Open AccessArticle
Preparation and Characterization of Ternary Antimicrobial Films of β-Cyclodextrin/Allyl Isothiocyanate/Polylactic Acid for the Enhancement of Long-Term Controlled Release
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1210; doi:10.3390/ma10101210 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) are natural essential oil components that have outstanding antimicrobial activities. However, low water solubility, high volatility, and easy degradation by heat, restricting their application in food packing industry. Development of the inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin/AITC (β-CD/AITC) is a promising solution.
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Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) are natural essential oil components that have outstanding antimicrobial activities. However, low water solubility, high volatility, and easy degradation by heat, restricting their application in food packing industry. Development of the inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin/AITC (β-CD/AITC) is a promising solution. Furthermore, the incorporation of β-CD/AITC complex into polylactic acid (PLA) films would be an attractive method to develop food antimicrobial materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the enhancement in physicochemical properties, antimicrobial activities, and controlled release of β-CD/AITC from such films. The addition of β-CD/AITC significantly increased the flexibility and thermal stability of films. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results revealed that the interactions between β-CD/AITC and PLA films occurred. The controlled release of AITC encapsulated in β-CD was significantly affected by relative humidity and temperature. The PLA films containing β-CD/AITC can be applied as an effective antimicrobial packing material for food and non-food applications. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Characterization of TiO2 Nanoparticles for the Reduction of Water Pollutants
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1208; doi:10.3390/ma10101208 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The aim of this manuscript was the optimization of the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) with conditions that could be easily reproducible at the industrial level. Several procedures were tested and those with C12H28O4Ti
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The aim of this manuscript was the optimization of the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) with conditions that could be easily reproducible at the industrial level. Several procedures were tested and those with C12H28O4Ti and CO(NH2)2 as precursors seemed the most promising and, consequently, were improved with different molar ratios, lower temperatures and the addition of NH4Cl as a secondary dopant of nitrogen. The obtained samples were studied with analytical techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). To complete the study, dye degradation and bacteriological tests were also performed. The results indicate that it is possible to obtain TiO2 NPs at lower temperatures with respect to those used in the literature; the best candidate that could satisfy all the requirements was a sample with a molar ratio of C12H28O4Ti:CO(NH2)2 at 2:1 and obtained at 50 °C. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication
Magnetic Properties of Fibonacci-Modulated Fe-Au Multilayer Metamaterials
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1209; doi:10.3390/ma10101209 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Herein we experimentally study magnetic multilayer metamaterials with broken translational symmetry. Epitaxially-grown iron-gold (Fe-Au) multilayers modulated using Fibonacci sequence—referred to as magnetic inverse Fibonacci-modulated multilayers (IFMs)—are prepared using ultra-high-vacuum vapor deposition. Experimental results of in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction, magnetization curves, and ferromagnetic
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Herein we experimentally study magnetic multilayer metamaterials with broken translational symmetry. Epitaxially-grown iron-gold (Fe-Au) multilayers modulated using Fibonacci sequence—referred to as magnetic inverse Fibonacci-modulated multilayers (IFMs)—are prepared using ultra-high-vacuum vapor deposition. Experimental results of in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction, magnetization curves, and ferromagnetic resonance demonstrate that the epitaxially-grown Fe-Au IFMs have quasi-isotropic magnetization, in contrast to the in-plane magnetization easy axis in the periodic multilayers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Time-Variant Reliability Analysis for Rubber O-Ring Seal Considering Both Material Degradation and Random Load
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1211; doi:10.3390/ma10101211 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Due to the increase in working hours, the reliability of rubber O-ring seals used in hydraulic systems of transfer machines will change. While traditional methods can only analyze one of the material properties or seal properties, the failure of the O-ring is caused
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Due to the increase in working hours, the reliability of rubber O-ring seals used in hydraulic systems of transfer machines will change. While traditional methods can only analyze one of the material properties or seal properties, the failure of the O-ring is caused by these two factors together. In this paper, two factors are mainly analyzed: the degradation of material properties and load randomization by processing technology. Firstly, the two factors are defined in terms of material failure and seal failure, before the experimental methods of rubber materials are studied. Following this, the time-variant material properties through experiments and load distribution by monitoring the processing can be obtained. Thirdly, compressive stress and contact stress have been calculated, which was combined with the reliability model to acquire the time-variant reliability for the O-ring. Finally, the life prediction and effect of oil pressure were discussed, then compared with the actual situation. The results show a lifetime of 12 months for the O-ring calculated in this paper, and compared with the replacement records from the maintenance workshop, the result is credible. Full article
Open AccessArticle
L21 and XA Ordering Competition in Hafnium-Based Full-Heusler Alloys Hf2VZ (Z = Al, Ga, In, Tl, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb)
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1200; doi:10.3390/ma10101200 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
For theoretical designing of full-Heusler based spintroinc materials, people have long believed in the so-called Site Preference Rule (SPR). Very recently, according to the SPR, there are several studies on XA-type Hafnium-based Heusler alloys X2YZ, i.e., Hf2VAl, Hf2
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For theoretical designing of full-Heusler based spintroinc materials, people have long believed in the so-called Site Preference Rule (SPR). Very recently, according to the SPR, there are several studies on XA-type Hafnium-based Heusler alloys X2YZ, i.e., Hf2VAl, Hf2CoZ (Z = Ga, In) and Hf2CrZ (Z = Al, Ga, In). In this work, a series of Hf2-based Heusler alloys, Hf2VZ (Z = Al, Ga, In, Tl, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb), were selected as targets to study the site preferences of their atoms by first-principle calculations. It has been found that all of them are likely to exhibit the L21-type structure instead of the XA one. Furthermore, we reveal that the high values of spin-polarization of XA-type Hf2VZ (Z = Al, Ga, In, Tl, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb) alloys have dropped dramatically when they form the L21-type structure. Also, we prove that the electronic, magnetic, and physics nature of these alloys are quite different, depending on the L21-type or XA-type structures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling and Predicting the Stress Relaxation of Composites with Short and Randomly Oriented Fibers
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1207; doi:10.3390/ma10101207 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The addition of short fibers has been experimentally observed to slow the stress relaxation of viscoelastic polymers, producing a change in the relaxation time constant. Our recent study attributed this effect of fibers on stress relaxation behavior to the interfacial shear stress transfer
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The addition of short fibers has been experimentally observed to slow the stress relaxation of viscoelastic polymers, producing a change in the relaxation time constant. Our recent study attributed this effect of fibers on stress relaxation behavior to the interfacial shear stress transfer at the fiber-matrix interface. This model explained the effect of fiber addition on stress relaxation without the need to postulate structural changes at the interface. In our previous study, we developed an analytical model for the effect of fully aligned short fibers, and the model predictions were successfully compared to finite element simulations. However, in most industrial applications of short-fiber composites, fibers are not aligned, and hence it is necessary to examine the time dependence of viscoelastic polymers containing randomly oriented short fibers. In this study, we propose an analytical model to predict the stress relaxation behavior of short-fiber composites where the fibers are randomly oriented. The model predictions were compared to results obtained from Monte Carlo finite element simulations, and good agreement between the two was observed. The analytical model provides an excellent tool to accurately predict the stress relaxation behavior of randomly oriented short-fiber composites. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Practical Example of GaN-LED Failure Cause Analysis by Application of Combined Electron Microscopy Techniques
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1202; doi:10.3390/ma10101202 -
Abstract
In this paper, we report a failure case of blue LEDs returned from a field application, and propose a practical way to identify the physical and structural reasons for the observed malfunction by a combination of different electron microscope techniques. Cathodoluminescence imaging and
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In this paper, we report a failure case of blue LEDs returned from a field application, and propose a practical way to identify the physical and structural reasons for the observed malfunction by a combination of different electron microscope techniques. Cathodoluminescence imaging and electron beam induced current (EBIC) imaging are employed in order to visualize conductive paths through the device in conjunction with subsequent energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDS), revealing a metal deposition along cracks in the semiconductor layer which short-circuit the device. We demonstrate that the electron beam induced current imaging, in conjunction with other microscopic and analytical techniques at µm scale, is a powerful combination for clearly resolving and visualizing the cause of failure in the GaN LED chip. However, this represents a case study of a real application, which may not have been generally observed in laboratory testing environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Ultrasonic Surface Rolling on Microstructure and Wear Behavior of Selective Laser Melted Ti-6Al-4V Alloy
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1203; doi:10.3390/ma10101203 -
Abstract
The present article studied the effect of ultrasonic surface rolling process (USRP) on the microstructure and wear behavior of a selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Surface characteristics were investigated using optical microscope, nano-indentation, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and laser scanning confocal
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The present article studied the effect of ultrasonic surface rolling process (USRP) on the microstructure and wear behavior of a selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Surface characteristics were investigated using optical microscope, nano-indentation, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and laser scanning confocal microscope. Results indicated that the thickness of pore-free surfaces increased to 100~200 μm with the increasing ultrasonic surface rolling numbers. Severe work hardening occurred in the densified layer, resulting in the formation of refined grains, dislocation walls and deformation twins. After 1000 N 6 passes, about 15.5% and 14.1% increment in surficial Nano-hardness and Vickers-hardness was obtained, respectively. The hardness decreased gradually from the top surface to the substrate. Wear tests revealed that the friction coefficient declined from 0.74 (polished surface) to 0.64 (USRP treated surface) and the wear volume reduced from 0.205 mm−3 to 0.195 mm−3. The difference in wear volume between USRP treated and polished samples increased with sliding time. The enhanced wear resistance was concluded to be associated with the improvement of hardness and shear resistance and also the inhibition of delamination initiation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancement of Fracture Toughness of Epoxy Nanocomposites by Combining Nanotubes and Nanosheets as Fillers
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1179; doi:10.3390/ma10101179 -
Abstract
In this work the fracture toughness of epoxy resin has been improved through the addition of low loading of single part and hybrid nanofiller materials. Functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) was used as single filler, increased the critical strain energy release rate, G
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In this work the fracture toughness of epoxy resin has been improved through the addition of low loading of single part and hybrid nanofiller materials. Functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) was used as single filler, increased the critical strain energy release rate, GIC, by 57% compared to the neat epoxy, at only 0.1 wt% filler content. Importantly, no degradation in the tensile or thermal properties of the nanocomposite was observed compared to the neat epoxy. When two-dimensional boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS) were added along with the one-dimensional f-MWCNTs, the fracture toughness increased further to 71.6% higher than that of the neat epoxy. Interestingly, when functionalised graphene nanoplatelets (f-GNPs) and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) were used as hybrid filler, the fracture toughness of neat epoxy is improved by 91.9%. In neither of these hybrid filler systems the tensile properties were degraded, but the thermal properties of the nanocomposites containing boron nitride materials deteriorated slightly. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Finite Element Modeling of Tensile Deformation Behaviors of Iron Syntactic Foam with Hollow Glass Microspheres
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1201; doi:10.3390/ma10101201 -
Abstract
The elastoplastic deformation behaviors of hollow glass microspheres/iron syntactic foam under tension were modeled using a representative volume element (RVE) approach. The three-dimensional microstructures of the iron syntactic foam with 5 wt % glass microspheres were reconstructed using the random sequential adsorption algorithm.
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The elastoplastic deformation behaviors of hollow glass microspheres/iron syntactic foam under tension were modeled using a representative volume element (RVE) approach. The three-dimensional microstructures of the iron syntactic foam with 5 wt % glass microspheres were reconstructed using the random sequential adsorption algorithm. The constitutive behavior of the elastoplasticity in the iron matrix and the elastic-brittle failure for the glass microsphere were simulated in the models. An appropriate RVE size was statistically determined by evaluating elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and yield strength in terms of model sizes and boundary conditions. The model was validated by the agreement with experimental findings. The tensile deformation mechanism of the syntactic foam considering the fracture of the microspheres was then investigated. In addition, the feasibility of introducing the interfacial deboning behavior to the proposed model was briefly investigated to improve the accuracy in depicting fracture behaviors of the syntactic foam. It is thought that the modeling techniques and the model itself have major potential for applications not only in the study of hollow glass microspheres/iron syntactic foams, but also for the design of composites with a high modulus matrix and high strength reinforcement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing of Polymer-Metal Hybrid Materials by Fused Deposition Modeling
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1199; doi:10.3390/ma10101199 -
Abstract
Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a three-dimensional (3D) printing technology that is usually performed with polymers that are molten in a printer nozzle and placed line by line on the printing bed or the previous layer, respectively. Nowadays, hybrid materials combining polymers with
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Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a three-dimensional (3D) printing technology that is usually performed with polymers that are molten in a printer nozzle and placed line by line on the printing bed or the previous layer, respectively. Nowadays, hybrid materials combining polymers with functional materials are also commercially available. Especially combinations of polymers with metal particles result in printed objects with interesting optical and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of objects printed with two of these metal-polymer blends were compared to common poly (lactide acid) (PLA) printed objects. Tensile tests and bending tests show that hybrid materials mostly containing bronze have significantly reduced mechanical properties. Tensile strengths of the 3D-printed objects were unexpectedly nearly identical with those of the original filaments, indicating sufficient quality of the printing process. Our investigations show that while FDM printing allows for producing objects with mechanical properties similar to the original materials, metal-polymer blends cannot be used for the rapid manufacturing of objects necessitating mechanical strength. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Graded Microstructure and Mechanical Performance of Ti/N-Implanted M50 Steel with Polyenergy
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1204; doi:10.3390/ma10101204 -
Abstract
M50 bearing steels were alternately implanted with Ti+ and N+ ions using solid and gas ion sources of implantation system, respectively. N-implantation was carried out at an energy of about 80 keV and a fluence of 2 × 1017 ions/cm
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M50 bearing steels were alternately implanted with Ti+ and N+ ions using solid and gas ion sources of implantation system, respectively. N-implantation was carried out at an energy of about 80 keV and a fluence of 2 × 1017 ions/cm2, and Ti-implantation at an energy of about 40–90 keV and a fluence of 2 × 1017 ions/cm2. The microstructures of modification layers were analyzed by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the gradient structure was formed under the M50 bearing steel subsurface, along the ion implantation influence zone composed of amorphous, nanocrystalline, and gradient-refinement phases. A layer of precipitation compounds like TiN is formed. In addition, nano-indentation hardness and tribological properties of the gradient structure subsurface were examined using a nano-indenter and a friction and wear tester. The nano-indentation hardness of N + Ti-co-implanted sample is above 12 GPa, ~1.3 times than that of pristine samples. The friction coefficient is smaller than 0.2, which is 22.2% of that of pristine samples. The synergism between precipitation-phase strengthening and gradient microstructure is the main mechanism for improving the mechanical properties of M50 materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nucleation/Growth Mechanisms and Morphological Evolution of Porous MnO2 Coating Deposited on Graphite for Supercapacitor
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1205; doi:10.3390/ma10101205 -
Abstract
The nucleation and growth mechanisms of porous MnO2 coating deposited on graphite in MnSO4 solution were investigated in detail by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of honeycomb-like MnO2 were evaluated by cycle voltammetry and galvanostatic
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The nucleation and growth mechanisms of porous MnO2 coating deposited on graphite in MnSO4 solution were investigated in detail by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of honeycomb-like MnO2 were evaluated by cycle voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge. Results indicated that MnO2 was synthesized by the following steps: Mn2+ Mn3++ e-, Mn3++2H2O → MnOOH + 3H+, and MnOOHMnO2 + H++ e-. The deposition of MnO2 was divided into four stages. A short incubation period (approximately 1.5 s) was observed, prior to nucleation. The decreasing trend of the current slowed as time increased due to nucleation and MnO2 growth in the second stage. A huge number of nuclei were formed by instantaneous nucleation, and these nuclei grew and connected with one another at an exceedingly short time (0.5 s). In the third stage, the gaps in-between initial graphite flakes were filled with MnO2 until the morphology of the flakes gradually became similar to that of the MnO2-deposited layer. In the fourth stage, the graphite electrode was covered completely with a thick and dense layer of MnO2 deposits. All MnO2 electrodes at different deposition times obtained nearly the same specific capacitance of approximately 186 F/g, thus indicating that the specific capacitance of the electrodes is not related with deposition time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impacts of Modification of Alloying Method on Inclusion Evolution in RH Refining of Silicon Steel
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1206; doi:10.3390/ma10101206 -
Abstract
This study explores the effect of introducing additional alloy elements not only in a different order but also at different stages of the Ruhrstahl-Heraeus (RH) process of low-carbon silicon steel production. A more economical method, described as “pre-alloying”, has been introduced. The evolution
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This study explores the effect of introducing additional alloy elements not only in a different order but also at different stages of the Ruhrstahl-Heraeus (RH) process of low-carbon silicon steel production. A more economical method, described as “pre-alloying”, has been introduced. The evolution of MnO-FeO inclusions produced by pre-alloying was investigated. Results show that spherical 3FeO·MnO inclusions form first, then shelled FeO·zMnO (z = 0.7–4) inclusions nucleate on the surface of pre-existing 3FeO·MnO. Spherical FeO·zMnO (z = 3–5) is further evolved from shelled 3FeO·MnO by diffusion. Because these MnO-FeO inclusions float up into the slag before degassing, the pre-alloying process does not affect the quality of the melt in the end. Both carbon content and inclusion size conform to industry standards. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Predictive Parameters of Oral Health Quality of Life in Complete Mandibular Denture Wearers Stabilized by Mini-Implants: A Two-Year Follow-Up Study
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1197; doi:10.3390/ma10101197 -
Abstract
The frequent instability of mandibular removable complete dentures affects patient Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL). An innovative therapeutic strategy used to improve stability involves placing four symphyseal mini-implants. This study was aimed at assessing OHRQoL over time in subjects in which
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The frequent instability of mandibular removable complete dentures affects patient Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL). An innovative therapeutic strategy used to improve stability involves placing four symphyseal mini-implants. This study was aimed at assessing OHRQoL over time in subjects in which mini-implants were placed and exploring if certain parameters could predict the evolution of their OHRQoL. The OHRQoL of subjects with dentures was assessed using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) before (T0), 2–6 months (T1), twelve months (T2) and twenty-four or more months (T3) after mini-implant setting. Age, gender and chewing ability were tested as explanatory variables for the change in OHRQoL with time. Thirteen women and six men were included (mean age: 69 ± 10 years). After treatment, mean GOHAI scores at T1, T2 and T3 increased significantly (p < 0.001). The GOHAI-Add mean score was not affected by age or gender. Baseline chewing ability impacted the “functional” and “pain and discomfort” fields of the mean GOHAI scores (p < 0.05). The OHRQoL quickly improved after mini-implant placement in complete denture wearers and then stabilized over time. Baseline chewing ability can be used as a predictive parameter of OHRQoL. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Dynamic Response and Vibration of Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Composite (FG-CNTRC) Truncated Conical Shells Resting on Elastic Foundations
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1194; doi:10.3390/ma10101194 -
Abstract
Based on the classical shell theory, the linear dynamic response of functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composite (FG-CNTRC) truncated conical shells resting on elastic foundations subjected to dynamic loads is presented. The truncated conical shells are reinforced by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) that vary
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Based on the classical shell theory, the linear dynamic response of functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composite (FG-CNTRC) truncated conical shells resting on elastic foundations subjected to dynamic loads is presented. The truncated conical shells are reinforced by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) that vary according to the linear functions of the shell thickness. The motion equations are solved by the Galerkin method and the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method. In numerical results, the influences of geometrical parameters, elastic foundations, natural frequency parameters, and nanotube volume fraction of FG-CNTRC truncated conical shells are investigated. The proposed results are validated by comparing them with those of other authors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A New Cluster Analysis-Marker-Controlled Watershed Method for Separating Particles of Granular Soils
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1195; doi:10.3390/ma10101195 -
Abstract
An accurate determination of particle-level fabric of granular soils from tomography data requires a maximum correct separation of particles. The popular marker-controlled watershed separation method is widely used to separate particles. However, the watershed method alone is not capable of producing the maximum
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An accurate determination of particle-level fabric of granular soils from tomography data requires a maximum correct separation of particles. The popular marker-controlled watershed separation method is widely used to separate particles. However, the watershed method alone is not capable of producing the maximum separation of particles when subjected to boundary stresses leading to crushing of particles. In this paper, a new separation method, named as Monash Particle Separation Method (MPSM), has been introduced. The new method automatically determines the optimal contrast coefficient based on cluster evaluation framework to produce the maximum accurate separation outcomes. Finally, the particles which could not be separated by the optimal contrast coefficient were separated by integrating cuboid markers generated from the clustering by Gaussian mixture models into the routine watershed method. The MPSM was validated on a uniformly graded sand volume subjected to one-dimensional compression loading up to 32 MPa. It was demonstrated that the MPSM is capable of producing the best possible separation of particles required for the fabric analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Constitutive Equation and Hot Compression Deformation Behavior of Homogenized Al–7.5Zn–1.5Mg–0.2Cu–0.2Zr Alloy
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1193; doi:10.3390/ma10101193 -
Abstract
The deformation behavior of homogenized Al–7.5Zn–1.5Mg–0.2Cu–0.2Zr alloy has been studied by a set of isothermal hot compression tests, which were carried out over the temperature ranging from 350 °C to 450 °C and the strain rate ranging from 0.001 s−1 to 10
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The deformation behavior of homogenized Al–7.5Zn–1.5Mg–0.2Cu–0.2Zr alloy has been studied by a set of isothermal hot compression tests, which were carried out over the temperature ranging from 350 °C to 450 °C and the strain rate ranging from 0.001 s−1 to 10 s−1 on Gleeble-3500 thermal simulation machine. The associated microstructure was studied using electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the flow stress is sensitive to strain rate and deformation temperature. The shape of true stress-strain curves obtained at a low strain rate (≤0.1 s−1) conditions shows the characteristic of dynamic recrystallization (DRX). Two Arrhenius-typed constitutive equation without and with strain compensation were established based on the true stress-strain curves. Constitutive equation with strain compensation has more precise predictability. The main softening mechanism of the studied alloy is dynamic recovery (DRV) accompanied with DRX, particularly at deformation conditions, with low Zener-Holloman parameters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Magnetron Sputtering as a Fabrication Method for a Biodegradable Fe32Mn Alloy
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1196; doi:10.3390/ma10101196 -
Abstract
Biodegradable metals are a topic of great interest and Fe-based materials are prominent examples. The research task is to find a suitable compromise between mechanical, corrosion, and magnetic properties. For this purpose, investigations regarding alternative fabrication processes are important. In the present study,
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Biodegradable metals are a topic of great interest and Fe-based materials are prominent examples. The research task is to find a suitable compromise between mechanical, corrosion, and magnetic properties. For this purpose, investigations regarding alternative fabrication processes are important. In the present study, magnetron sputtering technology in combination with UV-lithography was used in order to fabricate freestanding, microstructured Fe32Mn films. To adjust the microstructure and crystalline phase composition with respect to the requirements, the foils were post-deposition annealed under a reducing atmosphere. The microstructure and crystalline phase composition were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, for mechanical characterization, uniaxial tensile tests were performed. The in vitro corrosion rates were determined by electrochemical polarization measurements in pseudo-physiological solution. Additionally, the magnetic properties were measured via vibrating sample magnetometry. The foils showed a fine-grained structure and a tensile strength of 712 MPa, which is approximately a factor of two higher compared to the sputtered pure Fe reference material. The yield strength was observed to be even higher than values reported in literature for alloys with similar composition. Against expectations, the corrosion rates were found to be lower in comparison to pure Fe. Since the annealed foils exist in the austenitic, and antiferromagnetic γ-phase, an additional advantage of the FeMn foils is the low magnetic saturation polarization of 0.003 T, compared to Fe with 1.978 T. This value is even lower compared to the SS 316L steel acting as a gold standard for implants, and thus enhances the MRI compatibility of the material. The study demonstrates that magnetron sputtering in combination with UV-lithography is a new concept for the fabrication of already in situ geometrically structured FeMn-based foils with promising mechanical and magnetic properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Correlation of Structure, Tunable Colors, and Lifetimes of (Sr, Ca, Ba)Al2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ Phosphors
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1198; doi:10.3390/ma10101198 -
Abstract
(Sr, Ca, Ba)Al2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphors were prepared via a high temperature solid-state reaction method. The correlation of phase structure, optical properties and lifetimes of the phosphors are investigated in this work. For the (Sr, Ca)Al2
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(Sr, Ca, Ba)Al2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphors were prepared via a high temperature solid-state reaction method. The correlation of phase structure, optical properties and lifetimes of the phosphors are investigated in this work. For the (Sr, Ca)Al2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ phosphors, the different phase formation from monoclinic SrAl2O4 phase to hexagonal SrAl2O4 phase to monoclinic CaAl2O4 phase was observed when the Ca content increased. The emission color of SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphors varied from green to blue. For the (Sr, Ba)Al2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphors, different phase formation from the monoclinic SrAl2O4 phase to the hexagonal BaAl2O4 phase was observed, along with a shift of emission wavelength from 520 nm to 500 nm. More interestingly, the decay time of SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+changed due to the different phase formations. Lifetime can be dramatically shortened by the substitution of Sr2+ with Ba2+ cations, resulting in improving the performance of the alternating current light emitting diode (AC-LED). Finally, intense LEDs are successfully obtained by combining these phosphors with Ga(In)N near UV chips. Full article
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