Open AccessArticle
Engineering Characteristics of Chemically Treated Water-Repellent Kaolin
Materials 2016, 9(12), 978; doi:10.3390/ma9120978 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Water-repellent soils have a potential as alternative construction materials that will improve conventional geotechnical structures. In this study, the potential of chemically treated water-repellent kaolin clay as a landfill cover material is explored by examining its characteristics including hydraulic and mechanical properties. In
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Water-repellent soils have a potential as alternative construction materials that will improve conventional geotechnical structures. In this study, the potential of chemically treated water-repellent kaolin clay as a landfill cover material is explored by examining its characteristics including hydraulic and mechanical properties. In order to provide water repellency to the kaolin clay, the surface of clay particle is modified with organosilanes in concentrations (CO) ranging from 0.5% to 10% by weight. As the CO increases, the specific gravity of treated clay tends to decrease, whereas the total organic carbon content of the treated clay tends to increase. The soil-water contact angle increases with an increase in CO until CO = 2.5%, and then maintains an almost constant value (≈134.0°). Resistance to water infiltration is improved by organosilane treatment under low hydrostatic pressure. However, water infiltration resistance under high hydrostatic pressure is reduced or exacerbated to the level of untreated clay. The maximum compacted dry weight density decreases with increasing CO. As the CO increases, the small strain shear modulus increases, whereas the effect of organosilane treatment on the constrained modulus is minimal. The results indicate that water-repellent kaolin clay possesses excellent engineering characteristics for a landfill cover material. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling of Granular Fracture in Polycrystalline Materials Using Ordinary State-Based Peridynamics
Materials 2016, 9(12), 977; doi:10.3390/ma9120977 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
An ordinary state-based peridynamic formulation is developed to analyse cubic polycrystalline materials for the first time in the literature. This new approach has the advantage that no constraint condition is imposed on material constants as opposed to bond-based peridynamic theory. The formulation is
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An ordinary state-based peridynamic formulation is developed to analyse cubic polycrystalline materials for the first time in the literature. This new approach has the advantage that no constraint condition is imposed on material constants as opposed to bond-based peridynamic theory. The formulation is validated by first considering static analyses and comparing the displacement fields obtained from the finite element method and ordinary state-based peridynamics. Then, dynamic analysis is performed to investigate the effect of grain boundary strength, crystal size, and discretization size on fracture behaviour and fracture morphology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Photoresponsive Polymeric Reversible Nanoparticles via Self-Assembly of Reactive ABA Triblock Copolymers and Their Transformation to Permanent Nanostructures
Materials 2016, 9(12), 980; doi:10.3390/ma9120980 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Azobenzene-functionalized ABA triblock copolymers with controlled molecular weights are prepared first via a sequential ring-opening metathesis polymerization and acyclic diene metathesis polymerization in one-pot, which are readily converted, by a facile esterification, to the modified ABA triblock copolymers. Then, these reactive triblock copolymers
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Azobenzene-functionalized ABA triblock copolymers with controlled molecular weights are prepared first via a sequential ring-opening metathesis polymerization and acyclic diene metathesis polymerization in one-pot, which are readily converted, by a facile esterification, to the modified ABA triblock copolymers. Then, these reactive triblock copolymers can spontaneously self-assemble in a selective solvent to form reproducible and reversible polymeric core-shell nanoparticles. Finally, the stable and permanent shell-crosslinked nanoparticles are obtained by an intramolecular crosslinking reaction in dilute solution under UV light irradiation. These as-prepared polymeric nanoparticles and their precursor incorporating azobenzene chromophores exhibit distinct photoresponsive performance and morphological variation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Conversion of Biowaste Asian Hard Clam (Meretrix lusoria) Shells into White-Emitting Phosphors for Use in Neutral White LEDs
Materials 2016, 9(12), 979; doi:10.3390/ma9120979 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The increasing volume and complexity of waste associated with the modern economy poses a serious risk to ecosystems and human health. However, the remanufacturing and recycling of waste into usable products can lead to substantial resource savings. In the present study, clam shell
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The increasing volume and complexity of waste associated with the modern economy poses a serious risk to ecosystems and human health. However, the remanufacturing and recycling of waste into usable products can lead to substantial resource savings. In the present study, clam shell waste was first transformed into pure and well-crystallized single-phase white light-emitting phosphor Ca9Gd(PO4)7:Eu2+,Mn2+ materials. The phosphor Ca9Gd(PO4)7:Eu2+,Mn2+ materials were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method and the carbothermic reduction process, and then characterized and analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The structural and luminescent properties of the phosphors were investigated as well. The PL and quantum efficiency measurements showed that the luminescence properties of clam shell-based phosphors were comparable to that of the chemically derived phosphors. Moreover, white light-emitting diodes were fabricated through the integration of 380 nm chips and single-phase white light-emitting phosphors (Ca0.979Eu0.006Mn0.015)9Gd(PO4)7 into a single package of a white light emitting diode (WLED) emitting a neutral white light of 5298 K with color coordinates of (0.337, 0.344). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Investigation of Sintering Parameters on Titanium Powder for Electron Beam Melting Processing Optimization
Materials 2016, 9(12), 974; doi:10.3390/ma9120974 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Selective electron beam melting (SEBM) is a relatively new additive manufacturing technology for metallic materials. Specific to this technology is the sintering of the metal powder prior to the melting process. The sintering process has disadvantages for post-processing. The post-processing of parts produced
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Selective electron beam melting (SEBM) is a relatively new additive manufacturing technology for metallic materials. Specific to this technology is the sintering of the metal powder prior to the melting process. The sintering process has disadvantages for post-processing. The post-processing of parts produced by SEBM typically involves the removal of semi-sintered powder through the use of a powder blasting system. Furthermore, the sintering of large areas before melting decreases productivity. Current investigations are aimed at improving the sintering process in order to achieve better productivity, geometric accuracy, and resolution. In this study, the focus lies on the modification of the sintering process. In order to investigate and improve the sintering process, highly porous titanium test specimens with various scan speeds were built. The aim of this study was to decrease build time with comparable mechanical properties of the components and to remove the residual powder more easily after a build. By only sintering the area in which the melt pool for the components is created, an average productivity improvement of approx. 20% was achieved. Tensile tests were carried out, and the measured mechanical properties show comparatively or slightly improved values compared with the reference. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Situ Soft X-ray Spectromicroscopy of Early Tricalcium Silicate Hydration
Materials 2016, 9(12), 976; doi:10.3390/ma9120976 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The understanding and control of early hydration of tricalcium silicate (C3S) is of great importance to cement science and concrete technology. However, traditional characterization methods are incapable of providing morphological and spectroscopic information about in situ hydration at the nanoscale. Using
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The understanding and control of early hydration of tricalcium silicate (C3S) is of great importance to cement science and concrete technology. However, traditional characterization methods are incapable of providing morphological and spectroscopic information about in situ hydration at the nanoscale. Using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy, we report the changes in morphology and molecular structure of C3S at an early stage of hydration. In situ C3S hydration in a wet cell, beginning with induction (~1 h) and acceleration (~4 h) periods of up to ~8 h, was studied and compared with ex situ measurements in the deceleration period after 15 h of curing. Analysis of the near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure showed that the Ca binding energy and energy splitting of C3S changed rapidly in the early age of hydration and exhibited values similar to calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H). The formation of C–S–H nanoseeds in the C3S solution and the development of a fibrillar C–S–H morphology on the C3S surface were visualized. Following this, silicate polymerization accompanied by C–S–H precipitation produced chemical shifts in the peaks of the main Si K edge and in multiple scattering. However, the silicate polymerization process did not significantly affect the Ca binding energy of C–S–H. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Performance of High Layer Thickness in Selective Laser Melting of Ti6Al4V
Materials 2016, 9(12), 975; doi:10.3390/ma9120975 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
To increase building rate and save cost, the selective laser melting (SLM) of Ti6Al4V with a high layer thickness (200 μm) and low cost coarse powders (53 μm–106 μm) at a laser power of 400 W is investigated in this preliminary study. A
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To increase building rate and save cost, the selective laser melting (SLM) of Ti6Al4V with a high layer thickness (200 μm) and low cost coarse powders (53 μm–106 μm) at a laser power of 400 W is investigated in this preliminary study. A relatively large laser beam with a diameter of 200 μm is utilized to produce a stable melt pool at high layer thickness, and the appropriate scanning track, which has a smooth surface with a shallow contact angle, can be obtained at the scanning speeds from 40 mm/s to 80 mm/s. By adjusting the hatch spacings, the density of multi-layer samples can be up to 99.99%, which is much higher than that achieved in previous studies about high layer thickness selective laser melting. Meanwhile, the building rate can be up to 7.2 mm3/s, which is about 2 times–9 times that of the commercial equipment. Besides, two kinds of defects are observed: the large un-melted defects and the small spherical micropores. The formation of the un-melted defects is mainly attributed to the inappropriate overlap rates and the unstable scanning tracks, which can be eliminated by adjusting the processing parameters. Nevertheless, the micropores cannot be completely eliminated. It is worth noting that the high layer thickness plays a key role on surface roughness rather than tensile properties during the SLM process. Although a sample with a relatively coarse surface is generated, the average values of yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation are 1050 MPa, 1140 MPa, and 7.03%, respectively, which are not obviously different than those with the thin layer thickness used in previous research; this is due to the similar metallurgical bonding and microstructure. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Admixtures in Cement-Matrix Composites for Mechanical Reinforcement, Sustainability, and Smart Features
Materials 2016, 9(12), 972; doi:10.3390/ma9120972 -
Abstract
For more than a century, several inclusions have been mixed with Portland cement—nowadays the most-consumed construction material worldwide—to improve both the strength and durability required for construction. The present paper describes the different families of inclusions that can be combined with cement matrix
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For more than a century, several inclusions have been mixed with Portland cement—nowadays the most-consumed construction material worldwide—to improve both the strength and durability required for construction. The present paper describes the different families of inclusions that can be combined with cement matrix and reviews the achievements reported to date regarding mechanical performance, as well as two other innovative functionalities of growing importance: reducing the high carbon footprint of Portland cement, and obtaining new smart features. Nanomaterials stand out in the production of such advanced features, allowing the construction of smart or multi-functional structures by means of thermal- and strain-sensing, and photocatalytic properties. The first self-cleaning concretes (photocatalytic) have reached the markets. In this sense, it is expected that smart concretes will be commercialized to address specialized needs in construction and architecture. Conversely, other inclusions that enhance strength or reduce the environmental impact remain in the research stage, in spite of the promising results reported in these issues. Despite the fact that such functionalities are especially profitable in the case of massive cement consumption, the shift from the deeply established Portland cement to green cements still has to overcome economic, institutional, and technical barriers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simple One-Pot Syntheses and Characterizations of Free Fluoride- and Bifluoride-Containing Polymers Soluble in Non-Aqueous Solvents
Materials 2016, 9(12), 965; doi:10.3390/ma9120965 -
Abstract
One of the problems that arise with bifluoride- or fluoride-containing compounds is their poor solubility in non-aqueous solvents. We report herein a facile one-pot synthesis and the chemical analysis of fluoride/bifluoride-containing polymers, which are soluble in MeCN. Different polymers, such as Polyvinylacetate or
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One of the problems that arise with bifluoride- or fluoride-containing compounds is their poor solubility in non-aqueous solvents. We report herein a facile one-pot synthesis and the chemical analysis of fluoride/bifluoride-containing polymers, which are soluble in MeCN. Different polymers, such as Polyvinylacetate or Polyethylene imine and saccharides, such as maltodextrin, were complexed with ammonium (bi)fluoride using hydrogen bonds to form the desired (bi)fluoride-containing compounds. The newly formed hydrogen bonding (bi)fluoride-doped polymer matrices were analyzed using infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, and X-ray diffraction. The promising materials also underwent impedance spectroscopy, conductivity measurements and preliminary tests as electrolytes for room temperature fluoride ion batteries along with an analysis of their performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Hot Plastic Deformation in γ and (γ + α) Area on the Structure and Mechanical Properties of High-Strength Low-Alloy (HSLA) Steel
Materials 2016, 9(12), 971; doi:10.3390/ma9120971 -
Abstract
The main goal of this study was to develop a new processing technology for a high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel in order to maximize the mechanical properties attainable at its low alloy levels. Samples of the steel were processed using thermal deformation schedules carried
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The main goal of this study was to develop a new processing technology for a high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel in order to maximize the mechanical properties attainable at its low alloy levels. Samples of the steel were processed using thermal deformation schedules carried out in single-phase (γ) and dual-phase (γ + α) regions. The samples were rolled at unconventional finishing temperatures, their final mechanical properties were measured, and their strength and plasticity behavior was analyzed. The resulting microstructures were observed using optical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). They consisted of martensite, ferrite and (NbV)CN precipitates. The study also explored the process of ferrite formation and its influence on the mechanical properties of the material. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High-Strength Ultra-Fine-Grained Hypereutectic Al-Si-Fe-X (X = Cr, Mn) Alloys Prepared by Short-Term Mechanical Alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering
Materials 2016, 9(12), 973; doi:10.3390/ma9120973 -
Abstract
In this work, Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn (wt %) alloys were prepared by a combination of short-term mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. The microstructure was composed of homogeneously dispersed intermetallic particles forming composite-like structures. X-ray diffraction analysis and TEM + EDS analysis determined
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In this work, Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn (wt %) alloys were prepared by a combination of short-term mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. The microstructure was composed of homogeneously dispersed intermetallic particles forming composite-like structures. X-ray diffraction analysis and TEM + EDS analysis determined that the α-Al along with α-Al15(Fe,Cr)3Si2 or α-Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2 phases were present, with dimensions below 130 nm. The highest hardness of 380 ± 7 HV5 was observed for the Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn alloy, exceeding the hardness of the reference as-cast Al-12Si-1Cu-1 Mg-1Ni alloy (121 ± 2 HV5) by nearly a factor of three. Both of the prepared alloys showed exceptional thermal stability with the hardness remaining almost the same even after 100 h of annealing at 400 °C. Additionally, the compressive strengths of the Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn alloys reached 869 MPa and 887 MPa, respectively, and had virtually the same values of 870 MPa and 865 MPa, respectively, even after 100 h of annealing. More importantly, the alloys showed an increase in ductility at 400 °C, reaching several tens of percent. Thus, both of the investigated alloys showed better mechanical properties, including superior hardness, compressive strength and thermal stability, as compared to the reference Al-10Si-1Cu-1Mg-1Ni alloy, which softened remarkably, reducing its hardness by almost 50% to 63 ± 8 HV5. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
ZrB2-CNTs Nanocomposites Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering
Materials 2016, 9(12), 967; doi:10.3390/ma9120967 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
ZrB2-based nanocomposites with and without carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as reinforcement were prepared at 1600 °C by spark plasma sintering. The effects of CNTs on the microstructure and mechanical properties of nano-ZrB2 matrix composites were studied. The results indicated that adding
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ZrB2-based nanocomposites with and without carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as reinforcement were prepared at 1600 °C by spark plasma sintering. The effects of CNTs on the microstructure and mechanical properties of nano-ZrB2 matrix composites were studied. The results indicated that adding CNTs can inhibit the abnormal grain growth of ZrB2 grains and improve the fracture toughness of the composites. The toughness mechanisms were crack deflection, crack bridging, debonding, and pull-out of CNTs. The experimental results of the nanograined ZrB2-CNTs composites were compared with those of the micro-grained ZrB2-CNTs composites. Due to the small size and surface effects, the nanograined ZrB2-CNTs composites exhibited stronger mechanical properties: the hardness, flexural strength and fracture toughness were 18.7 ± 0.2 GPa, 1016 ± 75 MPa, and 8.5 ± 0.4 MPa·m1/2, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Origin of Activity and Stability Enhancement for Ag3PO4 Photocatalyst after Calcination
Materials 2016, 9(12), 968; doi:10.3390/ma9120968 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Pristine Ag3PO4 microspheres were synthesized by a co-precipitation method, followed by being calcined at different temperatures to obtain a series of calcined Ag3PO4 photocatalysts. This work aims to investigate the origin of activity and stability enhancement for
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Pristine Ag3PO4 microspheres were synthesized by a co-precipitation method, followed by being calcined at different temperatures to obtain a series of calcined Ag3PO4 photocatalysts. This work aims to investigate the origin of activity and stability enhancement for Ag3PO4 photocatalyst after calcination based on the systematical analyses of the structures, morphologies, chemical states of elements, oxygen defects, optical absorption properties, separation and transfer of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, and active species. The results indicate that oxygen vacancies (VO˙˙) are created and metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are formed by the reaction of partial Ag+ in Ag3PO4 semiconductor with the thermally excited electrons from Ag3PO4 and then deposited on the surface of Ag3PO4 microspheres during the calcination process. Among the calcined Ag3PO4 samples, the Ag3PO4-200 sample exhibits the best photocatalytic activity and greatly enhanced photocatalytic stability for photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) solution under visible light irradiation. Oxygen vacancies play a significantly positive role in the enhancement of photocatalytic activity, while metallic Ag has a very important effect on improving the photocatalytic stability. Overall, the present work provides some powerful evidences and a deep understanding on the origin of activity and stability enhancement for the Ag3PO4 photocatalyst after calcination. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On the Sr1−xBaxFeO2F Oxyfluoride Perovskites: Structure and Magnetism from Neutron Diffraction and Mössbauer Spectroscopy
Materials 2016, 9(12), 970; doi:10.3390/ma9120970 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Four oxyfluorides of the title series (x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75) have been stabilized by topotactic treatment of perovskite precursors Sr1−xBaxFeO3−δ prepared by soft-chemistry procedures, yielding reactive materials that can easily incorporate a substantial amount
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Four oxyfluorides of the title series (x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75) have been stabilized by topotactic treatment of perovskite precursors Sr1−xBaxFeO3−δ prepared by soft-chemistry procedures, yielding reactive materials that can easily incorporate a substantial amount of F atoms at moderate temperatures, thus avoiding the stabilization of competitive SrF2 and BaF2 parasitic phases. XRD and Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD) measurements assess the phase purity and yield distinct features concerning the unit cell parameters’ variation, the Sr and Ba distribution, the stoichiometry of the anionic sublattice and the anisotropic displacement factors for O and F atoms. The four oxyfluorides are confirmed to be cubic in all of the compositional range, the unit cell parameters displaying Vergard’s law. All of the samples are magnetically ordered above room temperature; the magnetic structure is always G-type antiferromagnetic, as shown from NPD data. The ordered magnetic moments are substantially high, around 3.5 μB, even at room temperature (RT). Temperature-dependent Mössbauer data allow identifying Fe3+ in all of the samples, thus confirming the Sr1−xBaxFeO2F stoichiometry. The fit of the magnetic hyperfine field vs. temperature curve yields magnetic ordering TN temperatures between 740 K (x = 0.00) and 683 K (x = 0.75). These temperatures are substantially higher than those reported before for some of the samples, assessing for stronger Fe-Fe superexchange interactions for these specimens prepared by fluorination of citrate precursors in mild conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Effects of Si-Ca-P Biphasic Ceramic on the Osteogenic Differentiation of a Population of Multipotent Adult Human Stem Cells
Materials 2016, 9(12), 969; doi:10.3390/ma9120969 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
A new type of bioceramic with osteogenic properties, suitable for hard tissue regeneration, was synthesised. The ceramic was designed and obtained in the Nurse’s A-phase-silicocarnotite subsystem. The selected composition was that corresponding to the eutectoid 28.39 wt % Nurse’s A-phase-71.61 wt % silicocarnotite
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A new type of bioceramic with osteogenic properties, suitable for hard tissue regeneration, was synthesised. The ceramic was designed and obtained in the Nurse’s A-phase-silicocarnotite subsystem. The selected composition was that corresponding to the eutectoid 28.39 wt % Nurse’s A-phase-71.61 wt % silicocarnotite invariant point. We report the effect of Nurse’s A-phase-silicocarnotite ceramic on the capacity of multipotent adult human mesenchymal stem cells (ahMSCs) cultured under experimental conditions, known to adhere, proliferate and differentiate into osteoblast lineage cells. The results at long-term culture (28 days) on the material confirmed that the undifferentiated ahMSCs cultured and in contact with the material surface adhered, spread, proliferated, and produced a mineralised extracellular matrix on the studied ceramic, and finally acquired an osteoblastic phenotype. These findings indicate that it underwent an osteoblast differentiation process. All these findings were more significant than when cells were grown on plastic, in the presence and absence of this osteogenic supplement, and were more evident when this supplement was present in the growth medium (GM). The ceramic evaluated herein was bioactive, cytocompatible and capable of promoting the proliferation and differentiation of undifferentiated ahMSCs into osteoblasts, which may be important for bone integration into the clinical setting. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Neo-Geometric Copper Nanocrystals by Competitive, Dual Surfactant-Mediated Facet Adsorption Controlling Skin Permeation
Materials 2016, 9(12), 966; doi:10.3390/ma9120966 -
Abstract
Neogeometric copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) have various applications yet its synthesis still proves to be challenging with regards to self-assembly and uniformity control. This study aimed to synthesize shape-specific CuNPs in the biomedical application of ascertaining skin permeation and retention of the CuNPs as
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Neogeometric copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) have various applications yet its synthesis still proves to be challenging with regards to self-assembly and uniformity control. This study aimed to synthesize shape-specific CuNPs in the biomedical application of ascertaining skin permeation and retention of the CuNPs as a drug delivery system. The approach to the shape design involved the dual control of two surfactants to direct the shape organisation of the nanoparticles (NPs) while an interesting aspect of the study showed the competitive adsorption of the surfactants onto the nanocrystal facets to direct facet growth. The resulting copper nanoparticles were characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron diffraction spectra analysis (EDS) for elemental and crystalline analysis. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) identified the degradation of the surfactant coat and the synthesis of a novel copper-polymer complex and extensive transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was conducted to determine the nanoparticle morphology. Epidermal skin tissue served as the model for permeation studies of five idealistic nano-geometries and investigated its application in drug delivery with regards to cellular internalisation and transbarrier transport of the geometric CuNPs. A mechanistic consideration for shape control is discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Pre-Oxidation Treatment of Nano-SiC Particulates on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of SiC/Mg-8Al-1Sn Composites Fabricated by Powder Metallurgy Combined with Hot Extrusion
Materials 2016, 9(12), 964; doi:10.3390/ma9120964 -
Abstract
Nano-SiC particulates (n-SiCp) reinforced Mg-8Al-1Sn (AT81) composites with different pre-oxidation parameters were fabricated by powder metallurgy (P/M) process combined with hot extrusion. The effects of pre-oxidization treatment of n-SiCp on the microstructure and tensile properties of 0.5 vol % n-SiC
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Nano-SiC particulates (n-SiCp) reinforced Mg-8Al-1Sn (AT81) composites with different pre-oxidation parameters were fabricated by powder metallurgy (P/M) process combined with hot extrusion. The effects of pre-oxidization treatment of n-SiCp on the microstructure and tensile properties of 0.5 vol % n-SiCp/AT81 composites were investigated accordingly. The distribution of n-SiCp with different pre-oxidation parameters was homogeneous in the composites. Moreover, it was found that a thin MgAl2O4 layer formed at the interface when the n-SiCp were pre-oxidized at 1073 K for 2 h, while the MgAl2O4 layer became much thicker with pre-oxidization temperature increasing to 1273 K for 2 h. After an appropriate pre-oxidization treatment of n-SiCp at 1073 K for 2 h, the as-extruded 0.5 vol % n-SiCp/AT81 composites exhibited an enhanced strength. It was found that the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) increased from 168 MPa and 311 MPa to 255 MPa and 393 MPa compared with the as-extruded AT81 alloy, reflecting 51.8% and 26.4% increments, respectively. The improvement of mechanical properties should be mainly attributed to the grain refinement and homogeneous distribution of n-SiCp in the composites. Moreover, a well-bonded interface and the formation of an appropriate amount of interfacial product (MgAl2O4) benefited the material’s mechanical properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Acoustic Behavior of Hollow Blocks and Bricks Made of Concrete Doped with Waste-Tire Rubber
Materials 2016, 9(12), 962; doi:10.3390/ma9120962 -
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate the acoustic behaviour of building elements made of concrete doped with waste-tire rubber. Three different mixtures were created, with 0%, 10%, and 20% rubber in their composition. Bricks, lattice joists, and hollow blocks were manufactured with each mixture,
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In this paper, we investigate the acoustic behaviour of building elements made of concrete doped with waste-tire rubber. Three different mixtures were created, with 0%, 10%, and 20% rubber in their composition. Bricks, lattice joists, and hollow blocks were manufactured with each mixture, and three different cells were built and tested against aerial and impact noise. The values of the global acoustic isolation and the reduction of the sound pressure level of impacts were measured. Results proved that highly doped elements are an excellent option to isolate low frequency sounds, whereas intermediate and standard elements constitute a most interesting option to block middle and high frequency sounds. In both cases, the considerable amount of waste-tire rubber recycled could justify the employment of the doped materials for the sake of the environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tribocorrosion Failure Mechanism of TiN/SiOx Duplex Coating Deposited on AISI304 Stainless Steel
Materials 2016, 9(12), 963; doi:10.3390/ma9120963 -
Abstract
TiN/SiOx duplex coatings were synthesized on AISI304 stainless steel by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) followed by radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS). The microstructure and tribocorrosion failure behaviors of the duplex coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,
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TiN/SiOx duplex coatings were synthesized on AISI304 stainless steel by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) followed by radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS). The microstructure and tribocorrosion failure behaviors of the duplex coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, reciprocating-sliding tribometer, and electrochemical tests. The as-deposited duplex coating had a two-layered columnar growth structure consisting of face-centered cubic TiN and amorphous SiOx. Sliding tests showed that the TiN interlayer had good adhesion with the substrate, but the SiOx layer suffered from severe delamination failure. Friction force induced a number of micro-cracks in the coating, which provided channels for the diffusion of NaCl solution. The tribocorrosion test showed that the duplex coating exhibited a lower wear-performance in NaCl solution than in ambient atmosphere. Multi-scale chloride ion corrosion occurred simultaneously and substantially degraded the bonding strength of the columnar crystals or neighboring layers. Force-corrosion synergy damage eventually led to multi-degradation failure of the duplex coating. The presented results provide a comprehensive understanding of the tribocorrosion failure mechanism in coatings with duplex architecture. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rolling Contact Fatigue Performances of Carburized and High-C Nanostructured Bainitic Steels
Materials 2016, 9(12), 960; doi:10.3390/ma9120960 -
Abstract
In the present work, the nanostructured bainitic microstructures were obtained at the surfaces of a carburized steel and a high-C steel. The rolling contact fatigue (RCF) performances of the two alloy steels with the same volume fraction of undissolved carbide were studied under
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In the present work, the nanostructured bainitic microstructures were obtained at the surfaces of a carburized steel and a high-C steel. The rolling contact fatigue (RCF) performances of the two alloy steels with the same volume fraction of undissolved carbide were studied under lubrication. Results show that the RCF life of the carburized nanostructured bainitic steel is superior to that of the high-C nanostructured bainitic steel in spite of the chemical composition, phase constituent, plate thickness of bainitic ferrite, hardness, and residual compressive stress value of the contact surfaces of the two steels under roughly similar conditions. The excellent RCF performance of the carburized nanostructured bainitic steel is mainly attributed to the following reasons: finer carbide dispersion distribution in the top surface, the higher residual compressive stress values in the carburized layer, the deeper residual compressive stress layer, the higher work hardening ability, the larger amount of retained austenite transforming into martensite at the surface and the more stable untransformed retained austenite left in the top surface of the steel. Full article
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