Mar. Drugs2015, 13(5), 3241-3258; doi:10.3390/md13053241 - published 21 May 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Shrimp anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (SALF) is an antimicrobial peptide with reported anticancer activities, such as suppression of tumor progression. In this study, we prepared a potential cancer vaccine comprised of SALF in conjunction with the cell lysate of inactivated murine bladder carcinoma cells (MBT-2), and evaluated its efficacy in a mouse tumor model. Our study shows that SALF added to cell culture media inhibits growth progression of MBT-2, and that SALF together with inactivated MBT-2 lysate elevates the level of inflammasome activity, and modulates the levels of IL-1β, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α in mouse macrophages. Immunization of 7, 14, and 21 day-old mice with the vaccine prevented growth of MBT-2 cell-mediated tumors. The vaccine was found to enhance expression of T-cell, cytotoxic T cells, and NK cells in the immunized mice groups. Recruitment of macrophages, T-helper cells, and NK cells was enhanced, but levels of VEGF were decreased in immunized mice. This report provides empirical evidence that our SALF as vaccine adjuvant enhances antitumor immunity in mice.
Mar. Drugs2015, 13(5), 3231-3240; doi:10.3390/md13053231 - published 21 May 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Tandyukisins B–D (1–3), novel decalin derivatives, have been isolated from a strain of Trichoderma harzianum OUPS-111D-4 originally derived from the marine sponge Halichondria okadai, and their structures have been elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. In addition, their chemical structures were established by chemical transformation. They exhibited weak cytotoxicity, but selective growth inhibition on panel screening using 39 human cancer cell lines.
Mar. Drugs2015, 13(5), 3182-3230; doi:10.3390/md13053182 - published 21 May 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered.
Mar. Drugs2015, 13(5), 3154-3181; doi:10.3390/md13053154 - published 20 May 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Marine invertebrates including sponges, soft coral, tunicates, mollusks and bryozoan have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among marine-derived metabolites, terpenoids have provided a vast array of molecular architectures. These isoprenoid-derived metabolites also exhibit highly specialized biological activities ranging from nerve regeneration to blood-sugar regulation. As a result, intense research activity has been devoted to characterizing invertebrate terpenes from both a chemical and biological standpoint. This review focuses on the chemistry and biology of terpene metabolites isolated from the Red Sea ecosystem, a unique marine biome with one of the highest levels of biodiversity and specifically rich in invertebrate species.
Mar. Drugs2015, 13(5), 3132-3153; doi:10.3390/md13053132 - published 20 May 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A marine polycyclic quinone-type metabolite, halenaquinone (HQ), was found to inhibit the proliferation of Molt 4, K562, MDA-MB-231 and DLD-1 cancer cell lines, with IC50 of 0.48, 0.18, 8.0 and 6.76 μg/mL, respectively. It exhibited the most potent activity against leukemia Molt 4 cells. Accumulating evidence showed that HQ may act as a potent protein kinase inhibitor in cancer therapy. To fully understand the mechanism of HQ, we further explored the precise molecular targets in leukemia Molt 4 cells. We found that the use of HQ increased apoptosis by 26.23%–70.27% and caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by 17.15%–53.25% in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by Annexin-V/PI and JC-1 staining assays, respectively. Moreover, our findings indicated that the pretreatment of Molt 4 cells with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, diminished MMP disruption and apoptosis induced by HQ, suggesting that ROS overproduction plays a crucial rule in the cytotoxic activity of HQ. The results of a cell-free system assay indicated that HQ could act as an HDAC and topoisomerase catalytic inhibitor through the inhibition of pan-HDAC and topoisomerase IIα expression, respectively. On the protein level, the expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins p-Akt, NFκB, HDAC and Bcl-2, as well as hexokinase II was inhibited by the use of HQ. On the other hand, the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, PARP cleavage, caspase activation and cytochrome c release were increased after HQ treatment. Taken together, our results suggested that the antileukemic effect of HQ is ROS-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis combined with the inhibitory effect on HDAC and topoisomerase activities.
Mar. Drugs2015, 13(5), 3116-3131; doi:10.3390/md13053116 - published 20 May 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In order to explore the effect of –OH functional groups in Cs+ adsorption, we herein used the low temperature plasma-induced grafting method to graft chitosan onto carbon nanotubes (denoted as CTS-g-CNTs), as raw-CNTs have few functional groups and chitosan has a large number of –OH functional groups. The synthesized CTS-g-CNT composites were characterized using different techniques. The effect of –OH functional groups in the Cs+ adsorption process was evaluated by comparison of the adsorption properties of raw-CNTs with and without grafting chitosan. The variation of environmental conditions such as pH and contact time was investigated. A comparison of contaminated seawater and simulated groundwater was also evaluated. The results indicated that: (1) the adsorption of Cs+ ions was strongly dependent on pH and the competitive cations; (2) for CNT-based material, the –OH functional groups have a positive effect on Cs+ removal; (3) simulated contaminated groundwater can be used to model contaminated seawater to evaluate the adsorption property of CNTs-based material. These results showed direct observational evidence on the effect of –OH functional groups for Cs+ adsorption. Our findings are important in providing future directions to design and to choose effective material to remedy the removal of radioactive cesium from contaminated groundwater and seawater, crucial for public health and the human social environment.