Open AccessArticle
Effect of Welding Heat Input on the Microstructure and Toughness in Simulated CGHAZ of 800 MPa-Grade Steel for Hydropower Penstocks
Metals 2017, 7(4), 115; doi:10.3390/met7040115 -
Abstract
To determine the appropriate welding heat input for simulated coarse grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ) of 800 MPa-grade steel used in hydropower penstocks, the microstructural evolution, hardness, and 50% fraction appearance transition temperature (50% FATT) were investigated. The results indicated that when the
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To determine the appropriate welding heat input for simulated coarse grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ) of 800 MPa-grade steel used in hydropower penstocks, the microstructural evolution, hardness, and 50% fraction appearance transition temperature (50% FATT) were investigated. The results indicated that when the cooling rate (heat input) is reduced (increased), the impact toughness at −20 °C and hardness of the simulated CGHAZ decreased. When the heat input increased from 18 to 81 kJ/cm, the 50% FATT increased from −80 °C to −11 °C. At 18 kJ/cm, the microstructures consisted of lath bainite and granular bainite, but lath bainite decreased with increasing heat input. The increase in the 50% FATT was attributed mainly to an increase in the austenite grain size and effective grain size, and a decrease in lath bainite and the fraction of HAGBs (misorientation: ≥15°). Full article
Open AccessArticle
Modeling the Constitutive Relationship of Al–0.62Mg–0.73Si Alloy Based on Artificial Neural Network
Metals 2017, 7(4), 114; doi:10.3390/met7040114 -
Abstract
In this work, the hot deformation behavior of 6A02 aluminum alloy was investigated by isothermal compression tests conducted in the temperature range of 683–783 K and strain-rate range of 0.001–1 s−1. According to the obtained true stress–true strain curves, the constitutive
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In this work, the hot deformation behavior of 6A02 aluminum alloy was investigated by isothermal compression tests conducted in the temperature range of 683–783 K and strain-rate range of 0.001–1 s−1. According to the obtained true stress–true strain curves, the constitutive relationship of the alloy was revealed by establishing the Arrhenius-type constitutive model and back-propagation (BP) neural network model. It is found that the flow characteristic of 6A02 aluminum alloy is closely related to deformation temperature and strain rate, and the true stress decreases with increasing temperatures and decreasing strain rates. The hot deformation activation energy is calculated to be 168.916 kJ mol−1. The BP neural network model with one hidden layer and 20 neurons in the hidden layer is developed. The accuracy in prediction of the Arrhenius-type constitutive model and BP neural network model is eveluated by using statistics analysis method. It is demonstrated that the BP neural network model has better performance in predicting the flow stress. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Corrosion Behavior of API X100 Steel Material in a Hydrogen Sulfide Environment
Metals 2017, 7(4), 109; doi:10.3390/met7040109 -
Abstract
Recently, the API X100 steel has emerged as an important pipeline material for transportation of crude oil and natural gas. At the same time, the presence of significant amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in natural gas and crude oil cause pipeline
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Recently, the API X100 steel has emerged as an important pipeline material for transportation of crude oil and natural gas. At the same time, the presence of significant amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in natural gas and crude oil cause pipeline materials to corrode, which affects their integrity. In this study, the effect of H2S concentration on the corrosion behavior of API X100 in 3.5% NaCl solution is presented. The H2S gas was bubbled into saline solutions for different durations, and the corrosion tests were then performed using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to characterize the corroded surface. The results indicate that the corrosion rate of API X100 steel decreases with increasing H2S bubbling time due to the increase in H2S concentration in 3.5% NaCl solutions. It is noticed that an accumulation of a critical amount of hydrogen in the metal can result in hydrogen-induced crack initiation and propagation. It was further observed that, when the stress limit of a crystalline layer is exceeded, micro-cracking of the formed protective sulfide layer (mackinawite) occurs on the API X100 steel surface, which may affect the reliability of the pipeline system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Anchor Volume on the Mechanical Strengths of Orthodontic Micro-Implants
Metals 2017, 7(4), 112; doi:10.3390/met7040112 -
Abstract
Anchor volume (AV) might be an important factor affecting mechanical strengths of micro-implant. To investigate the correlation between AV and three mechanical strengths (IT: insertion torque; RF: resonance frequency; HPS: horizontal pullout strength), 55 micro-implants (diameter 1.5 mm: Type A, B, C; diameter
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Anchor volume (AV) might be an important factor affecting mechanical strengths of micro-implant. To investigate the correlation between AV and three mechanical strengths (IT: insertion torque; RF: resonance frequency; HPS: horizontal pullout strength), 55 micro-implants (diameter 1.5 mm: Type A, B, C; diameter 1.3 mm: Type D and E) were driven into the artificial bones at a 7-mm depth. The RF, IT, HPS and AV were measured. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) post comparison and Pearson’s correlation were used to detect significant differences. Null hypothesis states that there was no statistically significant correlation between AV and these three forces (IT, RF, and HPS). Type A and Type D had the lowest IT (4.2 Ncm). Type C had the highest RF (9.9 KHz) in the stability test, and Type B had the greatest HPS (190.9 Ncm) in the resistance test. There was significant correlation between the IT and HPS. AV was significantly correlated with RF, IT, and HPS. The null hypothesis was rejected. In this study, each of these brands had its distinct advantages in the RF, IT, and HPS. Moreover, inner diameter/outer diameter ratio and AV affect the magnitude of HPS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Case Studies on Local Reinforcement of Sheet Metal Components by Laser Additive Manufacturing
Metals 2017, 7(4), 113; doi:10.3390/met7040113 -
Abstract
This paper details two case studies that make use of laser metal deposition for local reinforcement of sheet metal components. Two benchmark scenarios are investigated, both using aluminum alloys: (i) using laser cladding to increase the stiffness of a pre-formed component, and (ii)
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This paper details two case studies that make use of laser metal deposition for local reinforcement of sheet metal components. Two benchmark scenarios are investigated, both using aluminum alloys: (i) using laser cladding to increase the stiffness of a pre-formed component, and (ii) applying a local cladding on sheet metal for increasing the thickness prior to a hole-flanging operation. The results show that both routes are viable. Applying claddings onto sheet metal before a metal forming operation must ensure suitable formability, which may be limited by the layer material and undesired changes in the microstructure of the sheet. The limited formability has to be taken into account in the design of the forming operation. Cladding onto already formed components has to cope with inevitable distortion of the component. Nevertheless, introducing additive manufacturing into the field of sheet metal forming opens the possibility to produce new products such as tailored laser-cladded blanks, combinations of sheet and bulk components and to develop new methods such as stiffness management in lightweight design. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Applications and Thermodynamic Analysis of Equilibrium Solution for Secondary Phases in Ti–N–C Gear Steel System with Nano-Particles
Metals 2017, 7(4), 110; doi:10.3390/met7040110 -
Abstract
Thermodynamic analysis and computations of the equilibrium solution for the multivariable secondary phase in steels have been conducted, based on the chemical equilibrium. Solid solution precipitation in the Ti–N–C microalloy steel for the secondary phase was analyzed, and its engineering application in the
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Thermodynamic analysis and computations of the equilibrium solution for the multivariable secondary phase in steels have been conducted, based on the chemical equilibrium. Solid solution precipitation in the Ti–N–C microalloy steel for the secondary phase was analyzed, and its engineering application in the development of carburizing gear steels was investigated. The complete dissolution temperature increases with more C, N, or Ti in gear steels, and the effects of Ti and N are more significant than C. At a given temperature, the amount of [Ti] increases naturally with more Ti element content, while it decreases with more C or N elements content. It declines rapidly in the complete dissolution temperature range in steels until 1100 °C. The effective activity coefficient k1 increases with the temperature decreases, and increases with the higher content of Ti or C, while it decreases with the higher N content under the same temperature. Thermodynamic analysis shows that nitrogen has been precipitated largely as TiN micron-particles above 1400 °C in gear steels. Then, titanium precipitated mainly as TiC nano-particles, thus this secondary phase can hinder grain coarsening during heat treatment. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Deformation Behavior of Al0.25CoCrFeNi High-Entropy Alloy after Recrystallization
Metals 2017, 7(4), 111; doi:10.3390/met7040111 -
Abstract
Cold rolling with subsequent annealing can be used to produce the recrystallized structure in high entropy alloys (HEAs). The Al0.25CoCrFeNi HEAs rolled to different final thickness (230, 400, 540, 800, 1000, 1500 μm) are prepared to investigate their microstructure evolutions and
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Cold rolling with subsequent annealing can be used to produce the recrystallized structure in high entropy alloys (HEAs). The Al0.25CoCrFeNi HEAs rolled to different final thickness (230, 400, 540, 800, 1000, 1500 μm) are prepared to investigate their microstructure evolutions and mechanical behaviors after annealing. Only the single face-centered cubic phase was obtained after cold rolling and recrystallization annealing at 1100 °C for 10 h. The average recrystallized grain size in this alloy after annealing ranges from 92 μm to 136 μm. The annealed thin sheets show obviously size effects on the flow stress and formability. The yield strength and tensile strength decrease as t/d (thickness/average grain diameter) ratio decreases until the t/d approaches 2.23. In addition, the stretchability (formability) decreases with the decrease of the t/d ratio especially when the t/d ratio is lower than about 6. According to the present results, yield strength can be expressed as a function of the t/d ratio. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Measuring Plasticity with Orientation Contrast Microscopy in Aluminium 6061-T4
Metals 2017, 7(4), 108; doi:10.3390/met7040108 -
Abstract
Orientation contrast microscopy (i.e., electron backscattered diffraction, EBSD) was employed to monitor the plastic strain in loaded tensile samples of aluminium alloy Al6061 in T4 condition. The kernel average misorientation (KAM) is known to be an appropriate parameter in orientation contrast microscopy which
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Orientation contrast microscopy (i.e., electron backscattered diffraction, EBSD) was employed to monitor the plastic strain in loaded tensile samples of aluminium alloy Al6061 in T4 condition. The kernel average misorientation (KAM) is known to be an appropriate parameter in orientation contrast microscopy which has the potential to characterise the plastic strain by monitoring the local misorientations. This technique was applied here to gauge the extent of the plastic zone around a fatigue crack. To establish the magnitude of strain (which can be identified by the KAM parameter), a series of tensile samples were strained in the range of 1% to 25%. KAM maps were compared, and the average misorientations were related to the tensile strain values. The KAM distribution functions for all the strained samples were derived from a large scanned area. In addition, Vickers microhardness tests were conducted for these series of samples. This allowed the comparison of the mesoscopic plastic strain measured by Vickers microhardness with the micro plastic strain locally obtained by KAM. Noise was observed in the average KAM values up to a plastic strain of 1.5%. For the plastic strain exceeding 1.5%, noise no longer dominates the KAM map, and a positive—though not linear—correspondence between plastic strain and KAM was observed. The observed plastic zone at the tip of the fatigue crack by micro-Vickers hardness measurements was about an order of magnitude higher than the plastic zone observed on the KAM maps. In view of the calibration of KAM values on the tensile samples, it could be concluded that in the larger area of the plastic zone, the strain did not exceed the critical value of 1.5%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Investigation on the Softening Mechanism of 5754 Aluminum Alloy during Multistage Hot Deformation
Metals 2017, 7(4), 107; doi:10.3390/met7040107 -
Abstract
Isothermal interrupted hot compression tests of 5754 aluminum were conducted on a Gleeble-3500 thermo-mechanical simulator at temperatures of 350 °C and 450 °C, and strain rates of 0.1 s−1 and 1 s−1. To investigate the metadynamic recrystallization behavior, a range
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Isothermal interrupted hot compression tests of 5754 aluminum were conducted on a Gleeble-3500 thermo-mechanical simulator at temperatures of 350 °C and 450 °C, and strain rates of 0.1 s−1 and 1 s−1. To investigate the metadynamic recrystallization behavior, a range of inter-pass delay times (5–60 s) was employed. These tests simulated flat rolling to investigate how softening behaviors respond to controlled parameters, such as deformation temperature, strain rate, and delay times. These data allowed the parameters for the hot rolling process to be optimized. The dynamic softening at each pass and the effect of metadynamic recrystallization on flow properties and microstructural evolution were analyzed in detail. An offset yield strength of 0.2% was employed to calculate the softening fraction undergoing metadynamic recrystallization. A kinetic model was developed to describe the metadynamic recrystallization behaviors of the hot-deformed 5754 aluminum alloy. Furthermore, the time constant for 50% recrystallization was expressed as functions related to the temperature and the strain rate. The experimental and calculated results were found to be in close agreement, which verified the developed model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation of Highly Pure Vanadyl Sulfate from Sulfate Solutions Containing Impurities of Iron and Aluminum by Solvent Extraction Using EHEHPA
Metals 2017, 7(3), 106; doi:10.3390/met7030106 -
Abstract
The preparation of highly pure vanadyl sulfate from sulfate solutions containing impurities of iron and aluminumwas investigated by solvent extraction with 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHEHPA) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) as the phase modifier. The extraction and stripping conditions of
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The preparation of highly pure vanadyl sulfate from sulfate solutions containing impurities of iron and aluminumwas investigated by solvent extraction with 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHEHPA) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) as the phase modifier. The extraction and stripping conditions of vanadium (IV) and its separation from iron and aluminum were optimized. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the extraction of vanadium (IV) and iron were 68% and 53%, respectively, while only 2% aluminum was extracted in a single contact, suggesting good separation of vanadium (IV) from aluminum. Sulfuric acid solution was used for the stripping. Nearly 100% vanadium (IV) and 95% aluminum were stripped, while only 10% iron was stripped under the optimal stripping conditions in a single contact, suggesting good separation of vanadium (IV) from iron. After five stages of extraction and stripping, highly pure vanadyl sulfate containing 76.5 g/L V (IV) with the impurities of 12 mg/L Fe and 10 mg/L Al was obtained, which is suitable for the electrolyte of a vanadium redox flow battery. Organic solution was well regenerated after stripping by oxalic acid solution to remove the remaining iron. The mechanism of vanadium (IV) extraction using EHEHPA was also discussed based on the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructure Evolution and Biodegradation Behavior of Laser Rapid Solidified Mg–Al–Zn Alloy
Metals 2017, 7(3), 105; doi:10.3390/met7030105 -
Abstract
The too fast degradation of magnesium (Mg) alloys is a major impediment hindering their orthopedic application, despite their superior mechanical properties and favorable biocompatibility. In this study, the degradation resistance of AZ61 (Al 6 wt. %, Zn 1 wt. %, remaining Mg) was
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The too fast degradation of magnesium (Mg) alloys is a major impediment hindering their orthopedic application, despite their superior mechanical properties and favorable biocompatibility. In this study, the degradation resistance of AZ61 (Al 6 wt. %, Zn 1 wt. %, remaining Mg) was enhanced by rapid solidification via selective laser melting (SLM). The results indicated that an increase of the laser power was beneficial for enhancing degradation resistance and microhardness due to the increase of relative density and formation of uniformed equiaxed grains. However, too high a laser power led to the increase of mass loss and decrease of microhardness due to coarsened equiaxed grains and a reduced solid solution of Al in the Mg matrix. In addition, immersion tests showed that the apatite increased with the increase of immersion time, which indicated that SLMed AZ61 possessed good bioactivity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improved Compressive, Damping and Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Response of Mg–3Al–2.5La Alloy Using Y2O3 Nano Reinforcement
Metals 2017, 7(3), 104; doi:10.3390/met7030104 -
Abstract
In the present study, the effects of the addition of Y2O3 nanoparticles on Mg–3Al–2.5La alloy were investigated. Materials were synthesized using a disintegrated melt deposition technique followed by hot extrusion. The samples were then characterized for microstructure, compression properties, damping
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In the present study, the effects of the addition of Y2O3 nanoparticles on Mg–3Al–2.5La alloy were investigated. Materials were synthesized using a disintegrated melt deposition technique followed by hot extrusion. The samples were then characterized for microstructure, compression properties, damping properties, CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) and fracture morphology. The grain size of Mg–3Al–2.5La was significantly reduced by the addition of the Y2O3 nano-sized reinforcement (~3.6 μm, 43% of Mg–3Al–2.5La grain size). SEM and X-ray studies revealed that the size of uniformly distributed intermetallic phases, Al11La3, Al2La, and Al2.12La0.88 reduced by the addition of Y2O3 to Mg–3Al–2.5La alloy. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was slightly improved by the addition of nanoparticles. The results of the damping measurement revealed that the damping capacity of the Mg–3Al–2.5La alloy increased due to the presence of Y2O3. The compression results showed that the addition of Y2O3 to Mg–3Al–2.5La improved the compressive yield strength (from ~141 MPa to ~156 MPa) and the ultimate compressive strength (from ~456 MPa to ~520 MPa), which are superior than those of the Mg–3Al alloy (Compressive Yield Strength, CYS ~154 MPa and Ultimate Compressive Strength, UCS ~481 MPa). The results further revealed that there is no significant effect on the fracture strain value of Mg–3Al–2.5La due to the addition of Y2O3. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Gas Nitriding Temperature on the Surface Properties of a High Manganese TWIP Steel
Metals 2017, 7(3), 102; doi:10.3390/met7030102 -
Abstract
The effects of gas nitriding temperature on the cross section morphology, element nitrogen distribution, and surface layer compositions of a cold rolled and pre-strained high manganese austenitic TWIP steel 25Mn-3Cr-3Al-0.3C-0.01N and the corresponding anti-corrosion ability have been studied. The results show that, depending
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The effects of gas nitriding temperature on the cross section morphology, element nitrogen distribution, and surface layer compositions of a cold rolled and pre-strained high manganese austenitic TWIP steel 25Mn-3Cr-3Al-0.3C-0.01N and the corresponding anti-corrosion ability have been studied. The results show that, depending on nitriding temperature, the distribution of element nitrogen and main phase compositions are significantly different in the nitriding layers. At a temperature lower than 500 °C, the main composition in the modified layer is S-phase and the nitrogen concentration linearly decreases from the surface to the center, while Fe4N forms with S-phase and a step-like distribution of nitrogen content is present at nitriding temperature of 600 °C. Caused by the increasing of modified layer thickness and the formation of S-phase and Fe4N, the surface hardness was obviously enhanced. Anodic polarization curves in 3.5 wt. % NaCl solution indicate that the nitrided processes have a tremendous modification effect on anti-corrosion ability. Moreover, the increase of (111) oriented grain, caused by the elevated nitriding temperature, has a positive effect on the corrosion resistance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Very High Cycle Fatigue of Butt-Welded High-Strength Steel Plate
Metals 2017, 7(3), 103; doi:10.3390/met7030103 -
Abstract
Welded parts fabricated from high-strength steel (HSS) require an almost infinite lifetime, i.e., a gigacycle (109). Therefore, it is necessary to test its high-cycle fatigue behavior. In this paper, an accelerated fatigue test method using ultrasonic resonance is proposed. This method
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Welded parts fabricated from high-strength steel (HSS) require an almost infinite lifetime, i.e., a gigacycle (109). Therefore, it is necessary to test its high-cycle fatigue behavior. In this paper, an accelerated fatigue test method using ultrasonic resonance is proposed. This method reduces the experimental time required in comparison with a conventional fatigue test setup. The operating principle of the accelerated ultrasonic fatigue test involved the use of a 20-kHz resonant frequency. Therefore, it was necessary to design a specimen specifically for the test setup. In the study, ultrasonic fatigue testing equipment was used to test butt-welded 590- and 780-MPa ferrite–bainite steel plates. In order to design the specimen, a dynamic Young’s modulus was measured using piezoelectric element, a laser Doppler vibrometer, and a digital signal analyzer. The S–N curves of fatigue behavior of the original and butt-welded specimens were compared. The fatigue test results showed that the infinite (i.e., gigacycle) fatigue strengths of the welded specimens were approximately 8% less than those of the original specimen.
Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evolution of Anode Porosity under Air Oxidation: The Unveiling of the Active Pore Size
Metals 2017, 7(3), 101; doi:10.3390/met7030101 -
Abstract
The carbon anode, used in aluminum electrolysis (Hall–Héroult process), is over-consumed by air oxidation and carboxy-reaction (with CO2). Several anode features may affect this over-consumption, such as impurity content, graphitization level and anode porosity features (e.g., porosity volume fraction or pore
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The carbon anode, used in aluminum electrolysis (Hall–Héroult process), is over-consumed by air oxidation and carboxy-reaction (with CO2). Several anode features may affect this over-consumption, such as impurity content, graphitization level and anode porosity features (e.g., porosity volume fraction or pore size distribution). The two first parameters are basically related to the quality of raw materials and coke calcination conditions. Anode porosity is, however, greatly affected by anode manufacturing conditions, and is possible to be modified, to some extent, by adjusting the anode recipe and the processing parameters. This work aims to investigate the effect of anode porosity on its air reactivity. Baked anode samples were prepared in laboratory scale and then crushed into powder form (−4760 + 4000 µm). The recipe for anode preparation was similar to a typical industrial recipe, except that in the lab scale no butt particles were used in the recipe. Anode particles were then gasified at six different conversion levels (0, 5, 15, 25, 35 and 50 wt %) under air at 525 °C. The porosity was characterized in several pore size ranges, measured by nitrogen adsorption and mercury intrusion (0.0014–0.020, 0.002–0.025, 0.025–0.100, 0.1–40.0 and superior at 40 µm). The volume variation of each pore range, as a function of carbon conversion, was assessed and used to determine the size of the most active pores for air oxidation. The most active pore size was found to be the pores inferior at 40 µm before 15 wt % of gasification and pores superior at 40 µm between 15 and 50 wt % of carbon conversion. Limitation of pore size range could be used as an additional guideline, along with other targets such as high homogeneity and density, to set the optimum anode manufacturing parameters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of the Geometry of Metal Tube Walls after Necking in Uniaxial Tension
Metals 2017, 7(3), 100; doi:10.3390/met7030100 -
Abstract
Abstract: In order to characterize the deformation and true stress–strain relation of metal tubes, the geometry of tube walls after necking in uniaxial tension need to be determined. The paper investigated the necking process of metal tube. A large number of tensile tests
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Abstract: In order to characterize the deformation and true stress–strain relation of metal tubes, the geometry of tube walls after necking in uniaxial tension need to be determined. The paper investigated the necking process of metal tube. A large number of tensile tests and finite element analysis of 1Cr18Ni9Ti tubes with different sizes were conducted. It was found that the geometry of outer tube wall in the necking region can be described using a logistic regression model. The final geometry of the tube is determined by original tube diameter and wall thickness. The offset of tube walls are affected by two competing factors: volume constancy and necking. The offset distances of outer and inner walls are mainly affected by original wall thickness. The length of the necking zone is more influenced by original tube diameter. Tube elongation at fracture increases slightly as tube diameter gets larger, while the wall thickness has almost no impact on the elongation.
Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Prestrain and Subsequent Annealing on Tensile Properties of CP-Ti
Metals 2017, 7(3), 99; doi:10.3390/met7030099 -
Abstract
The aim of the present work is to investigate the effects of prestrain and subsequent annealing on tensile properties of commercial pure titanium (CP-Ti). According to tensile test results, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength increase with the increase of prestrain. Elongation and
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The aim of the present work is to investigate the effects of prestrain and subsequent annealing on tensile properties of commercial pure titanium (CP-Ti). According to tensile test results, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength increase with the increase of prestrain. Elongation and uniform strain decrease linearly with prestrain. In the case of prestrain that is higher than 3.5%, the macro-yield of specimens changes from gradual yielding to discontinuous yielding. It is supposed that considerable numbers of dislocations introduced into the material lead to the appearance of yield plateau. The quantitative analysis of the contribution of dislocation hardening to the strain hardening shows that dislocation-associated mechanisms play an important role in strain hardening. Moreover, a modified Fields-Backofen model is proposed to predict the flow stress of prestrained CP-Ti at different strain rates. Both strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening exponent decrease with prestrain. Fracture surfaces of the specimens show that fracture mechanism of all tested specimens is dimple fracture. The more ductile deformation in prestrained CP-Ti after annealing indicates that its ductility is improved by annealing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of the Solidification Rate on the Chemical Composition of Frozen Cryolite Bath
Metals 2017, 7(3), 97; doi:10.3390/met7030097 -
Abstract
Solidification of cryolite (Na3AlF6)-based bath takes place at different rates along the sideledge, and around alumina rafts and new anodes. The solidification rate has a significant impact on the structure and the chemical composition that determine the thermal conductivity and thus the thickness
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Solidification of cryolite (Na3AlF6)-based bath takes place at different rates along the sideledge, and around alumina rafts and new anodes. The solidification rate has a significant impact on the structure and the chemical composition that determine the thermal conductivity and thus the thickness of sideledge, or the duration of the existence of the temporary frozen bath layers in other cases. Unfortunately, samples that can be collected in industrial cells are formed under unknown, spatially and temporally varying conditions. For this reason, frozen bath samples were created under different heat flux conditions in a well-controlled laboratory environment using the so-called cold finger technique. The samples were analyzed by X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) in Back Scattering (BS) mode in order to obtain spatial distribution of chemical composition. Results were correlated with structural analysis. XRD confirmed our earlier hypothesis of recrystallization of cryolite to chiolite under medium heat flux regime. Lower α-alumina, and higher γ-alumina content in the samples obtained with very high heating rate suggest that fast cooling reduces α–γ conversion. In accordance with the expectation, SEM-BS revealed significant variation of the Na/Al ratio in the transient sample. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Charcoal Addition on the Properties of Carbon Anodes
Metals 2017, 7(3), 98; doi:10.3390/met7030098 -
Abstract
Wood charcoal is an attractive alternative to petroleum coke in production of carbon anodes for the aluminum smelting process. Calcined petroleum coke is the major component in the anode recipe and its consumption results in a direct greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint for the
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Wood charcoal is an attractive alternative to petroleum coke in production of carbon anodes for the aluminum smelting process. Calcined petroleum coke is the major component in the anode recipe and its consumption results in a direct greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint for the industry. Charcoal, on the other hand, is considered as a green and abundant source of sulfur-free carbon. However, its amorphous carbon structure and high contents of alkali and alkaline earth metals (e.g., Na and Ca) make charcoal highly reactive to air and CO2. Acid washing and heat treatment were employed in order to reduce the reactivity of charcoal. The pre-treated charcoal was used to substitute up to 10% of coke in the anode recipe in an attempt to investigate the effect of this substitution on final anode properties. The results showed deterioration in the anode properties by increasing the charcoal content. However, by adjusting the anode recipe, this negative effect can be considerably mitigated. Increasing the pitch content was found to be helpful to improve the physical properties of the anodes containing charcoal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Method of Preparation for High-Purity Nanocrystalline Anhydrous Cesium Perrhenate
Metals 2017, 7(3), 96; doi:10.3390/met7030096 -
Abstract
This paper is devoted to the preparation of high-purity anhydrous nanocrystalline cesium perrhenate, which is applied in catalyst preparation. It was found that anhydrous cesium perrhenate with a crystal size <45 nm can be obtained using cesium ion sorption and elution using aqueous
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This paper is devoted to the preparation of high-purity anhydrous nanocrystalline cesium perrhenate, which is applied in catalyst preparation. It was found that anhydrous cesium perrhenate with a crystal size <45 nm can be obtained using cesium ion sorption and elution using aqueous solutions of perrhenic acid with subsequent crystallisation, purification, and drying. The following composition of the as-obtained product was reported: 34.7% Cs; 48.6% Re and <2 ppm Bi; <3 ppm Zn; <2 ppm As; <10 ppm Ni; < 3 ppm Mg; <5 ppm Cu; <5 ppm Mo; <5 ppm Pb; <10 ppm K; <2 ppm Na; <5 ppm Ca; <3 ppm Fe. Full article
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