Mathematics2016, 4(1), 6; doi:10.3390/math4010006 - published 4 February 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In this research article, we present exact solutions with parameters for two nonlinear model partial differential equations(PDEs) describing microtubules, by implementing the exp(−Φ(ξ))-Expansion Method. The considered models, describing highly nonlinear dynamics of microtubules, can be reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations. While the first PDE describes the longitudinal model of nonlinear dynamics of microtubules, the second one describes the nonlinear model of dynamics of radial dislocations in microtubules. The acquired solutions are then graphically presented, and their distinct properties are enumerated in respect to the corresponding dynamic behavior of the microtubules they model. Various patterns, including but not limited to regular, singular kink-like, as well as periodicity exhibiting ones, are detected. Being the method of choice herein, the exp(−Φ(ξ))-Expansion Method not disappointing in the least, is found and declared highly efficient.
Mathematics2016, 4(1), 5; doi:10.3390/math4010005 - published 2 February 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Alfes, Griffin, Ono, and Rolen have shown that the harmonic Maass forms arising from Weierstrass ζ-functions associated to modular elliptic curves “encode” the vanishing and nonvanishing for central values and derivatives of twisted Hasse-Weil L-functions for elliptic curves. Previously, Martin and Ono proved that there are exactly five weight 2 newforms with complex multiplication that are eta-quotients. In this paper, we construct a canonical harmonic Maass form for these five curves with complex multiplication. The holomorphic part of this harmonic Maass form arises from the Weierstrass ζ-function and is referred to as the Weierstrass mock modular form. We prove that the Weierstrass mock modular form for these five curves is itself an eta-quotient or a twist of one. Using this construction, we also obtain p-adic formulas for the corresponding weight 2 newform using Atkin’s U-operator.
Mathematics2016, 4(1), 3; doi:10.3390/math4010003 - published 20 January 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Recently, a family of fermionic relations were discovered corresponding to Pachner move 3–3 and parameterized by complex-valued 2-cocycles, where the weight of a pentachoron (4-simplex) is a Grassmann–Gaussian exponent. Here, the proportionality coefficient between Berezin integrals in the l.h.s. and r.h.s. of such relations is written in a form multiplicative over simplices.
Mathematics2016, 4(1), 2; doi:10.3390/math4010002 - published 4 January 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We propose a stochastic model to develop a partial integro-differential equation (PIDE) for pricing and pricing expression for fixed type single Barrier options based on the Itô-Lévy calculus with the help of Mellin transform. The stock price is driven by a class of infinite activity Lévy processes leading to the market inherently incomplete, and dynamic hedging is no longer risk free. We first develop a PIDE for fixed type Barrier options, and apply the Mellin transform to derive a pricing expression. Our main contribution is to develop a PIDE with its closed form pricing expression for the contract. The procedure is easy to implement for all class of Lévy processes numerically. Finally, the algorithm for computing numerically is presented with results for a set of Lévy processes.
Mathematics2016, 4(1), 1; doi:10.3390/math4010001 - published 25 December 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We consider two principal bundles of embeddings with total space E m b ( M , N ) , with structure groups D i f f ( M ) and D i f f + ( M ) , where D i f f + ( M ) is the groups of orientation preserving diffeomorphisms. The aim of this paper is to describe the structure group of the tangent bundle of the two base manifolds: B ( M , N ) = E m b ( M , N ) / D i f f ( M ) and B + ( M , N ) = E m b ( M , N ) / D i f f + ( M ) from the various properties described, an adequate group seems to be a group of Fourier integral operators, which is carefully studied. It is the main goal of this paper to analyze this group, which is a central extension of a group of diffeomorphisms by a group of pseudo-differential operators which is slightly different from the one developped in the mathematical litterature e.g. by H. Omori and by T. Ratiu. We show that these groups are regular, and develop the necessary properties for applications to the geometry of B ( M , N ) . A case of particular interest is M = S 1 , where connected components of B + ( S 1 , N ) are deeply linked with homotopy classes of oriented knots. In this example, the structure group of the tangent space T B + ( S 1 , N ) is a subgroup of some group G L r e s , following the classical notations of (Pressley, A., 1988). These constructions suggest some approaches in the spirit of one of our previous works on Chern-Weil theory that could lead to knot invariants through a theory of Chern-Weil forms.