Open AccessArticle
Effect of Fish Collagen Hydrolysates on Type I Collagen mRNA Levels of Human Dermal Fibroblast Culture
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(5), 144; doi:10.3390/md16050144 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Fish discards and subproducts may represent an important source of raw material, not only for the food industry, but for other different kind of industries, such as the nutraceutical and cosmetic industries. Collagen, which is mainly obtained from animal skins, is an important
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Fish discards and subproducts may represent an important source of raw material, not only for the food industry, but for other different kind of industries, such as the nutraceutical and cosmetic industries. Collagen, which is mainly obtained from animal skins, is an important structural protein in the animal kingdom having many different applications. It is well known that fish skins constitute a significant subproduct in the fishery industry, especially in the case of some species, where fish skins may represent up to 20% of the total body weight of fish. Peptides from collagen hydrolysates have been described to be useful for preventing skin aging and osteoarthritis, however, the mechanism for these biological activities is not well known. Fibroblasts are the main cell types involved in the collagen synthesis, and in the present work, human dermal fibroblasts have been exposed to the treatment of collagen peptides of two different molecular weight ranges. Results show that higher molecular weight collagen peptides produce higher synthesis of collagen type I mRNA and, therefore, it may suggest that prior molecular weight selection may be an important step to maximize the effect of collagen hydrolysates on collagen type I synthesis by dermal fibroblasts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Metabolomic Profiles of Dinophysis acuminata and Dinophysis acuta Using Non-Targeted High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry: Effect of Nutritional Status and Prey
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(5), 143; doi:10.3390/md16050143 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Photosynthetic species of the genus Dinophysis are obligate mixotrophs with temporary plastids (kleptoplastids) that are acquired from the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum, which feeds on cryptophytes of the Teleaulax-Plagioselmis-Geminigera clade. A metabolomic study of the three-species food chain Dinophysis-Mesodinium-Teleaulax was carried out using
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Photosynthetic species of the genus Dinophysis are obligate mixotrophs with temporary plastids (kleptoplastids) that are acquired from the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum, which feeds on cryptophytes of the Teleaulax-Plagioselmis-Geminigera clade. A metabolomic study of the three-species food chain Dinophysis-Mesodinium-Teleaulax was carried out using mass spectrometric analysis of extracts of batch-cultured cells of each level of that food chain. The main goal was to compare the metabolomic expression of Galician strains of Dinophysis acuminata and D. acuta that were subjected to different feeding regimes (well-fed and prey-limited) and feeding on two Mesodinium (Spanish and Danish) strains. Both Dinophysis species were able to grow while feeding on both Mesodinium strains, although differences in growth rates were observed. Toxin and metabolomic profiles of the two Dinophysis species were significantly different, and also varied between different feeding regimes and different prey organisms. Furthermore, significantly different metabolomes were expressed by a strain of D. acuminata that was feeding on different strains of the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum. Both species-specific metabolites and those common to D. acuminata and D. acuta were tentatively identified by screening of METLIN and Marine Natural Products Dictionary databases. This first metabolomic study applied to Dinophysis acuminata and D.acuta in culture establishes a basis for the chemical inventory of these species. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Marine and Freshwater Feedstocks as a Precursor for Nitrogen-Containing Carbons: A Review
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(5), 142; doi:10.3390/md16050142 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Marine-derived as well as freshwater feedstock offers important benefits, such as abundance, morphological and structural variety, and the presence of multiple elements, including nitrogen and carbon. Therefore, these renewal resources may be useful for obtaining N- and C-containing materials that can be manufactured
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Marine-derived as well as freshwater feedstock offers important benefits, such as abundance, morphological and structural variety, and the presence of multiple elements, including nitrogen and carbon. Therefore, these renewal resources may be useful for obtaining N- and C-containing materials that can be manufactured by various methods, such as pyrolysis and hydrothermal processes supported by means of chemical and physical activators. However, every synthesis concept relies on an efficient transfer of nitrogen and carbon from marine/freshwater feedstock to the final product. This paper reviews the advantages of marine feedstock over synthetic and natural but non-marine resources as precursors for the manufacturing of N-doped activated carbons. The manufacturing procedure influences some crucial properties of nitrogen-doped carbon materials, such as pore structure and the chemical composition of the surface. An extensive review is given on the relationship between carbon materials manufacturing from marine feedstock and the elemental content of nitrogen, together with a description of the chemical bonding of nitrogen atoms at the surface. N-doped carbons may serve as effective adsorbents for the removal of pollutants from the gas or liquid phase. Non-recognized areas of adsorption-based applications for nitrogen-doped carbons are presented, too. The paper proves that nitrogen-doped carbon materials belong to most of the prospective electrode materials for electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies such as fuel cells, air–metal batteries, and supercapacitors, as well as for bioimaging. The reviewed material belongs to the widely understood field of marine biotechnology in relation to marine natural products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Haliotis discus discus Sialic Acid-Binding Lectin Reduces the Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus Induced Toxicity in a Glioblastoma Mouse Model
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(5), 141; doi:10.3390/md16050141 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Although oncolytic viruses provide attractive vehicles for cancer treatment, their adverse effects are largely ignored. In this work, rat C6 glioblastoma cells were subcutaneously xenografted into mice, and a thymidine kinase-deficient oncolytic vaccinia virus (oncoVV) induced severe toxicity in this model. However, oncoVV-HddSBL,
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Although oncolytic viruses provide attractive vehicles for cancer treatment, their adverse effects are largely ignored. In this work, rat C6 glioblastoma cells were subcutaneously xenografted into mice, and a thymidine kinase-deficient oncolytic vaccinia virus (oncoVV) induced severe toxicity in this model. However, oncoVV-HddSBL, in which a gene encoding Haliotis discus discus sialic acid-binding lectin (HddSBL) was inserted into oncoVV, significantly prolonged the survival of mice as compared to the control virus. HddSBL reduced the tumor secreted serum rat IL-2 level upregulated by oncoVV, promoted viral replication, as well as inhibited the expression of antiviral factors in C6 glioblastoma cell line. Furthermore, HddSBL downregulated the expression levels of histone H3 and H4, and upregulated histone H3R8 and H4R3 asymmetric dimethylation, confirming the effect of HddSBL on chromatin structure suggested by the transcriptome data. Our results might provide insights into the utilization of HddSBL in counteracting the adverse effects of oncolytic vaccinia virus. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Genome-Wide Comparison Reveals a Probiotic Strain Lactococcus lactis WFLU12 Isolated from the Gastrointestinal Tract of Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) Harboring Genes Supporting Probiotic Action
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(5), 140; doi:10.3390/md16050140 -
Abstract
Our previous study has shown that dietary supplementation with Lactococcus lactis WFLU12 can enhance the growth of olive flounder and its resistance against streptococcal infection. The objective of the present study was to use comparative genomics tools to investigate genomic characteristics of strain
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Our previous study has shown that dietary supplementation with Lactococcus lactis WFLU12 can enhance the growth of olive flounder and its resistance against streptococcal infection. The objective of the present study was to use comparative genomics tools to investigate genomic characteristics of strain WFLU12 and the presence of genes supporting its probiotic action using sequenced genomes of L. lactis strains. Dispensable and singleton genes of strain WFLU12 were found to be more enriched in genes associated with metabolism (e.g., energy production and conversion, and carbohydrate transport and metabolism) than pooled dispensable and singleton genes in other L. lactis strains, reflecting WFLU12 strain-specific ecosystem origin and its ability to metabolize different energy sources. Strain WFLU12 produced antimicrobial compounds that could inhibit several bacterial fish pathogens. It possessed the nisin gene cluster (nisZBTCIPRKFEG) and genes encoding lysozyme and colicin V. However, only three other strains (CV56, IO-1, and SO) harbor a complete nisin gene cluster. We also found that L. lactis WFLU12 possessed many other important functional genes involved in stress responses to the gastrointestinal tract environment, dietary energy extraction, and metabolism to support the probiotic action of this strain found in our previous study. This strongly indicates that not all L. lactis strains can be used as probiotics. This study highlights comparative genomics approaches as very useful and powerful tools to select probiotic candidates and predict their probiotic effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Triphlorethol A, a Dietary Polyphenol from Seaweed, Decreases Sleep Latency and Increases Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in Mice
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(5), 139; doi:10.3390/md16050139 -
Abstract
In our previous studies, we have demonstrated that marine polyphenol phlorotannins promote sleep through the benzodiazepine site of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. In this follow-up study, the sleep-promoting effects of triphlorethol A, one of the major phlorotannin constituents,
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In our previous studies, we have demonstrated that marine polyphenol phlorotannins promote sleep through the benzodiazepine site of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. In this follow-up study, the sleep-promoting effects of triphlorethol A, one of the major phlorotannin constituents, were investigated. The effect of triphlorethol A on sleep-wake architecture and profiles was evaluated based on electroencephalogram and electromyogram data from C57BL/6N mice and compared with the well-known hypnotic drug zolpidem. Oral administration of triphlorethol A (5, 10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) dose-dependently decreased sleep latency and increased sleep duration during pentobarbital-induced sleep in imprinting control region mice. Triphlorethol A (50 mg/kg) significantly decreased sleep latency and increased the amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) in C57BL/6N mice, without affecting rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). There was no significant difference between the effects of triphlorethol A at 50 mg/kg and zolpidem at 10 mg/kg. Triphlorethol A had no effect on delta activity (0.5–4 Hz) of NREMS, whereas zolpidem significantly decreased it. These results not only support the sleep-promoting effects of marine polyphenol phlorotannins, but also suggest that the marine polyphenol compound triphlorethol A is a promising structure for developing novel sedative hypnotics. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Complications of Pregnancy and Maternal Risk Factors for Offspring Cardio-Metabolic Disease
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(5), 138; doi:10.3390/md16050138 -
Abstract
Marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are important nutrients during periods of rapid growth and development in utero and infancy. Maternal health and risk factors play a crucial role in birth outcomes and subsequently offspring cardio-metabolic health. Evidence from observational studies and
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Marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are important nutrients during periods of rapid growth and development in utero and infancy. Maternal health and risk factors play a crucial role in birth outcomes and subsequently offspring cardio-metabolic health. Evidence from observational studies and randomized trials have suggested a potential association of maternal intake of marine n-3 PUFAs during pregnancy with pregnancy and birth outcomes. However, there is inconsistency in the literature on whether marine n-3 PUFA supplementation during pregnancy can prevent maternal complications of pregnancy. This narrative literature review summarizes recent evidence on observational and clinical trials of marine n-3 PUFA intake on maternal risk factors and effects on offspring cardio-metabolic health. The current evidence generally does not support a role of maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation in altering the incidence of gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, or pre-eclampsia. It may be that benefits from marine n-3 PUFA supplementation are more pronounced in high-risk populations, such as women with a history of complications of pregnancy, or women with low marine n-3 PUFA intake. Discrepancies between studies may be related to differences in study design, dosage, fatty acid interplay, and length of treatment. Further prospective double-blind studies are needed to clarify the impact of long-chain marine n-3 PUFAs on risk factors for cardio-metabolic disease in the offspring. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Bioactive Compounds from Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile Impair Malignant Cell Migration through Autophagy Modulation
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 137; doi:10.3390/md16040137 -
Abstract
Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile is a marine plant with interesting biological properties potentially ascribed to the synergistic combination of bioactive compounds. Our previously described extract, obtained from the leaves of P. oceanica, showed the ability to impair HT1080 cell migration by targeting
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Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile is a marine plant with interesting biological properties potentially ascribed to the synergistic combination of bioactive compounds. Our previously described extract, obtained from the leaves of P. oceanica, showed the ability to impair HT1080 cell migration by targeting both expression and activity of gelatinases. Commonly, the lack of knowledge about the mechanism of action of phytocomplexes may be an obstacle regarding their therapeutic use and development. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the molecular signaling through which such bioactive compounds impact on malignant cell migration and gelatinolytic activity. The increase in autophagic vacuoles detected by confocal microscopy suggested an enhancement of autophagy in a time and dose dependent manner. This autophagy activation was further confirmed by monitoring pivotal markers of autophagy signaling as well as by evidencing an increase in IGF-1R accumulation on cell membranes. Taken together, our results confirm that the P. oceanica phytocomplex is a promising reservoir of potent and cell safe molecules able to defend against malignancies and other diseases in which gelatinases play a major role in progression. In conclusion, the attractive properties of this phytocomplex may be of industrial interest in regard to the development of novel health-promoting and pharmacological products for the treatment or prevention of several diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Eurotiumins A–E, Five New Alkaloids from the Marine-Derived Fungus Eurotium sp. SCSIO F452
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 136; doi:10.3390/md16040136 -
Abstract
Three new prenylated indole 2,5-diketopiperazine alkaloids (13) with nine known ones (513), one new indole alkaloid (4), and one new bis-benzyl pyrimidine derivative (14) were isolated and characterized from the marine-derived
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Three new prenylated indole 2,5-diketopiperazine alkaloids (13) with nine known ones (513), one new indole alkaloid (4), and one new bis-benzyl pyrimidine derivative (14) were isolated and characterized from the marine-derived fungus Eurotium sp. SCSIO F452. 1 and 2, occurring as a pair of diastereomers, both presented a hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole skeleton. Their chemical structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, quantum chemical calculations of electronic circular dichroism, and single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. Most isolated compounds were screened for antioxidative potency. Compounds 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 12 showed significant radical scavenging activities against DPPH with IC50 values of 13, 19, 4, 3, 24, 13, and 18 µM, respectively. Five new compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Protective Role of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Green Seaweed Udotea flabellum in Cells Exposed to Oxidative Damage
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 135; doi:10.3390/md16040135 -
Abstract
Seaweed is a rich source of bioactive sulfated polysaccharides. We obtained six sulfated polysaccharide-rich fractions (UF-0.3, UF-0.5, UF-0.6, UF-0.7, UF-1.0, and UF-2.0) from the green seaweed Udotea flabellum (UF) by proteolytic digestion followed by sequential acetone precipitation. Biochemical analysis of these fractions showed
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Seaweed is a rich source of bioactive sulfated polysaccharides. We obtained six sulfated polysaccharide-rich fractions (UF-0.3, UF-0.5, UF-0.6, UF-0.7, UF-1.0, and UF-2.0) from the green seaweed Udotea flabellum (UF) by proteolytic digestion followed by sequential acetone precipitation. Biochemical analysis of these fractions showed that they were enriched with sulfated galactans. The viability and proliferative capacity of 3T3 fibroblasts exposed to FeSO4 (2 µM), CuSO4 (1 µM) or ascorbate (2 mM) was not affected. However, these cells were exposed to oxidative stress in the presence of FeSO4 or CuSO4 and ascorbate, which caused the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, resulting in apoptosis of the cells. We also observed increased lipid peroxidation, evaluated by the detection of malondialdehyde and decreased glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels. Treating the cells with the ultrafiltrate fractions (UF) fractions protected the cells from the oxidative damage caused by the two salts and ascorbate. The most effective protection against the oxidative damage caused by iron was provided by UF-0.7 (1.0 mg/mL); on treatment with UF-0.7, cell viability was 55%. In the case of copper, cell viability on treatment with UF-0.7 was ~80%, but the most effective fraction in this model was UF-2.0, with cell viability of more than 90%. The fractions, mainly UF-0.7 and UF-2.0, showed low iron chelating activity, but high copper chelating activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). These results suggested that some of their protective mechanisms stem from these properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Low Molecular Weight Protein from the Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis with an Anti-Angiogenic Activity
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 134; doi:10.3390/md16040134 -
Abstract
Sea anemones are a remarkable source of active principles due to a decentralized venom system. New blood vessel growth or angiogenesis is a very promising target against cancer, but the few available antiangiogenic compounds have limited efficacy. In this study, a protein fraction,
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Sea anemones are a remarkable source of active principles due to a decentralized venom system. New blood vessel growth or angiogenesis is a very promising target against cancer, but the few available antiangiogenic compounds have limited efficacy. In this study, a protein fraction, purified from tentacles of Anemonia viridis, was able to limit endothelial cells proliferation and angiogenesis at low concentration (14 nM). Protein sequences were determined with Edman degradation and mass spectrometry in source decay and revealed homologies with Blood Depressing Substance (BDS) sea anemones. The presence of a two-turn alpha helix observed with circular dichroism and a trypsin activity inhibition suggested that the active principle could be a Kunitz-type inhibitor, which may interact with an integrin due to an Arginine Glycin Aspartate (RGD) motif. Molecular modeling showed that this RGD motif was well exposed to solvent. This active principle could improve antiangiogenic therapy from existing antiangiogenic compounds binding on the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). Full article
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Open AccessReview
Recent Synthesis and Discovery of Brefeldin A Analogs
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 133; doi:10.3390/md16040133 -
Abstract
The recent development of analogs of brefeldin A (BFA), a fungal metabolite, for the improvement of BFA apoptosis-inducing activity is described. BFA has been isolated from various soil or, more recently, marine fungi and has shown versatile beneficial activities. More importantly, the apoptosis-inducing
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The recent development of analogs of brefeldin A (BFA), a fungal metabolite, for the improvement of BFA apoptosis-inducing activity is described. BFA has been isolated from various soil or, more recently, marine fungi and has shown versatile beneficial activities. More importantly, the apoptosis-inducing activity of BFA in cancer cells highlights the possibility of further developing this natural product as an anticancer agent. Besides its biological importance, its structural features have also gathered tremendous interest from both medicinal and synthetic chemists. By a medicinal chemistry and total synthesis approach, numerous analogs from BFA have been developed to improve its inferior bioavailability and its antiproliferative ability. In this review, the recent medicinal chemistry efforts in relation to the production of BFA analogs are extensively presented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pharmacokinetic and Tissue Distribution of Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus after Oral Administration to Rats
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 132; doi:10.3390/md16040132 -
Abstract
Fucus vesiculosus L., known as bladderwrack, belongs to the brown seaweeds, which are widely distributed throughout northern Russia, Atlantic shores of Europe, the Baltic Sea, Greenland, the Azores, the Canary Islands, and shores of the Pacific Ocean. Fucoidan is a major fucose-rich sulfated
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Fucus vesiculosus L., known as bladderwrack, belongs to the brown seaweeds, which are widely distributed throughout northern Russia, Atlantic shores of Europe, the Baltic Sea, Greenland, the Azores, the Canary Islands, and shores of the Pacific Ocean. Fucoidan is a major fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharide found in Fucus (F.) vesiculosus. The pharmacokinetic profiling of active compounds is essential for drug development and approval. The aim of the study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of fucoidan in rats after a single-dose oral administration. Fucoidan was isolated from F. vesiculosus. The method of measuring anti-activated factor X (anti-Xa) activity by amidolytic assay was used to analyze the plasma and tissue concentrations of fucoidan. The tissue distribution of fucoidan after intragastric administration to the rats was characterized, and it exhibited considerable heterogeneity. Fucoidan preferentially accumulates in the kidneys (AUC0–t = 10.74 µg·h/g; Cmax = 1.23 µg/g after 5 h), spleen (AUC0–t = 6.89 µg·h/g; Cmax = 0.78 µg/g after 3 h), and liver (AUC0–t = 3.26 µg·h/g; Cmax = 0.53 µg/g after 2 h) and shows a relatively long absorption time and extended circulation in the blood, with a mean residence time (MRT) = 6.79 h. The outcome of this study provides additional scientific data for traditional use of fucoidan-containing plants and offers tangible support for the continued development of new effective pharmaceuticals using fucoidan. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Marine Longilenes, Oxasqualenoids with Ser-Thr Protein Phosphatase 2A Inhibition Activity
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 131; doi:10.3390/md16040131 -
Abstract
The red seaweed Laurencia viridis is a rich source of oxygenated secondary metabolites that were derived from squalene. We report here the structures of three novel compounds, (+)-longilene peroxide (1), longilene (2), and (+)-prelongilene (3) that were
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The red seaweed Laurencia viridis is a rich source of oxygenated secondary metabolites that were derived from squalene. We report here the structures of three novel compounds, (+)-longilene peroxide (1), longilene (2), and (+)-prelongilene (3) that were isolated from this alga, in addition to other substances, 4 and 5, resulting from their acid-mediated degradation. The effect of compounds 1 and 3 against Ser-Thr protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) was evaluated, showing that (+)-longilene peroxide (1) inhibited PP2A (IC50 11.3 μM). In order to explain the interaction between PP2A and compounds 1 and 3, molecular docking simulations onto the PP2A enzyme-binding region were used. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antartin, a Cytotoxic Zizaane-Type Sesquiterpenoid from a Streptomyces sp. Isolated from an Antarctic Marine Sediment
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 130; doi:10.3390/md16040130 -
Abstract
Antartin (1), a new zizaane-type sesquiterpene, was isolated from Streptomyces sp. SCO736. The chemical structure of 1 was assigned from the interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR in addition to mass spectrometric data. The relative stereochemistry of 1 was determined by
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Antartin (1), a new zizaane-type sesquiterpene, was isolated from Streptomyces sp. SCO736. The chemical structure of 1 was assigned from the interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR in addition to mass spectrometric data. The relative stereochemistry of 1 was determined by analysis of NOE data, while the absolute stereochemistry was decided based on a comparison of experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Antartin (1) showed cytotoxicity against A549, H1299, and U87 cancer cell lines by causing cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biochemical Characterization and Degradation Pattern of a Unique pH-Stable PolyM-Specific Alginate Lyase from Newly Isolated Serratia marcescens NJ-07
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 129; doi:10.3390/md16040129 -
Abstract
Enzymatic preparation of alginate oligosaccharides with versatile bioactivities by alginate lyases has attracted increasing attention due to its featured characteristics, such as wild condition and specific products. In this study, AlgNJ-07, a novel polyM-specific alginate lyase with high specific activity and pH stability,
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Enzymatic preparation of alginate oligosaccharides with versatile bioactivities by alginate lyases has attracted increasing attention due to its featured characteristics, such as wild condition and specific products. In this study, AlgNJ-07, a novel polyM-specific alginate lyase with high specific activity and pH stability, has been purified from the newly isolated marine bacterium Serratia marcescens NJ-07. It has a molecular weight of approximately 25 kDa and exhibits the maximal activity of 2742.5 U/mg towards sodium alginate under 40 °C at pH 9.0. Additionally, AlgNJ-07 could retain more than 95% of its activity at pH range of 8.0–10.0, indicating it possesses excellent pH-stability. Moreover, it shows high activity and affinity towards polyM block and no activity to polyG block, which suggests that it is a strict polyM-specific alginate lyase. The degradation pattern of AlgNJ-07 has also been explored. The activity of AlgNJ-07 could be activated by NaCl with a low concentration (100–300 mM). It can be observed that AlgNJ-07 can recognize the trisaccharide as the minimal substrate and hydrolyze the trisaccharide into monosaccharide and disaccharide. The TLC and ESI-MS analysis indicate that it can hydrolyze substrates in a unique endolytic manner, producing not only oligosaccharides with Dp of 2–5 but also a large fraction of monosaccharide. Therefore, it may be a potent tool to produce alginate oligosaccharides with lower Dps (degree of polymerization). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Structural Characterization and Interaction with RCA120 of a Highly Sulfated Keratan Sulfate from Blue Shark (Prionace glauca) Cartilage
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 128; doi:10.3390/md16040128 -
Abstract
As an important glycosaminoglycan, keratan sulfate (KS) mainly exists in corneal and cartilage, possessing various biological activities. In this study, we purified KS from blue shark (Prionace glauca) cartilage and prepared KS oligosaccharides (KSO) through keratanase II-catalyzed hydrolysis. The structures of
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As an important glycosaminoglycan, keratan sulfate (KS) mainly exists in corneal and cartilage, possessing various biological activities. In this study, we purified KS from blue shark (Prionace glauca) cartilage and prepared KS oligosaccharides (KSO) through keratanase II-catalyzed hydrolysis. The structures of KS and KSO were characterized using multi-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Shark cartilage KS was highly sulfated and modified with ~2.69% N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) through α(2,3)-linked to galactose. Additionally, KS exhibited binding affinity to Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA120) in a concentration-dependent manner, a highly toxic lectin from beans of the castor plant. Furthermore, KSO from dp2 to dp8 bound to RCA120 in the increasing trend while the binding affinity of dp8 was superior to polysaccharide. These results define novel structural features for KS from Prionace glauca cartilage and demonstrate the potential application on ricin-antidote exploitation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Terpenoids from the Soft Coral Sinularia sp. Collected in Yongxing Island
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 127; doi:10.3390/md16040127 -
Abstract
Three new sesquiterpenoids (sinuketal (1), sinulins A and B (2 and 3)) and two new cembranoids (sinulins C and D (4 and 5)), as well as eight known sesquiterpenoids (6–13) and eight known cembranoids (
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Three new sesquiterpenoids (sinuketal (1), sinulins A and B (2 and 3)) and two new cembranoids (sinulins C and D (4 and 5)), as well as eight known sesquiterpenoids (6–13) and eight known cembranoids (14–21), were isolated from the Xisha soft coral Sinularia sp. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compound 1 possesses an unprecedented isopropyl-branched bicyclo [6.3.0] undecane carbon skeleton with unique endoperoxide moiety, and a plausible biosynthetic pathway of it was postulated. According to the reported biological properties of endoperoxide, the antimalarial, cytotoxic, antiviral, and target inhibitory activities of 1 were tested. Compound 1 showed mild in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7, weak cytotoxic activities toward Jurkat, MDA-MB-231, and U2OS cell lines, inhibitory effects against influenza A viruses H1N1 and PR8, as well as mild target inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase. The other compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicities against HeLa, HCT-116, and A549 tumor cell lines and target inhibitory activities against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Compound 20 exhibited cytotoxicities against HeLa and HCT-116, and compounds 5, 11, and 15 showed mild target inhibitory activities against PTP1B. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Astaxanthin Restrains Nitrative-Oxidative Peroxidation in Mitochondrial-Mimetic Liposomes: A Pre-Apoptosis Model
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 126; doi:10.3390/md16040126 -
Abstract
Astaxanthin (ASTA) is a ketocarotenoid found in many marine organisms and that affords many benefits to human health. ASTA is particularly effective against radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, and recent findings hypothesize a “mitochondrial-targeted” action of ASTA in cells. Therefore, we examined the protective effects
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Astaxanthin (ASTA) is a ketocarotenoid found in many marine organisms and that affords many benefits to human health. ASTA is particularly effective against radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, and recent findings hypothesize a “mitochondrial-targeted” action of ASTA in cells. Therefore, we examined the protective effects of ASTA against lipid peroxidation in zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine liposomes (PCLs) and anionic phosphatidylcholine: phosphatidylglycerol liposomes (PCPGLs), at different pHs (6.2 to 8.0), which were challenged by oxidizing/nitrating conditions that mimic the regular and preapoptotic redox environment of active mitochondria. Pre-apoptotic conditions were created by oxidized/nitr(osyl)ated cytochrome c and resulted in the highest levels of lipoperoxidation in both PCL and PCPGLs (pH 7.4). ASTA was less protective at acidic conditions, especially in anionic PCPGLs. Our data demonstrated the ability of ASTA to hamper oxidative and nitrative events that lead to cytochrome c-peroxidase apoptosis and lipid peroxidation, although its efficiency changes with pH and lipid composition of membranes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anticancer Activity of Anthopleura anjunae Oligopeptides in Prostate Cancer DU-145 Cells
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(4), 125; doi:10.3390/md16040125 -
Abstract
Anthopleura anjunae anti-tumor peptide (AAP-H) is a pentapeptide from the sea anemone Anthopleura anjunae with an amino acid sequence of Tyr-Val-Pro-Gly-Pro that is obtained by alkaline protease enzymatic hydrolysis extraction. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of AAP-H on prostate cancer
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Anthopleura anjunae anti-tumor peptide (AAP-H) is a pentapeptide from the sea anemone Anthopleura anjunae with an amino acid sequence of Tyr-Val-Pro-Gly-Pro that is obtained by alkaline protease enzymatic hydrolysis extraction. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of AAP-H on prostate cancer DU-145 cell proliferation using a methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Cell morphology was analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, acridine orange/ethidium bromide fluorescence staining, Hoechst 33258 fluorescence staining, and scanning electron microscopy. The mitochondrial membrane potential was determined by flow cytometry following JC-1 staining. The cell apoptosis rate was measured by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis, and the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins was assayed by Western blotting. The results demonstrated that AAP-H induced significant reductions in the number of viable cells and increased cell death in both a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner, with an IC50 of approximately 9.605 mM, 7.910 mM, and 2.298 mM at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h, respectively. The morphologic characteristics of apoptotic cells were observed after treatment with AAP-H. The mitochondrial membrane potential was markedly decreased, and apoptosis increased after AAP-H treatment. Pro-apoptotic proteins, such as Bax, cytochrome-C, caspase-3, and caspase-9 were increased, but Bcl-2 was decreased. These findings suggest that AAP-H has moderate inhibitory effects on prostate cancer DU-145 cells, and the mechanism might involve the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Therefore, AAP-H is a candidate anti-prostate cancer drug or health-care food. Full article
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