Open AccessReview
Essential Oils’ Chemical Characterization and Investigation of Some Biological Activities: A Critical Review
Medicines 2016, 3(4), 25; doi:10.3390/medicines3040025 -
Abstract
This review covers literature data summarizing, on one hand, the chemistry of essential oils and, on the other hand, their most important activities. Essential oils, which are complex mixtures of volatile compounds particularly abundant in aromatic plants, are mainly composed of terpenes [...] Read more.
This review covers literature data summarizing, on one hand, the chemistry of essential oils and, on the other hand, their most important activities. Essential oils, which are complex mixtures of volatile compounds particularly abundant in aromatic plants, are mainly composed of terpenes biogenerated by the mevalonate pathway. These volatile molecules include monoterpenes (hydrocarbon and oxygenated monoterpens), and also sesquiterpenes (hydrocarbon and oxygenated sesquiterpens). Furthermore, they contain phenolic compounds, which are derived via the shikimate pathway. Thanks to their chemical composition, essential oils possess numerous biological activities (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, etc…) of great interest in food and cosmetic industries, as well as in the human health field. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antidermatophytic Activity of the Fruticose Lichen Usnea orientalis
Medicines 2016, 3(3), 24; doi:10.3390/medicines3030024 -
Abstract
In the present study, the new biological sources in the form of lichen Usnea orientalis Motyka was screened for its antidermatophytic potential. Six species of dermatophytes were chosen on the basis of their prevalence for antidermatophytic assays, and the Clinical Laboratory Standard [...] Read more.
In the present study, the new biological sources in the form of lichen Usnea orientalis Motyka was screened for its antidermatophytic potential. Six species of dermatophytes were chosen on the basis of their prevalence for antidermatophytic assays, and the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI)-recommended broth microdilution procedure was used to detect the efficacy of extract against dermatophytes. Thin layer chromatography of lichen extracts reveals the presence of two secondary metabolites viz. salazinic acid and usnic acid. U. orientalis extract exhibited promising antidermatophytic activity against all tested pathogens. Amongst all tested pathogens, Epidermophyton floccosum exhibited most susceptibility towards extract, whereas Trichophyton mentagrophytes exhibited the least susceptibility. Topical application of U. orientalis extract might be helpful in the cure of dermal infections. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterisation of Bone Beneficial Components from Australian Wallaby Bone
Medicines 2016, 3(3), 23; doi:10.3390/medicines3030023 -
Abstract
Background: Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones become brittle, increasing the risk of fractures. Complementary medicines have traditionally used animal bones for managing bone disorders, such as osteoporosis. This study aimed to discover new natural products for these types of [...] Read more.
Background: Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones become brittle, increasing the risk of fractures. Complementary medicines have traditionally used animal bones for managing bone disorders, such as osteoporosis. This study aimed to discover new natural products for these types of conditions by determining mineral and protein content of bone extracts derived from the Australian wallaby. Methods: Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis were used for mineral tests, proteome analysis was using LC/MS/MS and the effects of wallaby bone extracts (WBE)s on calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity were evaluated in osteogenic cells derived from adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Results: Concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were 26.21% and 14.72% in WBE respectively. Additionally, minerals found were wide in variety and high in concentration, while heavy metal concentrations of aluminium, iron, zinc and other elements were at safe levels for human consumption. Proteome analysis showed that extracts contained high amounts of bone remodelling proteins, such as osteomodulin, osteopontin and osteoglycin. Furthermore, in vitro evaluation of WBEs showed increased deposition of calcium in osteoblasts with enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity in differentiated adipose-derived stem cells. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that wallaby bone extracts possess proteins and minerals beneficial for bone metabolism. WBEs may therefore be used for developing natural products for conditions such as osteoporosis and further investigation to understand biomolecular mechanism by which WBEs prevent osteoporosis is warranted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Constituents from the Essential Oil of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae)
Medicines 2016, 3(3), 22; doi:10.3390/medicines3030022 -
Abstract
Backgroud:Lippia alba (Verbenaceae) is a plant widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The present work deals with the chemical composition of the crude essential oil extracted from leaves of L. alba and evaluation of its antimicrobial and cytotoxic [...] Read more.
Backgroud:Lippia alba (Verbenaceae) is a plant widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The present work deals with the chemical composition of the crude essential oil extracted from leaves of L. alba and evaluation of its antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Methods: Leaves of L. alba were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) as well as by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of crude essential oil were evaluated in vitro using MTT and broth microdilution assays, respectively. Results: Chemical analysis afforded the identification of 39 substances corresponding to 99.45% of the total oil composition. Concerning the main compounds, monoterpenes nerol/geraniol and citral correspond to approximately 50% of crude oil. The cytotoxic activity of obtained essential oil against several tumor cell lines showed IC50 values ranging from 45 to 64 µg/mL for B16F10Nex2 (murine melanoma) and A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma). In the antimicrobial assay, was observed that all tested yeast strains, except C. albicans, were sensitive to crude essential oil. MIC values were two to four-folds lower than those determined to bacterial strains. Conclusion: Analysis of chemical composition of essential oils from leaves of L. alba suggested a new chemotype nerol/geraniol and citral. Based in biological evidences, a possible application for studied oil as an antifungal in medicine, as well as in agriculture, is described. Full article
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Open AccessOpinion
Why We Need Minimum Basic Requirements in Science for Acupuncture Education
Medicines 2016, 3(3), 21; doi:10.3390/medicines3030021 -
Abstract
As enthusiasm for alternatives to pharmaceuticals and surgery grows, healthcare consumers are turning increasingly to physical medicine modalities such as acupuncture. However, they may encounter obstacles in accessing acupuncture due to several reasons, such as the inability to locate a suitable practitioner, [...] Read more.
As enthusiasm for alternatives to pharmaceuticals and surgery grows, healthcare consumers are turning increasingly to physical medicine modalities such as acupuncture. However, they may encounter obstacles in accessing acupuncture due to several reasons, such as the inability to locate a suitable practitioner, insufficient reimbursement for treatment, or difficulty gaining a referral due to perceived lack of evidence or scientific rigor by specialists. Claims made about a range of treatment paradigms outstrip evidence and students in acupuncture courses are thus led to believe that the approaches they learn are effective and clinically meaningful. Critical inquiry and critical analysis of techniques taught are often omitted, leading to unquestioning acceptance, adoption, and implementation into practice of approaches that may or may not be rational and effective. Acupuncture education for both licensed physicians (DOs and MDs) and non-physicians needs to include science (i.e., explanation of its effects based on contemporary explanations of biological processes), evidence, and critical thinking. Erroneous notions concerning its mechanisms such as moving “stuck Qi (Chi)” or “energy” with needles and that this energy stagnates at specific, tiny locations on the body called acupuncture points lead to mistakes in methodologic design. For example, researchers may select sham and verum point locations that overlap considerably in their neural connections, leading to nonsignificant differences between the two interventions. Furthermore, attributing the effects of acupuncture to metaphorical and arcane views of physiology limits both acceptance and validation of acupuncture in both research and clinical settings. Finally, the content and quality of education and clinical exposure across acupuncture programs varies widely, with currently no minimum basic educational requirements in a scientific methodology. Considering the pressures mounting on clinicians to practice in an evidence-based and scientific manner that also demonstrates cost-effectiveness, acupuncture schools and continuing medical education (CME) courses need to provide their students a strong foundation in rational approaches supported by research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic, Phytotoxic and Antioxidant Potential of Heliotropium strigosum Willd.
Medicines 2016, 3(3), 20; doi:10.3390/medicines3030020 -
Abstract
Background:Heliotropium strigosum Willd. (Chitiphal) is a medicinally important herb that belongs to the Boraginaceae family. Traditionally, this plant was used in the medication therapy of various ailments in different populations of the world. The aim of the study is to probe [...] Read more.
Background:Heliotropium strigosum Willd. (Chitiphal) is a medicinally important herb that belongs to the Boraginaceae family. Traditionally, this plant was used in the medication therapy of various ailments in different populations of the world. The aim of the study is to probe the therapeutic aspects of H. strigosum described in the traditional folklore history of medicines. Methods: In the present study, the dichloromethane crude extract of this plant was screened to explore the antimicrobial, cytotoxic, phytotoxic and antioxidant potential of H. strigosum. For antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities, microplate alamar blue assay (MABA), agar tube dilution method and diphenyl picryl hydrazine (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay were used, respectively. The cytotoxic and phytotoxic potential were demonstrated by using brine shrimp lethality bioassay and Lemna minor assay. Results: The crude extract displayed positive cytotoxic activity in the brine shrimp lethality assay, with 23 of 30 shrimps dying at the concentration of 1000 µg/mL. It also showed moderate phytotoxic potential with percent inhibition of 50% at the concentration of 1000 µg/mL. The crude extract exhibited no significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Non-significant antifungal and radical scavenging activity was also shown by the dichloromethane crude extract. Conclusion: It is recommended that scientists focus on the identification and isolation of beneficial bioactive constituents with the help of advanced scientific methodologies that seems to be helpful in the synthesis of new therapeutic agents of desired interest. Full article
Open AccessReview
Essential Oils and Their Components as Modulators of Antibiotic Activity against Gram-Negative Bacteria
Medicines 2016, 3(3), 19; doi:10.3390/medicines3030019 -
Abstract
Gram-negative bacteria cause infections that are difficult to treat due to the emergence of multidrug resistance. This review summarizes the current status of the studies investigating the capacity of essential oils and their components to modulate antibiotic activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Synergistic [...] Read more.
Gram-negative bacteria cause infections that are difficult to treat due to the emergence of multidrug resistance. This review summarizes the current status of the studies investigating the capacity of essential oils and their components to modulate antibiotic activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Synergistic interactions are particularly discussed with reference to possible mechanisms by which essential oil constituents interact with antibiotics. Special emphasis is given to essential oils and volatile compounds that inhibit efflux pumps, thus reversing drug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, indifference and antagonism between essential oils/volatile compounds and conventional antibiotics have also been reported. Overall, this literature review reveals that essential oils and their purified components enhance the efficacy of antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria, being promising candidates for the development of new effective formulations against Gram-negative bacteria. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Herbal Hepatotoxicity: RUCAM and the Role of Novel Diagnostic Biomarkers Such as MicroRNAs
Medicines 2016, 3(3), 18; doi:10.3390/medicines3030018 -
Abstract
Background: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use is popular and appreciated worldwide with increased tendency, although its therapeutic efficacy is poorly established for most herbal TCM products. Treatment was perceived as fairly safe but discussions emerged more [...] Read more.
Background: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use is popular and appreciated worldwide with increased tendency, although its therapeutic efficacy is poorly established for most herbal TCM products. Treatment was perceived as fairly safe but discussions emerged more recently as to whether herb induced liver injury (HILI) from herbal TCM is a major issue; Methods: To analyze clinical and case characteristics of HILI caused by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database with the search items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, alone and combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury; Results: HILI caused by herbal TCM is rare and similarly to drugs can be caused by an unpredictable idiosyncratic or a predictable intrinsic reaction. Clinical features of liver injury from herbal TCM products are variable, and specific diagnostic biomarkers such as microsomal epoxide hydrolase, pyrrole-protein adducts, metabolomics, and microRNAs are available for only a few TCM herbs. The diagnosis is ascertained if alternative causes are validly excluded and causality levels of probable or highly probable are achieved applying the liver specific RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) as the most commonly used diagnostic tool worldwide. Case evaluation may be confounded by inappropriate or lacking causality assessment, poor herbal product quality, insufficiently documented cases, and failing to exclude alternative causes such as infections by hepatotropic viruses including hepatitis E virus infections; Conclusion: Suspected cases of liver injury from herbal TCM represent major challenges that deserve special clinical and regulatory attention to improve the quality of case evaluations and ascertain patients’ safety and benefit. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Heteromeles Arbutifolia, a Traditional Treatment for Alzheimer’s Disease, Phytochemistry and Safety
Medicines 2016, 3(3), 17; doi:10.3390/medicines3030017 -
Abstract
Background: This study examined the chemistry and safety of Heteromeles arbutifolia, also called toyon or California holly, which is a traditional California Indian food and treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: Plant extracts were examined by HPLC/MS, NMR and other techniques to [...] Read more.
Background: This study examined the chemistry and safety of Heteromeles arbutifolia, also called toyon or California holly, which is a traditional California Indian food and treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: Plant extracts were examined by HPLC/MS, NMR and other techniques to identify compounds. Volunteers were recruited to examine the acute safety of the plant medicine using a standard short-term memory test. Results: The plant was found to contain icariside E4, dihydroxyoleanenoic acid, maslinic acid, betulin, trihydroxyoxo-seco-ursdienoic acid, catechin, vicenin-2, farrerol, kaempferide and tetrahydroxyoleanenoic acid. These compounds are anti-inflammatory agents that may protect the blood-brain barrier and prevent inflammatory cell infiltration into the brain. The dried berries were ingested by six volunteers to demonstrate the safety of the medicine. Conclusion: The plant medicine was found to contain several compounds that may be of interest in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. The plant medicine was found to be safe. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Necrostatin-1 Attenuates Inflammatory Response and Improves Cognitive Function in Chronic Ischemic Stroke Mice
Medicines 2016, 3(3), 16; doi:10.3390/medicines3030016 -
Abstract
Multiple cell death is involved in ischemic brain injury. Necroptosis, a recently reported cell death, may be the most suitable cell death mechanism in a subpopulation of neurons under ischemic injury. It reported that a small molecule, necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), has a potent [...] Read more.
Multiple cell death is involved in ischemic brain injury. Necroptosis, a recently reported cell death, may be the most suitable cell death mechanism in a subpopulation of neurons under ischemic injury. It reported that a small molecule, necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), has a potent inhibitory effect on necroptotic cell death in vivo and in vitro. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of Nec-1 on cognitive function in chronic ischemic stroke mice induced by bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS). Here, 12-week-old C57BL/6 mice received intragastric administration with Nec-1 or vehicle for two weeks after stroke, and then, the effect and possible mechanism were determined. We demonstrated that inhibition of necroptosis prevented cognitive impairment and reduced inflammatory response in the ischemic brain injury mouse model. These data suggested that inhibition of necroptosis provided a potential therapeutic option for cognitive rehabilitation in chronic ischemic stroke. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Metabolic Syndrome and Framingham Risk Score: Observation from Screening of Low-Income Semi-Urban African Women
Medicines 2016, 3(2), 15; doi:10.3390/medicines3020015 -
Abstract
Background: The heightened cardiovascular risk associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been documented by several researchers. The Framingham risk score (FRS) provides a simple and efficient method for identifying individuals at cardiovascular risk. The objective was to describe the prevalence of MetS [...] Read more.
Background: The heightened cardiovascular risk associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been documented by several researchers. The Framingham risk score (FRS) provides a simple and efficient method for identifying individuals at cardiovascular risk. The objective was to describe the prevalence of MetS and its association with FRS in predicting cardiovascular disease among a cohort of semi-urban women; Method: Clinical and laboratory parameters were evaluated among 189 healthy women. The International Diabetes Federation definition was used to diagnose metabolic syndrome. FRS was calculated for each participant; Result: About two thirds of the participant make less than $US 90 per month. The mean systolic blood pressure was 131.80 ± 30. Eighty (42.3%) participants were overweight with a mean waist circumference of 91.64 ± 11.19 cm. MetS was present in 46 (24.3%). Individuals with MetS were more likely to have increased FRS, p = 0.012. One hundred and eighty seven (98.9%) were in the low risk category according to FRS. There was a significant difference in the mean FRS between participants with and without MetS (13.52 versus 10.29 p = 0.025); Conclusion: Prevalence of MetS in this study was comparable to the global rate, despite a low economic status. Individuals with MetS were more likely to have cardiovascular disease than persons without MetS, thus emphasizing the need for risk stratification and prompt management. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae) Medicinal Plants
Medicines 2016, 3(2), 13; doi:10.3390/medicines3020013 -
Abstract
This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae) endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels [...] Read more.
This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae) endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME). Most of the Citrus oils were found to be rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons with limonene (1) as the major component identified in the peels of C. aurantifolia (39.3%), C. grandis (81.6%–96.9%), and C. microcarpa (94.0%), while sabinene (19) was the major component in the peels of C. hystrix (36.4%–48.5%). In addition, citronellal (20) (61.7%–72.5%), linalool (18) (56.5%), and hedycaryol (23) (19.0%) were identified as the major components in the oil of C. hystrix leaves, C. grandis blossom and C. microcarpa leaves, respectively. The C. hystrix essential oil has been experimentally shown to have antimicrobial and antifeedant activities, while no bioactivity study has been reported on the essential oils of other Malaysian Citrus species. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Next-Generation Sequencing: The Translational Medicine Approach from “Bench to Bedside to Population”
Medicines 2016, 3(2), 14; doi:10.3390/medicines3020014 -
Abstract
Humans have predicted the relationship between heredity and diseases for a long time. Only in the beginning of the last century, scientists begin to discover the connotations between different genes and disease phenotypes. Recent trends in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have brought [...] Read more.
Humans have predicted the relationship between heredity and diseases for a long time. Only in the beginning of the last century, scientists begin to discover the connotations between different genes and disease phenotypes. Recent trends in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have brought a great momentum in biomedical research that in turn has remarkably augmented our basic understanding of human biology and its associated diseases. State-of-the-art next generation biotechnologies have started making huge strides in our current understanding of mechanisms of various chronic illnesses like cancers, metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative anomalies, etc. We are experiencing a renaissance in biomedical research primarily driven by next generation biotechnologies like genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, lipidomics etc. Although genomic discoveries are at the forefront of next generation omics technologies, however, their implementation into clinical arena had been painstakingly slow mainly because of high reaction costs and unavailability of requisite computational tools for large-scale data analysis. However rapid innovations and steadily lowering cost of sequence-based chemistries along with the development of advanced bioinformatics tools have lately prompted launching and implementation of large-scale massively parallel genome sequencing programs in different fields ranging from medical genetics, infectious biology, agriculture sciences etc. Recent advances in large-scale omics-technologies is bringing healthcare research beyond the traditional “bench to bedside” approach to more of a continuum that will include improvements, in public healthcare and will be primarily based on predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory medicine approach (P4). Recent large-scale research projects in genetic and infectious disease biology have indicated that massively parallel whole-genome/whole-exome sequencing, transcriptome analysis, and other functional genomic tools can reveal large number of unique functional elements and/or markers that otherwise would be undetected by traditional sequencing methodologies. Therefore, latest trends in the biomedical research is giving birth to the new branch in medicine commonly referred to as personalized and/or precision medicine. Developments in the post-genomic era are believed to completely restructure the present clinical pattern of disease prevention and treatment as well as methods of diagnosis and prognosis. The next important step in the direction of the precision/personalized medicine approach should be its early adoption in clinics for future medical interventions. Consequently, in coming year’s next generation biotechnologies will reorient medical practice more towards disease prediction and prevention approaches rather than curing them at later stages of their development and progression, even at wider population level(s) for general public healthcare system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antifungal Potential and Antioxidant Efficacy in the Shell Extract of Cocos nucifera (L.) (Arecaceae) against Pathogenic Dermal Mycosis
Medicines 2016, 3(2), 12; doi:10.3390/medicines3020012 -
Abstract
Background: Coconut is a tropical fruit well known for its essential oils that have been recognized for their biological activities since ancient times. There have been no previous investigations on the essential oils from coconut shells. Method: The shell extract of Cocos[...] Read more.
Background: Coconut is a tropical fruit well known for its essential oils that have been recognized for their biological activities since ancient times. There have been no previous investigations on the essential oils from coconut shells. Method: The shell extract of Cocos nucifera (L.) was prepared by the Soxhlet method and total phenolic content (TPC) in the extract was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay. The antioxidant potential of the coconut shell extract was evaluated by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract was determined by the strip method against clinically isolated dermal mycosis of 20 infected patients. Result: Total antioxidant activity varied from 92.32% to 94.20% and total phenolic content was found at 5.33 ± 0.02 mg/g in the coconut shell extract. The extract was found to be most effective as an antifungal against human pathogenic fungi, including A. niger, A. flavus, T. rubrum, M. canis, M. gypseum, A. fumigates, T. mentagrophyte and T. vercossum. The crude shell extract was highly effective against all dermal mycosis tested with the MIC ranging from 62 mm to 90 mm, whereas all fungal samples showed good inhibitory effect. Conclusion: The results of the present study provide a potential cure for microbial infections. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Pilot Study of Evaluating Fluctuation in the Blood Flow Volume of the Radial Artery, a Site for Traditional Pulse Diagnosis
Medicines 2016, 3(2), 11; doi:10.3390/medicines3020011 -
Abstract
Background: Radial artery (RA) pulse diagnosis has been used in traditional Asian medicine. Blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate related to heart rate variability (HRV) can be monitored via the RA. The fluctuation in these parameters has been assessed using fast Fourier [...] Read more.
Background: Radial artery (RA) pulse diagnosis has been used in traditional Asian medicine. Blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate related to heart rate variability (HRV) can be monitored via the RA. The fluctuation in these parameters has been assessed using fast Fourier transform (FFT) analytical methods that calculate power spectra. Methods: We measured blood flow volume (Volume) in the RA and evaluated its fluctuations. Normal participants (n = 34) were enrolled. We measured the hemodynamics of the right RA for approximately 50 s using ultrasonography. Results: The parameters showed the center frequency (CF) of the power spectrum at low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF). More than one spectral component indicated that there were fluctuations. The CF at LF for Volume was significantly different from that for vessel diameter (VD); however, it was significantly correlated with blood flow velocity (Velocity). On the other hand, the CF at HF for Volume was significantly different from that for Velocity; however, it was significantly correlated with VD. Conclusion: It is suggested that fluctuation in the Volume at LF of RA is influenced by the fluctuation in Velocity; on the other hand, fluctuation in the Volume at HF is influenced by the fluctuation in VD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Volatile Oil of Ganoderma pfeifferi Bres
Medicines 2016, 3(2), 10; doi:10.3390/medicines3020010 -
Abstract
In a first study of the volatile oil of the mushroom basidiomycete Ganoderma pfeifferi Bres., the chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the oil were investigated. The volatile oil was obtained from the fresh fruiting bodies of Ganoderma pfeifferi Bres. [...] Read more.
In a first study of the volatile oil of the mushroom basidiomycete Ganoderma pfeifferi Bres., the chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the oil were investigated. The volatile oil was obtained from the fresh fruiting bodies of Ganoderma pfeifferi Bres. By hydrodistillation extraction and analyzed by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated against five bacteria strains and two types of fungi strains, using disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the oil was determined using DPPH assay. Four volatile compounds representing 90.5% of the total oil were identified. The majority of the essential oil was dominated by 1-octen-3-ol (amyl vinyl carbinol) 1 (73.6%) followed by 1-octen-3-ol acetate 2 (12.4%), phenylacetaldehyde 3 (3.0%) and 6-camphenol 4 (1.5%). The results showed that the Gram-positive bacteria species are more sensitive to the essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. The oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus as well as Candida albicans. Moreover, the oil exhibited strong radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay. This first report on the chemical composition and biological properties of G. pfeifferi volatile oil makes its pharmaceutical uses rational and provides a basis in the biological and phytochemical investigations of the volatile oils of Ganodermataceae species. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used as Anti-Obesity Remedies in the Nomad and Hunter Communities of Burkina Faso
Medicines 2016, 3(2), 9; doi:10.3390/medicines3020009 -
Abstract
Background: Obesity is a global epidemic that affects both developed and developing countries. According to World Health Organization (WHO), in 2014, over 1.9 billion adults were overweight. Burkina Faso, like other countries, faces the problem of obesity, with a prevalence of 7.3%. [...] Read more.
Background: Obesity is a global epidemic that affects both developed and developing countries. According to World Health Organization (WHO), in 2014, over 1.9 billion adults were overweight. Burkina Faso, like other countries, faces the problem of obesity, with a prevalence of 7.3%. The main cause is excessive intake of caloric foods combined with low physical activity, although genetic, endocrine and environmental influences (pollution) can sometimes be predisposing factors. This metabolic imbalance often leads to multiple pathologies (heart failure, Type II diabetes, cancers, etc.). Drugs have been developed for the treatment of these diseases; but in addition to having many side effects, locally these products are not economically accessible to the majority of the population. Burkina Faso, like the other countries bordering the Sahara, has often been confronted in the past with periods of famine during which populations have generally used anorectic plants to regulate their food needs. This traditional ethnobotanical knowledge has not been previously investigated. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Burkina Faso in the provinces of Seno (North) and Nayala (Northwest) to list the plants used by local people as an anorectic and/or fort weight loss. Methods: The survey, conducted in the two provinces concerned traditional healers, herbalists, hunters, nomads and resourceful people with knowledge of plants. It was conducted over a period of two months and data were collected following a structured interview with the respondents. The approach was based on dialogue in the language of choice of the respondent and the use of a questionnaire. The data have been structured and then statistically analyzed. Results: The fifty-five (55) respondents of the survey were aged between 40 and 80 years. Sixty-one (61) plant species, belonging to thirty-one (31) families were listed as appetite suppressants and/or for their anti-obesity properties. The main families of plants are Mimosaceae, Rubiaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Cesalpiniaceae. Fruits are the most used part of the plant organs. Consumption in the raw state or as a decoction are the two main forms of preparation. Conclusion: The great diversity of plants cited by informants demonstrates the existence of rich local knowledge to address obesity in Burkina Faso. Evaluation of the biochemical activity of the extracts of the most cited species could allow the development of a phytomedicine economically accessible to the majority of the population. This could allow for the preservation of biodiversity in this region which is weakened by climate change because some of the species cited are in fragile state or are threatened with extinction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ionically Crosslinked Chitosan Hydrogels for the Controlled Release of Antimicrobial Essential Oils and Metal Ions for Wound Management Applications
Medicines 2016, 3(1), 8; doi:10.3390/medicines3010008 -
Abstract
The emerging problems posed by antibiotic resistance complicate the treatment regime required for wound infections and are driving the need to develop more effective methods of wound management. There is growing interest in the use of alternative, broad spectrum, pre-antibiotic antimicrobial agents [...] Read more.
The emerging problems posed by antibiotic resistance complicate the treatment regime required for wound infections and are driving the need to develop more effective methods of wound management. There is growing interest in the use of alternative, broad spectrum, pre-antibiotic antimicrobial agents such as essential oils (e.g., tea tree oil, TTO) and metal ions (e.g., silver, Ag+). Both TTO and Ag+ have broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and act on multiple target sites, hence reducing the likelihood of developing resistance. Combining such agents with responsive, controlled release delivery systems such as hydrogels may enhance microbiocidal activity and promote wound healing. The advantages of using chitosan to formulate the hydrogels include its biocompatible, mucoadhesive and controlled release properties. In this study, hydrogels loaded with TTO and Ag+ exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and C. albicans. Combining TTO and Ag+ into the hydrogel further improved antimicrobial activity by lowering the effective concentrations required, respectively. This has obvious advantages for reducing the potential toxic effects on the healthy tissues surrounding the wound. These studies highlight the feasibility of delivering lower effective concentrations of antimicrobial agents such as TTO and Ag+ in ionically crosslinked chitosan hydrogels to treat common wound-infecting pathogens. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Composition and Biological Activities of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack Essential Oil from Nepal
Medicines 2016, 3(1), 7; doi:10.3390/medicines3010007 -
Abstract
Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack, a small tropical evergreen shrub growing in Nepal, has numerous uses in traditional medicine for treatment of abdominal pain, diarrhea, stomach ache, headache, edema, thrombosis, and blood stasis. The present study investigated the chemical composition and bioactivities of [...] Read more.
Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack, a small tropical evergreen shrub growing in Nepal, has numerous uses in traditional medicine for treatment of abdominal pain, diarrhea, stomach ache, headache, edema, thrombosis, and blood stasis. The present study investigated the chemical composition and bioactivities of the leaf essential oil from M. paniculata from Nepal. The essential oil from leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and a detailed chemical analysis was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oil was screened for antimicrobial activity using the microbroth dilution test, for nematicidal activity against Caenorhabditis elegans, and for lethality against brine shrimp (Artemia salina). A total of 76 volatile components were identified from the essential oil. The major components were methyl palmitate (11.1%), isospathulenol (9.4%), (E,E)-geranyl linalool (5.3%), benzyl benzoate (4.2%), selin-6-en-4-ol (4.0%), β-caryophyllene (4.0%), germacrene B (3.6%), germacrene D (3.4%), and γ-elemene (3.2%). The essential oil showed no antibacterial activity, marginal antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC = 313 μg/mL), a moderate activity against A. salina (LC50 = 41 μg/mL), and a good nematicidal activity against C. elegans (LC50 = 37 μg/mL). Full article
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Open AccessReview
Himalayan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: A Review of their Ethnopharmacology, Volatile Phytochemistry, and Biological Activities
Medicines 2016, 3(1), 6; doi:10.3390/medicines3010006 -
Abstract
Aromatic plants have played key roles in the lives of tribal peoples living in the Himalaya by providing products for both food and medicine. This review presents a summary of aromatic medicinal plants from the Indian Himalaya, Nepal, and Bhutan, focusing on [...] Read more.
Aromatic plants have played key roles in the lives of tribal peoples living in the Himalaya by providing products for both food and medicine. This review presents a summary of aromatic medicinal plants from the Indian Himalaya, Nepal, and Bhutan, focusing on plant species for which volatile compositions have been described. The review summarizes 116 aromatic plant species distributed over 26 families. Full article
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