Open AccessArticle
Development of Multiple Capsule Robots in Pipe
Micromachines 2018, 9(6), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9060259 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Swallowable capsule robots which travel in body cavities to implement drug delivery, minimally invasive surgery, and diagnosis have provided great potential for medical applications. However, the space constraints of the internal environment and the size limitations of the robots are great challenges to
[...] Read more.
Swallowable capsule robots which travel in body cavities to implement drug delivery, minimally invasive surgery, and diagnosis have provided great potential for medical applications. However, the space constraints of the internal environment and the size limitations of the robots are great challenges to practical application. To address the fundamental challenges of narrow body cavities, a different-frequency driven approach for multiple capsule robots with screw structure manipulated by external electromagnetic field is proposed in this paper. The multiple capsule robots are composed of driven permanent magnets, joint permanent magnets, and a screw body. The screw body generates a propulsive force in a fluidic environment. Moreover, robots can form new constructions via mutual docking and release. To provide manipulation guidelines for active locomotion, a dynamic model of axial propulsion and circumferential torque is established. The multiple start and step-out frequencies for multiple robots are defined theoretically. Moreover, the different-frequency driven approach based on geometrical parameters of screw structure and the overlap angles of magnetic polarities is proposed to drive multiple robots in an identical electromagnetic field. Finally, two capsule robots were prototyped and experiments in a narrow pipe were conducted to verify the different motions such as docking, release, and cooperative locomotion. The experimental results demonstrated the validity of the driven approach for multiple capsule robots in narrow body cavities. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Self-Assembly Behavior and pH-Stimuli-Responsive Property of POSS-Based Amphiphilic Block Copolymers in Solution
Micromachines 2018, 9(6), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9060258 -
Abstract
Stimuli-responsive polymeric systems containing special responsive moieties can undergo alteration of chemical structures and physical properties in response to external stimulus. We synthesized a hybrid amphiphilic block copolymer containing methoxy polyethylene glycol (MePEG), methacrylate isobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (MAPOSS) and 2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DPA)
[...] Read more.
Stimuli-responsive polymeric systems containing special responsive moieties can undergo alteration of chemical structures and physical properties in response to external stimulus. We synthesized a hybrid amphiphilic block copolymer containing methoxy polyethylene glycol (MePEG), methacrylate isobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (MAPOSS) and 2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DPA) named MePEG-b-P(MAPOSS-co-DPA) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Spherical micelles with a core-shell structure were obtained by a self-assembly process based on MePEG-b-P(MAPOSS-co-DPA), which showed a pH-responsive property. The influence of hydrophobic chain length on the self-assembly behavior was also studied. The pyrene release properties of micelles and their ability of antifouling were further studied. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Low Power Energy-Efficient Precision CMOS Temperature Sensor
Micromachines 2018, 9(6), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9060257 -
Abstract
This paper presents a low power, energy-efficient precision CMOS temperature sensor. The front-end circuit is based on bipolar junction transistors, and employs a pre-bias circuit and bipolar core. To reduce measurement errors arising from current ratio mismatch, a new dynamic element-matching mode is
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a low power, energy-efficient precision CMOS temperature sensor. The front-end circuit is based on bipolar junction transistors, and employs a pre-bias circuit and bipolar core. To reduce measurement errors arising from current ratio mismatch, a new dynamic element-matching mode is proposed, which dynamically matches all current sources in the front-end circuit. The first-order fitting and third-order fitting are used to calibrate the output results. On the basis of simulation results, the sensor achieves 3σ-inaccuracies of +0.18/−0.13 °C from −55 °C to +125 °C. Measurement results demonstrate sensor 3σ-inaccuracies of ±0.2 °C from 0 °C to +100 °C. The circuit is implemented in 0.18 μm CMOS, and consumes 6.1 μA with a 1.8 V supply voltage. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of Random Microwell Arrays as Pseudo-Thermal Speckle Light Source
Micromachines 2018, 9(6), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9060256 -
Abstract
Quantum correlated imaging using the intensity fluctuations of thermal light possesses advantages of high resolution and strong anti-interference ability. The common method to produce pseudo-thermal light source is using a rotary ground glass and transmission of laser beam. In the present work, we
[...] Read more.
Quantum correlated imaging using the intensity fluctuations of thermal light possesses advantages of high resolution and strong anti-interference ability. The common method to produce pseudo-thermal light source is using a rotary ground glass and transmission of laser beam. In the present work, we propose a method for the fabrication of microwell arrays with randomly varied diameters, which could be used as a new structural element for pseudo-thermal speckle light source. If these are etched with random sizes then they may also have random and complex varying curvatures (diffusion limited etching) leading to random destructive interference of the coherent beam which could be a good thing. The microwell arrays, with diameters randomly varying from 5 μm to 40 μm, height varying from 200 nm to 20 μm, were fabricated by photolithography combined with acid etching. The experimental conditions are simple and can be scaled up to for large structures. The produced microwell arrays can transform the laser beam to a pseudo-thermal light source with a certain divergent angle by rational designing of mask and adjustable process parameters. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
PDMS-Parylene Hybrid, Flexible Microfluidics for Real-Time Modulation of 3D Helical Inertial Microfluidics
Micromachines 2018, 9(6), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9060255 -
Abstract
Inertial microfluidics has drawn much attention for its applications for circulating tumor cell separations from blood. The fluid flows and the inertial particle focusing in inertial microfluidic systems are highly dependent on the channel geometry and structure. Flexible microfluidic systems can have adjustable
[...] Read more.
Inertial microfluidics has drawn much attention for its applications for circulating tumor cell separations from blood. The fluid flows and the inertial particle focusing in inertial microfluidic systems are highly dependent on the channel geometry and structure. Flexible microfluidic systems can have adjustable 3D channel geometries by curving planar 2D channels into 3D structures, which will enable tunable inertial separation. We present a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-parylene hybrid thin-film microfluidic system that can provide high flexibility for 3D channel shaping while maintaining the channel cross-sectional shape. The PDMS-parylene hybrid microfluidic channels were fabricated by a molding and bonding technique using initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) bonding. We constructed 3D helical inertial microfluidic channels by coiling a straight 2D channel and studied the inertial focusing while varying radius of curvature and Reynolds number. This thin film structure allows for high channel curvature and high Dean numbers which leads to faster inertial particle focusing and shorter channel lengths than 2D spiral channels. Most importantly, the focusing positions of particles and cells in the microchannel can be tuned in real time by simply modulating the channel curvature. The simple mechanical modulation of these 3D structure microfluidic systems is expected to provide unique advantages of convenient tuning of cell separation thresholds with a single device. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Absolute Copy Numbers of β-Actin Proteins Collected from 10,000 Single Cells
Micromachines 2018, 9(5), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9050254 -
Abstract
Semi-quantitative studies have located varied expressions of β-actin proteins at the population level, questioning their roles as internal controls in western blots, while the absolute copy numbers of β-actins at the single-cell level are missing. In this study, a polymeric microfluidic flow cytometry
[...] Read more.
Semi-quantitative studies have located varied expressions of β-actin proteins at the population level, questioning their roles as internal controls in western blots, while the absolute copy numbers of β-actins at the single-cell level are missing. In this study, a polymeric microfluidic flow cytometry was used for single-cell analysis, and the absolute copy numbers of single-cell β-actin proteins were quantified as 9.9 ± 4.6 × 105, 6.8 ± 4.0 × 105 and 11.0 ± 5.5 × 105 per cell for A549 (ncell = 14,754), Hep G2 (ncell = 36,949), and HeLa (ncell = 24,383), respectively. High coefficients of variation (~50%) and high quartile coefficients of dispersion (~30%) were located, indicating significant variations of β-actin proteins within the same cell type. Low p values (≪0.01) and high classification rates based on neural network (~70%) were quantified among A549, Hep G2 and HeLa cells, suggesting expression differences of β-actin proteins among three cell types. In summary, the results reported here indicate significant variations of β-actin proteins within the same cell type from cell to cell, and significant expression differences of β-actin proteins among different cell types, strongly questioning the properties of using β-actin proteins as internal controls in western blots. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Microfluidic Formation of Double-Stacked Planar Bilayer Lipid Membranes by Controlling the Water-Oil Interface
Micromachines 2018, 9(5), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9050253 -
Abstract
This study reports double-stacked planar bilayer lipid membranes (pBLMs) formed using a droplet contact method (DCM) for microfluidic formation with five-layered microchannels that have four micro guide pillars. pBLMs are valuable for analyzing membrane proteins and modeling cell membranes. Furthermore, multiple-pBLM systems have
[...] Read more.
This study reports double-stacked planar bilayer lipid membranes (pBLMs) formed using a droplet contact method (DCM) for microfluidic formation with five-layered microchannels that have four micro guide pillars. pBLMs are valuable for analyzing membrane proteins and modeling cell membranes. Furthermore, multiple-pBLM systems have broadened the field of application such as electronic components, light-sensors, and batteries because of electrical characteristics of pBLMs and membrane proteins. Although multiple-stacked pBLMs have potential, the formation of multiple-pBLMs on a micrometer scale still faces challenges. In this study, we applied a DCM strategy to pBLM formation using microfluidic techniques and attempted to form double-stacked pBLMs in micro-meter scale. First, microchannels with micro pillars were designed via hydrodynamic simulations to form a five-layered flow with aqueous and lipid/oil solutions. Then, pBLMs were successfully formed by controlling the pumping pressure of the solutions and allowing contact between the two lipid monolayers. Finally, pore-forming proteins were reconstituted in the pBLMs, and ion current signals of nanopores were obtained as confirmed by electrical measurements, indicating that double-stacked pBLMs were successfully formed. The strategy for the double-stacked pBLM formation can be applied to highly integrated nanopore-based systems. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
A Micromachined Coupled-Cantilever for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters
Micromachines 2018, 9(5), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9050252 -
Abstract
This paper presents a demonstration of the feasibility of fabricating micro-cantilever harvesters with extended stress distribution and enhanced bandwidth by exploiting an M-shaped two-degrees-of-freedom design. The measured mechanical response of the fabricated device displays the predicted dual resonance peak behavior with the fundamental
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a demonstration of the feasibility of fabricating micro-cantilever harvesters with extended stress distribution and enhanced bandwidth by exploiting an M-shaped two-degrees-of-freedom design. The measured mechanical response of the fabricated device displays the predicted dual resonance peak behavior with the fundamental peak at the intended frequency. This design has the features of high energy conversion efficiency in a miniaturized environment where the available vibrational energy varies in frequency. It makes such a design suitable for future large volume production of integrated self powered sensors nodes for the Internet-of-Things. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Simultaneous Measurement of Viscosity and Optical Density of Bacterial Growth and Death in a Microdroplet
Micromachines 2018, 9(5), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9050251 -
Abstract
Herein, we describe a novel method for the assessment of droplet viscosity moving inside microfluidic channels. The method allows for the monitoring of the rate of the continuous growth of bacterial culture. It is based on the analysis of the hydrodynamic resistance of
[...] Read more.
Herein, we describe a novel method for the assessment of droplet viscosity moving inside microfluidic channels. The method allows for the monitoring of the rate of the continuous growth of bacterial culture. It is based on the analysis of the hydrodynamic resistance of a droplet that is present in a microfluidic channel, which affects its motion. As a result, we were able to observe and quantify the change in the viscosity of the dispersed phase that is caused by the increasing population of interacting bacteria inside a size-limited system. The technique allows for finding the correlation between the viscosity of the medium with a bacterial culture and its optical density. These features, together with the high precision of the measurement, make our viscometer a promising tool for various experiments in the field of analytical chemistry and microbiology, where the rigorous control of the conditions of the reaction and the monitoring of the size of bacterial culture are vital. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessEditorial
Editorial for the Special Issue on Passive Micromixers
Micromachines 2018, 9(5), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9050250 -
Abstract
Micromixers are important components of microfluidic systems [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Motion Constraints and Vanishing Point Aided Land Vehicle Navigation
Micromachines 2018, 9(5), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9050249 -
Abstract
In the typical Inertial Navigation System (INS)/ Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) setup for ground vehicle navigation, measures should be taken to maintain the performance when there are GNSS signal outages. Usually, aiding sensors are utilized to reduce the INS drift. A full
[...] Read more.
In the typical Inertial Navigation System (INS)/ Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) setup for ground vehicle navigation, measures should be taken to maintain the performance when there are GNSS signal outages. Usually, aiding sensors are utilized to reduce the INS drift. A full motion constraint model is developed allowing the online calibration of INS frame with respect to (w.r.t) the motion frame. To obtain better heading and lateral positioning performance, we propose to use of vanishing point (VP) observations of parallel lane markings from a single forward-looking camera to aid the INS. In the VP module, the relative attitude of the camera w.r.t the road frame is derived from the VP coordinates. The state-space model is developed with augmented vertical attitude error state. Finally, the VP module is added to a modified motion constrains module in the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) framework. Simulations and real-world experiments have shown the validity of VP-based method and improved heading and cross-track position accuracy compared with the solution without VP. The proposed method can work jointly with conventional visual odometry to aid INS for better accuracy and robustness. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Micro Droplet Formation towards Continuous Nanoparticles Synthesis
Micromachines 2018, 9(5), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9050248 -
Abstract
In this paper, micro droplets are generated in a microfluidic focusing contactor and then they move sequentially in a free-flowing mode (no wall contact). For this purpose, two different micro-flow glass devices (hydrophobic and hydrophilic) were used. During the study, the influence of
[...] Read more.
In this paper, micro droplets are generated in a microfluidic focusing contactor and then they move sequentially in a free-flowing mode (no wall contact). For this purpose, two different micro-flow glass devices (hydrophobic and hydrophilic) were used. During the study, the influence of the flow rate of the water phase and the oil phase on the droplet size and size distribution was investigated. Moreover, the influence of the oil phase viscosity on the droplet size was analyzed. It was found that the size and size distribution of the droplets can be controlled simply by the aqueous phase flow rate. Additionally, 2D simulations to determine the droplet size were performed and compared with the experiment. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Fluorescent Nanodiamond Applications for Cellular Process Sensing and Cell Tracking
Micromachines 2018, 9(5), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9050247 -
Abstract
Diamond nanocrystals smaller than 100 nm (nanodiamonds) are now recognized to be highly biocompatible. They can be made fluorescent with perfect photostability by creating nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in the diamond lattice. The resulting fluorescent nanodiamonds (FND) have been used since the late
[...] Read more.
Diamond nanocrystals smaller than 100 nm (nanodiamonds) are now recognized to be highly biocompatible. They can be made fluorescent with perfect photostability by creating nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in the diamond lattice. The resulting fluorescent nanodiamonds (FND) have been used since the late 2000s as fluorescent probes for short- or long-term analysis. FND can be used both at the subcellular scale and the single cell scale. Their limited sub-diffraction size allows them to track intracellular processes with high spatio-temporal resolution and high contrast from the surrounding environment. FND can also track the fate of therapeutic compounds or whole cells in the organs of an organism. This review presents examples of FND applications (1) for intra and intercellular molecular processes sensing, also introducing the different potential biosensing applications based on the optically detectable electron spin resonance of NV centers; and (2) for tracking, firstly, FND themselves to determine their biodistribution, and secondly, using FND as cell tracking probes for diagnosis or follow-up purposes in oncology and regenerative medicine. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Improved Morphological Filter Based on Variational Mode Decomposition for MEMS Gyroscope De-Noising
Micromachines 2018, 9(5), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9050246 -
Abstract
An adaptive multi-scale method based on the combination generalized morphological filter (CGMF) is presented for de-noising of the output signal from a MEMS gyroscope. A variational mode decomposition is employed to decompose the original signal into multi-scale modes. After choosing a length selection
[...] Read more.
An adaptive multi-scale method based on the combination generalized morphological filter (CGMF) is presented for de-noising of the output signal from a MEMS gyroscope. A variational mode decomposition is employed to decompose the original signal into multi-scale modes. After choosing a length selection for the structure element (SE), the adaptive multi-scale CGMF method reduces the noise corresponding to the different modes, after which a reconstruction of the de-noised signal is obtained. From an analysis of the effect of de-noising, the main advantages of the present method are that it: (i) effectively overcomes deficiencies arising from data deviation compared with conventional morphological filters (MFs); (ii) effectively targets the different components of noise and provides efficacy in de-noising, not only primarily eliminating noise but also smoothing the waveform; and (iii) solves the problem of SE-length selection for a MF and produces feasible formulae of indicators such as the power spectral entropy and root mean square error for mode evaluations. Compared with the other current signal processing methods, the method proposed owns a simpler construction with a reasonable complexity, and it can offer better noise suppression effect. Experiments demonstrate the applicability and feasibility of the de-noising algorithm. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Manipulation of Biological Cells Using a Robot-Aided Optical Tweezers System
Micromachines 2018, 9(5), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9050245 -
Abstract
This article reviews the autonomous manipulation strategies of biological cells utilizing optical tweezers, mainly including optical direct and indirect manipulation strategies. The typical and latest achievements in the optical manipulation of cells are presented, and the existing challenges for autonomous optical manipulation of
[...] Read more.
This article reviews the autonomous manipulation strategies of biological cells utilizing optical tweezers, mainly including optical direct and indirect manipulation strategies. The typical and latest achievements in the optical manipulation of cells are presented, and the existing challenges for autonomous optical manipulation of biological cells are also introduced. Moreover, the integrations of optical tweezers with other manipulation tools are presented, which broadens the applications of optical tweezers in the biomedical manipulation areas and will also foster new developments in cell-based physiology and pathology studies, such as cell migration, single cell surgery, and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Energy Harvesting Combat Boot for Satellite Positioning
Micromachines 2018, 9(5), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9050244 -
Abstract
Most portable electronic devices are power-limited by battery capacity, and recharging these batteries often interrupts the user’s experience with the device. The product presented in this paper provides an alternative to powering portables by converting regular human walking motion to electricity. The device
[...] Read more.
Most portable electronic devices are power-limited by battery capacity, and recharging these batteries often interrupts the user’s experience with the device. The product presented in this paper provides an alternative to powering portables by converting regular human walking motion to electricity. The device harvests electric power using air bulbs, distributed in the sole of a shoe to drive a series of micro-turbines connected to small DC motors. The number and position of air bulbs is optimized to harvest the maximum airflow from each foot-strike. The system is designed to continuously drive the micro-turbines by utilizing both outflow and inflow from the air bulbs. A prototype combat boot was fitted on the right foot of a 75 kg test subject, and produced an average continuous power on the order of 10 s of mW over a 22 Ω load during walking at 3.0 mph. This combat boot provides enough electric power to a passive GPS tracker that periodically relays geographical coordinates to a smartphone via satellite without battery replacement. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Nanostructure-Enabled and Macromolecule-Grafted Surfaces for Biomedical Applications
Micromachines 2018, 9(5), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9050243 -
Abstract
Advances in nanotechnology and nanomaterials have enabled the development of functional biomaterials with surface properties that reduce the rate of the device rejection in injectable and implantable biomaterials. In addition, the surface of biomaterials can be functionalized with macromolecules for stimuli-responsive purposes to
[...] Read more.
Advances in nanotechnology and nanomaterials have enabled the development of functional biomaterials with surface properties that reduce the rate of the device rejection in injectable and implantable biomaterials. In addition, the surface of biomaterials can be functionalized with macromolecules for stimuli-responsive purposes to improve the efficacy and effectiveness in drug release applications. Furthermore, macromolecule-grafted surfaces exhibit a hierarchical nanostructure that mimics nanotextured surfaces for the promotion of cellular responses in tissue engineering. Owing to these unique properties, this review focuses on the grafting of macromolecules on the surfaces of various biomaterials (e.g., films, fibers, hydrogels, and etc.) to create nanostructure-enabled and macromolecule-grafted surfaces for biomedical applications, such as thrombosis prevention and wound healing. The macromolecule-modified surfaces can be treated as a functional device that either passively inhibits adverse effects from injectable and implantable devices or actively delivers biological agents that are locally based on proper stimulation. In this review, several methods are discussed to enable the surface of biomaterials to be used for further grafting of macromolecules. In addition, we review surface-modified films (coatings) and fibers with respect to several biomedical applications. Our review provides a scientific update on the current achievements and future trends of nanostructure-enabled and macromolecule-grafted surfaces in biomedical applications. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Micromachined Planar Supercapacitor with Interdigital Buckypaper Electrodes
Micromachines 2018, 9(5), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9050242 -
Abstract
In this work, a flexible micro-supercapacitor with interdigital planar buckypaper electrodes is presented. A simple fabrication process involving vacuum filtration method and SU-8 molding techniques is proposed to fabricate in-plane interdigital buckypaper electrodes on a membrane filter substrate. The proposed process exhibits excellent
[...] Read more.
In this work, a flexible micro-supercapacitor with interdigital planar buckypaper electrodes is presented. A simple fabrication process involving vacuum filtration method and SU-8 molding techniques is proposed to fabricate in-plane interdigital buckypaper electrodes on a membrane filter substrate. The proposed process exhibits excellent flexibility for future integration of the micro-supercapacitors (micro-SC) with other electronic components. The device’s maximum specific capacitance measured using cyclic voltammetry was 107.27 mF/cm2 at a scan rate of 20 mV/s. The electrochemical stability was investigated by measuring the performance of charge-discharge at different discharge rates. Devices with different buckypaper electrode thicknesses were also fabricated and measured. The specific capacitance of the proposed device increased linearly with the buckypaper electrode thickness. The measured leakage current was approximately 9.95 µA after 3600 s. The device exhibited high cycle stability, with 96.59% specific capacitance retention after 1000 cycles. A Nyquist plot of the micro-SC was also obtained by measuring the impedances with frequencies from 1 Hz to 50 kHz; it indicated that the equivalent series resistance value was approximately 18 Ω. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Hysteresis Compensation and Sliding Mode Control with Perturbation Estimation for Piezoelectric Actuators
Micromachines 2018, 9(5), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9050241 -
Abstract
Based on the background of atomic force microscope (AFM) driven by piezoelectric actuators (PEAs), this paper proposes a sliding mode control coupled with an inverse Bouc–Wen (BW) hysteresis compensator to improve the positioning performance of PEAs. The intrinsic hysteresis and creep characteristics degrade
[...] Read more.
Based on the background of atomic force microscope (AFM) driven by piezoelectric actuators (PEAs), this paper proposes a sliding mode control coupled with an inverse Bouc–Wen (BW) hysteresis compensator to improve the positioning performance of PEAs. The intrinsic hysteresis and creep characteristics degrade the performance of the PEA and cause accuracy loss. Although creep effect can be eliminated by the closed-loop control approach, hysteresis effects need to be compensated and alleviated by hysteresis compensators. For the purpose of dealing with the estimation errors, unmodeled vibration, and disturbances, a sliding mode control with perturbation estimation (SMCPE) method is adopted to enhance the performance and robustness of the system. In order to validate the feasibility and performance of the proposed method, experimental studies are carried out, and the results show that the proposed controller performs better than a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller at 1 and 2 Hz, reducing error to 1.2% and 1.4%, respectively. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
How Hydrogen Dielectric Strength Forces the Work Voltage in the Electric Discharge Machining
Micromachines 2018, 9(5), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9050240 -
Abstract
An electro-thermal model based on the Joule heating effect is proposed to simulate a single discharge in an electric discharge machining process. Normally, the dielectric strength of the hydrocarbons oil is approximately 20 MV/m, but it varies with both the thickness of the
[...] Read more.
An electro-thermal model based on the Joule heating effect is proposed to simulate a single discharge in an electric discharge machining process. Normally, the dielectric strength of the hydrocarbons oil is approximately 20 MV/m, but it varies with both the thickness of the film and its decomposition. After the breakdown, the hydrocarbon oil has an average dielectric strength value of 2 MV/m. This value is close to the dielectric strength of the hydrogen, which is the main gas that results from the hydrocarbon oil decomposition, at temperatures between 6000 K and 9000 K. Therefore, the electric discharge occurs in a hydrogen atmosphere that imposes both the discharge gap and the work voltage. A 200 V voltage is associated to a 100 μm discharge gap, leading to a 20 V work voltage. Therefore, the 3 V work voltage control corresponds to approximately 15 μm. In other words, the increase of the discharge gap originates other discharge during the discharge pulse. The work voltage control, together with the multiple discharge method, is taken into account. The 100 μm discharge gap corresponds to the higher value of the transitory discharge gap that over evaluates the material removal and the tool wear rates. The results of the numerical simulations are validated with experimental data. Full article
Figures

Figure 1