Molecules2014, 19(9), 13704-13723; doi:10.3390/molecules190913704 (registering DOI) - published 2 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Pathogenic fungi are one of the main causes of hospital-related infections. Since conventional antifungals have become less effective because of the increasing fungal resistance to the standard drugs, the need for new agents is becoming urgent. Herein we report a synthesis of a series of novel N-[imino-(1-oxo-(1H)-phthalazin-2-yl)methyl]-benzenesulfonamide derivatives with in vitro activity against yeast-like fungi isolated from the oral cavity and respiratory tract of patients with candidiasis. These compounds were synthesized by the one-step or two-step reactions of 1-(2-alkylthiobenzensulfonyl)-2-aminoguanidines with the appropriate ortho-carbonyl benzoic acids. The biological study revealed that new derivatives have shown significant growth-inhibitory activity, superior or comparable, than those of the reference drug fluconazole. The most promising activities were observed against Candida albicans, with inhibition at least 1–3 (12.5%–37.5%) of the eight tested strains at the low MIC level of ≤6.2–25 µg/mL.
Molecules2014, 19(9), 13683-13703; doi:10.3390/molecules190913683 (registering DOI) - published 2 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two “Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V)” vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012). The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C) days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3′5′-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of high-quality wine grapes in different regions.
Molecules2014, 19(9), 13643-13682; doi:10.3390/molecules190913643 (registering DOI) - published 2 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Experimental parameters that influence the resolution of 1H-NMR phenol OH signals are critically evaluated with emphasis on the effects of pH, temperature and nature of the solvents. Extremely sharp peaks (Δν1/2 ≤ 2 Hz) can be obtained under optimized experimental conditions which allow the application of 1H-13C HMBC-NMR experiments to reveal long range coupling constants of hydroxyl protons and, thus, to provide unequivocal assignment of the OH signals even in cases of complex polyphenol natural products. Intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonds have a very significant effect on 1H OH chemical shifts which cover a region from 4.5 up to 19 ppm. Solvent effects on –OH proton chemical shifts, temperature coefficients (Δδ/ΔT), OH diffusion coefficients, and nJ(13C, O1H) coupling constants are evaluated as indicators of hydrogen bonding and solvation state of phenol –OH groups. Accurate 1H chemical shifts of the OH groups can be calculated using a combination of DFT and discrete solute-solvent hydrogen bond interaction at relatively inexpensive levels of theory, namely, DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G (2d,p). Excellent correlations between experimental 1H chemical shifts and those calculated at the ab initio level can provide a method of primary interest in order to obtain structural and conformational description of solute-solvent interactions at a molecular level. The use of the high resolution phenol hydroxyl group 1H-NMR spectral region provides a general method for the analysis of complex plant extracts without the need for the isolation of the individual components.
Molecules2014, 19(9), 13631-13642; doi:10.3390/molecules190913631 (registering DOI) - published 2 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A one-pot preparation of pyridyl isothiocyanates (ITCs) from their corresponding amines has been developed. This method involves aqueous iron(III) chloride-mediated desulfurization of a dithiocarbamate salt that is generated in situ by treatment of an amine with carbon disulfide in the present of DABCO or sodium hydride. The choice of base is of decisive importance for the formation of the dithiocarbamate salts. This one-pot process works well for a wide range of pyridyl ITCs. Utilizing this protocol, some highly electron-deficient pyridyl and aryl ITCs are obtained in moderate to good yields.
Molecules2014, 19(9), 13614-13630; doi:10.3390/molecules190913614 (registering DOI) - published 2 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Insects and plants are two types of organisms that are widely separated on the evolutionary tree; for example, plants are mostly phototrophic organisms whilst insects are heterotrophic organisms. In order to cope with environmental stresses, their surfaces have developed cuticular layers that consist of highly sophisticated structures. These structures serve a number of purposes, and impart useful properties to these surfaces. These two groups of organisms are the only ones identified thus far that possess truly superhydrophobic and self-cleaning properties. These properties result from their micro- and nano-scale structures, comprised of three-dimensional wax formations. This review analyzes the surface topologies and surface chemistry of insects and plants in order to identify the features common to both organisms, with particular reference to their superhydrophobic and self-cleaning properties. This information will be valuable when determining the potential application of these surfaces in the design and manufacture of superhydrophobic and self-cleaning devices, including those that can be used in the manufacture of biomedical implants.
Molecules2014, 19(9), 13603-13613; doi:10.3390/molecules190913603 (registering DOI) - published 2 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: New well-defined, paramagnetic nickel complexes have been prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography. The complexes were found to be active for the cross-coupling of alkyl electrophiles (especially ethyl 2-bromobutyrate) with alkyl Grignard reagents. The ligand architecture in these new complexes could potentially be rendered chiral, opening up future possibilities for performing asymmetric cross-coupling reactions.