Molecules2014, 19(4), 5325-5347; doi:10.3390/molecules19045325 (doi registration under processing) - published online 23 April 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This work presents the effects of feruloylated oligosaccharides (FOs) of rice bran on murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and the potential pathway through which the effects are mediated. We found that FOs induced phenotypic maturation of DCs, as shown by the increased expression of CD40, CD80/CD86 and MHC-I/II molecules. FOs efficiently induced maturation of DCs generated from C3H/HeN or C57BL/6 mice with normal toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) or TLR-2 but not DCs from mice with mutated TLR4 or TLR2. The mechanism of action of FOs may be mediated by increased phosphorylation of ERK, p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) and increased NF-kB activity, which are important signaling molecules downstream of TLR-4 and TLR-2. These data suggest that FOs induce DCs maturation through TLR-4 and/or TLR-2 and that FOs might have potential efficacy against tumor or virus infection or represent a candidate-adjuvant approach for application in immunotherapy and vaccination.
Molecules2014, 19(4), 5313-5324; doi:10.3390/molecules19045313 (doi registration under processing) - published online 23 April 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: 1-Phenyl-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2-thienyl)-2-pyrazoline was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and X-ray single crystal diffraction. UV-Vis spectra and fluorescence spectra were measured. Density functional theory calculations on the structure of the title compound were performed at the B3LYP/6-311G** level of theory. NPA atomic charge distributions indicate that, although the S atom in the thienyl ring loses coordination capacity, the title compound still may be used as a potential multi-dentate ligand to coordinate with metallic ions. The calculation of the second order optical nonlinearity was carried out. Natural bond orbital analyses indicate that the electronic absorption bands are mainly derived from the contribution of n → π* and π → π* transitions. Fluorescence spectra determination shows that the title compound is a potential orange-light emitting material.
Molecules2014, 19(4), 5301-5312; doi:10.3390/molecules19045301 (doi registration under processing) - published online 23 April 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We present ab-initio calculations of secondary isotope effects on NMR chemical shieldings. The change of the NMR chemical shift of a certain nucleus that is observed if another nucleus is replaced by a different isotope can be calculated by computing vibrational corrections on the NMR parameters using electronic structure methods. We demonstrate that the accuracy of the computational results is sufficient to even distinguish different conformers. For this purpose, benchmark calculations for fluoro(2-2H)ethane in gauche and antiperiplanar conformation are carried out at the HF, MP2 and CCSD(T) level of theory using basis sets ranging from double- to quadruple-zeta quality. The methodology is applied to the secondary isotope shifts for 2-fluoronorbornane in order to resolve an ambiguity in the literature on the assignment of endo- and exo-2-fluoronorbornanes with deuterium substituents in endo-3 and exo-3 positions, also yielding insight into mechanistic details of the corresponding synthesis.
Molecules2014, 19(4), 5278-5300; doi:10.3390/molecules19045278 (doi registration under processing) - published online 23 April 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The synthesis and switching properties of two “basket handle” porphyrin isomers is described. The cis-oriented meso-phenyl groups of these porphyrins are linked at their ortho-positons via benzocrown-ether-based spacers, which as a result of slow atropisomerization are located either on the same side of the porphyrin plane (cis), or on opposite sides (trans). In solution, the cis-linked isomer slowly isomerizes in the direction of the thermodynamically more stable trans-isomer. In the presence of viologen (N,N'-dialkyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) derivatives, which have different affinities for the two isomers, the isomerization equilibrium could be significantly influenced. In addition, the presence of these guests was found to enhance the rate of the switching process, which was suggested to be caused by favorable interactions between the positively charged guest and the crown ethers of the receptor, stabilizing the transition state energies of the isomerization reaction between the two isomers.
Molecules2014, 19(4), 5266-5277; doi:10.3390/molecules19045266 (doi registration under processing) - published online 23 April 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Makgeolli is a traditional Korean rice wine, reported to have various biological functions. In this study, the immunostimulatory activity of a polysaccharide from makgeolli (PSM) was investigated. The polysaccharide fraction was isolated from makgeolli by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, dialysis, and lyophilization. The major constituents in PSM were neutral sugars (87.3%). PSM was composed of five different sugars, glucose, mannose, galactose, xylose, and arabinose. In normal mice, PSM treatment increased the spleen index (p< 0.05) as well as splenocyte proliferation (p< 0.05) in combination with concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide. The immunostimulatory activities of PSM were also examined in cyclophosphamide (CY)-induced immunosuppressed mice. Mice treated with PSM exhibited increased splenocyte proliferation (p< 0.05), natural killer cell activity, and white blood cell counts (p< 0.01) compared with immunosuppressed mice. These results indicate that PSM can enhance immune function in normal mice and CY-induced immunosuppressed mice.
Molecules2014, 19(4), 5243-5265; doi:10.3390/molecules19045243 (doi registration under processing) - published online 23 April 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Using integrated in-silico computational techniques, including homology modeling, structure-based and pharmacophore-based virtual screening, moleculardynamic simulations, per-residue energy decomposition analysis and atom-based 3D-QSAR analysis, we proposed ten novel compounds as potential CCR5-dependent HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Via validated docking calculations, binding free energies revealed that novel leads demonstrated better binding affinities with CCR5 compared to maraviroc, an FDA-approved HIV-1 entry inhibitor and in clinical use. Per-residue interaction energy decomposition analysis on the averaged MD structure showed that hydrophobic active residues Trp86, Tyr89 and Tyr108 contributed the most to inhibitor binding. The validated 3D-QSAR model showed a high cross-validated rcv2 value of 0.84 using three principal components and non-cross-validated r2 value of 0.941. It was also revealed that almost all compounds in the test set and training set yielded a good predicted value. Information gained from this study could shed light on the activity of a new series of lead compounds as potential HIV entry inhibitors and serve as a powerful tool in the drug design and development machinery.