Minerals2015, 5(2), 247-258; doi:10.3390/min5020247 - published 16 April 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The activation of scheelite and wolframite by lead nitrate with benzohydroxamic acid (BHA) as collector was investigated by means of micro flotation test, zeta potential measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses and density functional theory (DFT) calculation. The flotation results confirmed that the addition of lead nitrate can markedly enhance the recovery of scheelite and wolframite. In the zeta potential curves obvious positive shifts were observed with the presence of lead nitrate. Lead was detected on mineral surface in microscopic analysis and the survey XP spectra. Both the electrokinetic study and XPS analyses indicated that lead ion can be adsorbed onto mineral surface. In DFT calculation, the coordination model of BHA with metal hydroxyl ions (Ca(OH)+, Mn(OH)+, Fe(OH)+ and Pb(OH)+) was simulated and their binding energy were also calculated. The calculated results revealed that the binding ability of BHA and Pb(OH)+ is the strongest, indicating that BHA can preferentially coordinate with Pb ion compared with Ca, Mn and Fe ions.
Minerals2015, 5(2), 221-246; doi:10.3390/min5020221 - published 16 April 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In this study, chlorite is used to investigate the diagenetic-metamorphic evolution and accurate geological history of the different units belonging to the Karakaya complex, Turkey. Primary and secondary chlorite minerals in the very low-grade metamorphic rocks display interference colors of blue and brown and an appearance of optical isotropy. Chlorites are present in the matrix, pores, and/or rocks units as platy/flaky and partly radial forms. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data indicate that Mg-Fe chlorites with entirely IIb polytype (trioctahedral) exhibit a variety of compositions, such as brunsvigite-diabantite-chamosite. The major element contents and structural formulas of chlorite also suggest these were derived from both felsic and metabasic source rocks. Trace and rare earth element (REE) concentrations of chlorites increase with increasing grade of metamorphism, and these geochemical changes can be related to the tectonic structures, formational mechanics, and environments present during their generation.
Minerals2015, 5(2), 203-220; doi:10.3390/min5020203 - published 14 April 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In the first decade of the 21st century, as a typical coal province and mining economic region, Shanxi province made a great contribution to the national economic construction and reform. At the same time, coal mining has caused serious damage to the ecological environment, excessive use of resources, the deterioration of the ecological environment and a decline in the sustainable development capacity. Overreliance on a resource-based economy leads to problems such as a poorly developed economy and a single industrial structure. In this context, Shanxi province has to take actions to transform its industrial structure into a low-carbon development model as soon as possible. This paper measures the values of the consumption coefficients of capital investments, electric power and CO2 emissions by establishing a Grey Model (1, 1) using the data from 2007 to 2011 and designing the optimization scheme of the three industrial structures from 2015 to 2020 by establishing a grey dynamic linear programming model for Shanxi province. The results show that the industrial structure in Shanxi province needs to be improved. It is revealed that the proportion of three industries in Shanxi province should change from 6:46:48 in 2015 to 6:41:54 in 2020. At the same time, among the seven largest sectors in terms of carbon emissions in the secondary industry, Shanxi government may continue to promote the development of the coal-bed methane and the coal chemical industry in the coal industry, while the other six sectors should be limited.
Minerals2015, 5(2), 189-202; doi:10.3390/min5020189 - published 2 April 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In the present study, the feasibility to use phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) to develop a biological leaching process of rare earth elements (REE) from monazite-bearing ore was determined. To predict the REE leaching capacity of bacteria, the phosphate solubilizing abilities of 10 species of PSB were determined by halo zone formation on Reyes minimal agar media supplemented with bromo cresol green together with a phosphate solubilization test in Reyes minimal liquid media as the screening studies. Calcium phosphate was used as a model mineral phosphate. Among the test PSB strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. putida, P. rhizosphaerae, Mesorhizobium ciceri, Bacillus megaterium, and Acetobacter aceti formed halo zones, with the zone of A. aceti being the widest. In the phosphate solubilization test in liquid media, Azospirillum lipoferum, P. rhizosphaerae, B. megaterium, and A. aceti caused the leaching of 6.4%, 6.9%, 7.5%, and 32.5% of calcium, respectively. When PSB were used to leach REE from monazite-bearing ore, ~5.7 mg/L of cerium (0.13% of leaching efficiency) and ~2.8 mg/L of lanthanum (0.11%) were leached by A. aceti, and Azospirillum brasilense, A. lipoferum, P. rhizosphaerae and M. ciceri leached 0.5–1 mg/L of both cerium and lanthanum (0.005%–0.01%), as measured by concentrations in the leaching liquor. These results indicate that determination of halo zone formation was found as a useful method to select high-capacity bacteria in REE leaching. However, as the leaching efficiency determined in our experiments was low, even in the presence of A. aceti, further studies are now underway to enhance leaching efficiency by selecting other microorganisms based on halo zone formation.
Minerals2015, 5(2), 164-188; doi:10.3390/min5020164 - published 30 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A new boundary condition treatment has been devised for two-phase flow numerical simulations in a self-aerated minerals flotation machine and applied to a Wemco 0.8 m3 pilot cell. Airflow rate is not specified a priori but is predicted by the simulations as well as power consumption. Time-dependent simulations of two-phase flow in flotation machines are essential to understanding flow behavior and physics in self-aerated machines such as the Wemco machines. In this paper, simulations have been conducted for three different uniform bubble sizes (db = 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 mm) to study the effects of bubble size on air holdup and hydrodynamics in Wemco pilot cells. Moreover, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based flotation model has been developed to predict the pulp recovery rate of minerals from a flotation cell for different bubble sizes, different particle sizes and particle size distribution. The model uses a first-order rate equation, where models for probabilities of collision, adhesion and stabilization and collisions frequency estimated by Zaitchik-2010 modelare used for the calculation of rate constant. Spatial distributions of dissipation rate and air volume fraction (also called void fraction) determined by the two-phase simulations are the input for the flotation kinetics model. The average pulp recovery rate has been calculated locally for different uniform bubble and particle diameters. The CFD-based flotation kinetics model is also used to predict pulp recovery rate in the presence of particle size distribution. Particle number density pdf and the data generated for single particle size are used to compute the recovery rate for a specific mean particle diameter. Our computational model gives a figure of merit for the recovery rate of a flotation machine, and as such can be used to assess incremental design improvements as well as design of new machines.
Minerals2015, 5(2), 142-163; doi:10.3390/min5020142 - published 30 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Froth image segmentation is an important and basic part in an online froth monitoring system in mineral processing. The fast and accurate bubble delineation in a froth image is significant for the subsequent froth surface characterization. This paper proposes a froth image segmentation method combining image classification and image segmentation. In the method, an improved Harris corner detection algorithm is applied to classify froth images first. Then, for each class, the images are segmented by automatically choosing the corresponding parameters for identifying bubble edge points through extracting the local gray value minima. Finally, on the basis of the edge points, the bubbles are delineated by using a number of post-processing functions. Compared with the widely used Watershed algorithm and others for a number of lead zinc froth images in a flotation plant, the new method (algorithm) can alleviate the over-segmentation problem effectively. The experimental results show that the new method can produce good bubble delineation results automatically. In addition, its processing speed can also meet the online measurement requirements.