Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Lattice Softening in Fe3Pt Exhibiting Three Types of Martensitic Transformations
Metals 2017, 7(5), 156; doi:10.3390/met7050156 -
Abstract
We have investigated the relation between the softening of elastic constants and martensitic transformation in Fe3Pt, which exhibits various kinds of martensitic transformation depending on its long-range order parameter S. The martensite phases of the examined alloys are BCT (
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We have investigated the relation between the softening of elastic constants and martensitic transformation in Fe3Pt, which exhibits various kinds of martensitic transformation depending on its long-range order parameter S. The martensite phases of the examined alloys are BCT (S = 0.57), FCT1 (S = 0.75, c/a < 1) and FCT2 (S = 0.88, c/a > 1). The elastic constants C′ and C44 of these alloys decrease almost linearly with decreasing temperature. Although the temperature coefficient of C′ decreases as S increases, C′ at the transformation temperature is the smallest in the alloy with S = 0.75, which transforms to FCT1. This result implies that softening is most strongly related to the formation of the FCT1 martensite with tetragonality c/a < 1 among the three martensites. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Surface Modelling of Nanostructured Copper Subjected to Erosion-Corrosion
Metals 2017, 7(5), 155; doi:10.3390/met7050155 -
Abstract
The last decade has witnessed considerable advancements in nanostructured material synthesis and property characterization. However, there still exists some deficiency in the mechanical and surface property characterization of these materials. In this paper, the erosion corrosion (E-C) behavior of nanostructured copper was studied.
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The last decade has witnessed considerable advancements in nanostructured material synthesis and property characterization. However, there still exists some deficiency in the mechanical and surface property characterization of these materials. In this paper, the erosion corrosion (E-C) behavior of nanostructured copper was studied. The nanostructured copper was produced through severe plastic deformation (SPD) by applying four passes of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The combined effects of the testing time, impact velocity, and concentration of erosive solid particles (i.e., sand concentration) on the E-C behavior of nanostructured copper were then examined. Based on a defined domain for the testing time, impact velocity, and sand concentration, E-C tests were performed for numerous combinations of test points via the slurry pot method. The test points were selected using the face-centered center composite design of experiments to enable visualization of the test results through surface plots. The extent of E-C on the test specimens was determined by measuring the mass loss. Polynomial regression and Kriging were used to fit surfaces to the experimental data, which were subsequently used to generate surface plots. The results showed that the E-C of nanostructured copper is best described by a quadratic function of testing time, velocity, and erosive solid particle concentration. The results also revealed that E-C increases with an increasing testing time, impact velocity, and erosive solid particle concentration. In addition, it was observed that the effect of the erosive solid particles on E-C is further intensified by an increased impact velocity. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Discrete Element Method Investigation of Bulk Density and Electrical Resistivity of Calcined Coke Mixes
Metals 2017, 7(5), 154; doi:10.3390/met7050154 -
Abstract
Packing density and electrical resistivity of particles assemblies are important factors for a variety of applications of granular materials. In the present work, a three-dimensional imaging technique is coupled with the discrete element method (DEM) to model anode grade calcined coke particles. Three-dimensional
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Packing density and electrical resistivity of particles assemblies are important factors for a variety of applications of granular materials. In the present work, a three-dimensional imaging technique is coupled with the discrete element method (DEM) to model anode grade calcined coke particles. Three-dimensional DEM models of samples with different size distribution of particles were studied to obtain the inter-particle contact information. As the content of fine particles increased, a higher inter-particle contact density and smaller average contact radius was observed in the samples. Confronting the DEM data and experimental measurements of electrical resistivity showed the simultaneous effects of packing density and contact density. Samples with higher contact density and smaller contact radius in general held high electrical resistivities. However, if increasing the contact density does not modify contacts between large particles, this will have a positive effect on packing density, so a lower electrical resistivity was obtained. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Isothermal Gas-Based Direct Reduction Behavior of High Chromium Vanadium-Titanium Magnetite Pellets and the Melting Separation of Metallized Pellets
Metals 2017, 7(5), 153; doi:10.3390/met7050153 -
Abstract
The non-isothermal reduction behavior of high chromium vanadium-titanium magnetite (HCVTM) pellets by gas mixtures was investigated using different heating rates (4, 8, and 12 K/min) and varied gas compositions (H2/CO = 2/5, H2/CO = 1/1, and H2/CO
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The non-isothermal reduction behavior of high chromium vanadium-titanium magnetite (HCVTM) pellets by gas mixtures was investigated using different heating rates (4, 8, and 12 K/min) and varied gas compositions (H2/CO = 2/5, H2/CO = 1/1, and H2/CO = 5/2 volume ratios); the pellets were then used for melting separation. It was observed that the temperature corresponding to the maximum reduction ratio increased with the increasing heating rate. The HCVTM pellets reached the same final reduction ratio under a given reducing gas composition, although the heating rates were different. Under the same heating rate, the gas mixture with more H2 was conducive for obtaining a higher reduction ratio. The phase transformations during the non-isothermal reduction were ordered as follows: Fe2O3 → Fe3O4 → FeO → Fe; Fe9TiO15 + Fe2Ti3O9 → Fe2.75Ti0.25O4 → FeTiO3 → TiO2; V1.7Cr0.3O3 → V2O3 → Fe2VO4; Fe1.2Cr0.8O3 → Cr2O3 → FeCr2O4. The non-isothermal reduction kinetic model was established based on the unreacted core model with multiple reaction interfaces. The correlation coefficients were greater than 0.99, revealing that this kinetic model could properly describe the non-isothermal reduction of the HCVTM pellets by gas mixtures. Iron containing V and Cr along with the Ti-rich slag was obtained through the melting separation of the metallized HCVTM pellets. The mass fractions and recovery rates of Fe, V, and Cr in the iron were 93.87% and 99.45%, 0.91% and 98.83%, and 0.72% and 95.02%, respectively. The mass fraction and recovery rate of TiO2 in the slag were 38.12% and 95.08%, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Aluminium Wires Have the Free Air Balls (FABs): Electronic Flame-Off, Fracture Strength, Electrical Properties, and Bonding Characteristics of Nano Zn Film Al–Si Bonding Wires
Metals 2017, 7(5), 152; doi:10.3390/met7050152 -
Abstract
Aluminum wire is a common material for wire bonding due to its resistance to oxidation and low price. It does not melt when becoming a free air ball (FAB) during the electronic flame-off (EFO) process with wettability and is applied by wedge bonding.
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Aluminum wire is a common material for wire bonding due to its resistance to oxidation and low price. It does not melt when becoming a free air ball (FAB) during the electronic flame-off (EFO) process with wettability and is applied by wedge bonding. This study used 20 μm Zn-coated Al–0.5 wt % Si (ZAS) wires to improve the FAB shape after the EFO process, while maintaining the stability of the mechanical properties, including the interface bonding strength and hardness. In order to test circuit stability after ball bonding, the current-tensile test was performed. During the experiment, it was found that 80 nm ZAS with wire bonding had lower resistance and its fusing current was higher. For the bias tensile test, the thicker Zn film diffused into the Al–Si matrix easily, after which the strength was reduced. The ball-bond interfaces had no change in their condition before and after the bias. Accordingly, the ZAS wire could be a promising candidate for ball bonding in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reduced Fracture Toughness of Metallic Glass at Cryogenic Temperature
Metals 2017, 7(4), 151; doi:10.3390/met7040151 -
Abstract
The effects of cryogenic temperature on the toughness of a Zr-based metallic glass are investigated. Based on three-dimensional fracture morphologies at different temperatures, the crack formation and propagation are analyzed. Through the calculation of the shear transformation zone volume, the shear modulus and
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The effects of cryogenic temperature on the toughness of a Zr-based metallic glass are investigated. Based on three-dimensional fracture morphologies at different temperatures, the crack formation and propagation are analyzed. Through the calculation of the shear transformation zone volume, the shear modulus and bulk modulus of the metallic glass at different temperatures and the crack formation mechanism associated with the temperature is discussed. Once the crack commences propagation, the hyperelasticity model is used to elucidate the fractographic evolution of crack propagation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of J55ERW Steel Pipe Processed by On-Line Spray Water Cooling
Metals 2017, 7(4), 150; doi:10.3390/met7040150 -
Abstract
An on-line spray water cooling (OSWC) process for manufacturing electric resistance welded (ERW) steel pipes is presented to enhance their mechanical properties and performances. This technique reduces the processing needed for the ERW pipe and overcomes the weakness of the conventional manufacturing technique.
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An on-line spray water cooling (OSWC) process for manufacturing electric resistance welded (ERW) steel pipes is presented to enhance their mechanical properties and performances. This technique reduces the processing needed for the ERW pipe and overcomes the weakness of the conventional manufacturing technique. Industrial tests for J55 ERW steel pipe were carried out to validate the effectiveness of the OSWC process. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the J55 ERW steel pipe processed by the OSWC technology were investigated. The optimized OSWC technical parameters are presented based on the mechanical properties and impact the performance of steel pipes. The industrial tests show that the OSWC process can be used to efficiently control the microstructure, enhance mechanical properties, and improve production flexibility of steel pipes. The comprehensive mechanical properties of steel pipes processed by the OSWC are superior to those of other published J55 grade steels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Parameters on Internal Crack Healing in 30Cr2Ni4MoV Steel for 600-Ton Ultra-Super Ingots
Metals 2017, 7(4), 149; doi:10.3390/met7040149 -
Abstract
The effect of parameters on internal crack healing in 30Cr2Ni4MoV steel for 600-ton ultra-super ingots was systematically investigated. The results show that the degree of crack healing increases with increasing healing temperature, holding time, reduction ratio, and hot pressure, and with decreasing strain
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The effect of parameters on internal crack healing in 30Cr2Ni4MoV steel for 600-ton ultra-super ingots was systematically investigated. The results show that the degree of crack healing increases with increasing healing temperature, holding time, reduction ratio, and hot pressure, and with decreasing strain rate. Internal crack healing in 30Cr2Ni4MoV steel should be conducted at less than 1200 °C to avoid grain coarsening. Hot pressure, in the high-temperature elastic zone and perpendicular to the crack faces, not only promotes the rapid crack healing, but also prevents grain coarsening of the matrix. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Formation and Corrosion Behavior of Mechanically-Alloyed Cu–Zr–Ti Bulk Metallic Glasses
Metals 2017, 7(4), 148; doi:10.3390/met7040148 -
Abstract
Cu60Zr30Ti10 metallic glass powder was prepared by mechanically alloying a mixture of pure Cu, Zr, and Ti powders after 5 h of milling. Cu60Zr30Ti10 bulk metallic glass (BMG) was synthesized by vacuum hot
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Cu60Zr30Ti10 metallic glass powder was prepared by mechanically alloying a mixture of pure Cu, Zr, and Ti powders after 5 h of milling. Cu60Zr30Ti10 bulk metallic glass (BMG) was synthesized by vacuum hot pressing the as-milled Cu60Zr30Ti10 metallic glass powder at 746 K in the pressure range of 0.72–1.20 GPa, and the structure was analyzed through X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The pressure could enhance the thermal stability, and prolong the existence, of the amorphous phase inside the Cu60Zr30Ti10 powder. Furthermore, the corrosion behavior of the Cu-based BMG in four corrosive media was studied using a potentiodynamic method. The Cu60Zr30Ti10 BMG exhibited a low corrosion rate and current density in 1 N solutions of H2SO4, NaOH, and HNO3. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results revealed that the formation of Zr- and Ti-rich passive oxide layers provides a high corrosion resistance against 1 N H2SO4 and HNO3 solutions, and the breakdown of the protective film by Cl attack was responsible for pitting corrosion in a 3 wt % NaCl solution. The formation of oxide films and the nucleation and growth of pitting were analyzed through microstructural investigations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Kohonen Neural Network Classification for Failure Process of Metallic Organic Coating in Corrosion Environment
Metals 2017, 7(4), 147; doi:10.3390/met7040147 -
Abstract
A deeper insight into the changing states of corrosion during certain exposure circumstances has been investigated by applying Kohonen networks. The Kohonen network has been trained by four sets of samples and tested using another sample. All the sample data were collected during
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A deeper insight into the changing states of corrosion during certain exposure circumstances has been investigated by applying Kohonen networks. The Kohonen network has been trained by four sets of samples and tested using another sample. All the sample data were collected during accelerated corrosion experiments and the network took the changing rate of impedance of each cycle as an input. Compared with traditional classification, the Kohonen artificial network method classifies corrosion process into five sub-processes which is a refinement of three typical corrosion processes. The two newly defined sub-processes of corrosion—namely, pre-middle stage and post-middle stage—were introduced. The EIS data and macro-morphology for both sub-processes were analyzed through accelerated experiments. The classification results of the Kohonen artificial network are highly consistent with the predictions based on impedance magnitude at low frequency, which illustrates that the Kohonen network classification is an effective method for predicting the failure cycles of polymer coatings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Efficient Use of Porous Hybrid Materials in a Selective Detection of Lead(II) from Aqueous Solutions: An Electrochemical Study
Metals 2017, 7(4), 124; doi:10.3390/met7040124 -
Abstract
Due to health and pollution concerns of aquatic environments related to the presence of heavy metal toxic ions, the necessity of developing devices able to detect and to monitor such kinds of species has recently gained importance. Carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) a starting
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Due to health and pollution concerns of aquatic environments related to the presence of heavy metal toxic ions, the necessity of developing devices able to detect and to monitor such kinds of species has recently gained importance. Carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) a starting approach to obtain new ion-selective devices by supporting materials like bentonite and/or clay; which become sensitive to lead(II) when they are suitably modified by chemical treatments to obtain different hybrid materials. In this work, two natural clays and three different hybrid materials were produced and then were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to assess their physico-chemical properties. After this stage, the electrochemical characterization of the modified CPEs using hybrid materials was performed by cyclic voltammetry, using the standard Fe(CN)64−/Fe(CN)63− redox couple. Subsequently, this study performed electrochemical experiments on lead(II) containing solutions, to test the ability of the examined CPEs to detect this toxic ion present in very low amounts. Lead(II) exhibited a reversible two electron oxidation/reduction behaviour in the cyclic voltammetry analyses and a reasonably good linear behaviour of the current associated with the oxidation peak as a function of its concentration (5.0–40.0 μg/L). The detection limit was found to vary in the range of 3–5 μg/L for the different modified CPEs. The presence of several co-existing ions showed that an interference variation had occurred. These results, therefore, show a restriction of the selectivity of the electrode up to a certain extent in the lead(II) detection. Finally, tap water with spiked lead(II) was analyzed to verify the suitability of the electrodes in the low level detection of lead(II) from real matrix samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Characterization of Nano-Particles of Niobium Pentoxide with Orthorhombic Symmetry
Metals 2017, 7(4), 142; doi:10.3390/met7040142 -
Abstract
In this work, a set of nanoparticles of Nb2O5 nanoparticles were grown by both the Pechini and the sol-gel methods. The amorphous materials were calcined at 650 #xB0;C or at 750 °C. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, luminescence and Raman
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In this work, a set of nanoparticles of Nb2O5 nanoparticles were grown by both the Pechini and the sol-gel methods. The amorphous materials were calcined at 650 #xB0;C or at 750 °C. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, luminescence and Raman spectroscopy were used in order to characterize the materials. From the study, it is possible to state that the method of production of nanoparticles, beyond the temperature of synthesis, has a great influence on whether the phase produced is hexagonal or orthorhombic. Additionally, compared to de Sol-gel method, the Pechini method produced samples with smaller particle sizes. The photoluminescence spectra of niobium pentoxide nanostructure materials show that the emission peaks are positioned between 334 to 809 nm and there is a change of intensity which varies depending on the synthesis route used. High pressure Raman spectra at room temperature were obtained from two samples grown by the sol-gel method. Up to 6 GPa, where it is possible to observe the Raman bands, no modification other than the increase of disorder was observed, and this can be associated with a change of phase. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
New Low-Sn Zr Cladding Alloys with Excellent Autoclave Corrosion Resistance and High Strength
Metals 2017, 7(4), 144; doi:10.3390/met7040144 -
Abstract
It is expected that low-Sn Zr alloys are a good candidate to improve the corrosion resistance of Zr cladding alloys in nuclear reactors, presenting excellent corrosion resistance and high strength. The present work developed a new alloy series of Zr-0.25Sn-0.36Fe-0.11Cr-xNb (
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It is expected that low-Sn Zr alloys are a good candidate to improve the corrosion resistance of Zr cladding alloys in nuclear reactors, presenting excellent corrosion resistance and high strength. The present work developed a new alloy series of Zr-0.25Sn-0.36Fe-0.11Cr-xNb (x = 0.4~1.2 wt %) to investigate the effect of Nb on autoclave corrosion resistance. Alloy ingots were prepared by non-consumable arc-melting, solid-solutioned, and then rolled into thin plates with a thickness of 0.7 mm. It was found that the designed low-Sn Zr alloys exhibit excellent corrosion resistances in three out of pile autoclave environments (distilled water at 633 K/18.6 MPa, 70 ppm LiOH solution at 633 K/18.6 MPa, and superheated water steam at 673 K/10.3 MPa), as demonstrated by the fact of the Zr-0.25Sn-0.36Fe-0.11Cr-0.6Nb alloy shows a corrosion weight gain ΔG = 46.3 mg/dm2 and a tensile strength of σUTS = 461 MPa following 100 days of exposure in water steam. The strength of the low-Sn Zr alloy with a higher Nb content (x = 1.2 wt %) is enhanced up to 499 MPa, comparable to that of the reference high-Sn N36 alloy (Zr-1.0Sn-1.0Nb-0.25Fe, wt %). Although the strength improvement is at a slight expense of corrosion resistance with the increase of Nb, the corrosion resistance of the high-Nb alloy with x = 1.2 (ΔG = 90.4 mg/dm2 for 100-day exposure in the water steam) is still better than that of N36 (ΔG = 103.4 mg/dm2). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Role of Severe Plastic Deformation in Suppressing Formation of R Phase and Ni4Ti3 Precipitate of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy
Metals 2017, 7(4), 145; doi:10.3390/met7040145 -
Abstract
Microstructural evolution of NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) with a nominal composition of Ni50.9Ti49.1 (at %) is investigated on the basis of heat treatment and severe plastic deformation (SPD). As for as-rolled NiTi SMA samples subjected to aging, plenty of
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Microstructural evolution of NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) with a nominal composition of Ni50.9Ti49.1 (at %) is investigated on the basis of heat treatment and severe plastic deformation (SPD). As for as-rolled NiTi SMA samples subjected to aging, plenty of R phases appear in the austenite matrix. In terms of as-rolled NiTi SMA samples undergoing solution treatment and aging, Ni4Ti3 precipitates arise in the austenite matrix. In the case of as-rolled NiTi SMA samples subjected to SPD and aging, martensitic twins are observed in the matrix of NiTi SMA. With respect to as-rolled NiTi SMA samples subjected to solution treatment, SPD, and aging, neither R phases nor Ni4Ti3 precipitates are observed in the matrix of NiTi SMA. The dislocation networks play an important role in the formation of the R phase. SPD leads to amorphization of NiTi SMA, and in the case of annealing, amorphous NiTi SMA samples are subjected to crystallization. This contributes to suppressing the occurrence of R phase and Ni4Ti3 precipitate in NiTi SMA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vickers Indentation Fracture Toughness of Near-Nano and Nanostructured WC-Co Cemented Carbides
Metals 2017, 7(4), 143; doi:10.3390/met7040143 -
Abstract
In this paper, the fracture toughness KIc of near-nano and nanostructured WC-Co cemented carbides by Vickers indentation fracture toughness (VIF) was investigated. The aim was to research the type of cracking occurring in near-nano and nano-grained WC-Co cemented carbides with respect to
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In this paper, the fracture toughness KIc of near-nano and nanostructured WC-Co cemented carbides by Vickers indentation fracture toughness (VIF) was investigated. The aim was to research the type of cracking occurring in near-nano and nano-grained WC-Co cemented carbides with respect to the Co content and, consequently, to evaluate the appropriateness of different models for the fracture toughness calculation. The mixtures with different binder content—4, 6, and 9 wt. % Co—were consolidated by sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere. Vickers indentation using a test force of 294 N was used for the determination of fracture toughness. The type of crack that occurred as a consequence of the applied load on the corners of the Vickers indentations was analysed with optical microscopy before and after repolishing the samples. Different crack models, Palmqvist and radial-median, were applied for the calculation of KIc. Instrumented indentation testing was used to determine the modulus of elasticity of the consolidated samples. From the research it was found that near-nano and nanostructured cemented carbides with 9 and 6 wt. % Co do not exhibit median cracking and the indenter cracks remain radial in nature, while near-nano and nanostructured cemented carbides with 4 wt. % Co exhibit both radial and median cracking. Accordingly, it was concluded that the critical amount of the binder phase in near-nano and nanostructured WC-Co at which the crack changes its geometry from Palmqvist to radial-median is around 4 wt. % Co. Comparing different models it was found that KIc values are not consistent and differ for each method used. Models from Exner crack resistance for the Palmqvist crack showed good agreement. Radial-median crack models showed significant KIc deviations for the same testing conditions for all samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of a Submerged Entry Nozzle on Flow and Initial Solidification in a Continuous Casting Bloom Mold with Electromagnetic Stirring
Metals 2017, 7(4), 146; doi:10.3390/met7040146 -
Abstract
The melt flow, level fluctuation, temperature field, and solidification behavior coupled with electromagnetic stirring (EMS) effects in the continuous casting mold region of U71Mn steel bloom were numerically analyzed by commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software named ANSYS FLUENT. The effects of submerged
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The melt flow, level fluctuation, temperature field, and solidification behavior coupled with electromagnetic stirring (EMS) effects in the continuous casting mold region of U71Mn steel bloom were numerically analyzed by commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software named ANSYS FLUENT. The effects of submerged entry nozzle (SEN) structures and the installation methods for optimized four-port SEN on the flow pattern, level fluctuation, heat transfer and initial solidification behavior in a bloom mold loaded with EMS were investigated. The aim is to propose a better SEN condition for the big bloom casting of high railway steel. The water simulation experiments were conducted to show the flow characteristics under different SEN conditions and verify the numerical model of flow pattern. The experimental and numerical simulation results showed that the optimized four-port SEN with diagonal installation cannot only improve the flow pattern of the molten steel by alleviating the level fluctuation and reducing the impact pressure to the wall. It is also beneficial for temperature variation at both bloom surface and corner, as well as the local solidified shell thinning phenomena due to the elimination of impingement effect. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Dynamic Recovery and Superelasticity of Columnar-Grained Cu–Al–Mn Shape Memory Alloy
Metals 2017, 7(4), 141; doi:10.3390/met7040141 -
Abstract
The columnar-grained Cu71.5Al17.5Mn11 shape memory alloy was treated by single-pass hot rolling at 900 °C with a thickness reduction of 67.3% followed by immediate water quenching. Dynamic recovery other than discontinuous dynamic recrystallization occurred during the treatment process,
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The columnar-grained Cu71.5Al17.5Mn11 shape memory alloy was treated by single-pass hot rolling at 900 °C with a thickness reduction of 67.3% followed by immediate water quenching. Dynamic recovery other than discontinuous dynamic recrystallization occurred during the treatment process, bringing about retained columnar grains with <001> textures, as well as dislocations introduced into the parent matrix. As a result, a large maximum recoverable strain of more than 11% was maintained due to the retained beneficial grain characteristics. The critical stress for inducing martensitic transformation and stress hysteresis were enhanced mainly due to the existence of dislocations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tribological Properties of Plough Shares Made of Pearlitic and Martensitic Steels
Metals 2017, 7(4), 139; doi:10.3390/met7040139 -
Abstract
Tribological properties of ploughshares made of pearlitic and martensitic steels were compared in field tests. Sectional ploughshares consisting of separate share-points and trapezoidal parts were subjected to examinations. Contours of the examined parts were similar, but the thickness of the parts made of
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Tribological properties of ploughshares made of pearlitic and martensitic steels were compared in field tests. Sectional ploughshares consisting of separate share-points and trapezoidal parts were subjected to examinations. Contours of the examined parts were similar, but the thickness of the parts made of pearlitic steel was 1 to 3 mm greater for the share-points and 0.5 to 2 mm greater for the trapezoidal parts. Within the tests, sandy loams, loams, and loamy sands with circa (ca.) 13% humidity were cultivated. A greater intensity of thickness reduction and mass wear of the parts made of pearlitic steel was found, which indicates a lower resistance of this steel to wear in soil. However, contour changes of the share-points and the trapezoidal parts made of pearlitic and martensitic steels were comparable, which was probably influenced by the greater thickness of the parts made of pearlitic steel. The roughness of the rake faces of the parts made of pearlitic steel was greater than that for the parts made of martensitic steel, which can be attributed to lower hardness of the former. The largest differences occurred between maximum peak heights of the roughness profile values (Rp), which indicates stronger ridging in the case of pearlitic steel. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations of the rake faces showed that martensitic steel was subjected to wear mostly by microcutting, but pearlitic steel was principally worn by microcutting and microploughing. During tillage, only one share-point made of pearlitic steel was broken. However, the main disadvantage of these parts was that their bending was related to the lower mechanical strength of pearlitic steel. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Advanced Plasticity Modeling for Ultra-Low-Cycle-Fatigue Simulation of Steel Pipe
Metals 2017, 7(4), 140; doi:10.3390/met7040140 -
Abstract
Pipelines and piping components may be exposed to extreme loading conditions, for instance earthquakes and hurricanes. In such conditions, they undergo severe plastic strains, which may locally reach the fracture limits due to either monotonic loading or ultra-low cycle fatigue (ULCF). Aiming to
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Pipelines and piping components may be exposed to extreme loading conditions, for instance earthquakes and hurricanes. In such conditions, they undergo severe plastic strains, which may locally reach the fracture limits due to either monotonic loading or ultra-low cycle fatigue (ULCF). Aiming to investigate the failure process and strain evolution of pipes enduring ULCF, a lab-scale ULCF test on an X65 steel pipeline component is simulated with finite element models, and experimental data are used to validate various material modeling assumptions. The paper focuses on plastic material modeling and compares different models for plastic anisotropy in combination with various hardening models, including isotropic, linear kinematic and combined hardening models. Both isotropic and anisotropic assumptions for plastic yielding are considered. As pipes pose difficulty for the measurement of plastic properties in mechanical testing, we calibrate an anisotropic yield locus using advanced multi-scale simulation based on texture measurements. Moreover, the importance of the anisotropy gradient across thickness is studied in detail for this thick-walled pipeline steel. It is found that the usage of a combined hardening model is essential to accurately predict the number of the cycles until failure, as well as the strain evolution during the fatigue test. The advanced hardening modeling featuring kinematic hardening has a substantially higher impact on result accuracy compared to the yield locus assumption for the studied ULCF test. Cyclic tension-compression testing is conducted to calibrate the kinematic hardening models. Additionally, plastic anisotropy and its gradient across the thickness play a notable, yet secondary role. Based on this research, it is advised to focus on improvements in strain hardening characteristics in future developments of pipeline steel with enhanced earthquake resistance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Residual Stresses with Time-Independent Cyclic Plasticity in Finite Element Analysis of Welded Joints
Metals 2017, 7(4), 136; doi:10.3390/met7040136 -
Abstract
Due to the intense concentration of heat in a reduced area when Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) is used to join mechanical components, the regions near the weld bead are subjected to severe thermal cycles. Firstly, the region close to the weld bead
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Due to the intense concentration of heat in a reduced area when Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) is used to join mechanical components, the regions near the weld bead are subjected to severe thermal cycles. Firstly, the region close to the weld bead that is heated tends to be in compression and, when it cools, tends to be in tension. According to Pilipenko, the material is exposed to elastic compression and, then, reaching the yield limit, undergoes plastic deformation with the appearance of residual stresses followed by elastic-plastic unloading. This could be considered as a strain-stress cycle. This paper applies plastic-strain-range memorization based on time-independent cyclic plasticity theory for butt joints with single V-groove Finite Element (FE) models that were manufactured by GMAW. The theory combines both the isotropic hardening and the nonlinear kinematic hardening rule (Chaboche model) to reproduce the behavior of cyclic plasticity and thus to obtain the residual stresses in welded joint FE models. As a practical example, the proposed theory is validated by three welded joint specimens that were manufactured with different input parameters of speed, voltage, and current. An agreement between the residual stresses obtained by the FE model proposed and those obtained experimentally by the hole drilling method at different depths demonstrates that the proposed theory could be valid for modelling the residual stresses in welded joints when cyclic plasticity is considered over the range of speed, voltage, and current studied. Full article
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