Open AccessArticle
Control of Acid Generation from Pyrite Oxidation in a Highly Reactive Natural Waste: A Laboratory Case Study
Minerals 2017, 7(6), 89; doi:10.3390/min7060089 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Laboratory kinetic leach column (KLC) tests were carried out to define the conditions required to control acid generation from a highly reactive, potentially acid-forming (PAF) iron ore waste rock. It was found that lime addition (0.1 wt % blended) plus either blending of
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Laboratory kinetic leach column (KLC) tests were carried out to define the conditions required to control acid generation from a highly reactive, potentially acid-forming (PAF) iron ore waste rock. It was found that lime addition (0.1 wt % blended) plus either blending of silicates (25 wt % K-feldspar and 25 wt % chlorite), or addition of a non-acid forming (NAF) top cover containing about 10% dolomite (PAF:NAF = 5:1 wt %), when watered/flushed with lime-saturated water, greatly reduced acid generation as compared to the control KLC (PAF alone, watered/flushed with Milli-Q water), but did not result in circum-neutral pH as required for pyrite surface passivation and effective acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD) mitigation. In contrast, the combined use of these treatments—blended lime and silicates with an NAF cover and watering/flushing with lime-saturated water—resulted in leachate pH of 12 (up to 24 weeks). Mass balance calculations for Ca2+ and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses suggest that calcite or gypsum may have formed in the NAF-amended KLCs and lime with added silicate KLC. Although the combined approach in the form trialled here may not be practical or cost-effective, control of a highly reactive natural PAF waste by pyrite surface passivation appears to be possible, and an improved treatment methodology (e.g., slightly increased lime blending without the need for further lime watering/flushing) could usefully be examined in the future. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Diagenesis and Reservoir Properties of the Permian Ecca Group Sandstones and Mudrocks in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa
Minerals 2017, 7(6), 88; doi:10.3390/min7060088 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Diagenesis is one of the most important factors that affects reservoir rock property. Despite the fact that published data gives a vast amount of information on the geology, sedimentology, and lithostratigraphy of the Ecca Group in the Karoo Basin of South Africa, little
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Diagenesis is one of the most important factors that affects reservoir rock property. Despite the fact that published data gives a vast amount of information on the geology, sedimentology, and lithostratigraphy of the Ecca Group in the Karoo Basin of South Africa, little is known about the diagenesis of the potentially feasible or economically viable sandstones and mudrocks of the Ecca Group. This study aims to provide an account of the diagenesis of sandstones and mudstones from the Ecca Group. Twenty-five diagenetic textures and structures were identified and grouped into three stages that include early diagenesis, burial diagenesis and uplift-related diagenesis. Clay minerals are the most common cementing materials in the sandstones. Smectite, kaolinite, and illite are the major clay minerals that act as pore lining rims and pore-filling materials. A part of the clay minerals and detrital grains was strongly replaced by calcite. Calcite precipitates locally in the pore spaces and partially or completely replaced clay matrix, feldspar, and quartz grains at or around their margins. Precipitation of cements and formation of pyrite and authigenic minerals occurred during the early diagenetic stage. This process was followed by lithification and compaction which brought about an increase in tightness of grain packing, loss of pore spaces, and thinning of bedding thickness due to overloading of sediments and selective dissolution of the framework grains. Mineral overgrowths, mineral replacement, clay-mineral transformation, dissolution, deformation, and pressure solution occurred during burial diagenetic stage. After rocks were uplifted, weathered and unroofed by erosion, this resulted in decementation and oxidation of iron-rich minerals. The rocks of the Ecca Group were subjected to moderate-intense mechanical and chemical compaction during their progressive burial. Intergranular pores, secondary dissolution, and fractured pores are well developed in the sediments of the Ecca Group. The presence of fractured and dissolution pores tend to enhance reservoir quality. However, the isolated nature of the pore linkage makes them unfavorable producers of hydrocarbons, which at best would require stimulation. The understanding of the space and time distribution of diagenetic processes in these rocks will allow the development of predictive models of their reservoir quality, which may contribute to the reduction of risks involved in hydrocarbon (oil and gas) exploration. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Synergetic Effect of the Mixed Anionic/Non-Ionic Collectors in Low Temperature Flotation of Scheelite
Minerals 2017, 7(6), 87; doi:10.3390/min7060087 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The synergetic effect of four octaphenyl polyoxyethyienes (TX) on low temperature flotation of scheelite at 9–11 °C was investigated through flotation experiments, and the adsorption mechanism was studied by way of surface tension, zeta potential, and adsorption measurement. The results show that the
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The synergetic effect of four octaphenyl polyoxyethyienes (TX) on low temperature flotation of scheelite at 9–11 °C was investigated through flotation experiments, and the adsorption mechanism was studied by way of surface tension, zeta potential, and adsorption measurement. The results show that the presence of the four octaphenyl polyoxyethyienes can improve scheelite flotation in a low concentration range, and their synergetic effects increase with the increase of the oxyethyl group (EO) number in their molecular structure, the mixed sodium oleate/TX-15 collector exhibits the best collecting performance for scheelite. Compared with sodium oleate alone, a larger reduced value of zeta potential is seen in the presence of the mixed collectors, and the adsorption of sodium oleate on the scheelite surface is enhanced for a constant sodium oleate concentration. Moreover, the synergetic effect of TX-15 can be well demonstrated through surface tension measurement, a lower critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of the mixed sodium oleate/TX-15 surfactant is obtained, indicating a higher surface property. Therefore, the mixed sodium oleate/TX-15 collector is suitable for low temperature flotation of scheelite. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Coal-Based Reduction and Magnetic Separation Behavior of Low-Grade Vanadium-Titanium Magnetite Pellets
Minerals 2017, 7(6), 86; doi:10.3390/min7060086 -
Abstract
Coal-based reduction and magnetic separation behavior of low-grade vanadium-titanium magnetite pellets were studied in this paper. It is found that the metallization degree increased obviously with an increase in the temperature from 1100 °C to 1400 °C. The phase composition transformation was specifically
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Coal-based reduction and magnetic separation behavior of low-grade vanadium-titanium magnetite pellets were studied in this paper. It is found that the metallization degree increased obviously with an increase in the temperature from 1100 °C to 1400 °C. The phase composition transformation was specifically analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microscopic examination was carried out with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the element composition and distribution were detected with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). It is observed that the amounts of metallic iron particles obviously increased and the accumulation and growing tendency were gradually facilitated with the increase in the temperature from 1100 °C to 1400 °C. It is also found that the titanium oxides were gradually reduced and separated from ferrum-titanium oxides during reduction. In addition, with increasing the temperature from 1200 °C to 1350 °C, silicate phases, especially calcium silicate phases that were transformed from calcium ferrite at 1100 °C, were observed and gradually aggregated. However, at 1400 °C some silicate phases infiltrated into metallic iron, as it appears that the carbides, especially TiC, could probably contribute to the sintering phenomenon becoming serious. The transformation behavior of valuable elements was as follows: Fe2VO4 → VO → V → VC; FeTiO3 (→ FeTi2O5) → TiO2 → TiC; FeCr2O4 → Cr → CrC; FeTiO3 (→ FeTi2O5) → Fe0.5Mg0.5Ti2O5; (Fe3O4/FeTiO3→) FeO → Mg0.77Fe0.23O. Through the magnetic separation of coal-based reduced products, it is demonstrated that the separation of Cr, V, Ti, and non-magnetic phases can be preliminarily realized. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Insights into Ferric Leaching of Low Grade Metal Sulfide-Containing ores in an Unsaturated Ore Bed Using X-ray Computed Tomography
Minerals 2017, 7(5), 85; doi:10.3390/min7050085 -
Abstract
The distribution of the metal-bearing mineral grains within a particulate ore prepared for leaching, and the impact of this spatial heterogeneity on overall extraction efficiency is of key importance to a mining industry that must continuously target ever-reducing grades and more complex ore
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The distribution of the metal-bearing mineral grains within a particulate ore prepared for leaching, and the impact of this spatial heterogeneity on overall extraction efficiency is of key importance to a mining industry that must continuously target ever-reducing grades and more complex ore bodies. If accessibility and recovery of the target minerals is to be improved, a more detailed understanding of the behaviour of the system must be developed. We present an in situ analysis using X-ray computed tomography to quantify the rates of volume reduction of sulfide mineral grains in low grade agglomerated copper bearing ores during a miniature laboratory scale column leaching experiment. The data shows the scale of the heterogeneity in the leaching behaviour, with an overall reduction of sulphide mineral grains of 50%, but that this value masks significant mm3 to cm3 scale variability in reduction. On the scale of individual ore fragments, leaching efficiency ranged from 22% to 99%. We use novel quantitative methods to determine the volume fraction of the sulfide that is accessible to the leachate solution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Geochemistry and Stable Isotopes of Travertine from Jordan Valley and Dead Sea Areas
Minerals 2017, 7(5), 82; doi:10.3390/min7050082 -
Abstract
Travertine deposits in Deir Alla, Suwayma, and Az Zara areas were investigated. Mineralogy, geochemistry, stable isotopes and age dating indicate the presence of low-Mg calcite, with minor quartz components. The variable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) signatures indicate dependence on
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Travertine deposits in Deir Alla, Suwayma, and Az Zara areas were investigated. Mineralogy, geochemistry, stable isotopes and age dating indicate the presence of low-Mg calcite, with minor quartz components. The variable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) signatures indicate dependence on water temperature and water/rock isotopic exchange. In contrast, the high δ13C values in some travertine samples reflect 12CO2 degassing processes, increased input of 13C-enriched groundwater, and the presence of surface and groundwater hydrological systems. The high δ18O values may be attributed to evaporation effects and low water temperature during the formation of localized travertine. The age of travertine is the Late Pleistocene. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Kinetic Study of the Leaching of Low-Grade Manganese Ores by Using Pretreated Sawdust as Reductant
Minerals 2017, 7(5), 83; doi:10.3390/min7050083 -
Abstract
The reductive leaching of manganese from a low-grade manganese oxide ore was investigated by using pretreated sawdust as the reductant in a sulfuric acid medium. The effects of stirring speed, liquid/solid ratio, sawdust/ore mass ratio, sulfuric acid concentration, reaction temperature, and time on
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The reductive leaching of manganese from a low-grade manganese oxide ore was investigated by using pretreated sawdust as the reductant in a sulfuric acid medium. The effects of stirring speed, liquid/solid ratio, sawdust/ore mass ratio, sulfuric acid concentration, reaction temperature, and time on the manganese extraction were examined. It was found that the leaching efficiency is strongly dependent on temperature and acid concentration. The leaching efficiency of manganese reached 94.1% under the optimal conditions: stirring speed of 300 rpm, liquid/solid ratio of 8:1, mass ratio of sawdust to ore 0.25, sulfuric acid concentration of 1 mol/L and a temperature of 363 K for 180 min. The kinetic analysis was carried out based on the shrinking core model, which indicated that the reductive leaching process was controlled by the chemical reaction. The reaction orders with respect to the sulfuric acid concentration and mass ratio of sawdust are 1.66 and 0.57, respectively. The apparent activation energy for the leaching process has been calculated using the Arrhenius expression and was found to be 51.7 kJ/mol. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Crystal Chemistry and Stability of Hydrated Rare-Earth Phosphates Formed at Room Temperature
Minerals 2017, 7(5), 84; doi:10.3390/min7050084 -
Abstract
In order to understand the crystal chemical properties of hydrous rare-earth (RE) phosphates, REPO4,hyd, that form at ambient temperature, we have synthesized REPO4,hyd through the interaction of aqueous RE elements (REEs) with aqueous P at room temperature at pH <
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In order to understand the crystal chemical properties of hydrous rare-earth (RE) phosphates, REPO4,hyd, that form at ambient temperature, we have synthesized REPO4,hyd through the interaction of aqueous RE elements (REEs) with aqueous P at room temperature at pH < 6, where the precipitation of RE hydroxides does not occur, and performed rigorous solid characterization. The second experiment was designed identically except for using hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystals as the P source at pH constrained by the dissolved P. Hydrated RE phosphate that precipitated at pH 3 after 3 days was classified into three groups: LREPO4,hyd (La → Gd) containing each REE from La-Gd, MREPO4,hyd (Tb → Ho), and HREPO4,hyd (Er → Lu). The latter two groups included increasing fractions of an amorphous component with increasing ionic radius, which was associated with non-coordinated water. REallPO4,hyd that contains all lanthanides except Pm transformed to rhabdophane structure over 30 days of aging. In the experiments using HAP, light REEs were preferentially distributed into nano-crystals, which can potentially constrain initial RE distributions in aqueous phase. Consequently, the mineralogical properties of hydrous RE phosphates forming at ambient temperature depend on the aging, the pH of the solution, and the average ionic radii of REE, similarly to the well-crystalline RE phosphates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Lithium Fluoride from Spent Lithium Ion Batteries
Minerals 2017, 7(5), 81; doi:10.3390/min7050081 -
Abstract
Lithium (Li) is considered a strategic element whose use has significantly expanded. Its current high demand is due to its use in lithium ion batteries for portable electronic devices, whose manufacture and market are extensively growing every day. These days there is a
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Lithium (Li) is considered a strategic element whose use has significantly expanded. Its current high demand is due to its use in lithium ion batteries for portable electronic devices, whose manufacture and market are extensively growing every day. These days there is a great concern about the final disposal of these batteries. Therefore, the possibility of developing new methodologies to recycle their components is of great importance, both commercially and environmentally. This paper presents results regarding important operational variables for the dissolution of the lithium and cobalt mixed-oxide (LiCoO2) cathodes from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with hydrofluoric acid. The recovery and synthesis of Co and Li compounds were also investigated. The dissolution parameters studied were: temperature, reaction time, solid-liquid ratio, stirring speed, and concentration of HF. The investigated recovery parameters included: pH, temperature, and time with and without stirring. The final precipitation of lithium fluoride was also examined. The results indicate that an increase in the HF concentration, temperature, and reaction time favors the leaching reaction of the LiCoO2. Dissolutions were close to 60%, at 75 °C and 120 min with a HF concentration of 25% (v/v). The recovery of Co and Li were 98% and 80%, respectively, with purities higher than 94%. Co and Li compounds, such as Co3O4 and LiF, were synthesized. Furthermore, it was possible to almost completely eliminate the F ions as CaF2. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improvement of Gold Leaching from a Refractory Gold Concentrate Calcine by Separate Pretreatment of Coarse and Fine Size Fractions
Minerals 2017, 7(5), 80; doi:10.3390/min7050080 -
Abstract
A total gold extraction of 70.2% could only be reached via direct cyanidation from a refractory As-, S- and C-bearing gold concentrate calcine, and the gold extraction varied noticeably with different size fractions. The reasons for unsatisfactory gold extraction from the calcine were
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A total gold extraction of 70.2% could only be reached via direct cyanidation from a refractory As-, S- and C-bearing gold concentrate calcine, and the gold extraction varied noticeably with different size fractions. The reasons for unsatisfactory gold extraction from the calcine were studied through analyses of chemical composition, chemical phase and SEM-EDS of different sizes of particles. It was found that a significant segregation of compositions occurred during the grinding of gold ore before flotation. As a result, for the calcine obtained after oxidative roasting, the encapsulation of gold by iron oxides was easily engendered in finer particles, whilst in coarser particles the gold encapsulation by silicates was inclined to occur likely due to melted silicates blocking the porosity of particles. The improvement of gold leaching from different size fractions was further investigated through pretreatments with alkali washing, acid pickling or sulfuric acid curing-water leaching. Finally, a novel process was recommended and the total gold extraction from the calcine could be increased substantially to 93.6% by the purposeful pretreatment with alkali washing for the relatively coarse size fraction (+37 μm) and sulfuric acid curing–water leaching for the fine size fraction (−37 μm). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Germanium Speciation in Sphalerite (ZnS) from Central and Eastern Tennessee, USA, by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy
Minerals 2017, 7(5), 79; doi:10.3390/min7050079 -
Abstract
X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was used on zoned sphalerites (ZnS) from two world-class Mississippi Valley Type deposits, the Central and Eastern Tennessee Mining district, USA, in order to investigate germanium oxidation states. Due to the low germanium concentrations of these
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X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was used on zoned sphalerites (ZnS) from two world-class Mississippi Valley Type deposits, the Central and Eastern Tennessee Mining district, USA, in order to investigate germanium oxidation states. Due to the low germanium concentrations of these samples, it was necessary to perform the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in fluorescence mode. The overlapping of the Zn Kβ and Ge Kα emission lines meant that a high energy-resolution was required. This was achieved using crystal analysers and allowed a bandwidth of 1.3 eV to be obtained. Experimental spectra were compared to XANES calculations and three configurations of germanium incorporation into sphalerite were identified. The first two, the most prevalent, show germanium (II) and (IV) surrounded by sulphur atoms in tetrahedral coordination, suggesting the replacement of Zn by Ge. In the third configuration, germanium (IV) is surrounded by oxygen atoms. This third configuration is unexpected for a zinc sulphide mineral and it resembles that of argutite (GeO2). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Alternative Source for Ceramics and Glass Raw Materials: Augen-Gneiss
Minerals 2017, 7(5), 70; doi:10.3390/min7050070 -
Abstract
Due to the depletion of well-known feldspar reserves in the forms of granite, trachyte and pegmatite, many investigations are focused on new and economic alternatives to these resources. Of these, gneiss is a metamorphic rock type, which is characterized by dark and light
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Due to the depletion of well-known feldspar reserves in the forms of granite, trachyte and pegmatite, many investigations are focused on new and economic alternatives to these resources. Of these, gneiss is a metamorphic rock type, which is characterized by dark and light colored minerals including feldspar and quartz. In this study, Augen-Gneiss rock was subjected to flotation tests to produce alkali (Na + Ca) feldspar and quartz concentrates by adapting different flotation conditions with/without hydrofluoric acid (HF). During these tests, the effect of particle size and different reagent combinations were investigated. The results of these tests showed that, in the presence of HF, a saleable feldspar concentrate with 0.04% Fe2O3 content and a saleable quartz concentrate with 98.45% SiO2 content were obtained. Products with similar qualities to a feldspar concentrate with 0.13% Fe2O3 and a quartz concentrate with 92.53% SiO2 content were produced without HF. The results of these tests clearly showed that, compared to other types of origin, saleable quality feldspar and quartz could well be enriched with/without HF from Augen-Gneiss rock. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Na-Montmorillonite Edge Structure and Surface Complexes: An Atomistic Perspective
Minerals 2017, 7(5), 78; doi:10.3390/min7050078 -
Abstract
The edges of montmorillonite (MMT) react strongly with metals and organic matter, but the atomic structure of the edge and its surface complexes are not unambiguous since the experimental isolation of the edge is challenging. In this study, we introduce an atomistic model
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The edges of montmorillonite (MMT) react strongly with metals and organic matter, but the atomic structure of the edge and its surface complexes are not unambiguous since the experimental isolation of the edge is challenging. In this study, we introduce an atomistic model of a Na MMT edge that is suitable for classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, in particular for the B edge, a representative edge surface of 2:1 phyllosilicates. Our model possesses the surface groups identified through density functional theory (DFT) geometry optimizations performed with variation in the structural charge deficit and Mg substitution sites. The edge structure of the classical MD simulations agreed well with previous DFT-based MD simulation results. Our MD simulations revealed an extensive H-bond network stabilizing the Na-MMT edge surface, which required an extensive simulation trajectory. Some Na counter ions formed inner-sphere complexes at two edge sites. The stronger edge site coincided with the exposed vacancy in the dioctahedral sheet; a weaker site was associated with the cleaved hexagonal cavity of the tetrahedral sheet. The six-coordinate Na complexes were not directly associated with the Mg edge site. Our simulations have demonstrated the heterogeneous surface structures, the distribution of edge surface groups, and the reactivity of the MMT edge. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Relating the Mineralogical Characteristics of Tampakan Ore to Enargite Separation
Minerals 2017, 7(5), 77; doi:10.3390/min7050077 -
Abstract
The mineralogical characteristics of enargite-bearing copper ores from the Tampakan deposit have been investigated as the means to understanding the separation of enargite from other copper sulphides (chalcopyrite and bornite). It was found that a separation of these minerals was possible after grinding
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The mineralogical characteristics of enargite-bearing copper ores from the Tampakan deposit have been investigated as the means to understanding the separation of enargite from other copper sulphides (chalcopyrite and bornite). It was found that a separation of these minerals was possible after grinding the ore samples to a P80 of 90 microns; enargite tends to be ground more readily than the other copper sulphide minerals present in ore samples tested, and consequently, it mostly reported to the fine size fractions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Indium Mineralization in a Sn-Poor Skarn Deposit: A Case Study of the Qibaoshan Deposit, South China
Minerals 2017, 7(5), 76; doi:10.3390/min7050076 -
Abstract
Indium (In) is commonly hosted in Sn-rich deposits but rarely reported in Sn-poor deposits. However, an In-rich and Sn-poor skarn deposit, the Qibaoshan Cu-Zn-Pb deposit, has been identified in south China. Geochemical analyses were undertaken on 23 samples representing the following mineral assemblages:
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Indium (In) is commonly hosted in Sn-rich deposits but rarely reported in Sn-poor deposits. However, an In-rich and Sn-poor skarn deposit, the Qibaoshan Cu-Zn-Pb deposit, has been identified in south China. Geochemical analyses were undertaken on 23 samples representing the following mineral assemblages: sphalerite-pyrite, pyrite-chalcopyrite, pyrite-sphalerite-galena-chalcopyrite, pyrite, magnetite-pyrite, and magnetite. The results show that In is richest in the sphalerite-pyrite ores, with concentrations of 28.9–203.0 ppm (average 122.8 ppm) and 1000 In/Zn values of 2.7–10.9 (average 7.0). Other ore types in the Qibaoshan deposit are In poor, whereas all are Sn poor (10 to 150 ppm), with most samples having Sn concentrations of ≤70 ppm. Indium is mainly hosted by sphalerite, as inferred from the strong correlation between In and Zn, and weak correlation between In and Sn. Mineral paragenetic relationships indicate sphalerite formed from late quartz-sulfide stage of mineralization processes. Indium in the Qibaoshan deposit is richer in vein-type orebodies than in lenticular-type orebodies occurring at contact zones between carbonate and quartz porphyry, or in carbonate xenoliths. Igneous intrusions that were Sn poor and emplaced at shallow depths formed the In-rich orebodies of the Qibaoshan deposit. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Innovative Support Structure for Gob-Side Entry Retention in Steep Coal Seam Mining
Minerals 2017, 7(5), 75; doi:10.3390/min7050075 -
Abstract
This study considered longwall working face No. 41101—located in a steeply inclined coal seam at the Awuzisu coal mine in Xinjiang, China—as an example in which macroscopic shear cracks had occurred in the cement-based filling body of the gob-side entry retention structure. A
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This study considered longwall working face No. 41101—located in a steeply inclined coal seam at the Awuzisu coal mine in Xinjiang, China—as an example in which macroscopic shear cracks had occurred in the cement-based filling body of the gob-side entry retention structure. A mechanical model of the support structure for the gob-side entry retention was first established. Then, field observations and laboratory tests were used to obtain the force exerted by the coal wall on the main roof, the relationship between the axial bearing capacity and compression ratio of the rubble inside the gob, the supporting force exerted by the rubble and filling body, and the thrust of the rubble on the filling body. The shear stress experienced by the roadside filling body of the gob-side entry retention in working face No. 41101 was calculated to be 15.89 MPa. To meet the needs of roadside support, an innovative roadside backfill–truss support structure was adopted, with a 60° angle of inclination used for the anchor bolts of the gob-side entry retention structure. In this way, the ultimate shear strength was improved by 107.54% in comparison with the cement-based filling body. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Editorial for Special Issue “New Insights in Stability, Structure and Properties of Porous Materials”
Minerals 2017, 7(5), 73; doi:10.3390/min7050073 -
Abstract
Porous materials (such as zeolites, clay minerals, and assemblies of oxide nanoparticles) are of great importance for the progress in many technological and environmental fields, such as catalysis, adsorption, separation, and ion exchange, because of their unique pore topologies, tunable structures, and the
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Porous materials (such as zeolites, clay minerals, and assemblies of oxide nanoparticles) are of great importance for the progress in many technological and environmental fields, such as catalysis, adsorption, separation, and ion exchange, because of their unique pore topologies, tunable structures, and the possibility of introducing active reaction sites.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Synergistic Adsorption and Flotation of New Mixed Cationic/Nonionic Collectors on Muscovite
Minerals 2017, 7(5), 74; doi:10.3390/min7050074 -
Abstract
The mixed cationic collector cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) and nonionic collector octanol (OCT) was found to exhibit a synergistic effect on the flotation and adsorption of muscovite. To understand the underlying synergistic mechanism, flotation, contact angle, surface tension, and adsorption measurements were carried out.
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The mixed cationic collector cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) and nonionic collector octanol (OCT) was found to exhibit a synergistic effect on the flotation and adsorption of muscovite. To understand the underlying synergistic mechanism, flotation, contact angle, surface tension, and adsorption measurements were carried out. The results obtained from flotation measurements indicated that the mixed CTAC/OCT exhibits a better collecting ability than CTAC or OCT. The recovery of muscovite with CTAC only rapidly decreased from 97.25% at pH 2.64 to 75.26% at pH 5.82, followed by a flat horizontal at a pH is higher than 6. In contrast, a high recovery of greater than 85% muscovite was observed using mixed CTAC/OCT at αCTAC = 0.67 (the mole ratio of CTAC:OCT = 2:1) over the investigated pH range. From the surface activity parameters (CMC, γCMC, Γmax, Amin) estimated from surface measurements and interaction parameters (βm, βσ), in addition to the micellar and interfacial compositions (x1m, x1σ) obtained from the theory of regular solutions, a synergistic effect is evident in the mixed micelle and at the water/air interface. Moreover, the mixed CTAC/OCT at αCTAC = 0.67 exhibited the maximum synergistic interaction. The results obtained from surface tension measurements indicated that the mixed CTAC/OCT exhibits considerably higher surface activities compared to single CTAC or OCT. The contact angle results confirmed that the mixed CTAC/OCT is a better collector than the individual CTAC or OCT for the flotation of muscovite. According to the results obtained from adsorption experiments, compared with that of individual CTAC or OCT, the amounts of CTAC and OCT adsorbed on the muscovite surface are considerably increase in the mixed systems because of co-adsorption. Based on these results, the mixed CTAC/OCT exhibits a remarkable synergistic effect during the flotation and adsorption of muscovite. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Resource and Reserve Calculation in Seam-Shaped Mineral Deposits; A New Approach: “The Pentahedral Method”
Minerals 2017, 7(5), 72; doi:10.3390/min7050072 -
Abstract
In recent years, the introduction of specific software for the evaluation of geological resources and mineral reserves has increased significantly thanks to the use of block models capable of working with large databases and applicable to virtually all types of deposits. It is
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In recent years, the introduction of specific software for the evaluation of geological resources and mineral reserves has increased significantly thanks to the use of block models capable of working with large databases and applicable to virtually all types of deposits. It is only in layered, tabular-shaped deposits where the use of block models poses certain drawbacks, not only in terms of visual representation but also during the process of interpolation. Other calculation methods for tabular bodies such as sections, polygons, and triangles work with 2D projections but not with 3D. The “Pentahedral” method described here is undoubtedly an innovative method that allows work to always be conducted in 3D, providing a fairly accurate representation of tabular bodies and making it possible to carry out calculations of resources and reserves using any interpolation method. It is demonstrated with figures and tables of the Carlés mineral deposit, a well-developed exoskarn gold deposit in northwestern Spain (Asturias) where the authors have worked extensively. The pentahedral method takes into account not only geological and stratigraphic data from the model interpolation, but also mining concepts such as “minimum thickness,” related to the minimum seam size that can be economically and technically mined, and “overbreak,” related to the dilution effect that appears during the mining process due to over-excavation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Grade Distribution Modeling within the Bauxite Seams of the Wachangping Mine, China, Using a Multi-Step Interpolation Algorithm
Minerals 2017, 7(5), 71; doi:10.3390/min7050071 -
Abstract
Mineral reserve estimation and mining design depend on a precise modeling of the mineralized deposit. A multi-step interpolation algorithm, including 1D biharmonic spline estimator for interpolating floor altitudes, 2D nearest neighbor, linear, natural neighbor, cubic, biharmonic spline, inverse distance weighted, simple kriging, and
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Mineral reserve estimation and mining design depend on a precise modeling of the mineralized deposit. A multi-step interpolation algorithm, including 1D biharmonic spline estimator for interpolating floor altitudes, 2D nearest neighbor, linear, natural neighbor, cubic, biharmonic spline, inverse distance weighted, simple kriging, and ordinary kriging interpolations for grade distribution on the two vertical sections at roadways, and 3D linear interpolation for grade distribution between sections, was proposed to build a 3D grade distribution model of the mineralized seam in a longwall mining panel with a U-shaped layout having two roadways at both sides. Compared to field data from exploratory boreholes, this multi-step interpolation using a natural neighbor method shows an optimal stability and a minimal difference between interpolation and field data. Using this method, the 97,576 m3 of bauxite, in which the mass fraction of Al2O3 (Wa) and the mass ratio of Al2O3 to SiO2 (Wa/s) are 61.68% and 27.72, respectively, was delimited from the 189,260 m3 mineralized deposit in the 1102 longwall mining panel in the Wachangping mine, Southwest China. The mean absolute errors, the root mean squared errors and the relative standard deviations of errors between interpolated data and exploratory grade data at six boreholes are 2.544, 2.674, and 32.37% of Wa; and 1.761, 1.974, and 67.37% of Wa/s, respectively. The proposed method can be used for characterizing the grade distribution in a mineralized seam between two roadways at both sides of a longwall mining panel. Full article
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