Metabolites2014, 4(3), 807-830; doi:10.3390/metabo4030807 - published 12 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Inhibition of protein deacetylation enzymes, alone or in combination with standard chemotherapies, is an exciting addition to cancer therapy. We have investigated the effect of deacetylase inhibition on the metabolism of glioblastoma cells. 1H NMR metabolomics analysis was used to determine the major metabolic changes following treatment of two distinct glioblastoma cell lines, U373 and LN229, with five different histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, as well as one inhibitor of NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases (SIRT). The addition of the standard glioblastoma chemotherapy agent, temozolomide, to the HDAC and SIRT treatments led to a reduction in cell survival, suggesting a possibility for combined treatment. This study shows that distinct glioblastoma cell lines, with different metabolic profiles and gene expression, experience dissimilar changes following treatment with protein deacetylase inhibitors. The observed effects of inhibitors on mitochondrial metabolism, glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis suggest possible roles of protein deacetylases in metabolism regulation. Metabolic markers of the effectiveness of anti-protein deacetylase treatments have been explored. In addition to known deacetylation inhibitors, three novel inhibitors have been introduced and tested. Finally, 1H NMR analysis of cellular metabolism is shown to be a fast, inexpensive method for testing drug effects.
Metabolites2014, 4(3), 790-806; doi:10.3390/metabo4030790 - published 12 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We explored the feasibility of collecting exhaled breath from a moribund gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) for potential non-invasive health monitoring of marine mammals. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) profiling is a relatively new field of research, in which the chemical composition of breath is used to non-invasively assess the health and physiological processes on-going within an animal or human. In this study, two telescopic sampling poles were designed and tested with the primary aim of collecting whale breath exhalations (WBEs). Once the WBEs were successfully collected, they were immediately transferred onto a stable matrix sorbent through a custom manifold system. A total of two large volume WBEs were successfully captured and pre-concentrated onto two Tenax®-TA traps (one exhalation per trap). The samples were then returned to the laboratory where they were analyzed using solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 70 chemicals were identified (58 positively identified) in the whale breath samples. These chemicals were also matched against a database of VOCs found in humans, and 44% of chemicals found in the whale breath are also released by healthy humans. The exhaled gray whale breath showed a rich diversity of chemicals, indicating the analysis of whale breath exhalations is a promising new field of research.
Metabolites2014, 4(3), 775-789; doi:10.3390/metabo4030775 - published 11 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The benefit of calcium channel blockers for cardiovascular prevention against heart attack and stroke has not been firmly supported. We investigated the possible cardiovascular protective effect of diltiazem (DTZ) against injury induced by isoproterenol using a freely moving rat model in vivo. Sprague Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously (sc) with either 5 or 10 mg/kg of DTZ, or saline as control, twice daily for five doses. One hour after the last injection, a single dose of isoproterenol (30 mg/kg) was injected sc to each rat. Blood samples were collected serially for 6 h for measurement of adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP and AMP) in red blood cell (RBC) by a validated HPLC. The study has shown isoproterenol induced 50% mortality and also increased RBC concentrations of AMP from 0.04 ± 0.02 to 0.29 ± 0.21 mM at the end of the experiment (p < 0.05). Treatment with 10 mg/kg of DTZ reduced mortality from 50% to <20% and attenuated the increase of RBC concentrations of AMP from +0.25 ± 0.22 in the control rats to +0.072 ± 0.092 mM (p < 0.05). The study concluded that 10 mg/kg of DTZ reduced mortality and breakdown of ATP induced by isoproterenol in rats.
Metabolites2014, 4(3), 751-774; doi:10.3390/metabo4030751 - published 5 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during microbial fermentations determine the flavor of fermented food and are of interest for the production of fragrances or food additives. However, the microbial synthesis of these compounds from simple carbon sources has not been well investigated so far. Here, we analyzed the headspace over glucose minimal salt medium cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using multi-capillary column-ion mobility spectrometry (MCC-IMS). The high sensitivity and fast data acquisition of the MCC-IMS enabled online analysis of the fermentation off-gas and 19 specific signals were determined. To four of these volatile compounds, we could assign the metabolites ethanol, 2-pentanone, isobutyric acid, and 2,3-hexanedione by MCC-IMS measurements of pure standards and cross validation with thermal desorption–gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurements. Despite the huge biochemical knowledge of the biochemistry of the model organism S. cerevisiae, only the biosynthetic pathways for ethanol and isobutyric acid are fully understood, demonstrating the considerable lack of research of volatile metabolites. As monitoring of VOCs produced during microbial fermentations can give valuable insight into the metabolic state of the organism, fast and non-invasive MCC-IMS analyses provide valuable data for process control.
Abstract: Glioblastoma continues to be an invariably fatal malignancy. The established approach for understanding the biology of these aggressive tumors in an effort to identify novel molecular targets has largely been genotype-based. Unfortunately, clinical gains offered by this level of understanding have been limited, largely based on the complex nature of signaling networks associated with tumorigenesis and the inability to delineate the key “functional” signaling pathways actually driving growth in an individual tumor. Metabolomics is the global quantitative assessment of endogenous metabolites within a biological system, taking into account genetic regulation, altered kinetic activity of enzymes, and changes in metabolic reactions. Thus, compared to genomics and proteomics, metabolomics reflects changes in phenotype and therefore function. In this review, we highlight some of the key advancements that have been made in applying metabolomics to understand the aggressive phenotype of glioblastoma. Collectively, these studies have provided a previously unrecognized window into the underlying biology of these tumors. Current and future efforts are designed to determine how this technology may be applied to improve diagnosis and predict the aggressiveness of glioblastoma, and more importantly, identify novel, therapeutic strategies designed to improve clinical outcomes.
Abstract: Isotope-labeling is a useful technique for understanding cellular metabolism. Recent advances in metabolomics have extended the capability of isotope-assisted studies to reveal global metabolism. For instance, isotope-assisted metabolomics technology has enabled the mapping of a global metabolic network, estimation of flux at branch points of metabolic pathways, and assignment of elemental formulas to unknown metabolites. Furthermore, some data processing tools have been developed to apply these techniques to a non-targeted approach, which plays an important role in revealing unknown or unexpected metabolism. However, data collection and integration strategies for non-targeted isotope-assisted metabolomics have not been established. Therefore, a systematic approach is proposed to elucidate metabolic dynamics without targeting pathways by means of time-resolved isotope tracking, i.e., “metabolic turnover analysis”, as well as multivariate analysis. We applied this approach to study the metabolic dynamics in amino acid perturbation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In metabolic turnover analysis, 69 peaks including 35 unidentified peaks were investigated. Multivariate analysis of metabolic turnover successfully detected a pathway known to be inhibited by amino acid perturbation. In addition, our strategy enabled identification of unknown peaks putatively related to the perturbation.