Open AccessArticle
Flexural Properties and Fracture Behavior of Nanoporous Alumina film by Three-Point Bending Test
Micromachines 2017, 8(7), 206; doi:10.3390/mi8070206 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This study investigated the influence of porosity on the flexural property of a nanoporous alumina film. When the porosity of the alumina film increased, both bending strength and modulus declined. The results from the bending test revealed that the setting of the film
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This study investigated the influence of porosity on the flexural property of a nanoporous alumina film. When the porosity of the alumina film increased, both bending strength and modulus declined. The results from the bending test revealed that the setting of the film during the bending test had significant influence on the flexural property. Fracture only occurred when the porous side of the alumina film suffered tensile stress. The ability to resist fracture in the barrier layer was higher than in the porous side; the magnitude of the bending strength was amplified when the barrier layer sustained tensile stress. When the porous layer suffered a tensile stress, the bending strength decreased from 182.4 MPa to 47.7 Mpa as the porosity increased from 22.7% to 51.7%; meanwhile, the modulus reduced from 82.7 GPa to 17.9 GPa. In this study, the most important finding from fractographic analysis suggested that there were a localized plastic deformations and layered ruptures at the porous side of the alumina film when a load was applied. The fracture behavior of the nanoporous alumina film observed in the present work was notably different from general ceramic materials and might be related to its asymmetric nanostructure. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Tuneable Liquid Crystal Micro-Lens Array for Image Contrast Enhancement in a Pixelated Thin Film Photo-Transistor Flat Panel Imager
Micromachines 2017, 8(7), 205; doi:10.3390/mi8070205 -
Abstract
We propose and demonstrate the concept of using a tuneable liquid crystal micro-lens (LCML) array to improve the image contrast of a pixelated thin film photo-transistor (TFPT) flat panel imager. Such a device can be used to image contents on paper-based media and
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We propose and demonstrate the concept of using a tuneable liquid crystal micro-lens (LCML) array to improve the image contrast of a pixelated thin film photo-transistor (TFPT) flat panel imager. Such a device can be used to image contents on paper-based media and display a magnified version on a flat panel display for elderly or visually impaired people. Practical aspects including device physical geometry, object scattering profile, LC material, and focusing effect of LCML on an object are considered during the design process with the support of ZEMAX simulations. An optimised effective focal length (EFL) has been calculated for the designed LCML to best relay the objects or contents on a paper to the TFPT pixel plane. The designed LCML devices are fabricated with the optimised EFL, and they have good phase depth profiles which are close to a spherical lens profile. Preliminary test results show that the combination of a TFPT imager with an LCML array can make the image contrast more than two times better than that using the TFPT imager alone. The tuneable EFL of the developed LCMLs are useful in the situation where the LCML is not in direct contact with the imaged object. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Potential of Piezoelectric MEMS Resonators for Grape Must Fermentation Monitoring
Micromachines 2017, 8(7), 200; doi:10.3390/mi8070200 -
Abstract
In this study grape must fermentation is monitored using a self-actuating/self-sensing piezoelectric micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) resonator. The sensor element is excited in an advanced roof tile-shaped vibration mode, which ensures high Q-factors in liquids (i.e., Q ~100 in isopropanol), precise resonance frequency
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In this study grape must fermentation is monitored using a self-actuating/self-sensing piezoelectric micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) resonator. The sensor element is excited in an advanced roof tile-shaped vibration mode, which ensures high Q-factors in liquids (i.e., Q ~100 in isopropanol), precise resonance frequency analysis, and a fast measurement procedure. Two sets of artificial model solutions are prepared, representing an ordinary and a stuck/sluggish wine fermentation process. The precision and reusability of the sensor are shown using repetitive measurements (10 times), resulting in standard deviations of the measured resonance frequencies of ~0.1%, Q-factor of ~11%, and an electrical conductance peak height of ~12%, respectively. With the applied evaluation procedure, moderate standard deviations of ~1.1% with respect to density values are achieved. Based on these results, the presented sensor concept is capable to distinguish between ordinary and stuck wine fermentation, where the evolution of the wine density associated with the decrease in sugar and the increase in ethanol concentrations during fermentation processes causes a steady increase in the resonance frequency for an ordinary fermentation. Finally, the first test measurements in real grape must are presented, showing a similar trend in the resonance frequency compared to the results of an artificial solutions, thus proving that the presented sensor concept is a reliable and reusable platform for grape must fermentation monitoring. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Microfluidic and Nanofluidic Resistive Pulse Sensing: A Review
Micromachines 2017, 8(7), 204; doi:10.3390/mi8070204 -
Abstract
The resistive pulse sensing (RPS) method based on the Coulter principle is a powerful method for particle counting and sizing in electrolyte solutions. With the advancement of micro- and nano-fabrication technologies, microfluidic and nanofluidic resistive pulse sensing technologies and devices have been developed.
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The resistive pulse sensing (RPS) method based on the Coulter principle is a powerful method for particle counting and sizing in electrolyte solutions. With the advancement of micro- and nano-fabrication technologies, microfluidic and nanofluidic resistive pulse sensing technologies and devices have been developed. Due to the unique advantages of microfluidics and nanofluidics, RPS sensors are enabled with more functions with greatly improved sensitivity and throughput and thus have wide applications in fields of biomedical research, clinical diagnosis, and so on. Firstly, this paper reviews some basic theories of particle sizing and counting. Emphasis is then given to the latest development of microfuidic and nanofluidic RPS technologies within the last 6 years, ranging from some new phenomena, methods of improving the sensitivity and throughput, and their applications, to some popular nanopore or nanochannel fabrication techniques. The future research directions and challenges on microfluidic and nanofluidic RPS are also outlined. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Modeling of Polysilicon Electrothermal Actuators for a MEMS Mirror with Low Power Consumption
Micromachines 2017, 8(7), 203; doi:10.3390/mi8070203 -
Abstract
Endoscopic optical-coherence tomography (OCT) systems require low cost mirrors with small footprint size, out-of-plane deflections and low bias voltage. These requirements can be achieved with electrothermal actuators based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). We present the design and modeling of polysilicon electrothermal actuators for
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Endoscopic optical-coherence tomography (OCT) systems require low cost mirrors with small footprint size, out-of-plane deflections and low bias voltage. These requirements can be achieved with electrothermal actuators based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). We present the design and modeling of polysilicon electrothermal actuators for a MEMS mirror (100 μm × 100 μm × 2.25 μm). These actuators are composed by two beam types (2.25 μm thickness) with different cross-section area, which are separated by 2 μm gap. The mirror and actuators are designed through the Sandia Ultra-planar Multi-level MEMS Technology V (SUMMiT V®) process, obtaining a small footprint size (1028 μm × 1028 µm) for actuators of 550 µm length. The actuators have out-of-plane displacements caused by low dc voltages and without use material layers with distinct thermal expansion coefficients. The temperature behavior along the actuators is calculated through analytical models that include terms of heat energy generation, heat conduction and heat energy loss. The force method is used to predict the maximum out-of-plane displacements in the actuator tip as function of supplied voltage. Both analytical models, under steady-state conditions, employ the polysilicon resistivity as function of the temperature. The electrothermal-and structural behavior of the actuators is studied considering different beams dimensions (length and width) and dc bias voltages from 0.5 to 2.5 V. For 2.5 V, the actuator of 550 µm length reaches a maximum temperature, displacement and electrical power of 115 °C, 10.3 µm and 6.3 mW, respectively. The designed actuation mechanism can be useful for MEMS mirrors of different sizes with potential application in endoscopic OCT systems that require low power consumption. Full article
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Open AccessOpinion
Electronic Devices That Identify Individuals with Fever in Crowded Places: A Prototype
Micromachines 2017, 8(7), 202; doi:10.3390/mi8070202 -
Abstract
Most epidemiological surveillance systems for severe infections with epidemic potential are based on accumulated symptomatic cases in defined geographical areas. Eventually, all cases have to be clinically verified to confirm an outbreak. These patients will present high fever at the early stages of
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Most epidemiological surveillance systems for severe infections with epidemic potential are based on accumulated symptomatic cases in defined geographical areas. Eventually, all cases have to be clinically verified to confirm an outbreak. These patients will present high fever at the early stages of the disease. Here, we introduce a non-invasive low-cost electronic device (bracelet) that measures and reports 24/7, year-round information on the temperature, geographical location, and identification of the subject using the device. The data receiver can be installed in a tower (ground) or a drone (air) in densely populated or remote areas. The prototype was made with low-cost electronic components, and it was tested indoors and outdoors. The prototype shows efficient ground and air connectivity. This electronic device will allow health professionals to monitor the prevalence of fever in a geographical area and to reduce the time span between the presentation of the first cases of a potential outbreak and their medical evaluation by giving an early warning. Field tests of the device, programs, and technical diagrams of the prototype are available as Supplementary Materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Viscosity-Based Model for Bubble-Propelled Catalytic Micromotors
Micromachines 2017, 8(7), 198; doi:10.3390/mi8070198 -
Abstract
Micromotors have shown significant potential for diverse future applications. However, a poor understanding of the propelling mechanism hampers its further applications. In this study, an accurate mechanical model of the micromotor has been proposed by considering the geometric asymmetry and fluid viscosity based
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Micromotors have shown significant potential for diverse future applications. However, a poor understanding of the propelling mechanism hampers its further applications. In this study, an accurate mechanical model of the micromotor has been proposed by considering the geometric asymmetry and fluid viscosity based on hydrodynamic principles. The results obtained from the proposed model are in a good agreement with the experimental results. The effects of the semi-cone angle on the micromotor are re-analyzed. Furthermore, other geometric parameters, like the length-radius aspect ratio, exert great impact on the velocity. It is also observed that micromotors travel much slower in highly viscous solutions and, hence, viscosity plays an important role. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Parametric Study of an Electroosmotic Micromixer with Heterogeneous Charged Surface Patches
Micromachines 2017, 8(7), 199; doi:10.3390/mi8070199 -
Abstract
A T-shaped micromixer featuring electroosmotic flow with heterogeneous charged surface patches on the channel walls was analyzed, and an improved design was proposed to enhance mixing performance. Numerical analysis was performed using steady Navier-Stokes equations with an additional electrokinetic body force. The numerical
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A T-shaped micromixer featuring electroosmotic flow with heterogeneous charged surface patches on the channel walls was analyzed, and an improved design was proposed to enhance mixing performance. Numerical analysis was performed using steady Navier-Stokes equations with an additional electrokinetic body force. The numerical results for species concentration were validated with available experimental data. A parametric analysis of the micromixer was performed by varying channel height, channel width, patch width, and externally applied voltage. The effects of these parameters on the flow structure and mixing performance were analyzed in detail. A quantitative measurement based upon the mass variance was employed to quantify the mixing performance. Numerical results of the parametric study were used to propose an improved micromixer design with spacing between adjacent charged patches. The proposed design provided a more favorable flow structure to allow for enhanced mixing performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Simple Extraction Method of Young’s Modulus for Multilayer Films in MEMS Applications
Micromachines 2017, 8(7), 201; doi:10.3390/mi8070201 -
Abstract
Based on the first resonance frequency measurement of multilayer beams, a simple extraction method has been developed to extract the Young’s modulus of individual layers. To verify this method, the double-layer cantilever, as a typical example, is analyzed to simplify the situation and
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Based on the first resonance frequency measurement of multilayer beams, a simple extraction method has been developed to extract the Young’s modulus of individual layers. To verify this method, the double-layer cantilever, as a typical example, is analyzed to simplify the situation and finite element modeling (FEM) is used in consideration of the buckling and unbuckling situation of cantilevers. The first resonance frequencies, which are obtained by ANSYS (15.0, ANSYS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA) with a group of thirteen setting values of Young’s modulus in the polysilicon layer are brought into the theoretical formulas to obtain a new group of Young’s modulus in the polysilicon layer. The reliability and feasibility of the theoretical method are confirmed, according to the slight differences between the setting values and the results of the theoretical model. In the experiment, a series of polysilicon-metal double-layer cantilevers were fabricated. Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) (Lyncée Tech, Lausanne, Switzerland) is used to distinguish the buckled from the unbuckled. A scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) (Polytech GmbH, Berlin, Germany) system is used to measure the first resonance frequencies of them. After applying the measurement results into the theoretical modulus, the average values of Young’s modulus in the polysilicon and gold layers are 151.78 GPa and 75.72 GPa, respectively. The extracted parameters are all within the rational ranges, compared with the available results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Hydrodynamic Mechanism on Particles Focusing in Micro-Channel Flows
Micromachines 2017, 8(7), 197; doi:10.3390/mi8070197 -
Abstract
In this paper, the hydrodynamic mechanism of moving particles in laminar micro-channel flows was numerically investigated. A hydrodynamic criterion was proposed to determine whether particles in channel flows can form a focusing pattern or not. A simple formula was derived to demonstrate how
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In this paper, the hydrodynamic mechanism of moving particles in laminar micro-channel flows was numerically investigated. A hydrodynamic criterion was proposed to determine whether particles in channel flows can form a focusing pattern or not. A simple formula was derived to demonstrate how the focusing position varies with Reynolds number and particle size. Based on this proposed criterion, a possible hydrodynamic mechanism was discussed as to why the particles would not be focused if their sizes were too small or the channel Reynolds number was too low. The Re-λ curve (Re, λ respectively represents the channel-based Reynolds number and the particle’s diameter scaled by the channel) was obtained using the data fitting with a least square method so as to obtain a parameter range of the focusing pattern. In addition, the importance of the particle rotation to the numerical modeling for the focusing of particles was discussed in view of the hydrodynamics. This research is expected to deepen the understanding of the particle transport phenomena in bounded flow, either in micro or macro fluidic scope. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On the Application of Replica Molding Technology for the Indirect Measurement of Surface and Geometry of Micromilled Components
Micromachines 2017, 8(6), 195; doi:10.3390/mi8060195 -
Abstract
The evaluation of micromilled parts quality requires detailed assessments of both geometry and surface topography. However, in many cases, the reduced accessibility caused by the complex geometry of the part makes it impossible to perform direct measurements. This problem can be solved by
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The evaluation of micromilled parts quality requires detailed assessments of both geometry and surface topography. However, in many cases, the reduced accessibility caused by the complex geometry of the part makes it impossible to perform direct measurements. This problem can be solved by adopting the replica molding technology. The method consists of obtaining a replica of the feature that is inaccessible for standard measurement devices and performing its indirect measurement. This paper examines the performance of a commercial replication media applied to the indirect measurement of micromilled components. Two specifically designed micromilled benchmark samples were used to assess the accuracy in replicating both surface texture and geometry. A 3D confocal microscope and a focus variation instrument were employed and the associated uncertainties were evaluated. The replication method proved to be suitable for characterizing micromilled surface texture even though an average overestimation in the nano-metric level of the Sa parameter was observed. On the other hand, the replicated geometry generally underestimated that of the master, often leading to a different measurement output considering the micrometric uncertainty. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ink-Jet Printing of Micro-Elelectro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
Micromachines 2017, 8(6), 194; doi:10.3390/mi8060194 -
Abstract
Beyond printing text on paper, inkjet printing methods have recently been applied to print passive electrical and optical microparts, such as conductors, resistors, solder bumps and polymeric micro lenses. They are also useful to print micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) as sub-millimeter sensor and actuator
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Beyond printing text on paper, inkjet printing methods have recently been applied to print passive electrical and optical microparts, such as conductors, resistors, solder bumps and polymeric micro lenses. They are also useful to print micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) as sub-millimeter sensor and actuator arrays, such as multifunctional skins applicable to robotic application and ambient monitoring. This paper presents the latest review of a few successful cases of printable MEMS devices. This review shows that inkjet printing is good for printing two-dimensional or surface MEMS devices from a small unit to an array over a large area. In the future, three-dimensional printing of multi-materials, from metal, plastic, to ceramic, will open the possibility of realizing more variety and function of a large-areal MEMS array, for a mobile electro-mechanical systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
3-Dimensional Plasmonic Substrates Based on Chicken Eggshell Bio-Templates for SERS-Based Bio-Sensing
Micromachines 2017, 8(6), 196; doi:10.3390/mi8060196 -
Abstract
A simple technique is presented to fabricate stable and reproducible plasmonic substrates using chicken eggshell as bio-templates, an otherwise everyday waste material. The 3-dimensional (3D) submicron features on the outer shell (OS), inner shell (IS), and shell membrane (SM) regions are sputter coated
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A simple technique is presented to fabricate stable and reproducible plasmonic substrates using chicken eggshell as bio-templates, an otherwise everyday waste material. The 3-dimensional (3D) submicron features on the outer shell (OS), inner shell (IS), and shell membrane (SM) regions are sputter coated with gold and characterized for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) performance with respect to coating thickness, enhancement factor (EF), hot-spots distribution, and reproducibility. The OS and IS substrates have similar EF (2.6 × 106 and 1.8 × 106, respectively), while the SM provides smaller EF (1.5 × 105) due to its larger characteristic feature size. The variability from them (calculated as relative standard deviation, %RSD) are less than 7, 15, and 9 for the OS, IS, and SM substrates, respectively. Due to the larger EF and better signal reproducibility, the OS region is used for label-free sensing and identification of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis bacteria as an example of the potential SERS applications. It is demonstrated that the detection limit could reach the level of single bacterial cells. The OS and IS regions are also used as templates to fabricate 3D flexible SERS substrates using polydimethylsiloxane and characterized. The simple, low-cost, and green route of fabricating plasmonic substrates represents an innovative alternative approach without the needs for nanofabrication facilities. Coupled with hyperspectral Raman imaging, high-throughput bio-sensing can be carried out at the single pathogen level. Full article
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Open AccessOpinion
Commercial Value and Challenges of Drop-Based Microfluidic Screening Platforms–An Opinion
Micromachines 2017, 8(6), 193; doi:10.3390/mi8060193 -
Abstract
Developments in High Throughput Screening aim at maximizing the number of samples per time and reducing the cost per sample, e.g., by applying very small sample volumes. The ultimate technological step in miniaturization is moving from microtiter plate wells to droplets, and from
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Developments in High Throughput Screening aim at maximizing the number of samples per time and reducing the cost per sample, e.g., by applying very small sample volumes. The ultimate technological step in miniaturization is moving from microtiter plate wells to droplets, and from batch-wise characterization to the continuous preparation and analysis of samples. A range of drop-based microfluidic screening platforms has emerged that benefit from drop-formation rates of thousands per second, perfect drop size uniformity, plug-flow and compartmentalization, and the possibility of continuously analyzing a train of drops. However, after many years of intensive research, only few commercial applications have been developed and substantial development in the field is still required to make them reliable and broadly applicable. Can academic research achieve this, given that most of the fundamental concepts have been described already, making it hard to publish a big story? Can start-up companies raise enough money to overcome the technical issues of drop-based screening platforms? This contribution addresses the question, focusing on how the different stakeholders in the field should interact so that disillusionment will not put a premature end to the development of drop-based screening technologies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Electroosmotic Flow in a Rough Nanochannel with Surface Roughness Characterized by Fractal Cantor
Micromachines 2017, 8(6), 190; doi:10.3390/mi8060190 -
Abstract
Molecular dynamics simulation is applied to study the electroosmotic flow in rough nanochannels, with particular attention given to the fluid–solid interactions. In the simulation, the surface roughness is characterized by a fractal Cantor. The roles of roughness height and fractal dimension on nanoscale
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Molecular dynamics simulation is applied to study the electroosmotic flow in rough nanochannels, with particular attention given to the fluid–solid interactions. In the simulation, the surface roughness is characterized by a fractal Cantor. The roles of roughness height and fractal dimension on nanoscale electroosmotic flow are examined and analyzed. The concentration distributions, zeta potential and electroosmotic velocity are presented and investigated. The results indicate that surface roughness plays a significant role in the fluid–solid interaction and nanoscale electroosmotic flow. The distribution of dipole angle for water molecules in both the near-wall region and middle region is almost unaffected by surface roughness; however, a significant difference of dipole angle distribution is observed in the fluid region away from the wall. Interestingly, the concentration distributions, electroosmotic velocity and zeta potential are highly affected by the surface fractal dimension, even with the same roughness height. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Three-Dimensional Calcium Alginate Hydrogel Assembly via TiOPc-Based Light-Induced Controllable Electrodeposition
Micromachines 2017, 8(6), 192; doi:10.3390/mi8060192 -
Abstract
Artificial reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel microstructures would greatly contribute to tissue assembly in vitro, and has been widely applied in tissue engineering and drug screening. Recent technological advances in the assembly of functional hydrogel microstructures such as microfluidic, 3D bioprinting, and micromold-based
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Artificial reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel microstructures would greatly contribute to tissue assembly in vitro, and has been widely applied in tissue engineering and drug screening. Recent technological advances in the assembly of functional hydrogel microstructures such as microfluidic, 3D bioprinting, and micromold-based 3D hydrogel fabrication methods have enabled the formation of 3D tissue constructs. However, they still lack flexibility and high efficiency, which restrict their application in 3D tissue constructs. Alternatively, we report a feasible method for the fabrication and reconstruction of customized 3D hydrogel blocks. Arbitrary hydrogel microstructures were fabricated in situ via flexible and rapid light-addressable electrodeposition. To demonstrate the versatility of this method, the higher-order assembly of 3D hydrogel blocks was investigated using a constant direct current (DC) voltage (6 V) applied between two electrodes for 20–120 s. In addition to the plane-based two-dimensional (2D) assembly, hierarchical structures—including multi-layer 3D hydrogel structures and vessel-shaped structures—could be assembled using the proposed method. Overall, we developed a platform that enables researchers to construct complex 3D hydrogel microstructures efficiently and simply, which has the potential to facilitate research on drug screening and 3D tissue constructs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improvement of GNSS Carrier Phase Accuracy Using MEMS Accelerometer-Aided Phase-Locked Loops for Earthquake Monitoring
Micromachines 2017, 8(6), 191; doi:10.3390/mi8060191 -
Abstract
When strong earthquake occurs, global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) measurement errors increase significantly. Combined strategies of GNSS/accelerometer data can estimate better precision in displacement, but are of no help to carrier phase measurement. In this paper, strong-motion accelerometer-aided phase-locked loops (PLLs) are proposed
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When strong earthquake occurs, global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) measurement errors increase significantly. Combined strategies of GNSS/accelerometer data can estimate better precision in displacement, but are of no help to carrier phase measurement. In this paper, strong-motion accelerometer-aided phase-locked loops (PLLs) are proposed to improve carrier phase accuracy during strong earthquakes. To design PLLs for earthquake monitoring, the amplitude-frequency characteristics of the strong earthquake signals are studied. Then, the measurement errors of PLLs before and after micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometer aiding are analyzed based on error models. Furthermore, tests based on a hardware simulator and a shake table are carried out. Results show that, with MEMS accelerometer aiding, the carrier phase accuracy of the PLL decreases little under strong earthquakes, which is consistent with the models analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Parametric Analysis and Experimental Verification of a Hybrid Vibration Energy Harvester Combining Piezoelectric and Electromagnetic Mechanisms
Micromachines 2017, 8(6), 189; doi:10.3390/mi8060189 -
Abstract
Considering coil inductance and the spatial distribution of the magnetic field, this paper developed an approximate distributed-parameter model of a hybrid energy harvester (HEH). The analytical solutions were compared with numerical solutions. The effects of load resistances, electromechanical coupling factors, mechanical damping ratio,
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Considering coil inductance and the spatial distribution of the magnetic field, this paper developed an approximate distributed-parameter model of a hybrid energy harvester (HEH). The analytical solutions were compared with numerical solutions. The effects of load resistances, electromechanical coupling factors, mechanical damping ratio, coil parameters and size scale on performance were investigated. A meso-scale HEH prototype was fabricated, tested and compared with a stand-alone piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) and a stand-alone electromagnetic energy harvester (EMEH). The peak output power is 2.93% and 142.18% higher than that of the stand-alone PEH and EMEH, respectively. Moreover, its bandwidth is 108%- and 122.7%-times that of the stand-alone PEH and EMEH, respectively. The experimental results agreed well with the theoretical values. It is indicated that the linearized electromagnetic coupling coefficient is more suitable for low-level excitation acceleration. Hybrid energy harvesting contributes to widening the frequency bandwidth and improving energy conversion efficiency. However, only when the piezoelectric coupling effect is weak or medium can the HEH generate more power than the single-mechanism energy harvester. Hybrid energy harvesting can improve output power even at the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scale. This study presents a more effective model for the performance evaluation and structure optimization of the HEH. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling the Influence of Tool Deflection on Cutting Force and Surface Generation in Micro-Milling
Micromachines 2017, 8(6), 188; doi:10.3390/mi8060188 -
Abstract
In micro-milling, cutting forces generate non-negligible tool deflection, which has a significant influence on the machining process and on workpiece accuracy. This paper investigates the tool deflection during micro-milling and its effect on cutting force and surface generation. The distribution of cutting forces
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In micro-milling, cutting forces generate non-negligible tool deflection, which has a significant influence on the machining process and on workpiece accuracy. This paper investigates the tool deflection during micro-milling and its effect on cutting force and surface generation. The distribution of cutting forces acting on the tool is calculated with a mathematical model that considers tool elasticity and runout, and the tool deflection caused by the cutting forces is then obtained. Furthermore, an improved cutting force model and side wall surface generation model are established, including the tool deflection effect. Both cutting force and surface simulation models were verified by the micro-end-milling experiment, and the results show a very good agreement between the simulation and experiments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
3D Finite Element Simulation of Micro End-Milling by Considering the Effect of Tool Run-Out
Micromachines 2017, 8(6), 187; doi:10.3390/mi8060187 -
Abstract
Understanding the micro milling phenomena involved in the process is critical and difficult through physical experiments. This study presents a 3D finite element modeling (3D FEM) approach for the micro end-milling process on Al6082-T6. The proposed model employs a Lagrangian explicit finite element
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Understanding the micro milling phenomena involved in the process is critical and difficult through physical experiments. This study presents a 3D finite element modeling (3D FEM) approach for the micro end-milling process on Al6082-T6. The proposed model employs a Lagrangian explicit finite element formulation to perform coupled thermo-mechanical transient analyses. FE simulations were performed at different cutting conditions to obtain realistic numerical predictions of chip formation, temperature distribution, and cutting forces by considering the effect of tool run-out in the model. The radial run-out is a significant issue in micro milling processes and influences the cutting stability due to chip load and force variations. The Johnson–Cook (JC) material constitutive model was applied and its constants were determined by an inverse method based on the experimental cutting forces acquired during the micro end-milling tests. The FE model prediction capability was validated by comparing the numerical model results with experimental tests. The maximum tool temperature was predicted in a different angular position of the cutter which is difficult or impossible to obtain in experiments. The predicted results of the model, involving the run-out influence, showed a good correlation with experimental chip formation and the signal shape of cutting forces. Full article
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