Abstract: A large number of drugs are introduced every year, and newer interactions between medications are increasingly reported. Clinically significant drug interactions can occur when two or more drugs are taken in combination. With the continuing increase in the list of drugs capable of interactions, detection of these interactions from prescriptions becomes more important to ensure effective patient care. The aim of this study is to identify the possible drug interactions in the prescriptions of diabetic inpatients and to make physicians aware of these interactions to prevent the occurrence of clinically adverse effects. In a specially designed and validated data entry format, data for the following criteria were collected: drugs prescribed, major drug class prescribed, pharmacological classification of the observed drug interaction, and frequently occurring drug interactions. All the possible drug interactions were identified and evaluated using standard drug interaction reference books and databases. During the study period, 50 prescriptions of diabetic inpatients were screened randomly. Out of these prescriptions, 35 (70%) prescriptions had at least one possible drug-drug interaction. The major classes of drugs causing interactions included cardiac drugs (92%), analgesic drugs (66%), antibiotic drugs (52%), antidiabetic drugs (26%), diuretic drugs (26%), and antipsychotic drugs (24%). This study showed that 34 (68%) of the above prescriptions had minor interactions, 33(66%) had moderate interactions, and 10 (20%) had severe interactions. Of these, the drugs prescribed specifically for diabetes caused only nine moderate interactions. Thus, screening of prescriptions by the clinical pharmacist will help to minimize clinical occurrence of major/severe drug interactions in diabetic patients.
Abstract: Cyclophosphamide (CP), a bifunctional alkylating agent used in chemotherapy has been reported to induce organ toxicity mediated by generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. Gallic acid (GA), a phenolic substance, is a natural antioxidant with proven free radical scavenging activity and offers protection against oxidative damage. This research study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effect of GA against CP-induced toxicity in rats. Twenty-five male Wistar rats (180–200 g) were randomized into five treatment groups: (A) control, (B) CP, 2 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), (C) pre-treatment with GA (20 mg/kg b.w.) for seven days followed by CP (2 mg/kg b.w.) for seven days, (D) co-treatment with GA (20 mg/kg b.w) and CP (2 mg/kg b.w.) for seven days, and (E) GA (20 mg/kg b.w.) for seven days. CP induced marked renal and hepatic damages as plasma levels of urea, creatinine, bilirubin and activities of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in the CP-treated group relative to control. In addition, hepatic levels of GSH, vitamin C and activities of SOD, catalase and GST significantly reduced in the CP-treated group when compared with control. This was accompanied with a significant increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation. The restoration of the markers of renal and hepatic damages as well as antioxidant indices and lipid peroxidation by pre- and co-treatment with GA clearly shows that GA offers ameliorative effect by scavenging the reactive oxygen species generated by CP. This protective effect may be attributed to the antioxidant property of gllic acid.
Abstract: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus that causes febrile chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in humans. This disease is debilitating and characterized by acute fever onset and chronic incapacitating polyarthralgia. CHIKF pathogenesis remains poorly defined with no approved vaccines and therapies. Recent outbreaks in the Caribbean islands have elevated concerns over the possibility of a global pandemic. Tremendous efforts have been made to develop relevant mouse models to enable the study of infection and immunity against this viral disease. Among them, the more common C57BL/6 mouse model demonstrated the ability to recapitulate the symptoms shown in infected humans, including self-limiting arthritis, myositis, and tenosynovitis. This has facilitated the unraveling of some key factors involved in disease pathogenesis of CHIKF. However, the stark differences in immune response between humans and mouse models necessitate the development of an animal model with an immune system that is more genetically similar to the human system for a better representation. In this paper, we aim to uncover the limitations of the C57BL/6 model and discuss alternative mouse models for CHIKV research.
Abstract: Objectives: The objective of this work was to compare the efficacy of Maitland mobilization and conventional physical therapy on pain response, range of motion (ROM) and functional ability in patients with chronic low back pain due to lumbar spondylosis. Methods: A total sample of 30 subjects (40–70 years of age) with complaints of slow insidious onset of low back pain (LBP), with or without radiation not less than three months duration and decrease ROM were randomly assigned to: group-I, Maitland mobilization and lumbar stabilization exercises; group-II conventional physical therapy (traction, strengthening, stretching exercises.) and outcomes were assessed for dependent variables. Results: There is statically a significant difference between pre and post measurement readings with time (p = 0.00) and between groups (p < 0.05) with respect to pain and function, but, with respect to ROM readings, showed statistical significance with time (p = 0.00) and no significance between groups (p > 0.05), indicating manual therapy group-I is improving faster and better than conventional physical therapy group-II. Conclusion: Our results showed that manual therapy interventions are more effective in managing low back pain, and function and range of motion of the lumbar spine than conventional physical therapy treatment.
Abstract: Adipose tissue dysfunction constitutes a primary defect in obesity and might link this disease to severe chronic health problems. We aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of three extracts from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) as well as their effects on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes concerning intracellular lipid accumulation and cytotoxicity, this would give indications regarding therapeutic interest of dandelion as potential anti-obesity candidate. Antioxidant activities of extracts from dandelion roots and leaves were evaluated in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhyorazyl (DPPH) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) methods at the concentration range used in cellular assays (300–600 µg/mL). The influence of the extracts on mature 3T3-L1 adipocyte viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Lipid content was determined by Oil-red-O staining. The extracts showed effective antioxidant activity correlating with total flavonoid and polyphenol contents. However, the functionality level was weakly associated with the antioxidant activity. Further, our data demonstrated that mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes reduced in size and number when incubated with the extracts, which suggests a significant increase in lipolysis activity. Particularly, leaf extract and crude powdered root of dandelion reduced triglyceride accumulation in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes to a greater extent that the extract from the root. Our study shows anti-lipogenic effects of dandelion extracts on adipocytes as well as radical scavenging and reducing activity. Importantly, along with previous results indicating that cell populations cultivated in the presence of the dandelion extracts decrease in 3T3-L1 adipogenesis capacity, these results suggests that these extracts might represent a treatment option for obesity-related diseases by affecting different processes during the adipocyte life cycle.
Abstract: Human organ functions are regulated by the nervous system. When human cells receive a message, this message is transmitted to the nervous system through a series of signal transmission processes. Skin conditions that occur after applying skin cream are closely related to signal transmission and nervous regulation. We determined the connection between signal regulation and natural rhythmic operations. The diurnal variations resulting from the earth’s rotation and indicate the relative relationships between the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nerve system. A spectrum was developed to assess neural transmission conditions by using skin signals which from Fourier transformation of the waves and established the association between the spectrum and diseases. The results could explain the relationships between the neurological illnesses and established spectrum. The objective was to promote the use of this spectrum as a new tool for conducting the nervous system tests in the future.