Molecules2015, 20(4), 5554-5565; doi:10.3390/molecules20045554 (registering DOI) - published 27 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: meso-Tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) and its two substituted derivatives (meso-tetrakis(4-cyanophenyl)porphyrin [TPP(CN)4] and meso-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin [TPP(OMe)4]) were synthesized. Their nonlinear absorption and refraction properties were studied using the Z-scan technique in the picosecond (ps) and nanosecond (ns) regimes. The open aperture Z-scan results reveal that TPP and TPP(CN)4 display an identical reverse saturable absorption (RSA) character in the ps and ns regimes. While TPP(OMe)4 exhibits a transition from saturable absorption (SA) to RSA in the ps regime and a typical RSA character in the ns regime. The closed aperture Z-scan results show that TPP(CN)4 and TPP(OMe)4 have regular enhancement of the magnitude of nonlinear refraction as compared to their parent TPP in both the ps and ns regimes. In addition, the second-order molecular hyperpolarizabilities (γ) of these three porphyrins are calculated, and the γ values of TPP(CN)4 and TPP(OMe)4 are remarkable larger than that of TPP. The introduction of the electron-withdrawing group CN and the electron-donating group OMe into TPP has enhanced its nonlinear refraction and γ value, and tuned its nonlinear absorption (TPP(OMe)4), which could be useful for porphyrin-related applications based on the desired NLO properties.
Molecules2015, 20(4), 5528-5553; doi:10.3390/molecules20045528 (registering DOI) - published 27 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Tetrazoles represent a class of five-membered heterocyclic compounds with polynitrogen electron-rich planar structural features. This special structure makes tetrazole derivatives useful drugs, explosives, and other functional materials with a wide range of applications in many fields of medicine, agriculture, material science, etc. Based on our research works on azoles and other references in recent years, this review covers reported work on the synthesis and biological activities of tetrazole derivatives.
Molecules2015, 20(4), 5487-5527; doi:10.3390/molecules20045487 (registering DOI) - published 27 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This review surveys advances in the development of various material functionalities based on thermoplastic cellulose and related structural polysaccharide derivatives. First, the dependence of thermal (phase) transition behavior on the molecular composition of simple derivatives is rationalized. Next, approaches enabling effective thermoplasticization and further incorporation of material functionalities into structural polysaccharides are discussed. These approaches include: (a) single-substituent derivatization, (b) derivatization with multi-substituents, (c) blending of simple derivatives with synthetic polymers, and (d) graft copolymerization. Some examples addressing the control of supramolecular structures and the regulation of molecular and segmental orientations for functional materials fabrication, which have especially progressed over the past decade, are also addressed. Attractive material functions include improved mechanical performance, controlled biodegradability, cytocompatiblity, and optical functions.
Molecules2015, 20(4), 5468-5486; doi:10.3390/molecules20045468 (registering DOI) - published 27 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The aim of the presented study was to characterize the content and biological activity of extracts prepared from dried Stevia rebaudiana leaves with potential application in the food or cosmetic industry. Aqueous (A), ethanolic (E) and glycol-aqueous (GA) extracts were analyzed for the content of polyphenols and proteins, showing that the highest amount of phenols (15.50 mg/g) and flavonoids (3.85 mg/g) contained GA. All extracts contained significant amount of protein (69.40–374.67 mg/g). Between analyzed stevia extracts (HPLC) GA contained the highest amount of polyphenols, especially ferulic (5.50 mg/g) and rozmaric (4.95 mg/g) acids derivates. The highest antiradical activity against DPPH• and ABTS•+ was noted for GA and E (IC50 = 0.38 and 0.71 µg flavonoids/mL). The highest ability to chelate Fe2+ was observed for E (IC50 = 2.08 µg flavonoids/mL). Stevia extracts were also analyzed for their cytotoxicity and fibroblast irritation potential in vitro. E and GA were the most cytotoxic and irritating, probably due to the high content of biologically active phytochemicals. On the other hand, a extract was the most tolerable by the cells. To summarize, the presented study evaluated the potential application of A, E and GA stevia extracts as natural source of antioxidants in the food and cosmetic industry.
Molecules2015, 20(4), 5456-5467; doi:10.3390/molecules20045456 (registering DOI) - published 27 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: It is well known that Phellinus linteus, which produces hispidin and its derivatives, possesses antioxidant activities. In this study, we investigated whether hispidin has protective effects on palmitate-induced oxidative stress in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Our results showed that palmitate treatment in C2C12 myotubes increased ROS generation and cell death as compared with the control. However, pretreatment of hispidin for 8 h improved the survival of C2C12 myotubes against palmitate-induced oxidative stress via inhibition of intracellular ROS production. Hispidin also inhibited palmitate-induced apoptotic nuclear condensation in C2C12 myotubes. In addition, we found that hispidin can suppress cleavage of caspase-3, expression of Bax, and NF-κB translocation. Therefore, these results suggest that hispidin is capable of protecting C2C12 myotubes against palmitate-induced oxidative stress.
Molecules2015, 20(4), 5440-5455; doi:10.3390/molecules20045440 (registering DOI) - published 27 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Phenyleneimine oligomers 4,4'-(((1E,1'E)-(((1E,1'E)-(1,4-phenylenebis-(azanylylidene))bis(methanylylidene))bis(2,5-bis(octyloxy)-4,1-phenylene))bis(methanylyl-idene))-bis(azanylylidene))dianiline (OIC1MS) and 7,7'-(((1E,1'E)-(((1E,1'E)-((9H-fluorene-2,7-diyl)bis(azanylylidene))bis(methanylylidene))bis(2,5-bis(octyloxy)-4,1phenylene))bis- (methanylylidene))bis(azanylylidene))bis(9H-fluoren-2-amine) (OIC2MS) were prepared by means of conventional and mechanochemical synthesis and characterized by FT-IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR techniques. The optical properties of the compounds were studied in solution by using UV-visible spectroscopy, and the optical effects were analyzed as a function of solvent. The results show that OIC2MS exhibits interesting photochromic properties. Furthermore, the structural and electronic properties of the compounds were analyzed by TD-DFT. It was found that the mechanosynthesis is an efficient method for the synthesis of both tetraimines.