Open AccessArticle
Improving the Design of MEMS INS-Aided PLLs for GNSS Carrier Phase Measurement under High Dynamics
Micromachines 2017, 8(5), 135; doi:10.3390/mi8050135 -
Abstract
The phase locked loop (PLL) bandwidth suffers a dilemma on carrier phase accuracy and dynamic stress tolerance in stand-alone global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receivers. With inertial navigation system (INS) aiding, PLLs only need to tolerate aiding information error, instead of dynamic stress.
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The phase locked loop (PLL) bandwidth suffers a dilemma on carrier phase accuracy and dynamic stress tolerance in stand-alone global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receivers. With inertial navigation system (INS) aiding, PLLs only need to tolerate aiding information error, instead of dynamic stress. To obtain accurate carrier phase under high dynamics, INS-aided PLLs need be optimally designed to reduce the impact of aiding information error. Typical micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) INS-aided PLLs are implemented and tested under high dynamics. Tests using simulation show there is a step change in the aiding information at each integer second, which deteriorates the carrier phase accuracy. An improved structure of INS-aided PLLs is proposed to eliminate the step change impact. Even when the jerk is 2000 m/s3, the tracking error of the proposed INS-aided PLL is no more than 3°. Finally, the performances of stand-alone PLLs and INS-aided PLLs are compared using field tests. When the antenna jerk is 300 m/s3, the carrier phase error from the stand-alone PLLs significantly increased, while the carrier phase error from the MEMS INS-aided PLLs almost remained the same. Therefore, the proposed INS-aided PLLs can suppress tracking errors caused by noise and dynamic stress simultaneously under high dynamics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In-Plane Optical Beam Collimation Using a Three-Dimensional Curved MEMS Mirror
Micromachines 2017, 8(5), 134; doi:10.3390/mi8050134 -
Abstract
The collimation of free-space light propagating in-plane with respect to the substrate is an important performance factor in optical microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). This is usually carried out by integrating micro lenses into the system, which increases the cost of fabrication/assembly in addition to
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The collimation of free-space light propagating in-plane with respect to the substrate is an important performance factor in optical microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). This is usually carried out by integrating micro lenses into the system, which increases the cost of fabrication/assembly in addition to limiting the wavelength working range of the system imposed by the dispersion characteristic of the lenses. In this work we demonstrate optical fiber light collimation using a silicon micromachined three-dimensional curved mirror. Sensitivity to micromachining and fiber alignment tolerance is shown to be low enough by restricting the ratio between the mirror focal length and the optical beam Rayleigh range below 5. The three-dimensional curvature of the mirror is designed to be astigmatic and controlled by a process combining deep, reactive ion etching and isotropic etching of silicon. The effect of the micromachining surface roughness on the collimated beam profile is investigated using a Fourier optics approach for different values of root-mean-squared (RMS) roughness and correlation length. The isotropic etching step of the structure is characterized and optimized for the optical-grade surface requirement. The experimental optical results show a beam-waist ratio of about 4.25 and a corresponding 12-dB improvement in diffraction loss, in good agreement with theory. This type of micromirror can be monolithically integrated into lensless microoptoelectromechanical systems (MOEMS), improving their performance in many different applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Multiplexed Microfluidic Platform for Bone Marker Measurement: A Proof-of-Concept
Micromachines 2017, 8(5), 133; doi:10.3390/mi8050133 -
Abstract
In this work, we report a microfluidic platform that can be easily translated into a biomarker diagnostic. This platform integrates microfluidic technology with electrochemical sensing and embodies a reaction/detection chamber to measure serum levels of different biomarkers. Microfabricated Au electrodes encased in a
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In this work, we report a microfluidic platform that can be easily translated into a biomarker diagnostic. This platform integrates microfluidic technology with electrochemical sensing and embodies a reaction/detection chamber to measure serum levels of different biomarkers. Microfabricated Au electrodes encased in a microfluidic chamber are functionalized to immobilize the antibodies, which can selectively capture the corresponding antigen. An oxidative peak is obtained using the chronoamperometry technique at room temperature. The magnitude of the response current varies linearly with the logarithmic concentration of the relative biomarker and, thus, is used to quantify the concentration of the relative biomarker in serum samples. We demonstrated the implementation, feasibility and specificity of this platform (Osteokit) in assaying serum levels of bone turnover markers (BTMs) using osteocalcin (limits of detection (LOD) = 1.94 ng/mL) and collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX) (LOD = 1.39 pg/mL). To our knowledge, this is the first such device fabricated to measure BTMs. Our results also showed that the sensitivity of Osteokit is comparable with the current states of art, electrochemiluminescence (ECLIA). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of Micro-Scale Gratings by Nanosecond Laser and Its Applications for Deformation Measurements
Micromachines 2017, 8(5), 136; doi:10.3390/mi8050136 -
Abstract
This paper experimentally investigated the fabrication and optimization of micro-scale gratings formed by nanosecond laser etching. The mechanism of nanosecond laser processing and the geometric phase analysis (GPA) are discussed, and the factors influencing the fabrication process including laser energy, laser fluence, and
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This paper experimentally investigated the fabrication and optimization of micro-scale gratings formed by nanosecond laser etching. The mechanism of nanosecond laser processing and the geometric phase analysis (GPA) are discussed, and the factors influencing the fabrication process including laser energy, laser fluence, and ablation threshold of material, are experimentally studied. In order to eliminate the dependence of the processing parameters on the samples, depositing Al film on a sample before laser processing is proposed for the fabrication of high-quality gratings. The energy of the laser pulse is optimized for clear line etching on Al film considering the distance between adjacent lines of parallel gratings. The optimal energy of the laser pulse is 9.8 μJ, and the optimum fluence is 9.5 J/mm2 with the waist radius of the laser beam 25.7 μm. With the optimal parameters, experimental results indicate that the highest frequency of parallel gratings is about 30 lines/mm, with a line width of 29 μm, and the distance between two adjacent laser pulses being of 10 μm. By performing tensile tests, micro-scale gratings fabricated on specimens are experimentally verified. The verification tests prove that the proposed fabrication method for the micro-scale gratings in GPA measurements is reliable and applicable, and the micro-scale gratings can be fabricated in many areas of interest, such as the crack tip, for deformation measurements. Furthermore, the adhesion between the Al film and the tested sample is strong enough so that the pattern sticks well to the sample. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrodynamic Simulation of an Orbital Shaking Test for the Degradation Assessment of Blood-Contact Biomedical Coatings
Micromachines 2017, 8(4), 132; doi:10.3390/mi8040132 -
Abstract
Biomedical coatings are used to promote the wear resistance and the biocompatibility of a mechanical heart valve. An orbital shaking test was proposed to assess the durability of the coatings by the amount material eroded by the surrounding fluid. However, there is still
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Biomedical coatings are used to promote the wear resistance and the biocompatibility of a mechanical heart valve. An orbital shaking test was proposed to assess the durability of the coatings by the amount material eroded by the surrounding fluid. However, there is still a lack of understanding with regards to the shaker’s rotating conditions and the corresponding physiological condition. This study implemented numerical simulations by establishing a fluid dynamic model to evaluate the intensity of the shear stress under various rotating speeds and diameters of the shaker. The results are valuable to conduct in vitro tests for estimating the performance of biomedical coatings under real hemodynamic conditions and can be applied to other fluid-contact implants. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Stencil Lithography for Scalable Micro- and Nanomanufacturing
Micromachines 2017, 8(4), 131; doi:10.3390/mi8040131 -
Abstract
In this paper, we review the current development of stencil lithography for scalable micro- and nanomanufacturing as a resistless and reusable patterning technique. We first introduce the motivation and advantages of stencil lithography for large-area micro- and nanopatterning. Then we review the progress
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In this paper, we review the current development of stencil lithography for scalable micro- and nanomanufacturing as a resistless and reusable patterning technique. We first introduce the motivation and advantages of stencil lithography for large-area micro- and nanopatterning. Then we review the progress of using rigid membranes such as SiNx and Si as stencil masks as well as stacking layers. We also review the current use of flexible membranes including a compliant SiNx membrane with springs, polyimide film, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, and photoresist-based membranes as stencil lithography masks to address problems such as blurring and non-planar surface patterning. Moreover, we discuss the dynamic stencil lithography technique, which significantly improves the patterning throughput and speed by moving the stencil over the target substrate during deposition. Lastly, we discuss the future advancement of stencil lithography for a resistless, reusable, scalable, and programmable nanolithography method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Paper-Based Analytical Device for Zinc Ion Quantification in Water Samples with Power-Free Analyte Concentration
Micromachines 2017, 8(4), 127; doi:10.3390/mi8040127 -
Abstract
Insufficient sensitivity is a general issue of colorimetric paper-based analytical devices (PADs) for trace analyte detection, such as metal ions, in environmental water. This paper demonstrates the colorimetric detection of zinc ions (Zn2+) on a paper-based analytical device with an integrated
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Insufficient sensitivity is a general issue of colorimetric paper-based analytical devices (PADs) for trace analyte detection, such as metal ions, in environmental water. This paper demonstrates the colorimetric detection of zinc ions (Zn2+) on a paper-based analytical device with an integrated analyte concentration system. Concentration of Zn2+ ions from an enlarged sample volume (1 mL) has been achieved with the aid of a colorimetric Zn2+ indicator (Zincon) electrostatically immobilized onto a filter paper substrate in combination with highly water-absorbent materials. Analyte concentration as well as sample pretreatment, including pH adjustment and interferent masking, has been elaborated. The resulting device enables colorimetric quantification of Zn2+ in environmental water samples (tap water, river water) from a single sample application. The achieved detection limit of 0.53 μM is a significant improvement over that of a commercial colorimetric Zn2+ test paper (9.7 μM), demonstrating the efficiency of the developed analyte concentration system not requiring any equipment. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Ultrahigh-Throughput Improvement and Discovery of Enzymes Using Droplet-Based Microfluidic Screening
Micromachines 2017, 8(4), 128; doi:10.3390/mi8040128 -
Abstract
Enzymes are extremely valuable tools for industrial, environmental, and biotechnological applications and there is a constant need for improving existing biological catalysts and for discovering new ones. Screening microbe or gene libraries is an efficient way of identifying new enzymes. In this view,
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Enzymes are extremely valuable tools for industrial, environmental, and biotechnological applications and there is a constant need for improving existing biological catalysts and for discovering new ones. Screening microbe or gene libraries is an efficient way of identifying new enzymes. In this view, droplet-based microfluidics appears to be one of the most powerful approaches as it allows inexpensive screenings in well-controlled conditions and an ultrahigh-throughput regime. This review aims to introduce the main microfluidic devices and concepts to be considered for such screening before presenting and discussing the latest successful applications of the technology for enzyme discovery. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Opportunities and Challenges in Flexible and Stretchable Electronics: A Panel Discussion at ISFSE2016
Micromachines 2017, 8(4), 129; doi:10.3390/mi8040129 -
Open AccessArticle
A Micromanipulator and Transporter Based on Vibrating Bubbles in an Open Chip Environment
Micromachines 2017, 8(4), 130; doi:10.3390/mi8040130 -
Abstract
A novel micromanipulation technique of multi-objectives based on vibrating bubbles in an open chip environment is described in this paper. Bubbles were created in an aqueous medium by the thermal energy converted from a laser. When the piezoelectric stack fixed under the chip
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A novel micromanipulation technique of multi-objectives based on vibrating bubbles in an open chip environment is described in this paper. Bubbles were created in an aqueous medium by the thermal energy converted from a laser. When the piezoelectric stack fixed under the chip vibrated the bubbles, micro-objects (microparticles, cells, etc.) rapidly moved towards the bubbles. Results from numerical simulation demonstrate that convective flow around the bubbles can provide forces to capture objects. Since bubbles can be generated at arbitrary destinations in the open chip environment, they can act as both micromanipulators and transporters. As a result, micro- and bio-objects could be collected and transported effectively as masses in the open chip environment. This makes it possible for scientific instruments, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning ion conductive microscopy (SICM), to operate the micro-objects directly in an open chip environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Exploration for an Appropriate Vacuum Level for Performance Enhancement of a Comb-Drive Microscanner
Micromachines 2017, 8(4), 126; doi:10.3390/mi8040126 -
Abstract
In order to identify the influence of the vacuum environment on the performance of a comb-drive microscanner, and indicate the optimum pressure for enhancing its performance, a comb-drive microscanner fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate was prepared and tested at different pressures, and the
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In order to identify the influence of the vacuum environment on the performance of a comb-drive microscanner, and indicate the optimum pressure for enhancing its performance, a comb-drive microscanner fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate was prepared and tested at different pressures, and the characteristics in vacuum were obtained. The test results revealed that the vacuum environment enhanced the performance in the optical scanning angle, and decreased the actuation voltage. With a 30 V driving voltage applied, the microscanner can reach an optical scanning angle of 44.3° at a pressure of 500 Pa. To obtain an enhancement in its properties, only a vacuum range from 100 to 1000 Pa is needed, which can be very readily and economically realized and maintained in a vacuum package. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Review of the State of Dry Adhesives: Biomimetic Structures and the Alternative Designs They Inspire
Micromachines 2017, 8(4), 125; doi:10.3390/mi8040125 -
Abstract
Robust and inexpensive dry adhesives would have a multitude of potential applications, but replicating the impressive adhesive organs of many small animals has proved challenging. A substantial body of work has been produced in recent years which has illuminated the many mechanical processes
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Robust and inexpensive dry adhesives would have a multitude of potential applications, but replicating the impressive adhesive organs of many small animals has proved challenging. A substantial body of work has been produced in recent years which has illuminated the many mechanical processes influencing a dry adhesive interface. The especially potent footpads of the tokay gecko have inspired researchers to develop and examine an impressive and diverse collection of artificial fibrillar dry adhesives, though study of tree frogs and insects demonstrate that successful adhesive designs come in many forms. This review discusses the current theoretical understanding of dry adhesive mechanics, including the observations from biological systems and the lessons learned by recent attempts to mimic them. Attention is drawn in particular to the growing contingent of work exploring ideas which are complimentary to or an alternative for fibrillar designs. The fundamentals of compliance control form a basis for dry adhesives made of composite and “smart,” stimuli-responsive materials including shape memory polymers. An overview of fabrication and test techniques, with a sampling of performance results, is provided. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Surface Roughness of Z-Cut Quartz Etched by Ammonium Bifluoride and Ammonium Bifluoride Mixed with Isopropyl Alcohol Solutions
Micromachines 2017, 8(4), 122; doi:10.3390/mi8040122 -
Abstract
It is meaningful to study the surface morphology of monocrystalline material, but there are few studies on the surface roughness of quartz. So, surface roughness of Z-cut quartz etched by pure ammonium bifluoride and ammonium bifluoride mixed with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) solution was
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It is meaningful to study the surface morphology of monocrystalline material, but there are few studies on the surface roughness of quartz. So, surface roughness of Z-cut quartz etched by pure ammonium bifluoride and ammonium bifluoride mixed with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) solution was investigated for the first time in this paper. Firstly, when etching in pure ammonium bifluoride solutions, the surface roughness change with etching time, etching temperature, and solution concentration were studied. Then, the surface roughness improvement given by isopropyl alcohol solution was analyzed carefully. The experimental results indicated that: the surface roughness of Z-cut quartz (0001) plane increased with etching time, but decreased with etching temperature and solution concentration; the adding of isopropyl alcohol in ammonium bifluoride solution could decrease the roughness and improve the surface quality. This is the first systemic research of the evolution of quartz surface roughness when etching in ammonium bifluoride solution, and will benefit the future design and manufacture of quartz MEMS devices. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
The Use of Microfluidics in Cytotoxicity and Nanotoxicity Experiments
Micromachines 2017, 8(4), 124; doi:10.3390/mi8040124 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Many unique chemical compounds and nanomaterials are being developed, and each one requires a considerable range of in vitro and/or in vivo toxicity screening in order to evaluate their safety. The current methodology of in vitro toxicological screening on cells is based on
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Many unique chemical compounds and nanomaterials are being developed, and each one requires a considerable range of in vitro and/or in vivo toxicity screening in order to evaluate their safety. The current methodology of in vitro toxicological screening on cells is based on well-plate assays that require time-consuming manual handling or expensive automation to gather enough meaningful toxicology data. Cost reduction; access to faster, more comprehensive toxicity data; and a robust platform capable of quantitative testing, will be essential in evaluating the safety of new chemicals and nanomaterials, and, at the same time, in securing the confidence of regulators and end-users. Microfluidic chips offer an alternative platform for toxicity screening that has the potential to transform both the rates and efficiency of nanomaterial testing, as reviewed here. The inherent advantages of microfluidic technologies offer high-throughput screening with small volumes of analytes, parallel analyses, and low-cost fabrication. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Self-Propulsion of the Spherical Pt–SiO2 Janus Micro-Motor
Micromachines 2017, 8(4), 123; doi:10.3390/mi8040123 -
Abstract
The double-faced Janus micro-motor, which utilizes the heterogeneity between its two hemispheres to generate self-propulsion, has shown great potential in water cleaning, drug delivery in micro/nanofluidics, and provision of power for a novel micro-robot. In this paper, we focus on the self-propulsion of
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The double-faced Janus micro-motor, which utilizes the heterogeneity between its two hemispheres to generate self-propulsion, has shown great potential in water cleaning, drug delivery in micro/nanofluidics, and provision of power for a novel micro-robot. In this paper, we focus on the self-propulsion of a platinum–silica (Pt–SiO2) spherical Janus micro-motor (JM), which is one of the simplest micro-motors, suspended in a hydrogen peroxide solution (H2O2). Due to the catalytic decomposition of H2O2 on the Pt side, the JM is propelled by the established concentration gradient known as diffusoiphoretic motion. Furthermore, as the JM size increases to O (10 μm), oxygen molecules nucleate on the Pt surface, forming microbubbles. In this case, a fast bubble propulsion is realized by the microbubble cavitation-induced jet flow. We systematically review the results of the above two distinct mechanisms: self-diffusiophoresis and microbubble propulsion. Their typical behaviors are demonstrated, based mainly on experimental observations. The theoretical description and the numerical approach are also introduced. We show that this tiny motor, though it has a very simple structure, relies on sophisticated physical principles and can be used to fulfill many novel functions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Localized Single-Cell Lysis and Manipulation Using Optothermally-Induced Bubbles
Micromachines 2017, 8(4), 121; doi:10.3390/mi8040121 -
Abstract
Localized single cells can be lysed precisely and selectively using microbubbles optothermally generated by microsecond laser pulses. The shear stress from the microstreaming surrounding laser-induced microbubbles and direct contact with the surface of expanding bubbles cause the rupture of targeted cell membranes. High-resolution
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Localized single cells can be lysed precisely and selectively using microbubbles optothermally generated by microsecond laser pulses. The shear stress from the microstreaming surrounding laser-induced microbubbles and direct contact with the surface of expanding bubbles cause the rupture of targeted cell membranes. High-resolution single-cell lysis is demonstrated: cells adjacent to targeted cells are not lysed. It is also shown that only a portion of the cell membrane can be punctured using this method. Both suspension and adherent cell types can be lysed in this system, and cell manipulation can be integrated for cell–cell interaction studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Large-Aperture kHz Operating Frequency Ti-alloy Based Optical Micro Scanning Mirror for LiDAR Application
Micromachines 2017, 8(4), 120; doi:10.3390/mi8040120 -
Abstract
A micro scanning mirror is an optical device used to scan laser beams which can be used for Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) in applications like unmanned driving or Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The MEMS scanning mirror’s light-weight and low-power make it a
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A micro scanning mirror is an optical device used to scan laser beams which can be used for Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) in applications like unmanned driving or Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The MEMS scanning mirror’s light-weight and low-power make it a useful device in LiDAR applications. However, the MEMS scanning mirror’s small aperture limits its application because it is too small to deflect faint receiving light. In this paper, we present a Ti-alloy-based electromagnetic micro scanning mirror with very large-aperture (12 mm) and rapid scanning frequency (1.24 kHz). The size of micro-scanner’s mirror plate reached 12 mm, which is much larger than familiar MEMS scanning mirror. The scanner is designed using MEMS design method and fabricated by electro-sparking manufacture method. As the experimental results show, the resonant frequency of the micro scanning mirror is 1240 Hz and the optical scanning angle can reach 26 degrees at resonance frequency when the actuation current is 250 mApp. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fluid Flow and Mixing Induced by AC Continuous Electrowetting of Liquid Metal Droplet
Micromachines 2017, 8(4), 119; doi:10.3390/mi8040119 -
Abstract
In this work, we proposed a novel design of a microfluidic mixer utilizing the amplified Marangoni chaotic advection induced by alternating current (AC) continuous electrowetting of a metal droplet situated in electrolyte solution, due to the linear and quadratic voltage-dependence of flow velocity
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In this work, we proposed a novel design of a microfluidic mixer utilizing the amplified Marangoni chaotic advection induced by alternating current (AC) continuous electrowetting of a metal droplet situated in electrolyte solution, due to the linear and quadratic voltage-dependence of flow velocity at small or large voltages, respectively. Unlike previous researchers exploiting the unidirectional surface stress with direct current (DC) bias at droplet/medium interface for pumping of electrolytes where the resulting flow rate is linearly proportional to the field intensity, dominance of another kind of dipolar flow pattern caused by local Marangoni stress at the drop surface in a sufficiently intense AC electric field is demonstrated by both theoretical analysis and experimental observation, which exhibits a quadratic growth trend as a function of the applied voltage. The dipolar shear stress merely appears at larger voltages and greatly enhances the mixing performance by inducing chaotic advection between the neighboring laminar flow. The mixer design developed herein, on the basis of amplified Marangoni chaotic advection around a liquid metal droplet at larger AC voltages, has great potential for chemical reaction and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuator applications because of generating high-throughput and excellent mixing performance at the same time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Suspended Six-Port Transformer-Based Power Divider for 2.4 GHz Applications
Micromachines 2017, 8(4), 118; doi:10.3390/mi8040118 -
Abstract
This paper presents a transformer-based power divider with six-port suspending structure for 2.4 GHz wireless applications. The proposed power divider, which is featured with chip size (2.9 mm × 2.8 mm × 21 μm), was constructed by an 8-μm-thick Cu bottom electrode, a
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This paper presents a transformer-based power divider with six-port suspending structure for 2.4 GHz wireless applications. The proposed power divider, which is featured with chip size (2.9 mm × 2.8 mm × 21 μm), was constructed by an 8-μm-thick Cu bottom electrode, a 5 μm-height supporting copper post, and an 8-μm-thick suspended spiral copper conducting layer with a 13 μm air gap. The main structure included two transformers and six input/output matching capacitors for simultaneously achieving two single-to-differential paths so that the chip size of the complex multiple-ports transceiver could be reduced. According to the results, the proposed divider has characteristics of the radio frequency (RF), and its input return losses are around −10 dB, output return losses are beneath −10 dB, and minimum amplitude imbalance is below 1.5 dB and less than 1° phase imbalance at 2.4 GHz operating frequency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Highly Sensitive Humidity Sensor Based on Ultrahigh-Frequency Microelectromechanical Resonator Coated with Nano-Assembled Polyelectrolyte Thin Films
Micromachines 2017, 8(4), 116; doi:10.3390/mi8040116 -
Abstract
We developed a highly sensitive humidity sensor based on the combination of ultrahigh-frequency film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) and nano-assembled polyelectrolyte (PET) thin films. The water molecule absorption efficiency was optimized by forming loosely-packed PET nanostructures. Then, the humidity sensing characteristics were analyzed
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We developed a highly sensitive humidity sensor based on the combination of ultrahigh-frequency film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) and nano-assembled polyelectrolyte (PET) thin films. The water molecule absorption efficiency was optimized by forming loosely-packed PET nanostructures. Then, the humidity sensing characteristics were analyzed in terms of sensitivity, linearity, reversibility, stability and detection limit. As a result, PET-coated FBAR exhibits excellent humidity sensitivity of 2202.20 Hz/ppm, which is five orders of magnitude higher than quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Additionally, temperature dependence was investigated with the result that PET-coated FBAR possessed a higher sensitivity at low temperature. Furthermore, we realized the selective detection of water vapor from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with respect to the polarity property. Owing to the high sensitivity, miniaturized size and ultrahigh operating frequency, PET-coated FBAR is uniquely favorable as a wireless humidity sensor node to integrate into wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Full article
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