Open AccessArticle
Effects on Rotational Dynamics of Azo and Hydrazodicarboxamide-Based Rotaxanes
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1078; doi:10.3390/molecules22071078 -
Abstract
The synthesis of novel hydrogen-bonded [2]rotaxanes having two pyridine rings in the macrocycle and azo- and hydrazodicarboxamide-based templates decorated with four cyclohexyl groups is described. The different affinity of the binding sites for the benzylic amide macrocycle and the formation of programmed non-covalent
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The synthesis of novel hydrogen-bonded [2]rotaxanes having two pyridine rings in the macrocycle and azo- and hydrazodicarboxamide-based templates decorated with four cyclohexyl groups is described. The different affinity of the binding sites for the benzylic amide macrocycle and the formation of programmed non-covalent interactions between the interlocked components have an important effect on the dynamic behavior of these compounds. Having this in mind, the chemical interconversion between the azo and hydrazo forms of the [2]rotaxane was investigated to provide a chemically-driven interlocked system enable to switch its circumrotation rate as a function of the oxidation level of the binding site. Different structural modifications were carried out to further functionalize the nitrogen of the pyridine rings, including oxidation, alkylation or protonation reactions, affording interlocked azo-derivatives whose rotation dynamics were also analyzed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication and Cytotoxicity of Gemcitabine-Functionalized Magnetite Nanoparticles
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1080; doi:10.3390/molecules22071080 -
Abstract
Nanotechnology has been successfully used for the fabrication of targeted anti-cancer drug carriers. This study aimed to obtain Fe3O4nanoparticles functionalized with Gemcitabine to improve the cytotoxic effects of the chemotherapeutic substance on cancer cells. The (un) functionalized magnetite nanoparticles
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Nanotechnology has been successfully used for the fabrication of targeted anti-cancer drug carriers. This study aimed to obtain Fe3O4nanoparticles functionalized with Gemcitabine to improve the cytotoxic effects of the chemotherapeutic substance on cancer cells. The (un) functionalized magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using a modified co-precipitation method. The nanoconjugate characterization was performed by XRD, SEM, SAED and HRTEM; the functionalizing of magnetite with anti-tumor substances has been highlighted through TGA. The interaction with biologic media has been studied by means of stability and agglomeration tendency (using DLS and Zeta Potential); also, the release kinetics of the drug in culture media was evaluated. Cytotoxicity of free-Gemcitabine and the obtained nanoconjugate were evaluated on human BT 474 breast ductal carcinoma, HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma and MG 63 osteosarcoma cells by MTS. In parallel, cellular morphology of these cells were examined through fluorescence microscopy and SEM. The localization of the nanoparticles related to the cells was studied using SEM, EDX and TEM. Hemolysis assay showed no damage of erythrocytes. Additionally, an in vivo biodistribution study was made for tracking where Fe3O4@Gemcitabine traveled in the body of mice. Our results showed that the transport of the drug improves the cytotoxic effects in comparison with the one produced by free Gemcitabine for the BT474 and HepG2 cells. The in vivo biodistribution test proved nanoparticle accumulation in the vital organs, with the exception of spleen, where black-brown deposits have been found. These results indicate that our Gemcitabine-functionalized nanoparticles are a promising targeted system for applications in cancer therapy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Nortriterpenoids from the Fruiting Bodies of the Mushroom Ganoderma resinaceum
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1073; doi:10.3390/molecules22071073 -
Abstract
Ganoderma resinaceum is usually used as ethnomedicine for immune-regulation, hyperglycemia, and liver disease. To date, only a few chemical constituents have been reported from G. resinaceum. In this study, fifteen nortriterpenoids including six new nortriterpenoids (16) and
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Ganoderma resinaceum is usually used as ethnomedicine for immune-regulation, hyperglycemia, and liver disease. To date, only a few chemical constituents have been reported from G. resinaceum. In this study, fifteen nortriterpenoids including six new nortriterpenoids (16) and nine known analogs (715), were separated and purified from the fruiting bodies of G. resinaceum. New compounds were identified as lucidone I (1), lucidone J (2), lucidone K (3), lucidone I (4), ganosineniol B (5), and ganosineniol C (6), based on analysis of extensive spectroscopic data (high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared (IR), and ultraviolet (UV)). The known compounds were assigned as lucidone A (7), lucidone B (8), lucidone H (9), lucidone E (10), lucidone F (11), lucidone D (12), lucidone C (13), ganoderense F (14), and ganosineniol A (15), by comparing their spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Compounds 3, 4, and 713 were examined for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and display no significant activity, but the finding may support that the side chain of ganoderma triterpenoids played an important role in α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Self-Sterilizing Sputtered Films for Applications in Hospital Facilities
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1074; doi:10.3390/molecules22071074 -
Abstract
This review addresses the preparation of antibacterial 2D textile and thin polymer films and 3D surfaces like catheters for applications in hospital and health care facilities. The sputtering of films applying different levels of energy led to the deposition of metal/oxide/composite/films showing differentiated
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This review addresses the preparation of antibacterial 2D textile and thin polymer films and 3D surfaces like catheters for applications in hospital and health care facilities. The sputtering of films applying different levels of energy led to the deposition of metal/oxide/composite/films showing differentiated antibacterial kinetics and surface microstructure. The optimization of the film composition in regards to the antibacterial active component was carried out in each case to attain the fastest antibacterial kinetics, since this is essential when designing films avoiding biofilm formation (under light and in the dark). The antimicrobial performance of these sputtered films on Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were tested. A protecting effect of TiO2 was found for the release of Cu by the TiO2-Cu films compared to films sputtered by Cu only. The Cu-released during bacterial inactivation by TiO2-Cu was observed to be much lower compared to the films sputtered only by Cu. The FeOx-TiO2-PE films induced E. coli inactivation under solar or under visible light with a similar inactivation kinetics, confirming the predominant role of FeOx in these composite films. By up-to-date surface science techniques were used to characterize the surface properties of the sputtered films. A mechanism of bacteria inactivation is suggested for each particular film consistent with the experimental results found and compared with the literature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spectroscopic Investigation of the Interaction of the Anticancer Drug Mitoxantrone with Sodium Taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC) and Sodium Taurocholate (NaTC) Bile Salts
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1079; doi:10.3390/molecules22071079 -
Abstract
The focus of the present work was to investigate the interaction of the anticancer drug mitoxantrone with two bile salts, sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC) and sodium taurocholate (NaTC). Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy were used to quantify the interaction and
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The focus of the present work was to investigate the interaction of the anticancer drug mitoxantrone with two bile salts, sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC) and sodium taurocholate (NaTC). Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy were used to quantify the interaction and to obtain information on the location of mitoxantrone in bile salt micelles. The presence of submicellar concentrations of both bile salts induces mitoxantrone aggregation and the extent of drug aggregation in NaTDC is higher than in NaTC. For micellar bile salts concentrations, mitoxantrone monomers are entrapped in the micellar core. Binding constants, micelle/water partition coefficients and the corresponding thermodynamic parameters for binding and partitioning processes were estimated using the changes in monomer absorbance in the presence of bile salts. Binding interaction of mitoxantrone is stronger for NaTDC than NaTC micelles, whereas partitioning efficiency is higher for NaTC micelles for all investigated temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters indicate that both binding and partitioning processes are spontaneous and entropy controlled. The spectral behavior and thermodynamic parameters indicate distinct types of mitoxantrone interaction with NaTDC and NaTC micelles supported by the differences in nature and structure of bile salts micelles. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue: Chitin, Chitosan and Related Enzymes
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1066; doi:10.3390/molecules22071066 -
Open AccessArticle
Cell-Free Production of Pentacyclic Triterpenoid Compound Betulinic Acid from Betulin by the Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1075; doi:10.3390/molecules22071075 -
Abstract
Betulinic acid is a product of plant secondary metabolism which has shown various bioactivities. Several CYP716A subfamily genes were recently characterized encoding multifunctional oxidases capable of C-28 oxidation. CYP716A12 was identified as betulin C-28 oxidase, capable of modifying betulin. This study aimed to
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Betulinic acid is a product of plant secondary metabolism which has shown various bioactivities. Several CYP716A subfamily genes were recently characterized encoding multifunctional oxidases capable of C-28 oxidation. CYP716A12 was identified as betulin C-28 oxidase, capable of modifying betulin. This study aimed to induce the transformation of betulin to betulinic acid by co-expressing enzymes CYP716A12 from Medicago truncatula and ATR1 from Arabidopsis thaliana in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The microsome protein extracted from the transgenic yeast successfully catalyzed the transformation of betulin to betulinic acid. We also characterized the optimization of cell fragmentation, protein extraction method, and the conversion conditions. Response surface methodology was implemented, and the optimal yield of betulinic acid reached 18.70%. After optimization, the yield and the conversion rate of betulin were increased by 83.97% and 136.39%, respectively. These results may present insights and strategies for the sustainable production of betulinic acid in multifarious transgenic microbes. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Labradorins with Antibacterial Activity Produced by Pseudomonas sp.
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1072; doi:10.3390/molecules22071072 -
Abstract
The urgent need for new antibacterial drugs has led to renewed interest in microorganisms, which historically have been the main source of previously discovered antibiotics. The present study describes the discovery of two new antibacterial oxazolylindole type alkaloids, labradorins 5 (1)
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The urgent need for new antibacterial drugs has led to renewed interest in microorganisms, which historically have been the main source of previously discovered antibiotics. The present study describes the discovery of two new antibacterial oxazolylindole type alkaloids, labradorins 5 (1) and 6 (2), which were isolated and characterized from two isolates of Pseudomonas sp., along with four previously known tryptophane derived alkaloids. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by NMR spectroscopy and MS, and confirmed by synthesis. During bioassay-guided isolation using several human bacterial pathogens, 1 and 2 displayed activity towards Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of compounds 1 and 2 against S. aureus were 12 μg·mL−1 and 50 μg·mL−1, respectively, whereas the MICs against A. baumannii were >50 μg·mL−1. The CC50 values of compound 1 towards a liver cell line (HEP-G2) and a T-cell line (MT4) were 30 μg·mL−1 and 20 μg·mL−1, respectively, and for compound 2 were >100 μg·mL−1 and 20 μg·mL−1, respectively. Due to the limited potency of compounds 1 and 2, along with their toxicity, the compounds do not warrant further development towards new antibiotics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Anti-Leishmanial Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Vietnamese Plants
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1071; doi:10.3390/molecules22071071 -
Abstract
Leishmania mexicana is one of the pathogens causing cutaneous leishmaniasis which is associated with patient morbidity. In our researches for new safe and effective treatments, thirty-seven essential oils (EOs) extracted from Vietnamese plants were screened in vitro for the first time on Leishmania
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Leishmania mexicana is one of the pathogens causing cutaneous leishmaniasis which is associated with patient morbidity. In our researches for new safe and effective treatments, thirty-seven essential oils (EOs) extracted from Vietnamese plants were screened in vitro for the first time on Leishmania mexicana mexicana (Lmm)promastigotes at the maximum concentration of 50 nL/mL. Active EOs were also analyzed for cytotoxicity on mammalian cell lines (WI38, J774) and their selectivity indices (SI) were calculated. Their composition was determined by GC-MS and GC-FID. Our results indicated that EOs extracted from Cinnamomum cassia, Zingiber zerumbet, Elsholtzia ciliata and Amomum aromaticum, possessed a moderate anti-leishmanial activity, with IC50 values of 2.92 ± 0.08, 3.34 ± 0.34, 8.49 ± 0.32 and 9.25 ± 0.64 nL/mL respectively. However, they also showed cytotoxicity with SI < 10. The most promising EO was extracted from Ocimum gratissimum, displaying an IC50 of 4.85 ± 1.65 nL/mL and SI > 10. It contained 86.5% eugenol, which was demonstrated to be effective on Lmm with IC50 of 2.57 ± 0.57 nL/mL and not toxic on mammalian cells, explaining the observed activity. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Ultrasonic Assisted-Reflux Synergistic Extraction of Camptothecin and Betulinic Acid from Camptotheca acuminata Decne. Fruits
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1076; doi:10.3390/molecules22071076 -
Abstract
A novel and efficient ultrasonic assisted-reflux synergistic extraction (UARSE) method for extracting camptothecin (CPT) and betulinic acid (BA) from Camptotheca acuminata Decne. fruits has been developed in this study. The advantages of the ultrasonic and reflux extraction methods have been combined in the
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A novel and efficient ultrasonic assisted-reflux synergistic extraction (UARSE) method for extracting camptothecin (CPT) and betulinic acid (BA) from Camptotheca acuminata Decne. fruits has been developed in this study. The advantages of the ultrasonic and reflux extraction methods have been combined in the UARSE method and used to extract CPT and BA for the first time. The parameters influencing the efficiency of UARSE were optimized using the Box-Behnken design (BBD) to obtain the maximum extraction yield of CPT and BA. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: 225 W for the ultrasonic power; 24 min for the extraction time; and 32 mL/g for the liquid–solid ratio. The extraction yields obtained by UARSE were 2.386 ± 0.112 mg/g for CPT and 17.192 ± 0.808 mg/g for BA, which were 1.43-fold and 1.33-fold, respectively, higher than by using heating reflux extraction (HRE) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE). In addition, the 24-min extraction time using UARSE was 80% and 60% less than those provided by HRE and UAE, respectively. Therefore, UARSE can be considered a rapid and efficient method for extracting CPT and BA from the fruits of C. acuminata Decne. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Calcineurin Antagonizes AMPK to Regulate Lipolysis in Caenorhabditis elegans
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1062; doi:10.3390/molecules22071062 -
Abstract
Calcineurin is a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase, and the target of immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus (TAC). The dysfunction of calcineurin, or clinical applications of tacrolimus, have been reported to be associated with dyslipidemia. The underlying mechanisms of calcineurin and tacrolimus in lipid
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Calcineurin is a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase, and the target of immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus (TAC). The dysfunction of calcineurin, or clinical applications of tacrolimus, have been reported to be associated with dyslipidemia. The underlying mechanisms of calcineurin and tacrolimus in lipid metabolism are largely unknown. Here, we showed that mutations of tax-6 and cnb-1, which respectively encode the catalytic subunit and the regulatory subunit of calcineurin, together with tacrolimus treatment, consistently led to decreased fat accumulation and delayed growth in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In contrast, disruption of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) encoded by aak-1 and aak-2 reversed the above effects in worms. Moreover, calcineurin deficiency and tacrolimus treatment consistently activated the transcriptional expression of the lipolytic gene atgl-1, encoding triglyceride lipase. Furthermore, RNAi knockdown of atgl-1 recovered the decreased fat accumulation in both calcineurin deficient and tacrolimus treated worms. Collectively, our results reveal that immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus and their target calcineurin may antagonize AMPK to regulate ATGL and lipolysis, thereby providing potential therapy for the application of immunosuppressive agents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pamidronate-Conjugated Biodegradable Branched Copolyester Carriers: Synthesis and Characterization
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1063; doi:10.3390/molecules22071063 -
Abstract
The need for development of comprehensive therapeutic systems, (e.g., polymer-apatite composites) as a bone substitute material has previously been highlighted in many scientific reports. The aim of this study was to develop a new multifunctional composite based on hydroxyapatite porous granules doped with
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The need for development of comprehensive therapeutic systems, (e.g., polymer-apatite composites) as a bone substitute material has previously been highlighted in many scientific reports. The aim of this study was to develop a new multifunctional composite based on hydroxyapatite porous granules doped with selenite ions (SeO32−) and a biodegradable branched copolymer-bisphosphonate conjugate as a promising bone substitute material for patients with bone tumours or bone metastasis. A series of biodegradable and branched copolymer matrices, adequate for delivery of bisphosphonate in the bone-deficient area were synthesized and physico-chemically and biologically (cyto- and genotoxicity assays) characterized. Branched copolymers were obtained using a hyperbranched bis-MPA polyester-16-hydroxyl initiator and Sn(Oct)2, a (co)catalyst of the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of l,l-lactide (LLA) and ε-caprolactone (CL). A new amide bond was formed between the hydroxyl end groups of the synthesized copolymer carriers and an amine group of pamidronate (PAM)—the drug inhibiting bone resorption and osteoclast activity in bone. The dependence of the physico-chemical properties of the copolymer matrices on the kinetic release of PAM from the synthesized branched copolymer conjugate-coated hydroxyapatite granules doped with selenite ions was observed. Moreover, the correlation of these results with the hydrolytic degradation data of the synthesized matrices was evidenced. Therefore, the developed composite porous hydroxyapatite doped with SeO32− ions/biodegradable copolymer-PAM conjugate appears most attractive as a bone substitute material for cancer patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High-Density Energetic Metal–Organic Frameworks Based on the 5,5′-Dinitro-2H,2′H-3,3′-bi-1,2,4-triazole
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1068; doi:10.3390/molecules22071068 -
Abstract
High-energy metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) based on nitrogen-rich ligands are an emerging class of explosives, and density is one of the positive factors that can influence the performance of energetic materials. Thus, it is important to design and synthesize high-density energetic MOFs. In the
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High-energy metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) based on nitrogen-rich ligands are an emerging class of explosives, and density is one of the positive factors that can influence the performance of energetic materials. Thus, it is important to design and synthesize high-density energetic MOFs. In the present work, hydrothermal reactions of Cu(II) with the rigid polynitro heterocyclic ligands 5,5′-dinitro-2H,2′H-3,3′-bi-1,2,4-triazole (DNBT) and 5,5′-dinitro-3,3′-bis-1,2,4-triazole-1-diol (DNBTO) gave two high-density MOFs: [Cu(DNBT)(ATRZ)3]n (1) and [Cu(DNBTO)(ATRZ)2(H2O)2]n (2), where ATRZ represents 4,4′-azo-1,2,4-triazole. The structures were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, ultraviolet-visible (UV) absorption spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Their thermal stabilities were also determined by thermogravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry analysis (TG/DSC). The results revealed that complex 1 has a two-dimensional porous framework that possesses the most stable chair conformations (like cyclohexane), whereas complex 2 has a one-dimensional polymeric structure. Compared with previously reported MOFs based on copper ions, the complexes have higher density (ρ = 1.93 g cm−3 for complex 1 and ρ = 1.96 g cm−3 for complex 2) and high thermal stability (decomposition temperatures of 323 °C for complex 1 and 333.3 °C for complex 2), especially because of the introduction of an N–O bond in complex 2. We anticipate that these two complexes would be potential high-energy density materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Hesperetin Derivatives as Potential Multifunctional Anti-Alzheimer Agents
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1067; doi:10.3390/molecules22071067 -
Abstract
In this study we designed and synthesized a series of new hesperetin derivatives on the basis of the structural characteristics of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) dual-site inhibitors. The activity of the novel derivatives was also evaluated. Results showed that the synthesized hesperetin derivatives displayed stronger
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In this study we designed and synthesized a series of new hesperetin derivatives on the basis of the structural characteristics of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) dual-site inhibitors. The activity of the novel derivatives was also evaluated. Results showed that the synthesized hesperetin derivatives displayed stronger inhibitory activity against AChE and higher selectivity than butyrylcholine esterase (BuChE) (selectivity index values from 68 to 305). The Lineweaver-Burk plot and molecular docking study showed that these compounds targeted both the peripheral anionic site (PAS) and catalytic active site (CAS) of AChE. The derivatives also showed a potent self-induced β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation inhibition and a peroxyl radical absorbance activity. Moreover, compound 4f significantly protected PC12 neurons against H2O2-induced cell death at low concentrations. Cytotoxicity assay showed that the low concentration of the derivatives does not affect the viability of the SH-SY5Y neurons. Thus, these hesperetin derivatives are potential multifunctional agents for further development for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Light-Assisted Advanced Oxidation Processes for the Elimination of Chemical and Microbiological Pollution of Wastewaters in Developed and Developing Countries
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1070; doi:10.3390/molecules22071070 -
Abstract
In this work, the issue of hospital and urban wastewater treatment is studied in two different contexts, in Switzerland and in developing countries (Ivory Coast and Colombia). For this purpose, the treatment of municipal wastewater effluents is studied, simulating the developed countries’ context,
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In this work, the issue of hospital and urban wastewater treatment is studied in two different contexts, in Switzerland and in developing countries (Ivory Coast and Colombia). For this purpose, the treatment of municipal wastewater effluents is studied, simulating the developed countries’ context, while cheap and sustainable solutions are proposed for the developing countries, to form a barrier between effluents and receiving water bodies. In order to propose proper methods for each case, the characteristics of the matrices and the targets are described here in detail. In both contexts, the use of Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) is implemented, focusing on UV-based and solar-supported ones, in the respective target areas. A list of emerging contaminants and bacteria are firstly studied to provide operational and engineering details on their removal by AOPs. Fundamental mechanistic insights are also provided on the degradation of the effluent wastewater organic matter. The use of viruses and yeasts as potential model pathogens is also accounted for, treated by the photo-Fenton process. In addition, two pharmaceutically active compound (PhAC) models of hospital and/or industrial origin are studied in wastewater and urine, treated by all accounted AOPs, as a proposed method to effectively control concentrated point-source pollution from hospital wastewaters. Their elimination was modeled and the degradation pathway was elucidated by the use of state-of-the-art analytical techniques. In conclusion, the use of light-supported AOPs was proven to be effective in degrading the respective target and further insights were provided by each application, which could facilitate their divulgation and potential application in the field. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Recent Advances in Substrate-Controlled Asymmetric Cyclization for Natural Product Synthesis
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1069; doi:10.3390/molecules22071069 -
Abstract
Asymmetric synthesis of naturally occurring diverse ring systems is an ongoing and challenging research topic. A large variety of remarkable reactions utilizing chiral substrates, auxiliaries, reagents, and catalysts have been intensively investigated. This review specifically describes recent advances in successful asymmetric cyclization reactions
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Asymmetric synthesis of naturally occurring diverse ring systems is an ongoing and challenging research topic. A large variety of remarkable reactions utilizing chiral substrates, auxiliaries, reagents, and catalysts have been intensively investigated. This review specifically describes recent advances in successful asymmetric cyclization reactions to generate cyclic architectures of various natural products in a substrate-controlled manner. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanism Exploration of Arylpiperazine Derivatives Targeting the 5-HT2A Receptor by In Silico Methods
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1064; doi:10.3390/molecules22071064 -
Abstract
As a G-protein coupled receptor, the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT2A) receptor is known for its critical role in the cognitive, behavioural and physiological functions, and thus is a primary molecular target to treat psychiatric diseases, including especially depression. With purpose to explore
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As a G-protein coupled receptor, the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT2A) receptor is known for its critical role in the cognitive, behavioural and physiological functions, and thus is a primary molecular target to treat psychiatric diseases, including especially depression. With purpose to explore the structural traits affecting the inhibitory activity, currently a dataset of 109 arylpiperazine derivatives as promising 5-HT2A antagonists was built, based on which the ligand-based three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) study by using both comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) approaches was carried out. The resultant optimal CoMSIA model displays proper validity and predictability with cross-validated correlation coefficient Q2 = 0.587, non-cross-validated correlation coefficient R2ncv = 0.900 and predicted correlation coefficient for the test set of compounds R2pre = 0.897, respectively. Besides, molecular docking was also conducted to investigate the binding mode between these ligands and the active site of the 5-HT2A receptor. Meanwhile, as a docking supplementary tool to study the antagonists’ conformation in the binding cavity, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was also performed, providing further elucidation about the changes in the ligand-receptor complex. Lastly, some new molecules were also newly-designed based on the above results that are potential arylpiperazine antagonists of 5-HT2A receptor. We hope that the present models and derived information may be of help for facilitating the optimization and design of novel potent antagonists as antidepressant drugs as well as exploring the interaction mechanism of 5-HT2A antagonists. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
UVA, UVB Light Doses and Harvesting Time Differentially Tailor Glucosinolate and Phenolic Profiles in Broccoli Sprouts
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1065; doi:10.3390/molecules22071065 -
Abstract
Broccoli sprouts contain health-promoting glucosinolate and phenolic compounds that can be enhanced by applying ultraviolet light (UV). Here, the effect of UVA or UVB radiation on glucosinolate and phenolic profiles was assessed in broccoli sprouts. Sprouts were exposed for 120 min to low
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Broccoli sprouts contain health-promoting glucosinolate and phenolic compounds that can be enhanced by applying ultraviolet light (UV). Here, the effect of UVA or UVB radiation on glucosinolate and phenolic profiles was assessed in broccoli sprouts. Sprouts were exposed for 120 min to low intensity and high intensity UVA (UVAL, UVAH) or UVB (UVBL, UVBH) with UV intensity values of 3.16, 4.05, 2.28 and 3.34 W/m2, respectively. Harvest occurred 2 or 24 h post-treatment; and methanol/water or ethanol/water (70%, v/v) extracts were prepared. Seven glucosinolates and 22 phenolics were identified. Ethanol extracts showed higher levels of certain glucosinolates such as glucoraphanin, whereas methanol extracts showed slight higher levels of phenolics. The highest glucosinolate accumulation occurred 24 h after UVBH treatment, increasing 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin, glucobrassicin and glucoraphanin by ~170, 78 and 73%, respectively. Furthermore, UVAL radiation and harvest 2 h afterwards accumulated gallic acid hexoside I (~14%), 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (~42%), gallic acid derivative (~48%) and 1-sinapoyl-2,2-diferulolyl-gentiobiose (~61%). Increases in sinapoyl malate (~12%), gallotannic acid (~48%) and 5-sinapoyl-quinic acid (~121%) were observed with UVBH Results indicate that UV-irradiated broccoli sprouts could be exploited as a functional food for fresh consumption or as a source of bioactive phytochemicals with potential industrial applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Magnetic Solid-phase Extraction with Fe3O4/Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Modified by Deep Eutectic Solvents and Ionic Liquids for the Rapid Purification of Alkaloid Isomers (Theobromine and Theophylline) from Green Tea
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1061; doi:10.3390/molecules22071061 -
Abstract
Different kinds of deep eutectic solvents (DES) based on choline chloride (ChCl) and ionic liquids (ILs) based on 1-methylimidazole were used to modify Fe3O4/molecularly imprinted polymers (Fe3O4/MIPs), and the resulting materials were applied for the rapid purification of alkaloid isomers (theobromine and theophylline)
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Different kinds of deep eutectic solvents (DES) based on choline chloride (ChCl) and ionic liquids (ILs) based on 1-methylimidazole were used to modify Fe3O4/molecularly imprinted polymers (Fe3O4/MIPs), and the resulting materials were applied for the rapid purification of alkaloid isomers (theobromine and theophylline) from green tea with magnetic solid-phase extraction (M-SPE). The M-SPE procedure was optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM) to analyze the maximum conditions. The materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FI-IR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Compared to the ILs-Fe3O4/MIPs, the DESs-Fe3O4/MIPs were developed for the stronger recognition and higher recoveries of the isomers (theophylline and theobromine) from green tea, particularly DES-7-Fe3O4/MIPs. With RSM, the optimal recovery condition for theobromine and theophylline in the M-SPE were observed with ratio of methanol (80%) as the washing solution, methanol/acetic acid (HAc) (8:2) as the eluent at pH 3, and an eluent volume of 4 mL. The practical recoveries of theobromine and theophylline in green tea were 92.27% and 87.51%, respectively, with a corresponding actual extraction amount of 4.87 mg•g−1 and 5.07 mg•g−1. Overall, the proposed approach with the high affinity of Fe3O4/MIPs might offer a novel method for the purification of complex isomer samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In silico Study of the Pharmacologic Properties and Cytotoxicity Pathways in Cancer Cells of Various Indolylquinone Analogues of Perezone
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1060; doi:10.3390/molecules22071060 -
Abstract
Several indolylquinone analogues of perezone, a natural sesquiterpene quinone, were characterized in this work by theoretical methods. In addition, some physicochemical, toxicological and metabolic properties were predicted using bioinformatics software. The predicted physicochemical properties are in agreement with the solubility and cLogP values,
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Several indolylquinone analogues of perezone, a natural sesquiterpene quinone, were characterized in this work by theoretical methods. In addition, some physicochemical, toxicological and metabolic properties were predicted using bioinformatics software. The predicted physicochemical properties are in agreement with the solubility and cLogP values, the penetration across the cell membrane, and absorption values, as well as with a possible apoptosis-activated mechanism of cytotoxic action. The toxicological predictions suggest no mutagenic, tumorigenic or reproductive effects of the four target molecules. Complementarily, the results of a performed docking study show high scoring values and hydrogen bonding values in agreement with the cytotoxicity IC50 value ranking, i.e: indolylmenadione > indolylperezone > indolylplumbagine > indolylisoperezone. Consequently, it is possible to suggest an appropriate apoptotic pathway for each compound. Finally, potential metabolic pathways of the molecules were proposed. Full article
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