Molecules2015, 20(10), 18526-18538; doi:10.3390/molecules201018526 (registering DOI) - published 9 October 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Titanium(IV) complexes exhibit high potential as anti-tumor agents, particularly due to their low intrinsic toxicity and cytotoxicity toward cisplatin resistant cells. Nevertheless, Ti(IV) complexes generally undergo rapid hydrolysis that previously hampered their utilization as anticancer drugs. We recently overcame this difficulty by developing a highly stable Ti(IV) complex that is based on tetra-phenolato, hexadentate ligand, formulated into organic nanoparticles. Herein we investigated the activity of this complex in vitro and in vivo. Although inactive when tested directly due to poor solubility, when formulated, this complex displayed (a) high cytotoxicity toward cisplatin resistant human ovarian cells, A2780-cp, with resistance factor of 1.1; (b) additive behavior in combination with cisplatin toward ovarian and colon cancer cells; (c) selectivity toward cancer cells as implied by its mild activity toward non-cancerous, fibroblast lung cells, MRC-5; (d) high stability and durability as manifested by the ability to maintain cytotoxicity, even following one week of incubation in 100% aquatic medium solution; and (e) in vivo efficacy toward solid tumors of human colon cancer cells, HT-29, in nude mice without any clinical signs of toxicity. These features support the formulated phenolato Ti(IV) complex being an effective and selective anti-tumoral agent.
Molecules2015, 20(10), 18511-18525; doi:10.3390/molecules201018511 (registering DOI) - published 9 October 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: There are cytosine-rich regions in the genome that bind protons with high specificity. Thus protonated C-rich sequence may undergo folding to tetraplex structures called i-motifs. Therefore, one can regard such specific C-rich oligonucleotides as aptamers that recognize protons and undergo conformational transitions. Proper labeling of the aptamer with a fluorescent tag constitutes a platform to construct a pH-sensitive aptasensor. Since the hemiprotonated C-C+ base pairs are responsible for the folded tetraplex structure of i-motif, we decided to substitute one of cytosines in an aptamer sequence with its fluorescent analogue, 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenothiazine (tC). In this paper we report on three tC-modified fluorescent probes that contain RET related sequences as a proton recognizing aptamer. Results of the circular dichroism (CD), UV absorption melting experiments, and steady-state fluorescence measurements of these tC-modified i-motif probes are presented and discussed. The pH-induced i-motif formation by the probes resulted in fluorescence quenching of tC fluorophore. Efficiency of quenching was related to the pH variations. Suitability of the sensor for monitoring pH changes was also demonstrated.
Molecules2015, 20(10), 18496-18510; doi:10.3390/molecules201018496 (registering DOI) - published 9 October 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A new polyacetylene glucoside (3E,5E,11E)-tridecatriene-7,9-diyne-1,2,13-triol-2-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), a new phenylpropanoid glucoside 2′-butoxyethylconiferin (2), and a new flavonoid glycoside 8,3′,4′-trihydroxyflavone-7-O-(6′′-O-p-coumaroyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), have been isolated from Bidens frondosa together with fifty-three known compounds 4–56. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic methods. mainly ESIMS, 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data. and comparison with literature data. Compounds 1–34, 36, 39, 43, 47, 51, and 52 were tested for inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in 293-NF-κB-luciferase report cell line induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and compounds 1, 2, 3, 9, 15, 21, 24 and 51 were tested for the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 in RAW 264.7 macrophages induced by LPS. In conclusion, the isolated compounds 1, 2, 3, 9, 15, 21, 24 and 51 exhibited significant activity in anti-inflammatory activity assays.
Molecules2015, 20(10), 18482-18495; doi:10.3390/molecules201018482 (registering DOI) - published 9 October 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The ring-opening of N-tosylaziridines with various acid anhydrides catalyzed by 5 mol % of 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4,4,0]dec-5-ene (TBD) afforded the corresponding β-amino esters in excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. Polymer-supported catalyst, PS-TBD also acts as a good catalyst for this reaction. PS-TBD was easily recovered and reused with minimal loss of activity.
Molecules2015, 20(10), 18464-18481; doi:10.3390/molecules201018464 (registering DOI) - published 9 October 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Vegetables represent a major source of phenolic acids, powerful antioxidants characterized by an organic carboxylic acid function and which present multiple properties beneficial for human health. In consequence, developing new varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids is an increasingly important breeding objective. Major phenolic acids present in vegetables are derivatives of cinnamic acid and to a lesser extent of benzoic acid. A large diversity in phenolic acids content has been found among cultivars and wild relatives of many vegetable crops. Identification of sources of variation for phenolic acids content can be accomplished by screening germplasm collections, but also through morphological characteristics and origin, as well as by evaluating mutations in key genes. Gene action estimates together with relatively high values for heritability indicate that selection for enhanced phenolic acids content will be efficient. Modern genomics and biotechnological strategies, such as QTL detection, candidate genes approaches and genetic transformation, are powerful tools for identification of genomic regions and genes with a key role in accumulation of phenolic acids in vegetables. However, genetically increasing the content in phenolic acids may also affect other traits important for the success of a variety. We anticipate that the combination of conventional and modern strategies will facilitate the development of a new generation of vegetable varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids.
Molecules2015, 20(10), 18437-18463; doi:10.3390/molecules201018437 (registering DOI) - published 9 October 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Cladribine, 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine, is a highly efficacious, clinically used nucleoside for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia. It is also being evaluated against other lymphoid malignancies and has been a molecule of interest for well over half a century. In continuation of our interest in the amide bond-activation in purine nucleosides via the use of (benzotriazol-1yl-oxy)tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate, we have evaluated the use of O6-(benzotriazol-1-yl)-2′-deoxyguanosine as a potential precursor to cladribine and its analogues. These compounds, after appropriate deprotection, were assessed for their biological activities, and the data are presented herein. Against hairy cell leukemia (HCL), T-cell lymphoma (TCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), cladribine was the most active against all. The bromo analogue of cladribine showed comparable activity to the ribose analogue of cladribine against HCL, but was more active against TCL and CLL. The bromo ribose analogue of cladribine showed activity, but was the least active among the C6-NH2-containing compounds. Substitution with alkyl groups at the exocyclic amino group appears detrimental to activity, and only the C6 piperidinyl cladribine analogue demonstrated any activity. Against adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, cladribine and its ribose analogue were most active.