Materials2014, 7(12), 7662-7669; doi:10.3390/ma7127662 - published 27 November 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In this study, indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanoparticles were simply recovered from the thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) panel scraps by means of lift-off method. This can be done by dissolving color filter (CF) layer which is located between ITO layer and glass substrate. In this way the ITO layer was easily lifted off the glass substrate of the panel scrap without panel crushing. Over 90% of the ITO on the TFT-LCD panel was recovered by using this method. After separating, the ITO was obtained as particle form and their characteristics were investigated. The recovered product appeared as aggregates of particles less than 100 nm in size. The weight ratio of In/Sn is very close to 91/9. XRD analysis showed that the ITO nanoparticles have well crystallized structures with (222) preferred orientation even after recovery. The method described in this paper could be applied to the industrial recovery business for large size LCD scraps from TV easily without crushing the glass substrate.
Materials2014, 7(12), 7653-7661; doi:10.3390/ma7127653 - published 26 November 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We make glassy water in the form of nanofibers by electrospraying liquid water into a hyperquenching chamber. It is measured with means of differential scanning calorimetry, wide angle X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. It is found that two apparent glass transitions at Tg1 = 136 K and Tg2 = 228 K are detected and non-crystallized water is observed at temperatures up to 228 K. This finding may expand the research objects for liquid water at low temperatures.
Materials2014, 7(12), 7634-7652; doi:10.3390/ma7127634 - published 26 November 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This study developed a macro-sized polyamide (PA) fiber for concrete reinforcement and investigated the influence of the PA fiber on flexural responses in accordance with ASTM standards. PA fibers are advantageous compared to steel fibers that are corrosive and gravitated. The macro-sized PA fiber significantly improved concrete ductility and toughness. Unlike steel fibers, the PA fibers produced two peak bending strengths. The first-peaks occurred near 0.005 mm of deflection and decreased up to 0.5 mm of deflection. Then the bending strength increased up to second-peaks until the deflections reached between 1.0 and 1.5 mm. The averaged flexural responses revealed that PA fiber content did not significantly influence flexural responses before L/600, but had significant influence thereafter. Toughness performance levels were also determined, and the results indicated more than Level II at L/600 and Level IV at others.
Materials2014, 7(12), 7615-7633; doi:10.3390/ma7127615 - published 26 November 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: One weight percent of differently sized Au nanoparticles were deposited on two commercially available TiO2 photocatalysts: Aeroxide P25 and Kronos Vlp7000. The primary objective was to investigate the influence of the noble metal particle size and the deposition method on the photocatalytic activity. The developed synthesis method involves a simple approach for the preparation of finely-tuned Au particles through variation of the concentration of the stabilizing agent. Au was deposited on the TiO2 surface by photo- or chemical reduction, using trisodium citrate as a size-tailoring agent. The Au-TiO2 composites were synthetized by in situ reduction or by mixing the titania suspension with a previously prepared gold sol. The H2 production activities of the samples were studied in aqueous TiO2 suspensions irradiated with near-UV light in the absence of dissolved O2, with oxalic acid or methanol as the sacrificial agent. The H2 evolution rates proved to be strongly dependent on Au particle size: the highest H2 production rate was achieved when the Au particles measured ~6 nm.
Materials2014, 7(11), 7583-7614; doi:10.3390/ma7117583 - published 24 November 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In , several sentences were repeated three times on pages 4062, 4063 and 4065. In addition, many references were incorrect. The errors were introduced by the editorial office during the editing process. We apologize for this mistake and any inconvenience this may have caused to authors and readers. The corrected manuscript is given below.[...]
Materials2014, 7(11), 7566-7582; doi:10.3390/ma7117566 - published 24 November 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A finite element analysis (FEA) model has been constructed to predict the thermo-fluidic and optical properties of a microstructure optical fiber (MOF) accounting for changes in external temperature, input water velocity and optical fiber geometry. Modeling a water laminar flow within a water channel has shown that the steady-state temperature is dependent on the water channel radius while independent of the input velocity. There is a critical channel radius below which the steady-state temperature of the water channel is constant, while above, the temperature decreases. However, the distance required to reach steady state within the water channel is dependent on both the input velocity and the channel radius. The MOF has been found capable of supporting multiple modes. Despite the large thermo-optic coefficient of water, the bound modes’ response to temperature was dominated by the thermo-optic coefficient of glass. This is attributed to the majority of the light being confined within the glass, which increased with increasing external temperature due to a larger difference in the refractive index between the glass core and the water channel.