Metals2015, 5(3), 1371-1386; doi:10.3390/met5031371 (registering DOI) - published 29 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Electrochemically deposited polymers, also called “synthetic metals”, have emerged as potential candidates for chemical sensing due to their interesting and tunable chemical, electrical, and structural properties. In particular, most of these polymers (including polypyrrole, polyaniline, polythiophene) and their derivatives can be used as the sensitive layer of conductimetric gas sensors because of their conducting properties. An important advantage of polymer-based gas sensors is their efficiency at room temperature. This characteristic is interesting since most of the commercially-available sensors, usually based on metal oxides, work at high temperatures (300–400 °C). Consequently, polymer-based gas sensors are playing a growing role in the improvement of public health and environment control because they can lead to gas sensors operating with rapid detection, high sensitivity, small size, and specificity in atmospheric conditions. In this review, the recent advances in electrodeposited polymer-based gas sensors are summarized and discussed. It is shown that the sensing characteristics of electrodeposited polymers can be improved by chemical functionalization, nanostructuration, or mixing with other functional materials to form composites or hybrid materials.
Metals2015, 5(3), 1349-1370; doi:10.3390/met5031349 - published 27 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Pyrrolyl squaraines, both dyes and polymers, were first reported in 1965 and since then a fascinating body of work has been produced investigating the chemistry of these interesting molecules. A major aspect of these molecules that makes them so appealing to those researchers who have contributed to this field over the last 50 years is their chemical versatility. In this review, subjects, such as the synthetic history, an understanding of the molecular structure, an overview of the optical properties, a discussion of both the electrical conduction properties, and magnetic properties, plus use of the particles of pyrrolyl squaraines, are presented. Furthermore, previously published results are not just presented; they are in certain cases collated and used to both highlight and explain important aspects of pyrrolyl squaraine chemistry.
Metals2015, 5(3), 1328-1348; doi:10.3390/met5031328 - published 23 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Excavation followed by landfilling is the most common method for treating soils contaminated by metals. However, as this solution is not sustainable, alternative techniques are required. Chemical soil washing is one such alternative. The aim of this experimental lab-scale study is to develop a remediation and metal recovery method for Cu contaminated sites. The method is based on the washing of soil or ash (combusted soil/bark) with acidic waste liquids followed by electrolytic Cu recovery by means of bioelectrochemical systems (BES). The results demonstrate that a one- or two-step acidic leaching process followed by water washing removes >80 wt. % of the Cu. Copper with 99.7–99.9 wt. % purity was recovered from the acidic leachates using BES. In all experiments, electrical power was generated during the reduction of Cu. This clearly indicates that Cu can also be recovered from dilute solutions. Additionally, the method has the potential to wash co-pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxy-PAHs.
Metals2015, 5(3), 1315-1327; doi:10.3390/met5031315 - published 22 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This work presents the mechanical behavior modeling of commercial purity titanium subjected to severe plastic deformation (SPD) during post-SPD compression, at temperatures of 600-900 °C and at strain rates of 0.001-0.1 s−1. The flow response of the ultra-fine grained microstructure is modeled using the modified Johnson-Cook model as a predictive tool, aiding high temperature forming applications. It was seen that the model was satisfactory at all deformation conditions except for the deformation temperature of 600 °C. In order to improve the predictive capability, the model was extended with a corrective term for predictions at temperatures below 700 °C. The accuracy of the model was displayed with reasonable agreement, resulting in error levels of less than 5% at all deformation temperatures.
Metals2015, 5(3), 1306-1314; doi:10.3390/met5031306 - published 17 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The pretreatment processes consisting of grinding followed by roasting were investigated to improve the selective leaching of Nd and Dy from neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnet scraps. The peaks of Nd(OH)3 and Fe were observed in XRD results after grinding with NaOH as the amount of water addition increased to 5 cm3. These results indicate that the components of Nd and Fe in NdFeB magnet could be changed successfully into Nd(OH)3 and Fe, respectively. In the roasting tests using the ground product, with increasing roasting temperature to 500 °C, the peaks of Nd(OH)3 and Fe disappeared while those of Nd2O3 and Fe2O3 were shown. The peaks of NdFeO3 in the sample roasted at 600 °C were observed in the XRD pattern. Consequently, 94.2%, 93.1%, 1.0% of Nd, Dy, Fe were leached at 400 rpm and 90 °C in 1 kmol·m−3 acetic acid solution with 1% pulp density using a sample prepared under the following conditions: 15 in stoichiometric molar ratio of NaOH:Nd, 550 rpm in rotational grinding speed, 5 cm3 in water addition, 30 min in grinding time, 400 °C and 2 h in roasting temperature and time. The results indicate that the selective leaching of Nd and Dy from NdFeB magnet could be achieved successfully by grinding and then roasting treatments.
Metals2015, 5(3), 1279-1305; doi:10.3390/met5031279 - published 17 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have desirable properties like high strength and low modulus, but their toughness can show much variation, depending on the kind of test as well as alloy chemistry. This article reviews the type of toughness tests commonly performed and the factors influencing the data obtained. It appears that even the less-tough metallic glasses are tougher than oxide glasses. The current theories describing the links between toughness and material parameters, including elastic constants and alloy chemistry (ordering in the glass), are discussed. Based on the current literature, a few important issues for further work are identified.