Open AccessArticle
Effect of Applied Stress on the Mechanical Properties of a Zr-Cu-Ag-Al Bulk Metallic Glass with Two Different Structure States
Materials 2017, 10(7), 711; doi:10.3390/ma10070711 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In order to investigate the effect of applied stress on mechanical properties in metallic glasses, nanoindentation tests were conducted on elastically bent Zr-Cu-Ag-Al metallic glasses with two different structure states. From spherical P-h curves, elastic modulus was found to be independent on applied
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In order to investigate the effect of applied stress on mechanical properties in metallic glasses, nanoindentation tests were conducted on elastically bent Zr-Cu-Ag-Al metallic glasses with two different structure states. From spherical P-h curves, elastic modulus was found to be independent on applied stress. Hardness decreased by ~8% and ~14% with the application of 1.5% tensile strain for as-cast and 650 K annealed specimens, while it was slightly increased at the compressive side. Yield stress could be obtained from the contact pressure at first pop-in position with a conversion coefficient. The experimental result showed a symmetrical effect of applied stress on strengthening and a reduction of the contact pressure at compressive and tensile sides. It was observed that the applied stress plays a negligible effect on creep deformation in as-cast specimen. While for the annealed specimen, creep deformation was facilitated by applied tensile stress and suppressed by applied compressive stress. Strain rate sensitivities (SRS) were calculated from steady-state creep, which were constant for as-cast specimen and strongly correlated with applied stress for the annealed one. The more pronounced effect of applied stress in the 650 K annealed metallic glass could be qualitatively explained through the variation of the shear transformation zone (STZ) size. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Scale Up Pillaring: A Study of the Parameters That Influence the Process
Materials 2017, 10(7), 712; doi:10.3390/ma10070712 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Pillared clays (PILCs) are interesting materials mostly due to their high basal spacing and surface area, which make them suitable for adsorption and catalysis applications, for example. However, the production of these materials on industrial scale is dependent on research about what parameters
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Pillared clays (PILCs) are interesting materials mostly due to their high basal spacing and surface area, which make them suitable for adsorption and catalysis applications, for example. However, the production of these materials on industrial scale is dependent on research about what parameters influence the process. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate what parameters influence the pillaring procedure. For this, pillared clays were synthesized following three series of experiments. In the first series, the effect of the amount of water in a clay suspension was evaluated. The best results were obtained by using diluted suspensions (1 g of clay to 100 mL of water). In the second series, several pillaring methods were tested. In the third series, the amount of pillared clay was raised to 50 g. Fifty grams of pillared clay can be obtained using the pillaring agent synthesized at 60 °C with further aging for 24 h, and this material exhibited high basal spacing (17.6 Å) and surface area (233 m2/g). These values are comparable with the traditional pillaring method using only 3 g of clay. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Ultrasonic Nano-Crystal Surface Modification (UNSM) on the Passivation Behavior of Aged 316L Stainless Steel
Materials 2017, 10(7), 713; doi:10.3390/ma10070713 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Stainless steels have good corrosion resistance in many environments but welding or aging can decrease their resistance. This work focused on the effect of aging time and ultrasonic nano-crystal surface modification on the passivation behavior of 316L stainless steel. In the case of
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Stainless steels have good corrosion resistance in many environments but welding or aging can decrease their resistance. This work focused on the effect of aging time and ultrasonic nano-crystal surface modification on the passivation behavior of 316L stainless steel. In the case of slightly sensitized 316L stainless steel, increasing the aging time drastically decreased the pitting potential, increased the passive current density, and decreased the resistance of the passive film, even though aging did not form chromium carbide and a chromium depletion zone. This behavior is due to the micro-galvanic corrosion between the matrix and carbon segregated area, and this shows the importance of carbon segregation in grain boundaries to the pitting corrosion resistance of stainless steel, in addition to the formation of the chromium depletion zone. UNSM (Ultrasonic Nano Crystal Surface Modification)-treatment to the slightly sensitized 316L stainless steel increased the pitting potential, decreased the passive current density, and increased the resistance of the passive film. However, in the case of heavily sensitized 316L stainless steel, UNSM-treatment decreased the pitting potential, increased the passive current density, and decreased the resistance of the passive film. This behavior is due to the dual effects of the UNSM-treatment. That is, the UNSM-treatment reduced the carbon segregation, regardless of whether the stainless steel 316L was slightly or heavily sensitized. However, since this treatment made mechanical flaws in the outer surface in the case of the heavily sensitized stainless steel, UNSM-treatment may eliminate chromium carbide, and this flaw can be a pitting initiation site, and therefore decrease the pitting corrosion resistance. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Reuse of Pillaring Agent in Sequential Bentonite Pillaring Processes
Materials 2017, 10(7), 705; doi:10.3390/ma10070705 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This work describes the synthesis and characterization of pillared clays using a new pillaring method: the reuse of the pillaring solution. First, an Al pillared clay (PILC) was synthesized, and after filtration, the pillaring agent was stored and reused for an additional three
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This work describes the synthesis and characterization of pillared clays using a new pillaring method: the reuse of the pillaring solution. First, an Al pillared clay (PILC) was synthesized, and after filtration, the pillaring agent was stored and reused for an additional three pillaring procedures (P1, P2, and P3). The filtered pillaring solution was stored for one year and then reused for one additional pillaring procedure (P4). The samples were analyzed using XRD, N2 physisorption measurements and chemical analysis (EDX). All of the samples exhibited basal spacings larger than 17 Å and BET surface areas greater than 160 m2/g. After the P4 pillaring, the pillaring agent was precipitated with a Na2SO4 solution, and the resulting solid was analyzed using XRD and SEM. The results indicated that even after a total of five pillaring procedures, Al13 ions were still present in solution. Therefore, it is possible to reuse the pillaring solution four times and to even store the solution for one year, which is important from an industrial perspective. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigations on the Pull-Out Behavior of Tire Strips Reinforced Sands
Materials 2017, 10(7), 707; doi:10.3390/ma10070707 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Waste tires have excellent mechanical performance and have been used as reinforcing material in geotechnical engineering; however, their interface properties are poorly understood. To further our knowledge, this paper examines the pull-out characteristics of waste tire strips in a compacted sand, together with
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Waste tires have excellent mechanical performance and have been used as reinforcing material in geotechnical engineering; however, their interface properties are poorly understood. To further our knowledge, this paper examines the pull-out characteristics of waste tire strips in a compacted sand, together with uniaxial and biaxial geogrids also tested under the same conditions. The analysis of the results shows that the interlocking effect and pull-out resistance between the tire strip and the sand is very strong and significantly higher than that of the geogrids. In the early stages of the pull-out test, the resistance is mainly provided by the front portion of the embedded tire strips, as the pull-out test continues, more and more of the areas towards the end of the tire strips are mobilized, showing a progressive failure mechanism. The deformations are proportional to the frictional resistance between the tire-sand interface, and increase as the normal stresses increase. Tire strips of different wear intensities were tested and presented different pull-out resistances; however, the pull-out resistance mobilization patterns were generally similar. The pull-out resistance values obtained show that rubber reinforcement can provide much higher pull-out forces than the geogrid reinforcements tested here, showing that waste tires are an excellent alternative as a reinforcing system, regardless of the environmental advantages. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Core-shell Ceria/Poly(Vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) Nanoparticles Incorporated in Polymer Films and Their Optical Properties (2): Increasing the Refractive Index
Materials 2017, 10(7), 710; doi:10.3390/ma10070710 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
We investigated the preparation of well-dispersed core-shell ceria-poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) nanoparticles with an average particle size of around 20 nm which were used to produce a hybrid film with a polymer coating of dipentaerythritol hexaacrylate (DPHA). We obtained good dispersion of the nanoparticles in
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We investigated the preparation of well-dispersed core-shell ceria-poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) nanoparticles with an average particle size of around 20 nm which were used to produce a hybrid film with a polymer coating of dipentaerythritol hexaacrylate (DPHA). We obtained good dispersion of the nanoparticles in a mixed solvent of 48% 1-methoxy-2-propanol (MP), 32% 3-methoxy-3-methyl-1-butanol (MMB), and 20% methyl i-butyl ketone (MIBK). An ink of the polymer coating consisting of 68.7 wt% nanoparticles and 31.3 wt% DPHA with a polymerization initiator was prepared using this solvent mixture. The surface of the hybrid film showed low roughness and the nanoparticles formed a densely packed structure in the DPHA matrix. The resulting coating possessed excellent transparency and a high refractive index of 1.69. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Improving the Flame Retardant Efficiency of Layer by Layer Coatings Containing Deoxyribonucleic Acid by Post-Diffusion of Hydrotalcite Sanoparticles
Materials 2017, 10(7), 709; doi:10.3390/ma10070709 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This work deals with the use of hydrotalcite nanoparticle post-diffusion in layer by layer (LbL) coatings with the aim of improving their flame retardant action on cotton. The selected LbL components, which encompass polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride and deoxyribonucleic acid, aim at the deposition of
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This work deals with the use of hydrotalcite nanoparticle post-diffusion in layer by layer (LbL) coatings with the aim of improving their flame retardant action on cotton. The selected LbL components, which encompass polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride and deoxyribonucleic acid, aim at the deposition of an intumescent coating. Infrared spectra pointed out a super-linear growth of the investigated assembly, indicating the ability to deposit thick coatings while maintaining a relatively low deposition number. A post-diffusion process, performed by exposing the LbL-treated fabrics to two different concentrations of hydrotalcite water suspensions (0.1 or 1 wt %), was carried out to improve the fireproofing efficiency of these coatings. Coatings treated with the lowest concentration suspension partially swelled as a consequence of their structural rearrangements while the use of the highest concentration led to nanoparticle aggregates. Horizontal flame spread tests were used for assessing the achieved flame retardant properties. The post-diffusion performed at the lowest hydrotalcite concentration lowers the minimum number of Bi-Layers required for obtaining cotton self-extinguishment while samples treated with the highest concentration showed detrimental effects on the performances of treated fabrics. This behavior is ascribed to the effects of hydrotalcite particles on the intumescence of LbL coatings, as evidenced by the morphological analyses of post-combustion residues. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Influence of Equal Channel Angular Pressing Passes on the Microstructures and Tensile Properties of Mg-8Sn-6Zn-2Al Alloy
Materials 2017, 10(7), 708; doi:10.3390/ma10070708 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
An I-phase containing Mg-8Sn-6Zn-2Al (wt %; TZA862) alloy was fabricated and subjected to different number of passes of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) processing at 300 °C. The results showed that the alloys exhibited a bimodal microstructure, which consisted of fine dynamically recrystallized
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An I-phase containing Mg-8Sn-6Zn-2Al (wt %; TZA862) alloy was fabricated and subjected to different number of passes of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) processing at 300 °C. The results showed that the alloys exhibited a bimodal microstructure, which consisted of fine dynamically recrystallized (DRX) grains and coarse non-DRX grains. When increasing the number of ECAP passes from 2 to 6, the fraction of DRX grains and the dispersed second phase particles subsequently increase. However, the fraction and particles then decrease once the number of ECAP passes increases to 8. After 6 ECAP passes, remarkable grain refinement was achieved and increasing the number of passes to 8 cannot further refine the microstructure. Furthermore, the alloys having undergone ECAP exhibited a strong ED-tilted texture, the intensity of which increased with an increase in the number of ECAP passes. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS; 338 MPa) and elongation (El.; 14.2%) of the alloy processed with 6 ECAP passes were considerably higher compared to those of the other materials that had undergone ECAP. These significant enhancements were attributed to extensive grain boundary strengthening, precipitation strengthening and a higher work-hardening capacity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructural Analysis and Wear Performance of Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced SiC Composite for Brake Pads
Materials 2017, 10(7), 701; doi:10.3390/ma10070701 -
Abstract
Carbon-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/C-SiC) composite is widely used as a friction material owing to its good performance, even though it is more expensive than metallic materials. The light C/C-SiC composite is an ideal candidate for weight reduction of frictional parts. In this study,
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Carbon-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/C-SiC) composite is widely used as a friction material owing to its good performance, even though it is more expensive than metallic materials. The light C/C-SiC composite is an ideal candidate for weight reduction of frictional parts. In this study, the friction and wear behavior of C/C-SiC composite was assessed using a ball-on-disk friction tester under dry reciprocating sliding conditions at different temperatures of 25, 100, and 200 °C. The disk specimens were made of C/C-SiC composite, while the mating counterpart pins were made of bearing steel. The microstructure and wear track of the specimens were characterized using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The microstructural analysis of the wear track revealed that the wear mechanism was abrasive. The friction coefficient and wear behavior of the specimens was dependent on the temperature, where the friction coefficients and wear rate increased with increasing temperature. Full article
Open AccessArticle
High Mobility Thin Film Transistors Based on Amorphous Indium Zinc Tin Oxide
Materials 2017, 10(7), 702; doi:10.3390/ma10070702 -
Abstract
Top-contact bottom-gate thin film transistors (TFTs) with zinc-rich indium zinc tin oxide (IZTO) active layer were prepared at room temperature by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Sintered ceramic target was prepared and used for deposition from oxide powder mixture having the molar ratio of
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Top-contact bottom-gate thin film transistors (TFTs) with zinc-rich indium zinc tin oxide (IZTO) active layer were prepared at room temperature by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Sintered ceramic target was prepared and used for deposition from oxide powder mixture having the molar ratio of In2O3:ZnO:SnO2 = 2:5:1. Annealing treatment was carried out for as-deposited films at various temperatures to investigate its effect on TFT performances. It was found that annealing treatment at 350 °C for 30 min in air atmosphere yielded the best result, with the high field effect mobility value of 34 cm2/Vs and the minimum subthreshold swing value of 0.12 V/dec. All IZTO thin films were amorphous, even after annealing treatment of up to 350 °C. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Comparative Study on ZnO Monolayer Doped with Al, Ga and In Atoms as Transparent Electrodes
Materials 2017, 10(7), 703; doi:10.3390/ma10070703 -
Abstract
Transparent anodes are indispensable components for optoelectronic devices. Two-dimensional (2D) materials are attracting increasing research interest due to their unique properties and promising applications. In order to design novel transparent anodes, we investigated the electronic, optical, and electrical properties of 2D ZnO monolayers
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Transparent anodes are indispensable components for optoelectronic devices. Two-dimensional (2D) materials are attracting increasing research interest due to their unique properties and promising applications. In order to design novel transparent anodes, we investigated the electronic, optical, and electrical properties of 2D ZnO monolayers doped with Al, Ga, and In using the first-principles calculation in combination with the Boltzmann transport theory. When the doping concentration of Al, Ga, and In is less than 12.5 wt %, we find that the average transmittance reaches up to 99% in the visible and UV regions. Moreover, the electrical conductivity is enhanced for the Al, Ga, and In doped systems compared to that of the pristine ZnO monolayer. In particular, a good electrical conductivity with a significant improvement for the In doped ZnO monolayer is achieved compared to Al and Ga doping at the 6.25 wt % level. These results suggest that the ZnO monolayer based materials, and in particular the In doped ZnO monolayer, are promising transparent anodes for nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic applications. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Cold-Rolling/Aging Treatments on the Shape Memory Properties of Ti49.3Ni50.7 Shape Memory Alloy
Materials 2017, 10(7), 704; doi:10.3390/ma10070704 -
Abstract
In this study, the combined effects of strengthening, precipitates, and textures on the shape recovery ability and superelasticity of thermomechanically treated Ti49.3Ni50.7 shape memory alloy (SMA) in both the rolling and transverse directions were studied by experimental measurements and theoretical calculations. Experimental results
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In this study, the combined effects of strengthening, precipitates, and textures on the shape recovery ability and superelasticity of thermomechanically treated Ti49.3Ni50.7 shape memory alloy (SMA) in both the rolling and transverse directions were studied by experimental measurements and theoretical calculations. Experimental results and theoretical calculations showed that the 300 °C × 100 h aged specimen exhibited the best shape memory effect because it possessed the most favorable textures, highest matrix strength, and most beneficially coherent stress induced by Ti3Ni4 precipitates. The 30% cold-rolled and then 300 °C × 100 h aged specimen exhibited the highest strength and superelasticity; however, its shape recovery ability was not as good as expected because the less favorable textures and the high strength inhibited the movements of dislocations and martensite boundaries. Therefore, to achieve the most optimal shape memory characteristics of Ni-rich TiNi SMAs, the effects of textures, matrix strength, and internal defects, such as Ti3Ni4 precipitates and dislocations, should all be carefully considered and controlled during thermomechanical treatments. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Nanoscale CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O and Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O Using the Hydrothermal Method and Their Characterization
Materials 2017, 10(7), 695; doi:10.3390/ma10070695 -
Abstract
C-A-S-H (CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O) and N-A-S-H (Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O) have a wide range of chemical compositions and structures and are difficult to separate from alkali-activated materials. Therefore, it is
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C-A-S-H (CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O) and N-A-S-H (Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O) have a wide range of chemical compositions and structures and are difficult to separate from alkali-activated materials. Therefore, it is difficult to analyze their microscopic properties directly. This paper reports research on the synthesis of C-A-S-H and N-A-S-H particles with an average particle size smaller than 300 nm by applying the hydrothermal method. The composition and microstructure of the products with different CaO(Na2O)/SiO2 ratios and curing conditions were characterized using XRD, the RIR method, FTIR, SEM, TEM, and laser particle size analysis. The results showed that the C-A-S-H system products with a low CaO/SiO2 ratio were mainly amorphous C-A-S-H gels. With an increase in the CaO/SiO2 ratio, an excess of Ca(OH)2 was observed at room temperature, while in a high-temperature reaction system, katoite, C4AcH11, and other crystallized products were observed. The katoite content was related to the curing temperature and the content of Ca(OH)2 and it tended to form at a high-temperature and high-calcium environment, and an increase in the temperature renders the C-A-S-H gels more compact. The main products of the N-A-S-H system at room temperature were amorphous N-A-S-H gels and a small amount of sodalite. An increase in the curing temperature promoted the formation of the crystalline products faujasite and zeolite-P. The crystallization products consisted of only zeolite-P in the high-temperature N-A-S-H system and its content were stable above 70%. An increase in the Na2O/SiO2 ratio resulted in more non-bridging oxygen and the TO4 was more isolated in the N-A-S-H structure. The composition and microstructure of the C-A-S-H and N-A-S-H system products synthesized by the hydrothermal method were closely related to the ratio of the raw materials and the curing conditions. The results of this study increase our understanding of the hydration products of alkali-activated materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tunable Multiple Plasmon-Induced Transparencies Based on Asymmetrical Grapheme Nanoribbon Structures
Materials 2017, 10(7), 699; doi:10.3390/ma10070699 -
Abstract
We present plasmonic devices, consisting of periodic arrays of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and a graphene sheet waveguide, to achieve controllable plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) by numerical simulation. We analyze the bright and dark elements of the GNRs and graphene-sheet waveguide structure. Results show that
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We present plasmonic devices, consisting of periodic arrays of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and a graphene sheet waveguide, to achieve controllable plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) by numerical simulation. We analyze the bright and dark elements of the GNRs and graphene-sheet waveguide structure. Results show that applying the gate voltage can electrically tune the PIT spectrum. Adjusting the coupling distance and widths of GNRs directly results in a shift of transmission dips. In addition, increased angle of incidence causes the transmission to split into multiple PIT peaks. We also demonstrate that PIT devices based on graphene plasmonics may have promising applications as plasmonic sensors in nanophotonics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electrical and Optical Characterization of Sputtered Silicon Dioxide, Indium Tin Oxide, and Silicon Dioxide/Indium Tin Oxide Antireflection Coating on Single-Junction GaAs Solar Cells
Materials 2017, 10(7), 700; doi:10.3390/ma10070700 -
Abstract
This study characterized the electrical and optical properties of single-junction GaAs solar cells coated with antireflective layers of silicon dioxide (SiO2), indium tin oxide (ITO), and a hybrid layer of SiO2/ITO applied using Radio frequency (RF) sputtering. The conductivity
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This study characterized the electrical and optical properties of single-junction GaAs solar cells coated with antireflective layers of silicon dioxide (SiO2), indium tin oxide (ITO), and a hybrid layer of SiO2/ITO applied using Radio frequency (RF) sputtering. The conductivity and transparency of the ITO film were characterized prior to application on GaAs cells. Reverse saturation-current and ideality factor were used to evaluate the passivation performance of the various coatings on GaAs solar cells. Optical reflectance and external quantum efficiency response were used to evaluate the antireflective performance of the coatings. Photovoltaic current-voltage measurements were used to confirm the efficiency enhancement obtained by the presence of the anti-reflective coatings. The conversion efficiency of the GaAs cells with an ITO antireflective coating (23.52%) exceeded that of cells with a SiO2 antireflective coating (21.92%). Due to lower series resistance and higher short-circuit current-density, the carrier collection of the GaAs cell with ITO coating exceeded that of the cell with a SiO2/ITO coating. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Combined High and Low Cycle Fatigue Model for Life Prediction of Turbine Blades
Materials 2017, 10(7), 698; doi:10.3390/ma10070698 -
Abstract
Combined high and low cycle fatigue (CCF) generally induces the failure of aircraft gas turbine attachments. Based on the aero-engine load spectrum, accurate assessment of fatigue damage due to the interaction of high cycle fatigue (HCF) resulting from high frequency vibrations and low
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Combined high and low cycle fatigue (CCF) generally induces the failure of aircraft gas turbine attachments. Based on the aero-engine load spectrum, accurate assessment of fatigue damage due to the interaction of high cycle fatigue (HCF) resulting from high frequency vibrations and low cycle fatigue (LCF) from ground-air-ground engine cycles is of critical importance for ensuring structural integrity of engine components, like turbine blades. In this paper, the influence of combined damage accumulation on the expected CCF life are investigated for turbine blades. The CCF behavior of a turbine blade is usually studied by testing with four load-controlled parameters, including high cycle stress amplitude and frequency, and low cycle stress amplitude and frequency. According to this, a new damage accumulation model is proposed based on Miner’s rule to consider the coupled damage due to HCF-LCF interaction by introducing the four load parameters. Five experimental datasets of turbine blade alloys and turbine blades were introduced for model validation and comparison between the proposed Miner, Manson-Halford, and Trufyakov-Kovalchuk models. Results show that the proposed model provides more accurate predictions than others with lower mean and standard deviation values of model prediction errors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Phenolic Modified Ceramic Coating on Biodegradable Mg Alloy: The Improved Corrosion Resistance and Osteoblast-Like Cell Activity
Materials 2017, 10(7), 696; doi:10.3390/ma10070696 -
Abstract
Magnesium alloys have great potential for developing orthopedic implants due to their biodegradability and mechanical properties, but the rapid corrosion rate of the currently-available alloys limits their clinical applications. To increase the corrosion resistance of the substrate, a protective ceramic coating is constructed
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Magnesium alloys have great potential for developing orthopedic implants due to their biodegradability and mechanical properties, but the rapid corrosion rate of the currently-available alloys limits their clinical applications. To increase the corrosion resistance of the substrate, a protective ceramic coating is constructed by a micro-arc oxidation (MAO) process on ZK60 magnesium alloy. The porous ceramic coating is mainly composed of magnesium oxide and magnesium silicate, and the results from cell cultures show it can stimulate osteoblastic cell growth and proliferation. Moreover, gallic acid, a phenolic compound, was successfully introduced onto the MAO coating by grafting on hydrated oxide and chelating with magnesium ions. The gallic acid and rough surface of MAO altered the cell attachment behavior, making it difficult for fibroblasts to adhere to the MAO coating. The viability tests showed that gallic acid could suppress fibroblast growth and stimulate osteoblastic cell proliferation. Overall, the porous MAO coating combined with gallic acid offered a novel strategy for increasing osteocompatibility. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Flower-Like CuO/ZnO Hybrid Hierarchical Nanostructures Grown on Copper Substrate: Glycothermal Synthesis, Characterization, Hydrophobic and Anticorrosion Properties
Materials 2017, 10(7), 697; doi:10.3390/ma10070697 -
Abstract
In this work we have demonstrated a facile formation of CuO nanostructures on copper substrates by the oxidation of copper foil in ethylene glycol (EG) at 80 °C. On immersing a prepared CuO film into a solution containing 0.1 g Zn(acac)2 in
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In this work we have demonstrated a facile formation of CuO nanostructures on copper substrates by the oxidation of copper foil in ethylene glycol (EG) at 80 °C. On immersing a prepared CuO film into a solution containing 0.1 g Zn(acac)2 in 20 mL EG for 8 h, ZnO flower-like microstructures composed of hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) aggregated nanoparticles and spherical architectures were spontaneously formed at 100 °C. The as-synthesized thin films and 3D microstructures were characterized using XRD, SEM, and EDS techniques. The effects of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 as surfactants and stabilizers on the morphology of the CuO and ZnO structures were discussed. Possible growth mechanisms for the controlled organization of primary building units into CuO nanostructures and 3D flower-like ZnO architectures were proposed. The hydrophobic property of the products was characterized by means of water contact angle measurement. After simple surface modification with stearic acid and PDMS, the resulting films showed hydrophobic and even superhydrophobic characteristics due to their special surface energy and nano-microstructure morphology. Importantly, stable superhydrophobicity with a contact angle of 153.5° was successfully observed for CuO-ZnO microflowers after modification with PDMS. The electrochemical impedance measurements proved that the anticorrosion efficiency for the CuO/ZnO/PDMS sample was about 99%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Poly(cyclohexanedimethylene terephthalate) on Microstructures, Crystallization Behavior and Properties of the Poly(ester ether) Elastomers
Materials 2017, 10(7), 694; doi:10.3390/ma10070694 -
Abstract
To understand the role of molecular structure on the crystallization behavior of copolyester in thermoplastic poly(ether ester) elastomers (TPEEs), series of poly(butylene-co-1,4-cyclohexanedimethylene terephthalate) (P(BT-co-CT))-b-poly(tetramethylene glycol) (PTMG) are synthesized through molten polycondensation process. The effects of poly(cyclohexanedimethylene terephthalate) (PCT) content on the copolymer are
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To understand the role of molecular structure on the crystallization behavior of copolyester in thermoplastic poly(ether ester) elastomers (TPEEs), series of poly(butylene-co-1,4-cyclohexanedimethylene terephthalate) (P(BT-co-CT))-b-poly(tetramethylene glycol) (PTMG) are synthesized through molten polycondensation process. The effects of poly(cyclohexanedimethylene terephthalate) (PCT) content on the copolymer are investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gel permeation chromatographs (GPC), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), mechanical, and visible light transmittance tests. FT-IR and NMR results confirm the incorporation of PCT onto the copolymer. WAXD and DSC indicate that the crystalline structure of the copolymers changed from α-PBT lattice to trans-PCT lattice when the molar fraction of PCT (MPCT) is above 30%, while both crystallization and melting temperatures reach the minima. An increase in MPCT led to an increase in the number sequence length of PCT, the thermal stability and the visible light transmittance of the copolymer, but to a slight decrease in tensile strength and elastic modulus. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ion Beam Assisted Deposition of Thin Epitaxial GaN Films
Materials 2017, 10(7), 690; doi:10.3390/ma10070690 -
Abstract
The assistance of thin film deposition with low-energy ion bombardment influences their final properties significantly. Especially, the application of so-called hyperthermal ions (energy <100 eV) is capable to modify the characteristics of the growing film without generating a large number of irradiation induced
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The assistance of thin film deposition with low-energy ion bombardment influences their final properties significantly. Especially, the application of so-called hyperthermal ions (energy <100 eV) is capable to modify the characteristics of the growing film without generating a large number of irradiation induced defects. The nitrogen ion beam assisted molecular beam epitaxy (ion energy <25 eV) is used to deposit GaN thin films on (0001)-oriented 6H-SiC substrates at 700 °C. The films are studied in situ by reflection high energy electron diffraction, ex situ by X-ray diffraction, scanning tunnelling microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is demonstrated that the film growth mode can be controlled by varying the ion to atom ratio, where 2D films are characterized by a smooth topography, a high crystalline quality, low biaxial stress, and low defect density. Typical structural defects in the GaN thin films were identified as basal plane stacking faults, low-angle grain boundaries forming between w-GaN and z-GaN and twin boundaries. The misfit strain between the GaN thin films and substrates is relieved by the generation of edge dislocations in the first and second monolayers of GaN thin films and of misfit interfacial dislocations. It can be demonstrated that the low-energy nitrogen ion assisted molecular beam epitaxy is a technique to produce thin GaN films of high crystalline quality. Full article
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