Mar. Drugs2016, 14(7), 121; doi:10.3390/md14070121 (registering DOI) - published 24 June 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: For a long time, fucoidan has been well known for its pharmacological activities, and recently low molecular weight fucoidan (LMF) has been used in food supplements and pharmaceutical products. In the present study, LMF was extracted from Laminariajaponica by enzyme hydrolysis. The toxicity of LMF in mouse and rat models was determined by many methods, such as total arsenic content, bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosome aberration assay, and in vivo micronucleus assay. The present findings showed that LMF at 5000 μg/mL exhibited no mutagenicity. It also produced no formatting disruption of red blood cells in vivo. At 2000 mg/kg BW/day there were no toxicological indications. LMF is expected to be used as a safe food supplement.
Mar. Drugs2016, 14(6), 118; doi:10.3390/md14060118 - published 21 June 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: There are numerous biologically active substances with novel structures and unique physiological functions in marine organisms. These substances are important sources of new lead compounds. Pelorol is a natural product isolated from marine organisms that possesses a novel structure with high bioactivity. In this paper, the synthesis of pelorol has been completed, and the synthesis of some intermediates has been optimized and scaled up. Five pelorol analogs have also been prepared. Preliminary biological activity testing demonstrated that compounds 5 and 6 might be potential lead compounds for cancer therapy.
Mar. Drugs2016, 14(6), 119; doi:10.3390/md14060119 - published 21 June 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are secondary metabolites, produced by a large variety of microorganisms including algae, cyanobacteria, lichen and fungi. MAAs act as UV-absorbers and photo-protectants. MAAs are suggested to exert pharmaceutical relevant bioactivities in the human system. We particularly focused on their effect on defence and regulatory pathways that are active in inflamed environments. The MAAs shinorine and porphyra-334 were isolated and purified from the red algae Porphyra sp. using chromatographic methods. The effect of MAAs on central signaling cascades, such as transcription factor nuclear factor kappa b (NF-κB) activation, as well as tryptophan metabolism, was investigated in human myelomonocytic THP-1 and THP-1-Blue cells. Cells were exposed to the MAAs in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). NF-κB activity and the activity of tryptophan degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1) were used as readout. Compounds were tested in the concentration range from 12.5 to 200 µg/mL. Both MAAs were able to induce NF-κB activity in unstimulated THP-1-Blue cells, whereby the increase was dose-dependent and more pronounced with shinorine treatment. While shinorine also slightly superinduced NF-κB in LPS-stimulated cells, porphyra-334 reduced NF-κB activity in this inflammatory background. Modulation of tryptophan metabolism was moderate, suppressive in stimulated cells with the lower treatment concentration of both MAAs and with the unstimulated cells upon porphyra-334 treatment. Inflammatory pathways are affected by MAAs, but despite the structural similarity, diverse effects were observed.
Mar. Drugs2016, 14(6), 120; doi:10.3390/md14060120 - published 21 June 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The increased use of terrestrial crops for biofuel production and the associated environmental, social and ethical issues have led to a search for alternative biomass materials. Terrestrial crops offer excellent biogas recovery, but compete directly with food production, requiring farmland, fresh water and fertilizers. Using marine macroalgae for the production of biogas circumvents these problems. Their potential lies in their chemical composition, their global abundance and knowledge of their growth requirements and occurrence patterns. Such a biomass industry should focus on the use of residual and waste biomass to avoid competition with the biomass requirements of the seaweed food industry, which has occurred in the case of terrestrial biomass. Overabundant seaweeds represent unutilized biomass in shallow water, beach and coastal areas. These eutrophication processes damage marine ecosystems and impair local tourism; this biomass could serve as biogas feedstock material. Residues from biomass processing in the seaweed industry are also of interest. This is a rapidly growing industry with algae now used in the comestible, pharmaceutical and cosmetic sectors. The simultaneous production of combustible biomethane and disposal of undesirable biomass in a synergistic waste management system is a concept with environmental and resource-conserving advantages.
Mar. Drugs2016, 14(6), 116; doi:10.3390/md14060116 - published 18 June 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A series of aminoglucoglycerolipids derivatives had been synthesized, including 6′-acylamido-glucoglycerolipids 1a–1f and corresponding 2′-acylamido-glucoglycerolipids 2a–2c bearing different fatty acids, glucosyl diglycerides 3a–3e bearing different functional groups at C-6′ and ether-linked glucoglycerolipids 4a–4c with double-tailed alkyl alcohol. The anti-influenza A virus (IAV) activity was evaluated by the cytopathic effects (CPE) inhibition assay. The results indicated that the integral structure of the aminoglycoglycerolipid was essential for the inhibition of IAV in MDCK cells. Furthermore, oral administration of compound 1d was able to significantly improve survival and decrease pulmonary viral titers in IAV-infected mice, which suggested that compound 1d merited further investigation as a novel anti-IAV candidate in the future.
Mar. Drugs2016, 14(6), 117; doi:10.3390/md14060117 - published 18 June 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A new sulfated sterol, phallusiasterol C (1), has been isolated from the Mediterranean ascidian Phallusia fumigata and its structure has been determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (mainly 2D NMR) analysis. The possible role in regulating the pregnane X receptor (PXR) activity of phallusiasterol C has been investigated; although the new sterol resulted inactive, this study adds more items to the knowledge of the structure-PXR regulating activity relationships in the case of sulfated steroids.