the last decade has been estimated to be approximately 30.69 billion USD. A relevant specific example of a plant that is very interesting for its numerous pharmacological properties, which include antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, and neuroprotective effects is Gymnema sylvestre, used as a medicinal plant in Asia for thousands of years. Its properties are attributed to triterpenoidic saponins. In light of the considerable interest generated in the chemistry and pharmacological properties of G. sylvestre triterpenes and their analogues, we have undertaken this review in an effort to summarise the available literature on these promising bioactive natural products. The review will detail studies on the isolation, chemistry and bioactivity of the triterpenoids, which are presented in the tables. In particular the triterpenoids oxidised at C-23; their isolation, distribution in different parts of the plant, and their NMR spectral data; their names and physico-chemical characterisation; and the biological properties associated with these compounds, with a focus on their potential chemotherapeutic applications.
Molecules2014, 19(8), 10936-10955; doi:10.3390/molecules190810936 (doi registration under processing) - published online 28 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The anthocyanin composition and HPLC fingerprints of six small berries endemic of the VIII region of Chile were investigated using high resolution mass analysis for the first time (HR-ToF-ESI-MS). The antioxidant features of the six endemic species were compared, including a variety of blueberries which is one of the most commercially significant berry crops in Chile. The anthocyanin fingerprints obtained for the fruits were compared and correlated with the antioxidant features measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA), and total content of phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins measured by spectroscopic methods. Thirty one anthocyanins were identified, and the major ones were quantified by HPLC-DAD, mostly branched 3-O-glycosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. Three phenolic acids (feruloylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid) and five flavonols (hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin, rutin, myricetin and isorhamnetin) were also identified. Calafate fruits showed the highest antioxidant activity (2.33 ± 0.21 μg/mL in the DPPH assay), followed by blueberry (3.32 ± 0.18μg/mL), and arrayán (5.88 ± 0.21), respectively.
Abstract: Astragalus membranaceus is one of the most important traditional Korean and Chinese medicinal herbs because it contains triterpenoid saponins (astragaloside I, II, III, and IV), which have beneficial and pharmacological effects on health. In this study, we analyzed 10 mevalonate pathway genes that are involved in astragaloside biosynthesis using the Illumina/Solexa HiSeq2000 platform. We determined the expression levels of the 10 genes using quantitative real-time PCR, and analyzed the accumulation of astragalosides in different organs using high-performance liquid chromatography. Genes related to the mevalonate pathway were expressed in different levels in different organs. Almost all genes showed high transcript levels in the stem and leaf, with the lowest transcript levels being recorded in the root. In contrast, most astragalosides accumulated in the root. In particular, the astragaloside IV content was distributed in the following order: root (0.58 mg/g DW) > flower (0.27 mg/g DW) > stem (0.23 mg/g DW) > leaf (0.04 mg/g DW). In the root, astragaloside II exhibited the highest content (2.09 mg/g DW) compared to astragaloside I, III, and IV. Notably, gene expression did not follow the same pattern as astragaloside accumulation. We suggest carefully that astragalosides are synthesized in the leaves and stem and then translocated to the root. This study contributes towards improving our understanding of astragaloside biosynthesis in A. membranaceus.