Open AccessArticle
Antiprotozoal Activity of Triazole Derivatives of Dehydroabietic Acid and Oleanolic Acid
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 369; doi:10.3390/molecules22030369 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Tropical parasitic diseases such as Chagas disease and leishmaniasis are considered a major public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. As the drugs currently used to treat these diseases have several disadvantages and side effects, there is an urgent need
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Tropical parasitic diseases such as Chagas disease and leishmaniasis are considered a major public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. As the drugs currently used to treat these diseases have several disadvantages and side effects, there is an urgent need for new drugs with better selectivity and less toxicity. Structural modifications of naturally occurring and synthetic compounds using click chemistry have enabled access to derivatives with promising antiparasitic activity. The antiprotozoal activity of the terpenes dehydroabietic acid, dehydroabietinol, oleanolic acid, and 34 synthetic derivatives were evaluated against epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi and promastigotes of Leishmaniabraziliensis and Leishmania infantum. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was assessed on NCTC-Clone 929 cells. The activity of the compounds was moderate and the antiparasitic effect was associated with the linker length between the diterpene and the triazole in dehydroabietinol derivatives. For the oleanolic acid derivatives, a free carboxylic acid function led to better antiparasitic activity. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Plasma Membrane Na+-Coupled Citrate Transporter (SLC13A5) and Neonatal Epileptic Encephalopathy
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 378; doi:10.3390/molecules22030378 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
SLC13A5 is a Na+-coupled transporter for citrate that is expressed in the plasma membrane of specific cell types in the liver, testis, and brain. It is an electrogenic transporter with a Na+:citrate3− stoichiometry of 4:1. In humans, the
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SLC13A5 is a Na+-coupled transporter for citrate that is expressed in the plasma membrane of specific cell types in the liver, testis, and brain. It is an electrogenic transporter with a Na+:citrate3− stoichiometry of 4:1. In humans, the Michaelis constant for SLC13A5 to transport citrate is ~600 μM, which is physiologically relevant given that the normal concentration of citrate in plasma is in the range of 150–200 μM. Li+ stimulates the transport function of human SLC13A5 at concentrations that are in the therapeutic range in patients on lithium therapy. Human SLC13A5 differs from rodent Slc13a5 in two important aspects: the affinity of the human transporter for citrate is ~30-fold less than that of the rodent transporter, thus making human SLC13A5 a low-affinity/high-capacity transporter and the rodent Slc13a5 a high-affinity/low-capacity transporter. In the liver, SLC13A5 is expressed exclusively in the sinusoidal membrane of the hepatocytes, where it plays a role in the uptake of circulating citrate from the sinusoidal blood for metabolic use. In the testis, the transporter is expressed only in spermatozoa, which is also only in the mid piece where mitochondria are located; the likely function of the transporter in spermatozoa is to mediate the uptake of citrate present at high levels in the seminal fluid for subsequent metabolism in the sperm mitochondria to generate biological energy, thereby supporting sperm motility. In the brain, the transporter is expressed mostly in neurons. As astrocytes secrete citrate into extracellular medium, the potential function of SLC13A5 in neurons is to mediate the uptake of circulating citrate and astrocyte-released citrate for subsequent metabolism. Slc13a5-knockout mice have been generated; these mice do not have any overt phenotype but are resistant to experimentally induced metabolic syndrome. Recently however, loss-of-function mutations in human SLC13A5 have been found to cause severe epilepsy and encephalopathy early in life. Interestingly, there is no evidence of epilepsy or encephalopathy in Slc13a5-knockout mice, underlining the significant differences in clinical consequences of the loss of function of this transporter between humans and mice. The markedly different biochemical features of human SLC13A5 and mouse Slc13a5 likely contribute to these differences between humans and mice with regard to the metabolic consequences of the transporter deficiency. The exact molecular mechanisms by which the functional deficiency of the citrate transporter causes epilepsy and impairs neuronal development and function remain to be elucidated, but available literature implicate both dysfunction of GABA (γ-aminobutyrate) signaling and hyperfunction of NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor signaling. Plausible synaptic mechanisms linking loss-of-function mutations in SLC13A5 to epilepsy are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Premna microphylla Turczaninow
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 381; doi:10.3390/molecules22030381 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Premna microphylla Turczaninow, an erect shrub, was widely used in Chinese traditional medicine to treat dysentery, appendicitis, and infections. In this study, the essential oil from P. microphylla Turcz. was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC (Gas Chromatography) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass
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Premna microphylla Turczaninow, an erect shrub, was widely used in Chinese traditional medicine to treat dysentery, appendicitis, and infections. In this study, the essential oil from P. microphylla Turcz. was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC (Gas Chromatography) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer). Fifty-six compounds were identified in the oil which comprised about 97.2% of the total composition of the oil. Major components of the oil were blumenol C (49.7%), β-cedrene (6.1%), limonene (3.8%), α-guaiene (3.3%), cryptone (3.1%), and α-cyperone (2.7%). Furthermore, we assessed the in vitro biological activities displayed by the oil obtained from the aerial parts of P. microphylla, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. For this, the IC50 value was estimated to be 0.451 mg/mL. The essential oil of P. microphylla exhibited considerable antibacterial capacity against Escherichia coli with an MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) value of 0.15 mg/mL, along with noticeable antibacterial ability against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus with an MIC value of 0.27 mg/mL. However, the essential oil did not show significant activity against fungus. The oil was tested for its cytotoxic activity towards HepG2 (liver hepatocellular cells) and MCF-7 Cells (human breast adenocarcinoma cell line) using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide) assay, and exerted cytotoxic activity with an IC50 of 0.072 and 0.188 mg/mL for 72 h. In conclusion, the essential oil from P. microphylla is an inexpensive but favorable resource with strong antibacterial capacity as well as cytotoxic activity. Thus, it has the potential for utilization in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Looking Inside the Intramolecular C−H∙∙∙O Hydrogen Bond in Lactams Derived from α-Methylbenzylamine
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 361; doi:10.3390/molecules22030361 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Recently, strong evidence that supports the presence of an intramolecular C−H···O hydrogen bond in amides derived from the chiral auxiliary α-methylbenzylamine was disclosed. Due to the high importance of this chiral auxiliary in asymmetric synthesis, the inadvertent presence of this C−H···O interaction may
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Recently, strong evidence that supports the presence of an intramolecular C−H···O hydrogen bond in amides derived from the chiral auxiliary α-methylbenzylamine was disclosed. Due to the high importance of this chiral auxiliary in asymmetric synthesis, the inadvertent presence of this C−H···O interaction may lead to new interpretations upon stereochemical models in which this chiral auxiliary is present. Therefore, a series of lactams containing the chiral auxiliary α-methylbenzylamine (from three to eight-membered ring) were theoretically studied at the MP2/cc-pVDZ level of theory with the purpose of studying the origin and nature of the C−Hα···O interaction. NBO analysis revealed that rehybridization at C atom of the C−Hα bond (s-character at C is ~23%) and the subsequent bond polarization are the dominant effect over the orbital interaction energy n(O)→σ*C−Hα (E(2) < 2 kcal/mol), causing an important shortening of the C−Hα bond distance and an increment in the positive charge in the Hα atom. Full article
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Open AccessPerspective
Under-Reported Aspects of Platinum Drug Pharmacology
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 382; doi:10.3390/molecules22030382 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Platinum drugs remain the backbone of many antineoplastic regimens. Among the numerous chemical or pharmacological effects of platinum drugs, some aspects tend to be under-reported. Thus, this perspective paper intends to stress some neglected properties of platinum drugs: first, the physico-chemical characteristics (aquation
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Platinum drugs remain the backbone of many antineoplastic regimens. Among the numerous chemical or pharmacological effects of platinum drugs, some aspects tend to be under-reported. Thus, this perspective paper intends to stress some neglected properties of platinum drugs: first, the physico-chemical characteristics (aquation reaction kinetics) that determine site-specific toxicity; second, the impact on RNA molecules. Knowledge of the ‘RNA world’ has dramatically changed our understanding of cellular and molecular biology. The inherent RNA-crosslinking properties should make platinum-based drugs interact with coding and non-coding RNAs. Third, we will discuss the impact on the immune system, which is now recognized to substantially contribute to chemotherapy efficacy. Together, platinum drugs are in fact old drugs, but are worth re-focusing on. Many aspects are still mysterious but can pave the way to new drugs or an improved application of the already existing compounds. Full article
Open AccessReview
The Pharmaceutical Industry in 2016. An Analysis of FDA Drug Approvals from a Perspective of the Molecule Type
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 368; doi:10.3390/molecules22030368 -
Abstract
This is an analysis from a chemical point of view of the 22 drugs accepted by the FDA during 2016. The different drugs from the 2016 “harvest” have been classified according to their chemical structure: antibodies; TIDES (oligonucleotides and peptides); amino acids and
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This is an analysis from a chemical point of view of the 22 drugs accepted by the FDA during 2016. The different drugs from the 2016 “harvest” have been classified according to their chemical structure: antibodies; TIDES (oligonucleotides and peptides); amino acids and natural products; drug combination; and small molecules. Full article
Open AccessReview
Effect of Oxidative Stress on ABC Transporters: Contribution to Epilepsy Pharmacoresistance
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 365; doi:10.3390/molecules22030365 -
Abstract
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder affecting around 1%–2% of population worldwide and its treatment includes use of antiepileptic drugs to control seizures. Failure to respond to antiepileptic drug therapy is a major clinical problem and over expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters is considered
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Epilepsy is a neurological disorder affecting around 1%–2% of population worldwide and its treatment includes use of antiepileptic drugs to control seizures. Failure to respond to antiepileptic drug therapy is a major clinical problem and over expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters is considered one of the major reasons for pharmacoresistance. In this review, we have summarized the regulation of ABC transporters in response to oxidative stress due to disease and antiepileptic drugs. Further, ketogenic diet and antioxidants were examined for their role in pharmacoresistance. The understanding of signalling pathways and mechanism involved may help in identifying potential therapeutic targets and improving drug response. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Structure-Activity Relationship of Pterostilbene Against Candida albicans Biofilms
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 360; doi:10.3390/molecules22030360 -
Abstract
Candida albicans biofilms contribute to invasive infections and dramatic drug resistance, and anti-biofilm agents are urgently needed in the clinic. Pterostilbene (PTE) is a natural plant product with potentials to be developed as an anti-biofilm agent. In this study, we evaluated the structure-activity
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Candida albicans biofilms contribute to invasive infections and dramatic drug resistance, and anti-biofilm agents are urgently needed in the clinic. Pterostilbene (PTE) is a natural plant product with potentials to be developed as an anti-biofilm agent. In this study, we evaluated the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of PTE analogues against C. albicans biofilms. XTT (Sodium 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide inner salt) reduction assay was used to evaluate the activity of the analogues against C. albicans biofilms. Knowing that hyphal formation is essential for C. albicans biofilms, anti-hyphal assay was further carried out. By comparing a series of compounds tested in this study, we found that compounds with para-hydroxy (–OH) in partition A exhibited better activity than those with other substituents in the para position, and the double bond in partition B and meta-dimethoxy (–OCH3) in partition C both contributed to the best activity. Consistent results were obtained by anti-hyphal assay. Collectively, para-hydroxy (–OH), double bond and meta-dimethoxy (–OCH3) are all needed for the best activity of PTE against C. albicans biofilms. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Molecular Simulations of Disulfide-Rich Venom Peptides with Ion Channels and Membranes
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 362; doi:10.3390/molecules22030362 -
Abstract
Disulfide-rich peptides isolated from the venom of arthropods and marine animals are a rich source of potent and selective modulators of ion channels. This makes these peptides valuable lead molecules for the development of new drugs to treat neurological disorders. Consequently, much effort
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Disulfide-rich peptides isolated from the venom of arthropods and marine animals are a rich source of potent and selective modulators of ion channels. This makes these peptides valuable lead molecules for the development of new drugs to treat neurological disorders. Consequently, much effort goes into understanding their mechanism of action. This paper presents an overview of how molecular simulations have been used to study the interactions of disulfide-rich venom peptides with ion channels and membranes. The review is focused on the use of docking, molecular dynamics simulations, and free energy calculations to (i) predict the structure of peptide-channel complexes; (ii) calculate binding free energies including the effect of peptide modifications; and (iii) study the membrane-binding properties of disulfide-rich venom peptides. The review concludes with a summary and outlook. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Paeoniflorin Attenuates Cerebral Ischemia-Induced Injury by Regulating Ca2+/CaMKII/CREB Signaling Pathway
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 359; doi:10.3390/molecules22030359 -
Abstract
Paeoniflorin (PF) is an active ingredient of Paeoniae Radix which possesses the neuroprotective effect. However, so far, the neuroprotective mechanism of PF has still not been fully uncovered. The Ca2+/Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)/cAMP response element-binding (CREB) signaling pathway
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Paeoniflorin (PF) is an active ingredient of Paeoniae Radix which possesses the neuroprotective effect. However, so far, the neuroprotective mechanism of PF has still not been fully uncovered. The Ca2+/Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)/cAMP response element-binding (CREB) signaling pathway plays an important role in the intracellular signal transduction pathway involved in cell proliferation, cell survival, inflammation and metabolism. Herein, the neuroprotective roles of PF in the models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion in rats and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA)-induced excitotoxicity in primary hippocampal neurons were investigated. Moreover, we attempted to confirm the hypothesis that its protection effect is via the modulation of the Ca2+/CaMKI)/CREB signaling pathway. In this study, PF not only significantly decreased neurological deficit scores and infarct volume in vivo, but also improved neurons’ cell viability, and inhibited neurons’ apoptosis and intracellular Ca2+ concentration in vitro. Furthermore, PF significantly up-regulated p-CREB and p-CaMKII, and down-regulated calmodulin (CaM) in vivo and in vitro. The results indicate that the protective effect of PF on cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury is possible through regulating the Ca2+/CaMKII/CREB signaling pathway. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A General Asymmetric Synthesis of (R)-Matsutakeol and Flavored Analogs
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 364; doi:10.3390/molecules22030364 -
Abstract
An efficient and practical synthetic route toward chiral matsutakeol and analogs was developed by asymmetric addition of terminal alkyne to aldehydes. (R)-matsutakeol and other flavored substances were feasibly synthesized from various alkylaldehydes in high yield (up to 49.5%, in three steps)
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An efficient and practical synthetic route toward chiral matsutakeol and analogs was developed by asymmetric addition of terminal alkyne to aldehydes. (R)-matsutakeol and other flavored substances were feasibly synthesized from various alkylaldehydes in high yield (up to 49.5%, in three steps) and excellent enantiomeric excess (up to >99%). The protocols may serve as an alternative asymmetric synthetic method for active small-molecule library of natural fatty acid metabolites and analogs. These chiral allyl alcohols are prepared for food analysis and screening insect attractants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Investigation on the Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Diterpenoid Alkaloids
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 363; doi:10.3390/molecules22030363 -
Abstract
Diterpenoid alkaloids are extracted from plants. These compounds have broad biological activities, including effects on the cardiovascular system, anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions, and anti-tumor activity. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and experimental trauma in rats. The number of
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Diterpenoid alkaloids are extracted from plants. These compounds have broad biological activities, including effects on the cardiovascular system, anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions, and anti-tumor activity. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and experimental trauma in rats. The number of studies focused on the determination, quantitation and pharmacological properties of these alkaloids has increased dramatically during the past few years. In this work we built a dataset composed of 15 diterpenoid alkaloid compounds with diverse structures, of which 11 compounds were included in the training set and the remaining compounds were included in the test set. The quantitative chemistry parameters of the 15 diterpenoid alkaloids compound were calculated using the HyperChem software, and the quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) of these diterpenoid alkaloid compounds were assessed in an anti-inflammation model based on half maximal effective concentration (EC50) measurements obtained from rat paw edema data. The QSAR prediction model is as follows: log(EC50)=0.0260×SAA+0.0086×SAG+0.0011×VOL0.0641×HE0.2628×LogP0.5594×REF0.2211×POL0.1964×MASS+0.088×BE+0.1398×HF (R2 = 0.981, Q2 = 0.92). The validated consensus EC50 for the QSAR model, developed from the rat paw edema anti-inflammation model used in this study, indicate that this model was capable of effective prediction and can be used as a reliable computational predictor of diterpenoid alkaloid activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pt-Au/MOx-CeO2 (M = Mn, Fe, Ti) Catalysts for the Co-Oxidation of CO and H2 at Room Temperature
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 351; doi:10.3390/molecules22030351 -
Abstract
A series of nanostructured Pt-Au/MOx-CeO2 (M = Mn, Fe, Ti) catalysts were prepared and their catalytic performance for the co-oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) were evaluated at room temperature. The results showed that MOx
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A series of nanostructured Pt-Au/MOx-CeO2 (M = Mn, Fe, Ti) catalysts were prepared and their catalytic performance for the co-oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) were evaluated at room temperature. The results showed that MOx promoted the CO oxidation of Pt-Au/CeO2, but only the TiO2 could enhance co-oxidation of CO and H2 over Pt-Au/CeO2. Related characterizations were conducted to clarify the promoting effect of MOx. Temperature-programmed reduction of hydrogen (H2-TPR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results suggested that MOx could improve the charge transfer from Au sites to CeO2, resulting in a high concentration of Ce3+ and cationic Au species which benefits for the CO oxidation. In-situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (In-situ DRIFTS) results indicated that TiO2 could facilitate the oxidation of H2 over the Pt-Au/TiO2-CeO2 catalyst. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Chemical Composition, In Vitro Antimicrobial, Free-Radical-Scavenging and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Leucas inflata Benth
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 367; doi:10.3390/molecules22030367 -
Abstract
The essential oil of Leucas inflata Balf.f. (Lamiaceae), collected in Yemen, was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Forty-three components were recognized, representing 89.2% of the total oil. The L. inflata volatile oil was found to contain a
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The essential oil of Leucas inflata Balf.f. (Lamiaceae), collected in Yemen, was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Forty-three components were recognized, representing 89.2% of the total oil. The L. inflata volatile oil was found to contain a high percentage of aliphatic acids (51.1%). Hexadecanoic acid (32.8%) and n-dodecanoic acid (7.8%) were identified as the major compounds. Oxygenated monoterpenes were distinguished as the second significant group of constituents (16.0%). Camphor (6.1%) and linalool (3.2%) were found to be the main components among the oxygenated monoterpenes. In addition, the volatile oil was assessed for its antimicrobial activity against four bacterial strains and one yeast species using broth micro-dilution assay for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). In addition, antioxidant activity was measured utilizing the anti-radical activity of the sable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-Carotene-linoleic acid assays. The oil of L. inflata showed an excellent antibacterial activity against only the tested Gram-positive bacteria with a MIC-value of 0.81 mg/mL. Furthermore, the oil demonstrated, at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, a weak to moderate antiradical and antioxidant activity of 38% and 32%, respectively. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Characterization of a New Bivalent Ligand Combining Caffeine and Docosahexaenoic Acid
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 366; doi:10.3390/molecules22030366 -
Abstract
Caffeine is a promising drug for the management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), demonstrating neuroprotective properties that have been attributed to its interaction with the basal ganglia adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). However, the doses needed to exert these neuroprotective effects
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Caffeine is a promising drug for the management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), demonstrating neuroprotective properties that have been attributed to its interaction with the basal ganglia adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). However, the doses needed to exert these neuroprotective effects may be too high. Thus, it is important to design novel approaches that selectively deliver this natural compound to the desired target. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the major omega-3 fatty acid in the brain and can act as a specific carrier of caffeine. Furthermore, DHA displays properties that may lead to its use as a neuroprotective agent. In the present study, we constructed a novel bivalent ligand covalently linking caffeine and DHA and assessed its pharmacological activity and safety profile in a simple cellular model. Interestingly, the new bivalent ligand presented higher potency as an A2AR inverse agonist than caffeine alone. We also determined the range of concentrations inducing toxicity both in a heterologous system and in primary striatal cultures. The novel strategy presented here of attaching DHA to caffeine may enable increased effects of the drug at desired sites, which could be of interest for the treatment of PD. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Flavonoids from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb: Free Radical Scavenging and DNA Oxidative Damage Protection Activities and Analysis of Bioactivity-Structure Relationship Based on Molecular and Electronic Structures
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 195; doi:10.3390/molecules22030195 -
Abstract
To clarify the substantial basis of the excellent antioxidant capacity of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. Fourteen flavonoids were isolated and identified from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb, seven of which have notable DPPH radical scavenging activities, i.e., catechin, luteolin, quercetin, quercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, luteolin-7-O-β-glucoside
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To clarify the substantial basis of the excellent antioxidant capacity of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. Fourteen flavonoids were isolated and identified from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb, seven of which have notable DPPH radical scavenging activities, i.e., catechin, luteolin, quercetin, quercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, luteolin-7-O-β-glucoside with IC50 values of 5.06, 7.29, 4.36, 7.12, 6.34, 6.36 and 8.12 µM, respectively. The DNA nicking assay showed that five flavonoids from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb—taxifolin, catechin, hyperoside, quercitrin and rutin—have good protective activity against DNA oxidative damage. Further, we analyzed the bioactivity-structure relationship of these 14 flavonoids by applying quantum theory. According to their O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), C ring’s spin density and stable molecular structure, the relationship between their structures and radical scavenging capacities was evaluated and clarified. We found that among flavonoid aglycones from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb, the O-H BDE of quercetin is lowest with the values of 69.02 and the O-H BDE of apigenin is highest with the values of 79.77. It is interesting that the O-H BDE value of isovitexin (78.55) with glycoside at C-6 position is lower than that of its aglycone (79.77) and vitexin (99.20) with glycoside at C-8 position. Further analysis indicated that the glycosidation of flavonoids at C-6 in the A-ring makes a more uniform distribution of spin density and improves the stability of free radicals leading to the increase in antioxidant capacity. Flavonoids with good antioxidant capacity might contribute to the pharmacological effects of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Chlorogenic Acid: Recent Advances on Its Dual Role as a Food Additive and a Nutraceutical against Metabolic Syndrome
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 358; doi:10.3390/molecules22030358 -
Abstract
Chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid) is a phenolic compound from the
hydroxycinnamic acid family. This polyphenol possesses many health-promoting properties, most
of them related to the treatment of metabolic syndrome, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory,
antilipidemic, antidiabetic, and antihypertensive activities. The first part of this review
[...] Read more.
Chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid) is a phenolic compound from the
hydroxycinnamic acid family. This polyphenol possesses many health-promoting properties, most
of them related to the treatment of metabolic syndrome, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory,
antilipidemic, antidiabetic, and antihypertensive activities. The first part of this review will discuss
the role of chlorogenic acid as a nutraceutical for the prevention and treatment of metabolic
syndrome and associated disorders, including in vivo studies, clinical trials, and mechanisms of
action. The second part of the review will be dealing with the role of chlorogenic acid as a food
additive. Chlorogenic acid has shown antimicrobial activity against a wide range of organisms,
including bacteria, yeasts, molds, viruses, and amoebas. These antimicrobial properties can be
useful for the food industry in its constant search for new and natural molecules for the
preservation of food products. In addition, chlorogenic acid has antioxidant activity, particularly
against lipid oxidation; protective properties against degradation of other bioactive compounds
present in food, and prebiotic activity. The combination of these properties makes chlorogenic acid
an excellent candidate for the formulation of dietary supplements and functional foods. Full article
Open AccessReview
Impact of Age and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 on DNA Damage Responses in UV-Irradiated Human Skin
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 356; doi:10.3390/molecules22030356 -
Abstract
The growing incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) necessitates a thorough understanding of its primary risk factors, which include exposure to ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths of sunlight and age. Whereas UV radiation (UVR) has long been known to generate photoproducts in genomic DNA that
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The growing incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) necessitates a thorough understanding of its primary risk factors, which include exposure to ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths of sunlight and age. Whereas UV radiation (UVR) has long been known to generate photoproducts in genomic DNA that promote genetic mutations that drive skin carcinogenesis, the mechanism by which age contributes to disease pathogenesis is less understood and has not been sufficiently studied. In this review, we highlight studies that have considered age as a variable in examining DNA damage responses in UV-irradiated skin and then discuss emerging evidence that the reduced production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) by senescent fibroblasts in the dermis of geriatric skin creates an environment that negatively impacts how epidermal keratinocytes respond to UVR-induced DNA damage. In particular, recent data suggest that two principle components of the cellular response to DNA damage, including nucleotide excision repair and DNA damage checkpoint signaling, are both partially defective in keratinocytes with inactive IGF-1 receptors. Overcoming these tumor-promoting conditions in aged skin may therefore provide a way to lower aging-associated skin cancer risk, and thus we will consider how dermal wounding and related clinical interventions may work to rejuvenate the skin, re-activate IGF-1 signaling, and prevent the initiation of NMSC. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Monoclonal Antibodies and Immunoassay for Medical Plant-Derived Natural Products: A Review
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 355; doi:10.3390/molecules22030355 -
Abstract
Owing to the widespread application value, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have become a tool of increasing importance in modern bioscience research since their emergence. Recently, some researchers have focused on the production of MAbs against medical plant-derived natural products (MPNP), the secondary metabolites of
[...] Read more.
Owing to the widespread application value, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have become a tool of increasing importance in modern bioscience research since their emergence. Recently, some researchers have focused on the production of MAbs against medical plant-derived natural products (MPNP), the secondary metabolites of medical plants. At the same time, various immunoassay methods were established on the basis of these MPNP MAbs, and then rapidly developed into a novel technique for medical plant and phytomedicine research in the area of quality control, pharmacological analysis, drug discovery, and so on. Dependent on the research works carried out in recent years, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of MAbs against MPNP and the application of various immunoassay methods established on the basis of these MAbs, and conclude with a short section on future prospects and research trends in this area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Facial Regioselective Synthesis of Novel Bioactive Spiropyrrolidine/Pyrrolizine-Oxindole Derivatives via a Three Components Reaction as Potential Antimicrobial Agents
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 357; doi:10.3390/molecules22030357 -
Abstract
This article presents the synthesis of new derivatives of spirooxindole-spiropiperidinone- pyrrolidines 6aj and spirooxindole-spiropiperidinone-pyrrolizines 8aj, through a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of azomethineylides generated from isatin, sarcosine, and l-proline, through a decarboxylative route with dipolarophile 4aj. All
[...] Read more.
This article presents the synthesis of new derivatives of spirooxindole-spiropiperidinone- pyrrolidines 6aj and spirooxindole-spiropiperidinone-pyrrolizines 8aj, through a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of azomethineylides generated from isatin, sarcosine, and l-proline, through a decarboxylative route with dipolarophile 4aj. All of the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities and their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against most of the test organisms. The tested compounds displayed excellent activity against all of the tested microorganisms. Full article
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