Open AccessArticle
Curcumin Attenuates on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice via Modulation of the Nrf2/HO-1 and TGF-β1/Smad3 Pathway
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 215; doi:10.3390/molecules23010215 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of curcumin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury in a mouse model, and to explain the underlying mechanism. Curcumin at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day were administered orally once daily
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This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of curcumin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury in a mouse model, and to explain the underlying mechanism. Curcumin at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day were administered orally once daily for seven days prior to CCl4 exposure. At 24 h, curcumin-attenuated CCl4 induced elevated serum transaminase activities and histopathological damage in the mouse’s liver. Curcumin pre-treatment at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly ameliorated CCl4-induced oxidative stress, characterized by decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) formations, and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities and glutathione (GSH) content, followed by a decrease in caspase-9 and -3 activities. Curcumin pre-treatment significantly decreased CCl4-induced inflammation. Furthermore, curcumin pre-treatment significantly down-regulated the expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3 mRNAs (both p < 0.01), and up-regulated the expression of nuclear-factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and HO-1 mRNA (both p < 0.01) in the liver. Inhibition of HO-1 attenuated the protective effect of curcumin on CCl4-induced acute liver injury. Given these outcomes, curcumin could protect against CCl4-induced acute liver injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation, which may partly involve the activation of Nrf2/HO-1 and inhibition of TGF-β1/Smad3 pathways. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Antioxidative Effects of Insect Tea and Its Raw Tea (Kuding Tea) Polyphenols in Kunming Mice
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 204; doi:10.3390/molecules23010204 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Kudingcha is a traditional Chinese tea, and insect tea is a special drink produced by the metabolism of insect larvae using the raw Kuding tea. Insect tea polyphenols (ITP) and its raw tea (Kuding tea) polyphenols (KTP) are high-purity polyphenols extracted by centrifuge
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Kudingcha is a traditional Chinese tea, and insect tea is a special drink produced by the metabolism of insect larvae using the raw Kuding tea. Insect tea polyphenols (ITP) and its raw tea (Kuding tea) polyphenols (KTP) are high-purity polyphenols extracted by centrifuge precipitation. The present study was designed to compare the antioxidative effects of insect tea polyphenols (ITP) and its raw tea (Kuding tea) polyphenols (KTP) on d-galactose-induced oxidation in Kunming (KM) mice. KM mice were treated with ITP (200 mg/kg) and KTP (200 mg/kg) by gavage, and vitamin C (VC, 200 mg/kg) was also used as a positive control by gavage. After determination in serum, liver and spleen, ITP-treated mice showed higher superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and glutathione (GSH) activities and lower nitric oxide (NO), malonaldehyde (MDA) activities than VC-treated mice, KTP-treated mice and untreated oxidation mice (control group). By H&E section observation, the mice induced by d-galactose-induced oxidation showed more changes than normal mice, and oxidative damage appeared in liver and spleen tissues; ITP, VC and KTP improved oxidative damage of liver and spleen tissues, and the effects of ITP were better than VC and KTP. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot experiments, it was observed that ITP could increase the mRNA and protein expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), cupro/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), gamma glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and reduce inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in liver and spleen tissues compared to the control group. These effects were stronger than for VC and KTP. Both ITP and KTP had good antioxidative effects, and after the transformation of insects, the effects of ITP were better than that of KTP and even better than VC. Thus, ITP can be used as an antioxidant and anti-ageing functional food. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Contribution of the Ratio of Tocopherol Homologs to the Oxidative Stability of Commercial Vegetable Oils
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 206; doi:10.3390/molecules23010206 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The antioxidant activity of tocopherols in vegetable oils was shown to chiefly depend on the amount and the tocopherol homolog present. However, the most effective ratio of tocopherol homologs with regard to the antioxidant capacity has not been elucidated so far. The present
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The antioxidant activity of tocopherols in vegetable oils was shown to chiefly depend on the amount and the tocopherol homolog present. However, the most effective ratio of tocopherol homologs with regard to the antioxidant capacity has not been elucidated so far. The present study analyzed the effect of different tocopherol concentrations, homologs and ratios of homologs on markers of lipid oxidation in the most commonly consumed vegetable oils (canola, sunflower, soybean oil) stored in a 12 h light/dark cycle at 22 ± 2 °C for 56 days under retail/household conditions. After 56 days of storage, the α-tocopherol-rich canola and sunflower oil showed the strongest rise in lipid peroxides, yielding 25.1 ± 0.03 meq O2/kg (+25.3-fold) and 24.7 ± 0.05 meq O2/kg (+25.0-fold), respectively. ESR experiments, excluding effects of the oils’ matrices and other minor constituents, confirmed that a food representative tocopherol ratio of (γ + δ)/α = 4.77, as represented in soybean oil, led to a more pronounced delay of lipid oxidation than a lower ratio in canola (1.39) and sunflower oil (0.06). An optimum (γ + δ)/α -tocopherol ratio contributing to the oxidative quality of vegetable oils extending their shelf life has to be investigated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Molecular Characterization and Expression Profiles of Sp-uchl3 and Sp-uchl5 during Gonad Development of Scylla paramamosain
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 213; doi:10.3390/molecules23010213 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases (UCHLs) are a subset of deubiquitinating enzymes, and are involved in numerous physiological processes. However, the role of UCHLs during gonad development has not been studied in crustaceans. In this study, we have first cloned and analyzed expression profiling of
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Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases (UCHLs) are a subset of deubiquitinating enzymes, and are involved in numerous physiological processes. However, the role of UCHLs during gonad development has not been studied in crustaceans. In this study, we have first cloned and analyzed expression profiling of Sp-uchl3 and Sp-uchl5 genes from mud crab Scylla paramamosain. The full-length cDNA of Sp-uchl3 is of 1804 bp. Its expression level in the ovary was significantly higher than in other tissues (p < 0.01), and during gonadal development, its expression in both O1 and O5 stages was significantly higher than in the other three stages of ovaries (p < 0.05), while in T3 it was higher than in the former two stages of testes (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the full-length cDNA of Sp-UCHL5 is 1217 bp. The expression level in the ovary was significantly higher than in other tissues (p < 0.01). Its expression in ovaries was higher than in testes during gonadal development (p < 0.05). The expression level in the O5 stage was the highest, followed by the O3 stage in ovarian development, and with no significant difference in the testis development (p > 0.05). These results provide basic data showing the role of Sp-UCHL3 and Sp-UCHL5 in the gonad development of the crab. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Binding Affinities of Water-Soluble Calixarenes with the Organophosphorus Nerve Agent Soman (GD) and Commonly-Used Nerve Agent Simulants
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 207; doi:10.3390/molecules23010207 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The formation of inclusion complexes of the water-soluble p-sulfonatocalix[n]arenes, where n = 4 or 6, with the Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) GD, or Soman, and commonly used dialkyl methylphosphonate simulants has been studied by experimental solution NMR methods and by
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The formation of inclusion complexes of the water-soluble p-sulfonatocalix[n]arenes, where n = 4 or 6, with the Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) GD, or Soman, and commonly used dialkyl methylphosphonate simulants has been studied by experimental solution NMR methods and by Molecular Mechanics (MMFF) and semi-empirical (PM6) calculations. Complex formation in non-buffered and buffered solutions is driven by the hydrophobic effect, and complex stoichiometry determined as 1:1 for all host:guest pairs. Low affinity complexes (Kassoc < 100 M−1) are observed for all guests, attributed to poor host–guest complementarity and the role of buffer cation species accounts for the low affinity of the complexes. Comparison of CWA and simulant behavior adds to understanding of CWA–simulant correlations and the challenges of simulant selection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Immobilization of Staphylococcus aureus Sortase A on Chitosan Particles and Its Applications in Peptide-to-Peptide Ligation and Peptide Cyclization
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 192; doi:10.3390/molecules23010192 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Chitosan macro-particles prepared by the neutralization method were applied to Sortase A (SrtA) immobilization using glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent. The particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize
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Chitosan macro-particles prepared by the neutralization method were applied to Sortase A (SrtA) immobilization using glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent. The particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the immobilization process. An average specific activity of 3142 U (mg protein)−1 was obtained under optimized immobilization conditions (chitosan concentration 3%, SrtA concentration 0.5 mg·mL−1, glutaraldehyde concentration 0.5%, crosslinking and immobilization at 20 °C, crosslinking for 3 h, and an immobilization time of 8 h). The transpeptidase activity of immobilized SrtA was proved by a peptide-to-peptide ligation with a conversion yield approximately at 80%, and the immobilized catalyst was successfully reused for five cycles without obvious activity loss. Moreover, the scale-up capability of using immobilized SrtA to catalyze a head-to-tail peptide cyclization was investigated in a batch reaction and the conversion yield was more than 95% when using 20 mg of peptide as a substrate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Cyclic Dipeptides from Escherichia coli as New Antimicrobial Agents against Ralstonia Solanacearum
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 214; doi:10.3390/molecules23010214 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Ralstonia solanacearum is a causative agent of bacterial wilt in many important crops throughout the world. How to control bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum is a major problem in agriculture. In this study, we aim to isolate the biocontrol agents that have
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Ralstonia solanacearum is a causative agent of bacterial wilt in many important crops throughout the world. How to control bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum is a major problem in agriculture. In this study, we aim to isolate the biocontrol agents that have high efficacy in the control of bacterial wilt. Three new bacterial strains with high antimicrobial activity against R. solanacearum GMI1000 were isolated and identified. Our results demonstrated that these bacteria could remarkably inhibit the disease index of host plant infected by R. solanacearum. It was indicated that strain GZ-34 (CCTCC No. M 2016353) showed an excellent protective effect to tomato under greenhouse conditions. Strain GZ-34 was characterized as Escherichia coli based on morphology, biochemistry, and 16S rRNA analysis. We identified that the main antimicrobial compounds produced by E. coli GZ-34 were cyclo(l-Pro-d-Ile) and cyclo(l-Pro-l-Phe) using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The two active compounds also interfered with the expression levels of some pathogenicity-contributors of R. solanacearum. Furthermore, cyclo(l-Pro-l-Phe) effectively inhibited spore formation of Magnaporthe grisea, which is a vital pathogenesis process of the fungal pathogen, suggesting cyclic dipeptides from E. coli are promising potential antimicrobial agents with broad-spectrum activity to kill pathogens or interfere with their pathogenesis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Antimicrobial Biocomposite Films to Preserve the Quality of Bread
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 212; doi:10.3390/molecules23010212 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This study focused on the development of gelatin-based films with incorporation of microcrystalline cellulose as reinforcement material. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) oleoresins containing antimicrobial compounds of natural origin were incorporated
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This study focused on the development of gelatin-based films with incorporation of microcrystalline cellulose as reinforcement material. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) oleoresins containing antimicrobial compounds of natural origin were incorporated into the films. The mechanical, thermal, optical, and structural properties, as well as color, seal strength and permeability to water vapor, light, and oil of the films were determined. Adding oleoresins to the gelatin matrix increased the elongation of the material and significantly diminished its permeability to water vapor and oil. Evaluation of the potential use of films containing different oleoresins as bread packaging material was influenced by the film properties. The biocomposite film containing oleoresin from black pepper was the most effective packaging material for maintaining bread’s quality characteristics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
From Extraction of Local Structures of Protein Energy Landscapes to Improved Decoy Selection in Template-Free Protein Structure Prediction
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 216; doi:10.3390/molecules23010216 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Due to the essential role that the three-dimensional conformation of a protein plays in regulating interactions with molecular partners, wet and dry laboratories seek biologically-active conformations of a protein to decode its function. Computational approaches are gaining prominence due to the labor and
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Due to the essential role that the three-dimensional conformation of a protein plays in regulating interactions with molecular partners, wet and dry laboratories seek biologically-active conformations of a protein to decode its function. Computational approaches are gaining prominence due to the labor and cost demands of wet laboratory investigations. Template-free methods can now compute thousands of conformations known as decoys, but selecting native conformations from the generated decoys remains challenging. Repeatedly, research has shown that the protein energy functions whose minima are sought in the generation of decoys are unreliable indicators of nativeness. The prevalent approach ignores energy altogether and clusters decoys by conformational similarity. Complementary recent efforts design protein-specific scoring functions or train machine learning models on labeled decoys. In this paper, we show that an informative consideration of energy can be carried out under the energy landscape view. Specifically, we leverage local structures known as basins in the energy landscape probed by a template-free method. We propose and compare various strategies of basin-based decoy selection that we demonstrate are superior to clustering-based strategies. The presented results point to further directions of research for improving decoy selection, including the ability to properly consider the multiplicity of native conformations of proteins. Full article
Open AccessCommunication
Anionic Water Cluster Polymers [(H2O)18(OH)2]n2n Is Stabilized by Bis(2,2′-bipyridine) Cupric Chloride [Cu(bipy)2Cl]
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 195; doi:10.3390/molecules23010195 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Anionic water clusters have long been studied to infer properties of the bulk hydrated electron. In particular, the question of whether the excess electron is on the surface of the cluster or in the interior of the clusters has been the subject of
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Anionic water clusters have long been studied to infer properties of the bulk hydrated electron. In particular, the question of whether the excess electron is on the surface of the cluster or in the interior of the clusters has been the subject of much speculation. The successes of solid-state physics are built on exploiting the regularity of atomic arrangements in crystal. Describing the crystalline order of solids is relatively straightforward. Here we report the crystal structure of an anionic water cluster polymer [(H2O)18(OH)2]n2n moiety that is stabilized by bis(2,2′-bipyridine) cupric chloride [Cu(bipy)2Cl] host. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Lipophilic Phenethyl Trifluoroacetate Esters by In Vitro ABTS, DPPH and in Cell-Culture DCF Assays
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 208; doi:10.3390/molecules23010208 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Polyphenols are natural compounds showing a variety of health-promoting effects. Unfortunately, due to low lipid solubility, their applications in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries are limited. With the aim of obtaining novel lipophilic derivatives, the present study reports the synthesis of a
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Polyphenols are natural compounds showing a variety of health-promoting effects. Unfortunately, due to low lipid solubility, their applications in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries are limited. With the aim of obtaining novel lipophilic derivatives, the present study reports the synthesis of a series of phenethyl trifluoroacetate esters containing up to two hydroxyl groups in the aromatic ring. Experimental logP values confirmed a greater lipophilicity of the novel compounds compared to the parent compounds. The radical scavenging capacity of all phenethyl trifluoroacetate esters was evaluated by in vitro assays (ABTS, DPPH) and in cultured cells (L6 myoblasts and THP-1 leukemic monocytes) using 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. These data revealed that the esters showed a good antioxidant effect that was strictly dependent on the grade of hydroxylation of the phenyl ring. The lack of toxicity, evaluated by the MTT assay and proliferation curves, makes these trifluoroacetates attractive derivatives for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Silico and In Vitro Study of the Bromelain-Phytochemical Complex Inhibition of Phospholipase A2 (Pla2)
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 73; doi:10.3390/molecules23010073 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Phospholipase A2 (Pla2) is an enzyme that induces inflammation, making Pla2 activity an effective approach to reduce inflammation. Therefore, investigating natural compounds for this Pla2 inhibitory activity has important therapeutic potential. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential in bromelain-phytochemical
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Phospholipase A2 (Pla2) is an enzyme that induces inflammation, making Pla2 activity an effective approach to reduce inflammation. Therefore, investigating natural compounds for this Pla2 inhibitory activity has important therapeutic potential. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential in bromelain-phytochemical complex inhibitors via a combination of in silico and in vitro methods. Bromelain-amenthoflavone displays antagonistic effects on Pla2. Bromelian-asiaticoside and bromelain-diosgenin displayed synergistic effects at high concentrations of the combined compounds, with inhibition percentages of more than 70% and 90%, respectively, and antagonistic effects at low concentrations. The synergistic effect of the bromelain-asiaticoside and bromelain-diosgenin combinations represents a new application in treating inflammation. These findings not only provide significant quantitative data, but also provide an insight on valuable implications for the combined use of bromelain with asiaticoside and diosgenin in treating inflammation, and may help researchers develop more natural bioactive compounds in daily foods as anti-inflammatory agent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Odors of Wood by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry with Removal of Extractives as Attempt to Control Indoor Air Quality
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 203; doi:10.3390/molecules23010203 -
Abstract
Indoor air quality problems are usually revealed by occupants’ complaints. In this study, the odors of two types of hardwood species, namely, Cathy poplar (Populus cathayana Rehd.) and rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were selected and extracted with ethanol-toluene for removal of
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Indoor air quality problems are usually revealed by occupants’ complaints. In this study, the odors of two types of hardwood species, namely, Cathy poplar (Populus cathayana Rehd.) and rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were selected and extracted with ethanol-toluene for removal of extractives in an attempt to eliminate the odors. The odorous components of neat and extracted woods were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O). The results showed that about 33 kinds of key volatile compounds (peak area above 0.2%) were detected from the GC-MS, and about 40 kinds of odorants were identified from GC-O. The components were concentrated between 15 and 33 min in GC-O, which was different from the concentration time in GC-MS. Lots of the odors identified from GC-O were unpleasant to humans, and variously described as stinky, burnt, leather, bug, herb, etc. These odors may originate from the thermos-oxidation of wood components. After extraction, the amounts and intensities of some odorants decreased, while some remained. However, the extraction process resulted in a benzene residue and led to increased benzene odor. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
GC-MS Analysis of the Volatile Constituents in the Leaves of 14 Compositae Plants
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 166; doi:10.3390/molecules23010166 -
Abstract
The green organs, especially the leaves, of many Compositae plants possess characteristic aromas. To exploit the utility value of these germplasm resources, the constituents, mainly volatile compounds, in the leaves of 14 scented plant materials were qualitatively and quantitatively compared via gas chromatography-mass
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The green organs, especially the leaves, of many Compositae plants possess characteristic aromas. To exploit the utility value of these germplasm resources, the constituents, mainly volatile compounds, in the leaves of 14 scented plant materials were qualitatively and quantitatively compared via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 213 constituents were detected and tentatively identified in the leaf extracts, and terpenoids (especially monoterpene and sesquiterpene derivatives), accounting for 40.45–90.38% of the total compounds, were the main components. The quantitative results revealed diverse concentrations and compositions of the chemical constituents between species. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that different groups of these Compositae plants were characterized by main components of α-thujone, germacrene D, eucalyptol, β-caryophyllene, and camphor, for example. On the other hand, cluster memberships corresponding to the molecular phylogenetic framework, were found by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) based on the terpenoid composition of the tested species. These results provide a phytochemical foundation for the use of these scented Compositae plants, and for the further study of the chemotaxonomy and differential metabolism of Compositae species. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparison of the Chemical Composition, In Vitro Bioaccessibility and Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Rice Bran and Its Dietary Fibres
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 202; doi:10.3390/molecules23010202 -
Abstract
The composition, in vitro bioaccessibility and antioxidant activities of the phenolic compounds in defatted rice bran (DRB) and its soluble and insoluble dietary fibres were systematically evaluated in this study. The total phenolic content of insoluble dietary fibre from DRB (IDFDRB) was much
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The composition, in vitro bioaccessibility and antioxidant activities of the phenolic compounds in defatted rice bran (DRB) and its soluble and insoluble dietary fibres were systematically evaluated in this study. The total phenolic content of insoluble dietary fibre from DRB (IDFDRB) was much higher than that of the soluble dietary fibre from DRB (SDFDRB) but was 10% lower than that of DRB. Bound phenolics accounted for more than 90% of the total phenolics in IDFDRB, whereas they accounted for 34.2% and 40.5% of the total phenolics in DRB and SDFDRB, respectively. Additionally, the phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities were significantly different in DRB, SDFDRB and IDFDRB. The phenolic compounds in IDFDRB were much less bioaccessibility than those in DRB and SDFDRB due to the higher proportion of bound phenolics in IDFDRB. Considering that bound phenolics could be released from food matrices by bacterial enzymes in the large intestine and go on to exert significant beneficial health effects in vivo, further studies on IDFDRB are needed to investigate the release of the phenolics from IDFDRB via gut microbiota and the related health benefits. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Dietary Total Prenylflavonoids from the Fruits of Psoralea corylifolia L. Prevents Age-Related Cognitive Deficits and Down-Regulates Alzheimer’s Markers in SAMP8 Mice
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 196; doi:10.3390/molecules23010196 -
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a serious threat for the aging society. In this study, we examined the preventive effect of the total prenylflavonoids (TPFB) prepared from the dried fruits of Psoralea corylifolia L., using an age-related AD mouse model SAMP8. We found that
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a serious threat for the aging society. In this study, we examined the preventive effect of the total prenylflavonoids (TPFB) prepared from the dried fruits of Psoralea corylifolia L., using an age-related AD mouse model SAMP8. We found that long-term dietary TPFB at 50 mg/kg·day significantly improved cognitive performance of the SAMP8 mice in Morris water maze tests, similar to 150 mg/kg·day of resveratrol, a popular neuro-protective compound. Furthermore, TPFB treatment showed significant improvements in various AD markers in SAMP8 brains, which were restored to near control levels of the normal mice, SAMR1. TPFB significantly reduced the level of amyloid β-peptide 42 (Aβ42), inhibited hyperphosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein Tau, induced phosphorylation of Ser9 of the glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), and decreased the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1β. Finally, TPFB also markedly reduced the level of serum derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs), a biomarker of oxidative stress in vivo. These results showed that dietary TPFB could effectively prevent age-related cognitive deficits and AD-like neurobiochemical changes, and may have a potential role in the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Liposomal TriCurin, A Synergistic Combination of Curcumin, Epicatechin Gallate and Resveratrol, Repolarizes Tumor-Associated Microglia/Macrophages, and Eliminates Glioblastoma (GBM) and GBM Stem Cells
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 201; doi:10.3390/molecules23010201 -
Abstract
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a deadly brain tumor with a current mean survival of 12–15 months. Despite being a potent anti-cancer agent, the turmeric ingredient curcumin (C) has limited anti-tumor efficacy in vivo due to its low bioavailability. We have reported earlier a strategy
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Glioblastoma (GBM) is a deadly brain tumor with a current mean survival of 12–15 months. Despite being a potent anti-cancer agent, the turmeric ingredient curcumin (C) has limited anti-tumor efficacy in vivo due to its low bioavailability. We have reported earlier a strategy involving the use two other polyphenols, epicatechin gallate (E) from green tea and resveratrol (R) from red grapes at a unique, synergistic molar ratio with C (C:E:R: 4:1:12.5, termed TriCurin) to achieve superior potency against HPV+ tumors than C alone at C:E:R (μM): 32:8:100 (termed 32 μM+ TriCurin). We have now prepared liposomal TriCurin (TrLp) and demonstrated that TrLp boosts activated p53 in cultured GL261 mouse GBM cells to trigger apoptosis of GBM and GBM stem cells in vitro. TrLp administration into mice yielded a stable plasma concentration of 210 nM C for 60 min, which, though sub-lethal for cultured GL261 cells, was able to cause repolarization of M2-like tumor (GBM)-associated microglia/macrophages to the tumoricidal M1-like phenotype and intra-GBM recruitment of activated natural killer cells. The intratumor presence of such tumoricidal immune cells was associated with concomitant suppression of tumor-load, and apoptosis of GBM and GBM stem cells. Thus, TrLp is a potential onco-immunotherapeutic agent against GBM tumors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Regioselective Synthesis of Procyanidin B6, A 4-6-Condensed (+)-Catechin Dimer, by Intramolecular Condensation
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 205; doi:10.3390/molecules23010205 -
Abstract
Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins or oligomeric flavonoids, are found in many edible plants and exhibit interesting biological activities. Herein, we report a new, simple method for the stereoselective synthesis of procyanidin B6, a (+)-catechin-(4-6)-(+)-catechin dimer, by Lewis acid-catalyzed intramolecular condensation. The
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Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins or oligomeric flavonoids, are found in many edible plants and exhibit interesting biological activities. Herein, we report a new, simple method for the stereoselective synthesis of procyanidin B6, a (+)-catechin-(4-6)-(+)-catechin dimer, by Lewis acid-catalyzed intramolecular condensation. The 5-O-t-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) group of 5,7,3′4′-tetra-O-TBDMS-(+)-catechin was regioselectively removed using trifluoroacetic acid, leading to the “regio-controlled” synthesis of procyanidin B6. The 5-hydroxyl group of the 7,3′,4′-tri-O-TBDMS-(+)-catechin nucleophile and the 3-hydroxyl group of 5,7,3′,4′-tetra-O-benzylated-(+)-catechin electrophile were connected with an azelaic acid. The subsequent SnCl4-catalyzed intramolecular condensation proceeded smoothly to give the 4-6-condensed catechin dimer. This is the first report on the complete regioselective synthesis of a 4-6-connected oligomer without modifying the 8-position. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of 4-Substituted 1,2,3-Triazole-Coumarin Derivatives
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 199; doi:10.3390/molecules23010199 -
Abstract
A new series of coumarin-1,2,3-triazole conjugates with varied alkyl, phenyl and heterocycle moieties at C-4 of the triazole nucleus were synthesized using a copper(I)-catalysed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of corresponding O-propargylated coumarin (3) or N-propargylated coumarin (6)
[...] Read more.
A new series of coumarin-1,2,3-triazole conjugates with varied alkyl, phenyl and heterocycle moieties at C-4 of the triazole nucleus were synthesized using a copper(I)-catalysed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of corresponding O-propargylated coumarin (3) or N-propargylated coumarin (6) with alkyl or aryl azides. Based on their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against selected microorganisms, six out of twenty-six compounds showed significant antibacterial activity towards Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 12.5–50 µg/mL). Moreover, the synthesized triazoles show relatively low toxicity against human erythrocytes. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Relationship between Autism Spectrum Disorder and Melatonin during Fetal Development
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 198; doi:10.3390/molecules23010198 -
Abstract
The aim of this review is to clarify the interrelationship between melatonin and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during fetal development. ASD refers to a diverse range of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits, impaired communication, and stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. Melatonin, which is
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The aim of this review is to clarify the interrelationship between melatonin and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during fetal development. ASD refers to a diverse range of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits, impaired communication, and stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. Melatonin, which is secreted by the pineal gland, has well-established neuroprotective and circadian entraining effects. During pregnancy, the hormone crosses the placenta into the fetal circulation and transmits photoperiodic information to the fetus allowing the establishment of normal sleep patterns and circadian rhythms that are essential for normal neurodevelopment. Melatonin synthesis is frequently impaired in patients with ASD. The hormone reduces oxidative stress, which is harmful to the central nervous system. Therefore, the neuroprotective and circadian entraining roles of melatonin may reduce the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as ASD. Full article
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