Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Structural Stability of Materials through Mechanical Spectroscopy: Four Case Studies
Metals 2016, 6(12), 306; doi:10.3390/met6120306 -
Abstract
Microstructural stability is one of the utmost important requirements for metallic materials in engineering applications, particularly at high temperatures. The paper shows how Mechanical Spectroscopy (MS) (i.e., damping and dynamic modulus measurements) permits the monitoring of the evolution of lattice defects, porosity, and
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Microstructural stability is one of the utmost important requirements for metallic materials in engineering applications, particularly at high temperatures. The paper shows how Mechanical Spectroscopy (MS) (i.e., damping and dynamic modulus measurements) permits the monitoring of the evolution of lattice defects, porosity, and cracks which strongly affect the mechanical behavior of metals and sometimes lead to permanent damage. For this purpose, some applications of the technique to different metals and alloys (AISI 304 stainless steel, PWA 1483 single crystal superalloy, nanostructured FeMo prepared via SPS sintering and tungsten) of engineering interest are presented. These experiments have been carried out in lab conditions using bar-shaped samples at constant or increasing temperatures. The results can be used to orient the interpretation of frequency and damping changes observed through other instruments in components of complex shape during their in-service life. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Significant Corrosion Resistance in an Ultrafine-Grained Al6063 Alloy with a Bimodal Grain-Size Distribution through a Self-Anodic Protection Mechanism
Metals 2016, 6(12), 307; doi:10.3390/met6120307 -
Abstract
The bimodal microstructures of Al6063 consisting of 15, 30, and 45 vol. % coarse-grained (CG) bands within the ultrafine-grained (UFG) matrix were synthesized via blending of high-energy mechanically milled powders with unmilled powders followed by hot powder extrusion. The corrosion behavior of the
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The bimodal microstructures of Al6063 consisting of 15, 30, and 45 vol. % coarse-grained (CG) bands within the ultrafine-grained (UFG) matrix were synthesized via blending of high-energy mechanically milled powders with unmilled powders followed by hot powder extrusion. The corrosion behavior of the bimodal specimens was assessed by means of polarization, steady-state cyclic polarization and impedance tests, whereas their microstructural features and corrosion products were examined using optical microscopy (OM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The bimodal Al6063 containing 15 vol. % CG phase exhibits the highest corrosion resistance among the bimodal microstructures and even superior electrochemical behavior compared with the plain UFG and CG materials in the 3.5% NaCl solution. The enhanced corrosion resistance is attributed to the optimum cathode to anode surface area ratio that gives rise to the formation of an effective galvanic couple between CG areas and the UFG matrix. The operational galvanic coupling leads to the domination of a “self-anodic protection system” on bimodal microstructure and consequently forms a uniform thick protective passive layer over it. In contrast, the 45 vol. % CG bimodal specimen shows the least corrosion resistance due to the catastrophic galvanic corrosion in UFG regions. The observed results for UFG Al6063 suggest that metallurgical tailoring of the grain structure in terms of bimodal microstructures leads to simultaneous enhancement in the electrochemical behavior and mechanical properties of passivable alloys that are usually inversely correlated. The mechanism of self-anodic protection for passivable metals with bimodal microstructures is discussed here for the first time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Thermodynamic Analysis of Possible Chalcopyrite Dissolution Mechanism in Sulfuric Acidic Aqueous Solution
Metals 2016, 6(12), 303; doi:10.3390/met6120303 -
Abstract
The dissolution routes of chalcopyrite in acidic sulfate aqueous solution have been discussed by thermodynamic calculation under different aqueous species concentrations, such as Cu2+, Fe2+ and H2S. The results show that for both oxidative dissolution and non-oxidative dissolution
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The dissolution routes of chalcopyrite in acidic sulfate aqueous solution have been discussed by thermodynamic calculation under different aqueous species concentrations, such as Cu2+, Fe2+ and H2S. The results show that for both oxidative dissolution and non-oxidative dissolution of chalcopyrite, the dissolution process undergoes several intermediate steps before completely decomposing to Cu2+, Fe2+ and elemental sulfur, in which bornite and covellite are the most likely intermediates. The dissolution routes of the secondary intermediates have also been discussed and covellite is the most likely final intermediate. Based on these results, some frequently reported phenomena, such as the existence of an optima redox potential range, the promotive action of the addition of Cu2+ and Fe2+ , as well as the preferential release of Fe2+ in the chalcopyrite leaching process, have been explained and elucidated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hot Deformation Behavior and Microstructural Evolution Characteristics of Ti-44Al-5V-1Cr Alloy Containing (γ + α2 + B2) Phases
Metals 2016, 6(12), 305; doi:10.3390/met6120305 -
Abstract
The hot deformation behavior and microstructural evolution of Ti-44Al-5V-1Cr alloy were investigated by hot compression tests at temperatures of 1000–1250 °C and strain rates of 0.001–1 s−1. It was indicated that the dependence of peak stress on deformation temperature and strain
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The hot deformation behavior and microstructural evolution of Ti-44Al-5V-1Cr alloy were investigated by hot compression tests at temperatures of 1000–1250 °C and strain rates of 0.001–1 s−1. It was indicated that the dependence of peak stress on deformation temperature and strain rate could be accurately described by a hyperbolic sine type equation. The activation energy, Q, was estimated to be 632 kJ/mol. The hot processing map was developed at different strains on the basis of dynamic materials modeling and the Murty criteria. As a result, the instability zones occurred in the regions of low temperature (<1050 °C) and a high strain rate (>0.1 s−1). The flow soft mechanism of the instability regions is stress relaxation caused by localization deformation at lamellar boundaries. Dynamic recrystallization is the mainly refining and spheroidizing mechanism of lamellar microstructures. The optimum hot working condition of as-cast TiAl alloy occurs in the temperature range of 1175–1225 °C and the strain rate range 0.05–0.1 s−1. The large-size TiAl alloy rectangular bars with crack-free appearance were successfully prepared by hot extrusion. After annealing, the fine and uniform microstructure with excellent deformation ability was obtained. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Ductility of Nanostructured Bainite
Metals 2016, 6(12), 302; doi:10.3390/met6120302 -
Abstract
Nanostructured bainite is a novel ultra-high-strength steel-concept under intensive current research, in which the optimization of its mechanical properties can only come from a clear understanding of the parameters that control its ductility. This work reviews first the nature of this composite-like material
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Nanostructured bainite is a novel ultra-high-strength steel-concept under intensive current research, in which the optimization of its mechanical properties can only come from a clear understanding of the parameters that control its ductility. This work reviews first the nature of this composite-like material as a product of heat treatment conditions. Subsequently, the premises of ductility behavior are presented, taking as a reference related microstructures: conventional bainitic steels, and TRIP-aided steels. The ductility of nanostructured bainite is then discussed in terms of work-hardening and fracture mechanisms, leading to an analysis of the three-fold correlation between ductility, mechanically-induced martensitic transformation, and mechanical partitioning between the phases. Results suggest that a highly stable/hard retained austenite, with mechanical properties close to the matrix of bainitic ferrite, is advantageous in order to enhance ductility. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evolution of Mechanical Twinning during Cyclic Deformation of Mg-Zn-Ca Alloys
Metals 2016, 6(12), 304; doi:10.3390/met6120304 -
Abstract
The present study clarifies the complex interplay between mechanical twinning and dislocation slip during low-cycle fatigue testing of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys. Temporal details of these mechanisms are studied non-destructively by in situ monitoring of the acoustic emission (AE) response powered by a robust signal
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The present study clarifies the complex interplay between mechanical twinning and dislocation slip during low-cycle fatigue testing of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys. Temporal details of these mechanisms are studied non-destructively by in situ monitoring of the acoustic emission (AE) response powered by a robust signal categorization. Through the analysis of AE time series, the kinetics of deformation twinning per cycle and the overall accumulation of twinning during cyclic loading is described and its effect on fatigue life is highlighted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructure, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of Friction Stir Welding High Nitrogen Martensitic Stainless Steel 30Cr15Mo1N
Metals 2016, 6(12), 301; doi:10.3390/met6120301 -
Abstract
High nitrogen martensitic stainless steel 30Cr15Mo1N plates were successfully welded by friction stir welding (FSW) at a tool rotation speed of 300 rpm with a welding speed of 100 mm/min, using W-Re tool. The sound joint with no significant nitrogen loss was successfully
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High nitrogen martensitic stainless steel 30Cr15Mo1N plates were successfully welded by friction stir welding (FSW) at a tool rotation speed of 300 rpm with a welding speed of 100 mm/min, using W-Re tool. The sound joint with no significant nitrogen loss was successfully produced. Microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of an FSW joint were investigated. The results suggest that the grain size of the stir zone (SZ) is larger than the base metal (BM) and is much larger the case in SZ-top. Some carbides and nitrides rich in chromium were found in BM while not observed in SZ. The martensitic phase in SZ could transform to austenite phase during the FSW process and the higher peak temperature, the greater degree of transformation. The hardness of SZ is significantly lower than that of the BM. An abrupt change of hardness defined as hard zone (HZ) was found in the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) on the advancing side (AS), and the HZ is attributed to a combination result of temperature, deformation, and material flow behavior. The corrosion resistance of SZ is superior to that of BM, which can be attributed to less precipitation and lower angle boundaries (LABs). The corrosion resistance of SZ-bottom is slight higher than that of SZ-top because of the finer grained structure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Case Study of Landfill Leachate Using Coal Bottom Ash for the Removal of Cd2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+
Metals 2016, 6(12), 300; doi:10.3390/met6120300 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The removal of Cd2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ by coal bottom ash has been investigated. In single metal system, metal uptake was studied in batch adsorption experiments as a function of pH (2–3), contact time (5–180 min), initial metal concentration
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The removal of Cd2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ by coal bottom ash has been investigated. In single metal system, metal uptake was studied in batch adsorption experiments as a function of pH (2–3), contact time (5–180 min), initial metal concentration (50–400 mg/L), adsorbent concentration (5–40 g/L), particle size, and ionic strength (0–1 M NaCl). Removal percentages of metals ions increased with increasing pH and dosage. Removal efficiency at lower concentrations was greater than at higher values. The maximum amount of metal ion adsorbed in milligrams per gram was 35.4, 35.1 and 34.6 mg/g for Zn2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+, respectively, starting out from an initial solution at pH 3. Simultaneous removal of Zn2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+ ions from ternary systems was also investigated and compared with that from single systems. Cd2+ uptake was significantly affected by the presence of competing ions at pH 2. The results obtained in the tests with landfill leachate showed that bottom ash is effective in simultaneously removing several heavy metals such as Ni, Zn, Cd, As, Mn, Cu, Co, Se, Hg, Ag, and Pb. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Resistance Spot Weldability of Galvanize Coated and Uncoated TRIP Steels
Metals 2016, 6(12), 299; doi:10.3390/met6120299 -
Abstract
In this study, the resistance spot weldabilty of zinc galvanize-coated and uncoated TRIP800 steels was investigated in detail. Depending on the welding parameters such as welding current and welding time, the effects of zinc coating on the weld nugget geometry, the tensile shear
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In this study, the resistance spot weldabilty of zinc galvanize-coated and uncoated TRIP800 steels was investigated in detail. Depending on the welding parameters such as welding current and welding time, the effects of zinc coating on the weld nugget geometry, the tensile shear strength, the failure modes, the hardness, and the microstructure of the resistance spot-welded sample were studied, and the results are compared with that of uncoated weldment. The coating on the surface of the TRIP steel causes a decrease in the weld nugget size and tensile shear strength of the weldment, and it changes to failure mode of the test sample from pullout to interfacial or partial interfacial fracture. As compared with the uncoated sample, the galvanized TRIP800 steel weldment has required a larger critical nugget size for achieving the desired pullout fracture mode and acceptable tensile shear strength. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Phase Evolution of the AlxNbTiVZr (x = 0; 0.5; 1; 1.5) High Entropy Alloys
Metals 2016, 6(12), 298; doi:10.3390/met6120298 -
Abstract
AlxNbTiVZr (x = 0; 0.5; 1; 1.5) high entropy alloys were fabricated by vacuum arc melting and annealed at 1200 °C for 24 h. The NbTiVZr alloy had single body centered cubic (bcc) solid solution phase after annealing at 1200
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AlxNbTiVZr (x = 0; 0.5; 1; 1.5) high entropy alloys were fabricated by vacuum arc melting and annealed at 1200 °C for 24 h. The NbTiVZr alloy had single body centered cubic (bcc) solid solution phase after annealing at 1200 °C, while, in the Al-containing alloys, C14 Laves and Zr2Al-type phases are found. The alloys were subjected to annealing at 800 °C and 1000 °C. It was shown that annealing temperature (800 °C or 1000 °C) weakly affected the produced phases but the Al content had pronounced effect on structure of the annealed alloys. The NbTiVZr alloy decomposed into bcc, Zr-rich hexagonal close-packed (hcp), and C15 Laves phases. In the Al0.5NbTiVZr alloy, the bcc matrix phase also decomposed into a mixture of bcc and C14 Laves phases. In the AlNbTiVZr alloy, annealing resulted in an increase of volume fraction of Zr2Al-type phase. Finally, in the Al1.5NbTiVZr alloy, formation of AlNb2-type phase was observed. The highest fraction of second phases appeared after annealing in the NbTiVZr alloy. It is demonstrated that the strong chemical affinity and high enthalpy of formation of intermetallic phases in Al-Zr atomic pair govern the intermetallic phase formation in the alloys at 1200 °C. Increase of volume fraction of second phases in the alloys due to annealing at 800 °C and 1000 °C is in proportion to the decrease of Zr concentration in the bcc matrix phase. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Laser Welding Speed on the Morphology and Phases Occurring in Spray-Compacted Hypereutectic Al-Si-Alloys
Metals 2016, 6(12), 295; doi:10.3390/met6120295 -
Abstract
Normally, the weldability of aluminum alloys is ruled by the temperature range of solidification of an alloy according to its composition by the formation of hot cracks due to thermal shrinkage. However, for materials at nonequilibrium conditions, advantage can be taken by multiple
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Normally, the weldability of aluminum alloys is ruled by the temperature range of solidification of an alloy according to its composition by the formation of hot cracks due to thermal shrinkage. However, for materials at nonequilibrium conditions, advantage can be taken by multiple phase formation, leading to an annihilation of temperature stress at the microscopic scale, preventing hot cracks even for alloys with extreme melting range. In this paper, several spray-compacted hypereutectic aluminum alloys were laser welded. Besides different silicon contents, additional alloying elements like copper, iron and nickel were present in some alloys, affecting the microstructure. The microstructure was investigated at the delivery state of spray-compacted material as well as for a wide range of welding speeds ranging from 0.5 to 10 m/min, respectively. The impact of speed on phase composition and morphology was studied at different disequilibrium solidification conditions. At high welding velocity, a close-meshed network of eutectic Al-Si-composition was observed, whereas the matrix is filled with nearly pure aluminum, helping to diminish the thermal stress during accelerated solidification. Primary solidified silicon was found, however, containing considerable amounts of aluminum, which was not expected from phase diagrams obtained at the thermodynamic equilibrium. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tensile Strength Reliability Analysis of Cu48Zr48Al4 Amorphous Microwires
Metals 2016, 6(12), 296; doi:10.3390/met6120296 -
Abstract
Uniform Cu48Zr48Al4 amorphous microwires with a high surface quality are fabricated by a melt extraction technique. The mechanical property of microwires is evaluated via tensile tests. To estimate the strength scattering, statistical analysis of fracture strengths is conducted
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Uniform Cu48Zr48Al4 amorphous microwires with a high surface quality are fabricated by a melt extraction technique. The mechanical property of microwires is evaluated via tensile tests. To estimate the strength scattering, statistical analysis of fracture strengths is conducted using logarithmic normal distribution, and two- and three-parameter Weibull analysis, severally. The results show that the tensile strengths of Cu48Zr48Al4 amorphous microwires range from 1724 to 1937 MPa with the arithmetical average value of 1836 MPa, and the arithmetical standard deviation of 56.4 MPa. The geometric mean of fracture strength is 1840 MPa using logarithmic normal distribution statistical analysis. Using two- and three-parameter Weibull analysis, the Weibull modulus and fracture threshold value are respectively calculated for 34.8 and 1483 MPa, which shows the excellent tensile mechanical properties with a high predictability of Cu48Zr48Al4 amorphous microwires and further indicates the great potential of application. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Nanocrystallization in the Duplex Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Processed by Multiple Laser Shock Peening
Metals 2016, 6(12), 297; doi:10.3390/met6120297 -
Abstract
Laser shock peening of titanium alloys has been widely applied in the aerospace industry. However, little is known of the nanocrystalline formation characteristics and mechanisms. In this investigation, a nanocrystalline layer was formed in the duplex Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy surface region by means
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Laser shock peening of titanium alloys has been widely applied in the aerospace industry. However, little is known of the nanocrystalline formation characteristics and mechanisms. In this investigation, a nanocrystalline layer was formed in the duplex Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy surface region by means of multiple pulsed laser shock peening (LSP). The phase transition and residual stress characteristics of LSP samples were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the microstructure and morphologies. As the number of laser pulses increased for each location, higher grain refinement was observed. Micro-hardness testing showed that hardness increased with the number of pulses delivered to each location due to the formation of nanocrystalline layers and high dislocation density in the samples, and a gradient variation of the micro-hardness was obtained. In addition, mechanical twins and different dislocation configurations were formed in the α phase region while only dense dislocation tangles were observed in the β phase region after multiple laser pulse impacts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Surface Texturing on Stresses during Rapid Changes in Temperature
Metals 2016, 6(11), 290; doi:10.3390/met6110290 -
Abstract
Recently, there has been great interest in the application of the surface texturing method to enhance material surface performance. Material surfaces sometimes experience rapid temperature changes, and the local surface will obviously generate thermal stresses, which may be detrimental to the material structure.
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Recently, there has been great interest in the application of the surface texturing method to enhance material surface performance. Material surfaces sometimes experience rapid temperature changes, and the local surface will obviously generate thermal stresses, which may be detrimental to the material structure. In order to understand the relationship between surface texturing and stresses, a numerical approach is used to investigate the effects of surface texturing on stresses. The results show that surface texturing can generate compressive stresses along the normal direction of the surface, and that strong tensional stresses can be formed in the center of a surface at the same time that are beneficial to material surface performance. However, a smooth surface cannot generate these beneficial stresses. In addition, there is an optimum design size with respect to textures, and the most desirable state of stress in a surface layer can be achieved at this size. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Corrosion of Fe-(9~37) wt. %Cr Alloys at 700–800 °C in (N2, H2O, H2S)-Mixed Gas
Metals 2016, 6(11), 291; doi:10.3390/met6110291 -
Abstract
Fe-(9, 19, 28, 37) wt. %Cr alloys were corroded at 700 and 800 °C for 70 h under 1 atm of N2, 1 atm of N2/3.2%H2O mixed gas, and 1 atm of N2/3.1%H2O/2.42%H
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Fe-(9, 19, 28, 37) wt. %Cr alloys were corroded at 700 and 800 °C for 70 h under 1 atm of N2, 1 atm of N2/3.2%H2O mixed gas, and 1 atm of N2/3.1%H2O/2.42%H2S mixed gas. In this gas composition order, the corrosion rate of Fe-9Cr alloy rapidly increased. Fe-9Cr alloy was always non-protective. In contrast, Fe-(19, 28, 37) wt. %Cr alloys were protective in N2 and N2/3.2%H2O mixed gas because of the formation of the Cr2O3 layer. They, however, became nonprotective in N2/3.1%H2O/2.42%H2S mixed gas because sulfidation dominated to form the outer FeS layer and the inner Cr2S3 layer containing some FeCr2S4. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Digestion of Alumina from Non-Magnetic Material Obtained from Magnetic Separation of Reduced Iron-Rich Diasporic Bauxite with Sodium Salts
Metals 2016, 6(11), 294; doi:10.3390/met6110294 -
Abstract
Recovery of iron from iron-rich diasporic bauxite ore via reductive roasting followed by magnetic separation has been explored recently. However, the efficiency of alumina extraction in the non-magnetic materials is absent. In this paper, a further study on the digestion of alumina by
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Recovery of iron from iron-rich diasporic bauxite ore via reductive roasting followed by magnetic separation has been explored recently. However, the efficiency of alumina extraction in the non-magnetic materials is absent. In this paper, a further study on the digestion of alumina by the Bayer process from non-magnetic material obtained after magnetic separation of reduced iron-rich diasporic bauxite with sodium salts was investigated. The results indicate that the addition of sodium salts can destroy the original occurrences of iron-, aluminum- and silicon-containing minerals of bauxite ore during reductive roasting. Meanwhile, the reactions of sodium salts with complex aluminum- and silicon-bearing phases generate diaoyudaoite and sodium aluminosilicate. The separation of iron via reductive roasting of bauxite ore with sodium salts followed by magnetic separation improves alumina digestion in the Bayer process. When the alumina-bearing material in bauxite ore is converted into non-magnetic material, the digestion temperature decreases significantly from 280 °C to 240 °C with a nearly 99% relative digestion ratio of alumina. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Residual Stress Distribution and Microstructure Evolution of AA 6061-T6 Treated by Warm Laser Peening
Metals 2016, 6(11), 292; doi:10.3390/met6110292 -
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to study the effects of laser peening (LP) on the residual stress distribution and microstructure evolution of AA 6061-T6 under different temperatures. A laser peening experiment was conducted on the square-shape samples by using single spot and
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The aim of this paper is to study the effects of laser peening (LP) on the residual stress distribution and microstructure evolution of AA 6061-T6 under different temperatures. A laser peening experiment was conducted on the square-shape samples by using single spot and 50% overlap shock. Three-dimensional surface morphologies of treated samples were observed. The influence of peening temperature on the distribution of compressive residual stress was analyzed. An optical microscope (OM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) were employed to observe the microstructure evolution of the samples before and after LP. The results indicate that, as the peening temperature increases, the micro-hardness increases first and then decreases. The LP process induces high-amplitude compressive residual stress on the surface at different temperatures even if the compressive residual stress slightly reduces with increases in temperature. The maximum compressive residual stress affected layer depth is about 0.67 mm, appearing at a temperature of 160 °C. The OM test revealed that the grain size was significantly decreased after warm laser peening (WLP) and that the average value of grain size was reduced by 50%. The TEM test shows that more dislocation tangles were produced in AA 6061-T6 after WLP; compared to the LP process, the precipitate-dislocation interaction can benefit both strength and ductility for AA 6061-T6, thus enhancing the mechanical properties of the material. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Pre-Fatigue on the Monotonic Deformation Behavior of a Coplanar Double-Slip-Oriented Cu Single Crystal
Metals 2016, 6(11), 293; doi:10.3390/met6110293 -
Abstract
The [2¯33] coplanar double-slip-oriented Cu single crystals were pre-fatigued up to a saturation stage and then uniaxially tensioned or compressed to fracture. The results show that for the specimen pre-fatigued at a plastic strain amplitude γpl of 9.2
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The [2¯33] coplanar double-slip-oriented Cu single crystals were pre-fatigued up to a saturation stage and then uniaxially tensioned or compressed to fracture. The results show that for the specimen pre-fatigued at a plastic strain amplitude γpl of 9.2 × 104, which is located within the quasi-plateau of the cyclic stress-strain (CSS) curve, its tensile strength and elongation are coincidently improved, showing an obvious strengthening effect by low-cycle fatigue (LCF) training. However, for the crystal specimens pre-fatigued at a γpl lower or higher than the quasi-plateau region, due to a low pre-cyclic hardening or the pre-induction of fatigue damage, no marked strengthening effect by LCF training occurs, and even a weakening effect by LCF damage takes place instead. In contrast, the effect of pre-fatigue deformation on the uniaxial compressive behavior is not so significant, since the compressive deformation is in a stress state more beneficial to the ongoing plastic deformation and it is insensitive to the damage induced by pre-cycling. Based on the observations and comparisons of deformation features and dislocation structures in the uniaxially deformed [2¯33] crystal specimens which have been pre-fatigued at different γpl, the micro-mechanisms for the effect of pre-fatigue on the static mechanical behavior are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Tantalum Recycling by Electron Beam Melting
Metals 2016, 6(11), 287; doi:10.3390/met6110287 -
Abstract
Investigations are carried out and obtained experimental and theoretical data for tantalum scrap recycling by electron beam melting (EBM) is presented in this paper. Different thermal treatment process conditions are realized and results are discussed. A chemical analysis is performed and refining mechanisms
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Investigations are carried out and obtained experimental and theoretical data for tantalum scrap recycling by electron beam melting (EBM) is presented in this paper. Different thermal treatment process conditions are realized and results are discussed. A chemical analysis is performed and refining mechanisms for electron beam (EB) refining of Ta are discussed. For the performed experiments the best purification of Ta (99.96) is obtained at 21.6 kW beam power for a melting time of 3 min. A statistical approach is applied for estimation of the material losses and the liquid pool characteristics based on experimentally-obtained data. The aim is to improve the EBM and choosing optimal process conditions, depending on the concrete characteristic requirements. Model-based quality optimization of electron beam melting and refining (EBMR) processes of Ta is considered related to the optimization of the molten pool parameters, connected to the occurring refining processes, and to minimal material losses. Optimization of the process of EBM of Ta is based on overall criteria, giving compromised solutions, depending on the requirements concerning the quality of the performed products. The accumulated data, the obtained results, and the optimization statistical approach allow us to formulate requirements on the process parameters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Wear Behavior of Mechanically Alloyed Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composites Containing Carbon Nanotubes
Metals 2016, 6(11), 289; doi:10.3390/met6110289 -
Abstract
The present paper reports the preparation and wear behavior of mechanically alloyed Ti-based bulk metallic glass composites containing carbon nanotube (CNT) particles. The differential scanning calorimeter results show that the thermal stability of the amorphous matrix is affected by the presence of CNT
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The present paper reports the preparation and wear behavior of mechanically alloyed Ti-based bulk metallic glass composites containing carbon nanotube (CNT) particles. The differential scanning calorimeter results show that the thermal stability of the amorphous matrix is affected by the presence of CNT particles. Changes in glass transition temperature (Tg) and crystallization temperature (Tx) suggest that deviations in the chemical composition of the amorphous matrix occurred because of a partial dissolution of the CNT species into the amorphous phase. Although the hardness of CNT/Ti50Cu28Ni15Sn7 bulk metallic glass composites is increased with the addition of CNT particles, the wear resistance of such composites is not directly proportional to their hardness, and does not follow the standard wear law. A worn surface under a high applied load shows that the 12 vol. % CNT/Ti50Cu28Ni15Sn7 bulk metallic glass composite suffers severe wear compared with monolithic Ti50Cu28Ni15Sn7 bulk metallic glass. Full article
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