Mathematics2016, 4(3), 45; doi:10.3390/math4030045 (registering DOI) - published 1 July 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Fourier spectral methods for solving some linear stochastic space-fractional partial differential equations perturbed by space-time white noises in the one-dimensional case are introduced and analysed. The space-fractional derivative is defined by using the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Laplacian subject to some boundary conditions. We approximate the space-time white noise by using piecewise constant functions and obtain the approximated stochastic space-fractional partial differential equations. The approximated stochastic space-fractional partial differential equations are then solved by using Fourier spectral methods. Error estimates in the -norm are obtained, and numerical examples are given.
Abstract: In this paper, we study some algebraic invariants of the edge ideal of generalized theta graphs, such as arithmetical rank, big height and height. We give an upper bound for the difference between the arithmetical rank and big height. Moreover, all Cohen-Macaulay (and unmixed) graphs of this type will be characterized.
Abstract: An exact discretization of the canonical commutation and corresponding uncertainty relations are suggested. We prove that the canonical commutation relations of discrete quantum mechanics, which is based on standard finite difference, holds for constant wave functions only. In this paper, we use the recently proposed exact discretization of derivatives, which is based on differences that are represented by infinite series. This new mathematical tool allows us to build sensible discrete quantum mechanics based on the suggested differences and includes the correct canonical commutation and uncertainty relations.
Abstract: In our previous work (Journal of Nonlinear Science and Applications 9: 1202–1215, 2016), we studied the well-posedness and general decay rate for a transmission problem in a bounded domain with a viscoelastic term and a delay term. In this paper, we continue to study the similar problem but without the frictional damping term. The main difficulty arises since we have no frictional damping term to control the delay term in the estimate of the energy decay. By introducing suitable energy and Lyapunov functionals, we establish an exponential decay result for the energy.
Abstract: We derive entropic uncertainty relations for successive generalized measurements by using general descriptions of quantum measurement within two distinctive operational scenarios. In the first scenario, by merging two successive measurements into one we consider successive measurement scheme as a method to perform an overall composite measurement. In the second scenario, on the other hand, we consider it as a method to measure a pair of jointly measurable observables by marginalizing over the distribution obtained in this scheme. In the course of this work, we identify that limits on one’s ability to measure with low uncertainty via this scheme come from intrinsic unsharpness of observables obtained in each scenario. In particular, for the Lüders instrument, disturbance caused by the first measurement to the second one gives rise to the unsharpness at least as much as incompatibility of the observables composing successive measurement.
Abstract: Toric posets are in some sense a natural “cyclic” version of finite posets in that they capture the fundamental features of a partial order but without the notion of minimal or maximal elements. They can be thought of combinatorially as equivalence classes of acyclic orientations under the equivalence relation generated by converting sources into sinks, or geometrically as chambers of toric graphic hyperplane arrangements. In this paper, we define toric intervals and toric order-preserving maps, which lead to toric analogues of poset morphisms and order ideals. We develop this theory, discuss some fundamental differences between the toric and ordinary cases, and outline some areas for future research. Additionally, we provide a connection to cyclic reducibility and conjugacy in Coxeter groups.