Materials2016, 9(5), 327; doi:10.3390/ma9050327 (registering DOI) - published 29 April 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The stabilities and hydrocarbon/fluorocarbon sorption properties of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework (MOF) Zn(hfipbb) with fluorinated channels has been studied. By the combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) measurements, we confirm that Zn(hfipbb) has exceptionally high hydrothermal and thermal stabilities. The adsorption behaviors of water and methanol by Zn(hfipbb) indicate that it is highly hydrophobic but with high adsorption of alcohols. Hexane and perfluorohexane adsorption measurements show that the fluorinated channels in Zn(hfipbb) have high affinity with hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon. The high fluorophilic nature of the channels and the high stability of the compound suggest its potential utility in practical separation applications.
Materials2016, 9(5), 326; doi:10.3390/ma9050326 (registering DOI) - published 29 April 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A facile and environmentally friendly surface-ion adsorption method using CeCO3OH@C as template was demonstrated to synthesize CeO2-LaFeO3 perovskite composite material. The obtained composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermo-gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) measurements. The catalytic degradation of nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) was tested to evaluate catalytic activity of the CeO2-LaFeO3 composite. Much better activity was observed for the CeO2-LaFeO3 composite comparing with CeO2 and LaFeO3. These results suggested that perovskite composite materials are a promising candidate for the degradation of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs).
Materials2016, 9(5), 328; doi:10.3390/ma9050328 (registering DOI) - published 29 April 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The colonization of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) denture base materials by pathogenic microorganisms is a major problem associated with the use of prostheses, and the incorporation of antimicrobial fillers is a method of improving the antimicrobial properties of these materials. Numerous studies have demonstrated the initial in vitro antimicrobial effectiveness of this type of material; however, reports demonstrating the stability of these fillers over longer periods are not available. In this study, silver sodium hydrogen zirconium phosphate was introduced into the powder component of a PMMA denture base material at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 4%, and 8% (w/w). The survival rates of the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and yeast-type fungus Candida albicans were established after fungal or bacterial suspensions were incubated with samples that had been previously stored in distilled water. Storage over a three-month period led to the progressive reduction of the initial antimicrobial properties. The results of this study suggest that additional microbiological tests should be conducted for materials that are treated with antimicrobial fillers and intended for long-term use. Future long-term studies of the migration of silver ions from the polymer matrix and the influence of different media on this ion emission are required.
Materials2016, 9(5), 324; doi:10.3390/ma9050324 (registering DOI) - published 29 April 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Current design practices based on descriptive approaches to concrete specification may not be appropriate for the management of aggressive environments. In this study, the durability of cement-based materials with and without the addition of silica fume, subjected to conditions that leach calcium and silicon, were investigated. Chemical corrosion was simulated by employing various H2SO4 and MgSO4 solutions, and biological corrosion was simulated using Acidithiobacillus sp. bacterial inoculation, leading to disrupted and damaged surfaces; the samples’ mass changes were studied following both chemical and biological attacks. Different leaching trends were observed via X-ray fluorescence when comparing chemical with biological leaching. Lower leaching rates were found for concrete samples fortified with silica fume than those without silica fume. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy confirmed a massive sulfate precipitate formation on the concrete surface due to bacterial exposure.
Materials2016, 9(5), 330; doi:10.3390/ma9050330 (registering DOI) - published 29 April 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This paper focuses on the modification of clay properties with inorganic additives to deflocculate and flocculate inorganic soil for the development of a material that would be as easy to use as the current concrete products, but with a much lower environmental impact. Considering that the rheological behaviour of clays is controlled by their surface charge, we first introduce potential determining ions to deflocculate the clay particles and to reduce the yield stress of the earth material. Their efficiency is characterized using zeta potential measurements and rheological tests. We then achieve the flocculation of clay particles by using natural minerals that slowly dissolve in the interstitial liquid and ultimately precipitate calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H). The precipitation products are identified by X-ray diffraction and the consequences of this delayed precipitation are followed by oscillatory rheometric measurements. Finally, it is suggested that in this process, C–S–H precipitation is not used as a binding vector but as an anti-plasticizer that removes the inorganic dispersant additives.
Materials2016, 9(5), 329; doi:10.3390/ma9050329 (registering DOI) - published 29 April 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Metal sulfides-based nanomaterials have been used as a class of efficient solar driven photocatalysts. However, the H2-production rate observed over these photocatalysts remains problematic. Here, the AgInS2-xAg2S-yZnS-zIn6S7 (x, y, z = 0 or 1) nanocomposites with controlled compositions have been successfully prepared by a simple hydrothermal method with AgI polyhedrons as silver source. The obtained AgInS2-xAg2S-yZnS-zIn6S7 nanocomposites showed a composition-dependent activity for H2 evolution from aqueous solution under simulated sun-light irradiation. The results showed that the optimized product of AgInS2-Ag2S-ZnS nanoparticles synthesized with the precursor ratio of Ag:Zn = 1:1 exhibited the highest H2 evolution rate of 5.4 mmol·g−1·h−1. Furthermore, the catalyst can be used for 20 h without loss of activity, showing its high stability. It opens a new path to achieve highly efficient solar photocatalyst for H2 evolution from water splitting.