Materials2014, 7(12), 8131-8150; doi:10.3390/ma7128131 - published 17 December 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The effect of chemical treatment of hemp hurds slices in three solutions (EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), NaOH and Ca(OH)2) on the properties of natural material was discussed in this paper. Changes in the morphology, chemical composition and structure as well as thermal stability of hemp hurds before and after their modification were investigated by using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray powder diffraction analysis) and TG (thermogravimetry)/DSC (differential scanning calorimetry). Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) measurements were used for determination of degree of cellulose polymerization of hemp hurd samples. Chemical modification is related to the partial removal of non-cellulosic components of lignin, hemicellulose and pectin as well as waxes from the surface of hemp hurd slices. Another effect of the chemical treatment applied is connected with increasing the crystallinity index of cellulose determined by FTIR and XRD methods. Decrease in degree of cellulose polymerization and polydispersity index in chemically modified hemp hurds compared to the original sample was observed. Increase in thermal stability of treated hemp hurd was found. The most significant changes were observed in alkaline treated hemp hurds by NaOH.
Materials2014, 7(12), 8105-8130; doi:10.3390/ma7128105 - published 17 December 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Oxides (such as SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CeO2) have often been used to prepare supported Pt catalysts for CO oxidation and other reactions, whereas metal phosphate-supported Pt catalysts for CO oxidation were rarely reported. Metal phosphates are a family of metal salts with high thermal stability and acid-base properties. Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, denoted as Ca-P-O here) also has rich hydroxyls. Here we report a series of metal phosphate-supported Pt (Pt/M-P-O, M = Mg, Al, Ca, Fe, Co, Zn, La) catalysts for CO oxidation. Pt/Ca-P-O shows the highest activity. Relevant characterization was conducted using N2 adsorption-desorption, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), CO2 temperature-programmed desorption (CO2-TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR). This work furnishes a new catalyst system for CO oxidation and other possible reactions.
Materials2014, 7(12), 8088-8104; doi:10.3390/ma7128088 - published 17 December 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In this study, an electroactive polymer (EAP), poly(2,5-bis(N-methyl-N-hexylamino)phenylene vinylene) (BAM-PPV) was investigated as a potential alternative surface pretreatment for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI))-based aerospace coatings. BAM-PPV was tested as a pretreatment coating on an aerospace aluminum alloy (AA2024-T3) substrate in combination with a non-Cr(VI) epoxy primer and a polyurethane Advanced Performance Coating (APC) topcoat. This testing was undertaken to determine BAM-PPV’s adhesion, corrosion-inhibition, compatibility and survivability in laboratory testing and during outdoor field-testing. BAM-PPV showed excellent adhesion and acceptable corrosion performance in laboratory testing. The BAM-PPV aerospace coating system (BAM-PPV, non-Cr(VI) epoxy primer and polyurethane APC topcoat) was field tested for one year on the rear hatch door of the United States Air Force C-5 cargo plane. After one year of field testing there was no evidence of delamination or corrosion of the BAM-PPV aerospace coating system.
Materials2014, 7(12), 8070-8087; doi:10.3390/ma7128070 - published 16 December 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In this research, structural-functional integrated cement-based materials were prepared by employing cement paste and a microencapsulated phase change material (MPCM) manufactured using urea-formaldehyde resin as the shell and paraffin as the core material. The encapsulation ratio of the MPCM could reach up to 91.21 wt%. Thermal energy storage cement pastes (TESCPs) incorporated with different MPCM contents (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% by weight of cement) were developed, and their thermal and mechanical properties were studied. The results showed that the total energy storage capacity of the hardened cement specimens with MPCM increased by up to 3.9-times compared with that of the control cement paste. The thermal conductivity at different temperature levels (35–36 °C, 55–56 °C and 72–74 °C) decreased with the increase of MPCM content, and the decrease was the highest when the temperature level was 55–56 °C. Moreover, the compressive strength, flexural strength and density of hardened cement paste decreased with the increase in MPCM content linearly. Among the evaluated properties, the compressive strength of TESCPs had a larger and faster degradation with the increase of MPCM content.
Materials2014, 7(12), 8058-8069; doi:10.3390/ma7128058 - published 15 December 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Ultrafine grained sheets were prepared from a twin-roll cast AA8006 aluminium alloy using accumulative roll-bonding process at room temperature. The evolution of microstructure of sheets after three accumulative roll-bonding passes during isochronal annealing with a constant step of 20 °C/20 min was studied by light and electron microscopy. The influence of the resulting microstructure on mechanical properties was monitored by microhardness measurements. The microhardness increases when the material is annealed up to 160 °C. Above this temperature a fast drop of microhardness occurs followed by a negligible variation at annealing temperatures exceeding 300 °C. In order to map continuously the microstructure changes during annealing, the in situ TEM experiments in the heating stage were performed as a supplement to post-mortem TEM observations.
Materials2014, 7(12), 8037-8057; doi:10.3390/ma7128037 - published 12 December 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A Metal-Organic Framework (MOF), iron-benzenetricarboxylate (Fe(BTC)), has been studied for the adsorptive removal of azo-dye Orange II from aqueous solutions, where the effect of various parameters was tested and isotherm and kinetic models were suggested. The adsorption capacities of Fe(BTC) were much higher than those of an activated carbon. The experimental data can be best described by the Langmuir isotherm model (R2 > 0.997) and revealed the ability of Fe(BTC) to adsorb 435 mg of Orange II per gram of adsorbent at the optimal conditions. The kinetics of Orange II adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating the coexistence of physisorption and chemisorption, with intra-particle diffusion being the rate controlling step. The thermodynamic study revealed that the adsorption of Orange II was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic process (−25.53 kJ·mol−1). The high recovery of the dye showed that Fe(BTC) can be employed as an effective and reusable adsorbent for the removal of Orange II from aqueous solutions and showed the economic interest of this adsorbent material for environmental purposes.