Mar. Drugs2014, 12(3), 1377-1389; doi:10.3390/md12031377 (doi registration under processing) - published online 7 March 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Fascaplysin, the natural product of a marine sponge, exhibits anticancer activity against a broad range of tumor cells, presumably through interaction with DNA, and/or as a highly selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) inhibitor. In this study, cytotoxic activity of fascaplysin against a panel of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and putative synergism with chemotherapeutics was investigated. SCLC responds to first-line chemotherapy with platinum-based drugs/etoposide, but relapses early with topotecan remaining as the single approved therapeutic agent. Fascaplysin was found to show high cytotoxicity against SCLC cells and to induce cell cycle arrest in G1/0 at lower and S-phase at higher concentrations, respectively. The compound generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced apoptotic cell death in the chemoresistant NCI-H417 SCLC cell line. Furthermore, fascaplysin revealed marked synergism with the topoisomerase I-directed camptothecin and 10-hydroxy-camptothecin. The Poly(ADP-ribose)-Polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitor BYK 204165 antagonized the cytotoxic activity of fascaplysin, pointing to the involvement of DNA repair in response to the anticancer activity of the drug. In conclusion, fascaplysin seems to be suitable for treatment of SCLC, based on high cytotoxic activity through multiple routes of action, affecting topoisomerase I, integrity of DNA and generation of ROS.
Mar. Drugs2014, 12(3), 1361-1376; doi:10.3390/md12031361 (doi registration under processing) - published online 7 March 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The identification of toxin-producing dinoflagellates for monitoring programmes and bio-compound discovery requires considerable taxonomic expertise. It can also be difficult to morphologically differentiate toxic and non-toxic species or strains. Various molecular methods have been used for dinoflagellate identification and detection, and this study describes the development of eight real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting the large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA) gene of species from the genera Gymnodinium, Karenia, Karlodinium, and Takayama. Assays proved to be highly specific and sensitive, and the assay for G. catenatum was further developed for quantification in response to a bloom in Manukau Harbour, New Zealand. The assay estimated cell densities from environmental samples as low as 0.07 cells per PCR reaction, which equated to three cells per litre. This assay not only enabled conclusive species identification but also detected the presence of cells below the limit of detection for light microscopy. This study demonstrates the usefulness of real-time PCR as a sensitive and rapid molecular technique for the detection and quantification of micro-algae from environmental samples.
Mar. Drugs2014, 12(3), 1349-1360; doi:10.3390/md12031349 (doi registration under processing) - published online 7 March 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The competitive adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) and17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) with different endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), such as estrone (E1), β-estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3) was investigated in the water-sediment system. The primary and interaction effects of coexisted EDCs on the adsorption of BPA and EE2 were studied in binary and multiple systems. The adsorption selectivity of sediment at different initial concentrations of EDCs was also considered, based on the distribution coefficient (β). In binary systems, coexisted EDCs exhibited a positive effect on the adsorption of BPA, while E3 showed a negative effect on the adsorption of EE2. In ternary systems, the interaction of E1*E3 and E2*BPA showed a synergistic effect on the sorption of BPA and EE2, respectively. In quaternary systems, the interaction of E1*E2*E3 showed a synergistic effect on the adsorption of both BPA and EE2. In the quinary system, coexisted EDCs all showed an antagonistic effect on the adsorption of BPA and EE2, which indicated that the coexisted EDCs competed for adsorption with BPA and EE2. EDCs in the E2-EE2-BPA system presented a superior selectivity of sediment with β values of 43.48–87.86. The order of sediment selectivity (E1 > EE2 > E2 > E3 > BPA) in binary systems was in agreement with EDCs’ adsorption capacity, which suggested that the adsorption was dominated by partition adsorption.
Mar. Drugs2014, 12(3), 1335-1348; doi:10.3390/md12031335 (doi registration under processing) - published online 7 March 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A series of novel cyclic marinopyrroles were designed and synthesized. Their activity to disrupt the binding of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bim, to the pro-survival proteins, Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, was evaluated using ELISA assays. Both atropisomers of marinopyrrole A (1) show similar potency. A tetrabromo congener 9 is two-fold more potent than 1. Two novel cyclic marinopyrroles (3 and 4) are two- to seven-fold more potent than 1.
Mar. Drugs2014, 12(3), 1317-1334; doi:10.3390/md12031317 (doi registration under processing) - published online 7 March 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum can accumulate eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) up to 30% of the total fatty acids. This species has been targeted for isolating gene encoding desaturases and elongases for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) metabolic engineering. Here we first report the cloning and characterization of Δ5-elongase gene in P. tricornutum. A full-length cDNA sequence, designated PhtELO5, was shown to contain a 1110 bp open reading frame encoding a 369 amino acid polypeptide. The putative protein contains seven transmembrane regions and two elongase characteristic motifs of FLHXYHH and MYSYY, the latter being typical for microalgal Δ5-elongases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PhtELO5 belongs to the ELO5 group, tightly clustered with the counterpart of Thalassiosira pseudonana. Heterologous expression of PhtELO5 in Pichia pastoris confirmed that it encodes a specific Δ5-elongase capable of elongating arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Co-expression of PhtELO5 and IsFAD4 (a ∆4-desaturase from Isochrysis sphaerica) demonstrated that the high-efficiency biosynthetic pathway of docosahexaenoic acid was assembled in the transgenic yeast. Substrate competition revealed that PhtELO5 exhibited higher activity towards n-3 PUFA than n-6 PUFA. It is hypothesized that Phaeodactylum ELO5 may preferentially participate in biosynthesis of transgenic LC-PUFA via a n-3 pathway in the yeast host.
Mar. Drugs2014, 12(3), 1298-1316; doi:10.3390/md12031298 (doi registration under processing) - published online 7 March 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Chemical analyses, mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy were applied to study the structure of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Aeromonas veronii strain Bs19, serotype O16. ESI-MS revealed that the most abundant LPS glycoforms have tetra-acylated or hexa-acylated lipid A species, consisting of a bisphosphorylated GlcN disaccharide with an AraN residue as a non-stoichiometric substituent, and a core oligosaccharide composed of Hep5Hex3HexN1Kdo1P1. Sugar and methylation analysis together with 1D and 2D 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy were the main methods used, and revealed that the O-specific polysaccharide (OPS) of A. veronii Bs19 was built up of tetrasaccharide repeating units with the structure: →4)-α-d-Quip3NAc-(1→3)-α-l-Rhap-(1→4)-β-d-Galp-(1→3)-α-d-GalpNAc-(1→. This composition was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The charge-deconvoluted ESI FT-ICR MS recorded for the LPS preparations identified mass peaks of SR- and R-form LPS species, that differed by Δm = 698.27 u, a value corresponding to the calculated molecular mass of one OPS repeating unit (6dHexNAc6dHexHexHexNAc-H2O). Moreover, unspecific fragmentation spectra confirmed the sequence of the sugar residues in the OPS and allowed to assume that the elucidated structure also represented the biological repeating unit.