Molecules2016, 21(6), 681; doi:10.3390/molecules21060681 (registering DOI) - published 24 May 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver steatosis have an indistinguishable spectrum of histological features and liver enzyme elevations. In this study, we investigated the potential of the ethanolic extract of Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai (AK) to protect against experimental alcoholic liver disease in a mouse model that couples diet and daily ethanol bolus gavage. Fifty-six C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into seven groups: normal control (NC), alcohol control (AC), alcohol/HFD control (AH), low-dose (1%) AK in alcohol group (ACL), high-dose (3%) AK in alcohol group (ACH), low-dose AK in alcohol/HFD group (AHL), and high-dose AK in alcohol/HFD group (AHH). The AH group showed more severe damage than the AC group in terms of biochemical and molecular data that were observed in this study. The administration of AK exerted remarkable effects in: plasma ALT (p < 0.0001), total lipid (p = 0.014), TG (p = 0.0037) levels; CPT-1α (p = 0.0197), TLR4 (p < 0.0001), CD14 (p = 0.0002), IL-6 (p = 0.0264) and MCP-1 (p = 0.0045) gene expressions; and ALDH (p < 0.0001) and CAT (p = 0.0076) activities. The data suggested that at least the high dose AK might confer protection against alcoholic liver damage combined with an HFD by accelerating lipid oxidation and alcohol metabolism and by suppressing the inflammatory response, including the TLR pathway.
Molecules2016, 21(6), 668; doi:10.3390/molecules21060668 (registering DOI) - published 24 May 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We report the synthesis of cerium oxide, cobalt oxide, mixed cerium, and cobalt oxides and a Ce–Co/Al2O3 membrane, which are employed as catalysts for the catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) reaction process and the removal of formaldehyde from industrial effluents. Formaldehyde is present in numerous waste streams from the chemical industry in a concentration low enough to make its recovery not economically justified but high enough to create an environmental hazard. Common biological degradation methods do not work for formaldehyde, a highly toxic but refractory, low biodegradability substance. The CWO reaction is a recent, promising alternative that also permits much lower temperature and pressure conditions than other oxidation processes, resulting in economic benefits. The CWO reaction employing Ce- and Co-containing catalysts was carried out inside a slurry batch reactor and a membrane reactor. Experimental results are reported. Next, a mixed Ce–Co oxide film was supported on an γ-alumina membrane used in a catalytic membrane reactor to compare formaldehyde removal between both types of systems. Catalytic materials with cerium and with a relatively large amount of cerium favored the transformation of formaldehyde. Cerium was present as cerianite in the catalytic materials, as indicated by X-ray diffraction patterns.
Molecules2016, 21(6), 652; doi:10.3390/molecules21060652 (registering DOI) - published 24 May 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Zanthoxylum rhetsa is an aromatic tree, known vernacularly as “Indian Prickly Ash”. It has been predominantly used by Indian tribes for the treatment of many infirmities like diabetes, inflammation, rheumatism, toothache and diarrhea. In this study, we identified major volatile constituents present in different solvent fractions of Z. rhetsa bark using GC-MS analysis and isolated two tetrahydrofuran lignans (yangambin and kobusin), a berberine alkaloid (columbamine) and a triterpenoid (lupeol) from the bioactive chloroform fraction. The solvent fractions and purified compounds were tested for their cytotoxic potential against human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and mouse melanoma (B16-F10) cells, using the MTT assay. All the solvent fractions and purified compounds were found to be non-cytotoxic to HDF cells. However, the chloroform fraction and kobusin exhibited cytotoxic effect against B16-F10 melanoma cells. The presence of bioactive lignans and alkaloids were suggested to be responsible for the cytotoxic property of Z. rhetsa bark against B16-F10 cells.
Abstract: We have identified a novel series of substituted N,N′-diarylurea p38α inhibitors. The inhibitory activity of the target compounds against the enzyme p38α, MAPKAPK2 in BHK cells, TNF-α release in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells and p38α binding experiments were tested. Among these compounds, 25a inhibited the p38α enzyme with an IC50 value of 0.47 nM and a KD value of 1.54 × 10−8 and appears to be the most promising one in the series.
Molecules2016, 21(5), 679; doi:10.3390/molecules21050679 (registering DOI) - published 23 May 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A new rare casbane-type diterpenoid 1 and two new cembrane diterpenoids 2, 3 were isolated from an Okinawan soft coral, Lobophytum sp., together with four known cembrane diterpenoids 4–7. Their structures were elucidated by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR, IR, and MS) and a molecular modeling study. The new isolates showed weak anti-bacterial activity, mild cytotoxicity against HCT116 cells, and anti-inflammatory effect in LPS/IFN-γ-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.
Abstract: New Cu(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes, (Cu(L)(H2O)2(OAc)) (1), (Cu(HL)(H2O)2(SO4)) (2), (Cu(L)(H2O)2(NO3)) (3), (Cu(L)(H2O)2(ClO4)) (4), (Cu(L)2(H2O)2) (5), (Pd(L)(OAc))H2O (6), and (Pt(L)2) (7) were synthesized from 8-ethyl-2-hydroxytricyclo(7.3.1.02,7)tridecan-13-one thiosemicarbazone (HL). The ligand and its metal complexes were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, UV-Vis, FAB, EPR, mass spectroscopy, elemental and thermal analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurements and molar electric conductivity. The free ligand and the metal complexes have been tested for their antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. enteritidis, S. aureus, E. faecalis, C. albicans and cytotoxicity against the NCI-H1573 lung adenocarcinoma, SKBR-3 human breast, MCF-7 human breast, A375 human melanoma and HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cell lines. Copper complex 2 exhibited the best antiproliferative activities against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. A significant inhibition of malignant HL-60 cell growth was observed for copper complex 2, palladium complex 6 and platinum complex 7, with IC50 values of 1.6 µM, 6.5 µM and 6.4 µM, respectively.