Mar. Drugs2014, 12(8), 4693-4712; doi:10.3390/md12084693 - published 22 August 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A major alginate lyase, FlAlyA, was purified from the periplasmic fraction of an alginate-assimilating bacterium, Flavobacterium sp. strain UMI-01. FlAlyA showed a single band of ~30 kDa on SDS-PAGE and exhibited the optimal temperature and pH at 55 °C and pH 7.7, respectively. Analyses for substrate preference and reaction products indicated that FlAlyA was an endolytic poly(mannuronate) lyase (EC 188.8.131.52). A gene fragment encoding the amino-acid sequence of 288 residues for FlAlyA was amplified by inverse PCR. The N-terminal region of 21 residues except for the initiation Met in the deduced sequence was predicted as the signal peptide and the following region of six residues was regarded as propeptide, while the C-terminal region of 260 residues was regarded as the polysaccharide-lyase-family-7-type catalytic domain. The entire coding region for FlAlyA was subjected to the pCold I—Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) expression system and ~eight times higher yield of recombinant FlAlyA (recFlAlyA) than that of native FlAlyA was achieved. The recFlAlyA recovered in the periplasmic fraction of E. coli had lost the signal peptide region along with the N-terminal 3 residues of propeptide region. This suggested that the signal peptide of FlAlyA could function in part in E. coli.
Mar. Drugs2014, 12(8), 4677-4692; doi:10.3390/md12084677 - published 22 August 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Ten new briarane diterpenoids, briaviolides A–J (1–10), together with six known briaranes, solenolides A and D, excavatolide A, briaexcavatolide I, 4β-acetoxy-9-deacetystylatulide lactone and 9-deacetylstylatulide lactone, were isolated from the Taiwanese soft coral, Briareum violacea. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data (1H- and 13C-NMR, 1H–1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY), HR-MS and chemical methods. The absolute configuration of briaviolide A (1) was determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compounds 5, 9 and derivative 11 showed moderate inhibitory activities on superoxide-anion generation and elastase release by human neutrophils in response to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine/ Cytochalasin B (fMLP/CB).
Mar. Drugs2014, 12(8), 4659-4676; doi:10.3390/md12084659 - published 22 August 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Iron, as inorganic ion or as oxide, is widely used by biological systems in a myriad of biological functions (e.g., enzymatic, gene activation and/or regulation). In particular, marine organisms containing silica structures—diatoms and sponges—grow preferentially in the presence of iron. Using primary sponge cell culture from S. domuncula–primmorphs—as an in vitro model to study the Demospongiae spiculogenesis, we found the presence of agglomerates 50 nm in diameter exclusively inside sponge specialized cells called sclerocytes. A clear phase/material separation is observed between the agglomerates and the initial stages of intracellular spicule formation. STEM-HRTEM-EDX analysis of the agglomerates (30–100 nm) showed that they are composed of pseudohexagonal nanoparticles between 5 and 15 nm in size, displaying lattice parameters corresponding to hematite (Fe2O3) and mixed iron oxide phases typically attributed to ferritin. Further analysis, using western blotting, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), sequence alignment analysis, immunostaining and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), of mature spicule filaments confirm the presence of ferritin within these organic structures. We suggest that S. domuncula can be classified as a dual biomineralizating organism, i.e., within the same cellular structure two distinct biomineralizing processes can occur as a result of the same cellular/metabolic function, spiculogenesis.
Mar. Drugs2014, 12(8), 4635-4658; doi:10.3390/md12084635 - published 21 August 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A series of water-soluble cationic chitosan derivatives were prepared by chemoselective functionalization at the amino group of five different parent chitosans having varying degrees of acetylation and molecular weight. The quaternary moieties were introduced at different alkyl spacer lengths from the polymer backbone (C-0, C-2 and C-6) with the aid of 3,6-di-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl protection of the chitosan backbone, thus allowing full (100%) substitution of the free amino groups. All of the derivatives were characterized using 1H-NMR, 1H-1H COSY and FT-IR spectroscopy, while molecular weight was determined by GPC. Antibacterial activity was investigated against Gram positive S. aureus and Gram negative E. coli. The relationship between structure and activity/toxicity was defined, considering the effect of the cationic group’s structure and its distance from the polymer backbone, as well as the degree of acetylation within a molecular weight range of 7–23 kDa for the final compounds. The N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan with 100% quaternization showed the highest antibacterial activity with moderate cytotoxicity, while increasing the spacer length reduced the activity. Trimethylammoniumyl quaternary ammonium moieties contributed more to activity than 1-pyridiniumyl moieties. In general, no trend in the antibacterial activity of the compounds with increasing molecular weight or degree of acetylation up to 34% was observed.
Mar. Drugs2014, 12(8), 4616-4634; doi:10.3390/md12084616 - published 21 August 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The phycotoxin, okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin 1 and 2 (DTX-1 and -2) are protein phosphatase PP2A and PP1 inhibitors involved in diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Data on the toxicity of the OA-group toxins show some differences with respect to the in vivo acute toxicity between the toxin members. In order to investigate whether OA and congeners DTX-1 and -2 may induce different mechanisms of action during acute toxicity on the human intestine, we compared their toxicological effects in two in vitro intestinal cell models: the colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, Caco-2, and the intestinal muco-secreting cell line, HT29-MTX. Using a high content analysis approach, we evaluated various cytotoxicity parameters, including apoptosis (caspase-3 activation), DNA damage (phosphorylation of histone H2AX), inflammation (translocation of NF-κB) and cell proliferation (Ki-67 production). Investigation of the kinetics of the cellular responses demonstrated that the three toxins induced a pro-inflammatory response followed by cell cycle disruption in both cell lines, leading to apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that the three toxins induce similar effects, as no major differences in the cytotoxic responses could be detected. However DTX-1 induced cytotoxic effects at five-fold lower concentrations than for OA and DTX-2.
Mar. Drugs2014, 12(8), 4602-4615; doi:10.3390/md12084602 - published 21 August 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Echinochrome A (Ech A) is a natural pigment from sea urchins that has been reported to have antioxidant properties and a cardio protective effect against ischemia reperfusion injury. In this study, we ascertained whether Ech A enhances the mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation in rat cardio myoblast H9c2 cells. To study the effects of Ech A on mitochondrial biogenesis, we measured mitochondrial mass, level of oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial biogenesis regulatory gene expression. Ech A treatment did not induce cytotoxicity. However, Ech A treatment enhanced oxygen consumption rate and mitochondrial ATP level. Likewise, Ech A treatment increased mitochondrial contents in H9c2 cells. Furthermore, Ech A treatment up-regulated biogenesis of regulatory transcription genes, including proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator (PGC)-1α, estrogen-related receptor (ERR)-α, peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor (PPAR)-γ, and nuclear respiratory factor (NRF)-1 and such mitochondrial transcription regulatory genes as mitochondrial transcriptional factor A (TFAM), mitochondrial transcription factor B2 (TFB2M), mitochondrial DNA direct polymerase (POLMRT), single strand binding protein (SSBP) and Tu translation elongation factor (TUFM). In conclusion, these data suggest that Ech A is a potentiated marine drug which enhances mitochondrial biogenesis.