Metals2015, 5(2), 891-909; doi:10.3390/met5020891 (registering DOI) - published 29 May 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The increased attention ultrafine grained (UFG) materials have received over the last decade has been inspired by their high strength in combination with a remarkable ductility, which is a promising combination for good fatigue properties. In this paper, we focus on the effect of different carbide morphologies in the initial microstructure on the fatigue behavior after high pressure torsion (HPT) treatment of SAE 1045 steels. The two initial carbide morphologies are spheroidized as well as tempered states. The HPT processing increased the hardness of the spheroidized and tempered states from 169 HV and 388 HV to a maximum of 511 HV and 758 HV, respectively. The endurance limit increased linearly with hardness up to about 500 HV independent of the carbide morphology. The fracture surfaces revealed mostly flat fatigue fracture surfaces with crack initiation at the surface or, more often, at non-metallic inclusions. Morphology and crack initiation mechanisms were changed by the severe plastic deformation. The residual fracture surface of specimens with spheroidal initial microstructures showed well-defined dimple structures also after HPT at high fatigue limits and high hardness values. In contrast, the specimens with a tempered initial microstructure showed rather brittle and rough residual fracture surfaces after HPT.
Metals2015, 5(2), 881-890; doi:10.3390/met5020881 - published 26 May 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In situ neutron diffraction has been used to examine the deformation mechanisms of a precipitation-hardened and extruded Mg-8.5wt.%Al alloy subjected to (i) compression followed by reverse tension (texture T1) and (ii) tension followed by reverse compression (texture T2). Two starting textures are used: (1) as-extruded texture, T1, in which the basal pole of most grains is normal to the extrusion axis and a small portion of grains are oriented with the basal pole parallel to the extrusion axis; (2) a reoriented texture, T2, in which the basal pole of most grains is parallel to the extrusion axis. For texture T1, the onset of extension twinning corresponds well with the macroscopic elastic-plastic transition during the initial compression stage. The non-linear macroscopic stress/strain behavior during unloading after compression is more significant than during unloading after tension. For texture T2, little detwinning occurs after the initial tension stage, but almost all of the twinned volumes are detwinned during loading in reverse compression.
Metals2015, 5(2), 863-880; doi:10.3390/met5020863 - published 26 May 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The paper is concerned with the analysis of magneto-piezoelastic anistropic materials. Analytical modeling of magneto-piezoelastic materials is essential for the design and applications in the smart composite structures incorporating them as actuating and sensing constituents. It is shown that Green’s function method is applicable to time harmonic magneto-elastic-piezoelectricity problems using the boundary integral technique, and the exact analytical solutions are obtained. As an application, a two-dimensional static plane-strain problem is considered to investigate the effect of magnetic field on piezoelectric materials. The closed-form analytical solutions are obtained for a number of boundary conditions for all components of the magneto-piezoelectric field. As a special case, numerical results are presented for two-dimensional static magneto-electroelastic field of a piezoelectric solid subjected to a concentrated line load and an electric charge. The numerical solutions are obtained for three different piezoelectric materials and they demonstrate a substantial dependence of the stress and electric field distribution on the constitutive properties and magnetic flux.
Metals2015, 5(2), 850-862; doi:10.3390/met5020850 - published 22 May 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Ti-xIn (x = 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%) alloys were prepared to investigate the effect of indium on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion behavior of titanium with the aim of understanding the relationship between phase/microstructure and various properties of Ti-xIn alloys. The Ti-xIn alloys exhibited a lamellar α-Ti structure at an indium content of up to 20 wt%. High-resolution TEM images of the Ti-xIn alloys revealed that all the systems contained a fine, acicular martensitic phase, which showed compositional fluctuations at the nanoscopic level. The mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of Ti-xIn alloys were sensitive to the indium content. The Vickers hardness increased as the In content increased because of solid solution strengthening. The Ti-xIn alloys exhibited superior oxidation resistance compared to commercially pure Ti (cp-Ti). Electrochemical results showed that the Ti-xIn alloys exhibited a similar corrosion resistance to cp-Ti. Among the alloys tested, Ti-10In showed a potential for use as a dental material.
Metals2015, 5(2), 836-849; doi:10.3390/met5020836 - published 22 May 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In this study, the feed-forward (FF) neural networks (NNs) with back-propagation (BP) learning algorithm is used to estimate the ultimate tensile strength of unrefined Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys and refined the alloys by Al-5Ti-1B and Al-5Zr master alloys. The obtained mathematical formula is presented in great detail. The designed NN model shows good agreement with test results and can be used to predict the ultimate tensile strength of the alloys.Additionally, the effects of scandium (Sc) and carbon (C) rates are investigated by using the proposed equation. It was observed that the tensile properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys improved with the addition of 0.5 Sc and 0.01 C wt.%.
Metals2015, 5(2), 822-835; doi:10.3390/met5020822 - published 20 May 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Aluminum-steel composite metal foams (Al-S CMF) are manufactured using steel hollow spheres, with a variety of sphere carbon content, surface roughness, and wall porosity, embedded in an Aluminum matrix through gravity casting technique. The microstructural and mechanical properties of the material were studied using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and quasi-static compressive testing. Higher carbon content and surface roughness in the sphere wall were responsible for an increase in formation of intermetallic phases which had a strengthening effect at lower strain levels, increasing the yield strength of the material by a factor of 2, while higher sphere wall porosity resulted in a decrease on the density of the material and improving its cushioning and ductility maintaining its energy absorption capabilities.