Abstract: Marine biomass including fishery products are precious protein resources for human foods and are an alternative to livestock animals in order to reduce the virtual water problem. However, a large amount of marine waste can be generated from fishery products and it is not currently recycled. We evaluated the metabolism of digested marine waste using integrated analytical methods, under anaerobic conditions and the fertilization of abandoned agricultural soils. Dynamics of fish waste digestion revealed that samples of meat and bony parts had similar dynamics under anaerobic conditions in spite of large chemical variations in input marine wastes. Abandoned agricultural soils fertilized with fish waste accumulated some amino acids derived from fish waste, and accumulation of l-arginine and l-glutamine were higher in plant seedlings. Therefore, we have proposed an analytical method to visualize metabolic dynamics for recycling of fishery waste processes.
Abstract: The study of cell lines by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy metabolomics represents a powerful tool to understand how the local metabolism and biochemical pathways are influenced by external or internal stimuli. In particular, the use of adherent mammalian cells is emerging in the metabolomics field in order to understand the molecular mechanism of disease progression or, for example, the cellular response to drug treatments. Hereto metabolomics investigations for this kind of cells have generally been limited to mass spectrometry studies. This study proposes an optimized protocol for the analysis of the endo-metabolome of human colon cancer cells (HCT116) by NMR. The protocol includes experimental conditions such as washing, quenching and extraction. In order to test the proposed protocol, it was applied to an exploratory study of cancer cells with and without treatment by anti-cancer drugs, such as DNA G-quadruplex binders and Adriamycin (a traditional anti-cancer drug). The exploratory NMR metabolomics analysis resulted in NMR assignment of all endo-metabolites that could be detected and provided preliminary insights about the biological behavior of the drugs tested.
Abstract: Metabolism is a chemical process used by cells to transform food-derived nutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates and fats, into chemical and thermal energy. Whenever an alteration of this process occurs, the chemical balance within the cells is impaired and this can affect their growth and response to the environment, leading to the development of a metabolic disease. Metabolic syndrome, a cluster of several metabolic risk factors such as abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, high cholesterol and high blood pressure, and atherogenic dyslipidaemia, is increasingly common in modern society. Metabolic syndrome, as well as other diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension, are associated with abnormal lipid metabolism. Cellular lipids are the major component of cell membranes; they represent also a valuable source of energy and therefore play a crucial role for both cellular and physiological energy homeostasis. In this review, we will focus on the physiological and pathophysiological roles of the lysophospholipid mediator lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) and its receptor G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) in metabolic diseases. LPI is a bioactive lipid generated by phospholipase A (PLA) family of lipases which is believed to play an important role in several diseases. Indeed LPI can affect various functions such as cell growth, differentiation and motility in a number of cell-types. Recently published data suggest that LPI plays an important role in different physiological and pathological contexts, including a role in metabolism and glucose homeostasis.
Abstract: Plasma-free amino acid (PFAA) levels are a useful metric for diagnosing cancer and providing a prognosis. However, the use of analysis of PFAA levels has been limited in the veterinary medicine field. We addressed the application of liquid chromatography (LC) using a pre-column labeling technique for analysis of canine PFAA levels. This method significantly shortened the analysis time relative to conventional methods. No diurnal fluctuations were detected at 9:00 AM in most PFAA levels, and food intake increased the levels of some PFAAs, including valine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and proline. These results indicate that LC with pre-column labeling is useful for measuring canine PFAA levels, for which time of day and interval after food intake must be taken into consideration.
Abstract: The oceans represent an understudied resource for the isolation of bacteria with the potential to produce novel secondary metabolites. In particular, actinomyces are well known to produce chemically diverse metabolites with a wide range of biological activities. This study characterised spore-forming bacteria from both Scottish and Antarctic sediments to assess the influence of isolation location on secondary metabolite production. Due to the selective isolation method used, all 85 isolates belonged to the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, with the majority of isolates belonging to the genera Bacillus and Streptomyces. Based on morphology, thirty-eight isolates were chosen for chemical investigation. Molecular networking based on chemical profiles (HR-MS/MS) of fermentation extracts was used to compare complex metabolite extracts. The results revealed 40% and 42% of parent ions were produced by Antarctic and Scottish isolated bacteria, respectively, and only 8% of networked metabolites were shared between these locations, implying a high degree of biogeographic influence upon secondary metabolite production. The resulting molecular network contained over 3500 parent ions with a mass range of m/z 149–2558 illustrating the wealth of metabolites produced. Furthermore, seven fermentation extracts showed bioactivity against epithelial colon adenocarcinoma cells, demonstrating the potential for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds from these understudied locations.