Materials2014, 7(8), 5528-5542; doi:10.3390/ma7085528 (doi registration under processing) - published online 28 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: As one of the main products produced by oral microorganisms, the role of lactic acid in the corrosion of titanium is very important. In this study, the corrosion behavior of titanium in artificial saliva with and without lactic acid were investigated by open-circuit potentials (OCPs), polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). OCP firstly increased with the amount of lactic acid from 0 to 3.2 g/L and then tended to decrease from 3.2 to 5.0 g/L. The corrosion of titanium was distinctly affected by lactic acid, and the corrosion rate increased with increasing the amount of lactic acid. At each concentration of lactic acid, the corrosion rate clearly increased with increasing the immersing time. Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also indicated that lactic acid accelerated the pitting corrosion in artificial saliva. A probable mechanism was also proposed to explain the experimental results.
Materials2014, 7(8), 5520-5527; doi:10.3390/ma7085520 (doi registration under processing) - published online 28 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Disordered optical fibers show novel waveguiding properties that can be used for various device applications, such as beam-multiplexed optical communications and endoscopic image transport. The strong transverse scattering from the transversely disordered optical fibers results in transversely confined beams that can freely propagate in the longitudinal direction, similar to conventional optical fibers, with the advantage that any point in the cross section of the fiber can be used for beam transport. For beam multiplexing and imaging applications, it is highly desirable to make the localized beam radius as small as possible. This requires large refractive index differences between the materials that define the random features in the disordered fiber. Here, disordered glass-air fibers are briefly reviewed, where randomly placed airholes in a glass matrix provide the sufficiently large refractive index difference of 0.5 for strong random transverse scattering. The main future challenge for the fabrication of an optimally disordered glass-air fibers is to increase the fill-fraction of airholes to nearly 50% for maximum beam confinement.
Materials2014, 7(8), 5507-5519; doi:10.3390/ma7085507 (doi registration under processing) - published online 28 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Zeolite NaA nanocrystals with a narrow particle size distribution were prepared by template-free hydrothermal synthesis in thermo-reversible methylcellulose gels. The effects of the amount of methylcellulose, crystallization time and hydrothermal treatment temperature on the crystallinity and particle size distribution of the zeolite NaA nanocrystals were investigated. We found that the thermogelation of methylcellulose in the alkaline Na2O-SiO2-Al2O3-H2O system played an important role in controlling the particle size. The synthesized zeolite nanocrystals are highly crystalline, as demonstrated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the nanocrystals can also display a well-defined facetted morphology. Gas adsorption studies on the synthesized nanocrystalline zeolite NaA showed that nanocrystals with a size of 100 nm displayed a high CO2 uptake capacity (4.9 mmol/g at 293 K at 100 kPa) and a relatively rapid uptake rate compared to commercially available, micron-sized particles. Low-cost nanosized zeolite adsorbents with a high and rapid uptake are important for large scale gas separation processes, e.g., carbon capture from flue gas.
Materials2014, 7(8), 5488-5506; doi:10.3390/ma7085488 - published online 25 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Three asymmetric amino-substituted perylene bisimide dyes with different n-alkyl chain lengths (n = 6, 12, or 18), 1-(N,N-dialkylamino)perylene bisimides (1a–1c), were synthesized under mild condition in high yields and were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), HRMS (High Resolution Mass Spectrometer), UV-Vis and fluorescence spectra, as well as cyclic voltammetry (CV). These molecules show intense green color in both solution and solid state and are highly soluble in dichloromethane and even in nonpolar solvents, such as hexane. The shapes of the absorption spectra of 1a–1c in solid state and in solution were found to be virtually the same, indicating that the long alkyl chains could efficiently prevent aggregation. They exhibit a unique charge transfer emission in the near-infrared region, of which the peak wavelengths show strong solvatochromism. The dipole moments of the compounds have been estimated using the Lippert-Mataga equation, and upon excitation, they show larger dipole moment changes than that of 1-aminoperylene bisimide (2). Furthermore, all of the compounds exhibit two quasi-reversible one-electron oxidations and two quasi-reversible one-electron reductions in dichloromethane at modest potentials. Complementary density functional theory (DFT) calculations performed on these dyes are reported in order to rationalize their molecular structures and electronic properties.
Materials2014, 7(8), 5470-5487; doi:10.3390/ma7085470 - published online 25 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The bioactivity of a series of fluoride-containing sodium-free calcium and strontium phosphosilicate glasses has been tested in vitro. Glasses with high fluoride content were partially crystallised to apatite and other fluoride-containing phases. The bioactivity study was carried out in Tris and SBF buffers, and apatite formation was monitored by XRD, FTIR and solid state NMR. Ion release in solutions has been measured using ICP-OES and fluoride-ion selective electrode. The results show that glasses with low amounts of fluoride that were initially amorphous degraded rapidly in Tris buffer and formed apatite as early as 3 h after immersion. The apatite was identified as fluorapatite by 19F MAS-NMR after 6 h of immersion. Glass degradation and apatite formation was significantly slower in SBF solution compared to Tris. On immersion of the partially crystallised glasses, the fraction of apatite increased at 3 h compared to the amount of apatite prior to the treatment. Thus, partial crystallisation of the glasses has not affected bioactivity significantly. Fast dissolution of the amorphous phase was also indicated. There was no difference in kinetics between Tris and SBF studies when the glass was partially crystallised to apatite before immersion. Two different mechanisms of apatite formation for amorphous or partially crystallised glasses are discussed.
Materials2014, 7(8), 5454-5469; doi:10.3390/ma7085454 - published online 25 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We present here a modeling procedure for inductors with an E-shaped ferrite core valid for calculating the inductance of an equivalent circuit from the linear operating region to the saturation region. The procedure was developed using Finite Elements in 2D. We demonstrate that using a 2D section of the real core the results obtained are similar to the real ones, which solves the problem of convergence that appeared when E type cores were simulated in 3D, while also saving computational cost. We also discuss the effect of the gap-thickness on the magnetic properties. The data obtained by simulation are compared with experimental results.