Abstract: Packaging the integrated circuit (IC) chip is a necessary step in the manufacturing process of IC products. In general, wafers with the same size and process should have a fixed number of packaged dies. However, many factors decrease the number of the actually packaged dies, such as die scratching, die contamination, and die breakage, which are not considered in the existing die-counting methods. Here we propose a robust method that can automatically determine the number of actual packaged dies by using machine vision techniques. During the inspection, the image is taken from the top of the wafer, in which most dies have been removed and packaged. There are five steps in the proposed method: wafer region detection, wafer position calibration, dies region detection, detection of die sawing lines, and die number counting. The abnormal cases of fractional dies in the wafer boundary and dropped dies during the packaging are considered in the proposed method as well. The experimental results show that the precision and recall rates reach 99.83% and 99.84%, respectively, when determining the numbers of actual packaged dies in the 41 test cases.
Abstract: A current challenge in additive manufacturing (commonly known as 3D printing) is the detection of defects. Detection of defects (or the lack thereof) in bespoke industrial manufacturing may be safety critical and reduce or eliminate the need for testing of printed objects. In consumer and prototype printing, early defect detection may facilitate the printer taking corrective measures (or pausing printing and alerting a user), preventing the need to re-print objects after the compounding of a small error occurs. This paper considers one approach to defect detection. It characterizes the efficacy of using a multi-camera system and image processing software to assess printing progress (thus detecting completion failure defects) and quality. The potential applications and extrapolations of this type of a system are also discussed.
Abstract: This paper presents the design of a new axial-flux switched-reluctance motor (AFSRM) topology for in-wheel drive vehicle applications. The features of the topology include a short flux path and an outer-rotor configuration. The proposed topology also uses a sintered-lamellar soft magnetic composite core material, and permits displacement of the rotor along the suspension axis, which reduces damage to the stator caused by impacts and vibrations. The combination of these features makes this new topology competitive with other in-wheel motors in regard to torque density, durability, and cost. To describe the behaviour of the topology, a model of the topology is developed using a new integral inductance function. That model is used to select the design parameters of an 8/6 AFSRM, for which a fuzzy controller is also developed to control the phase current. Several simulations of the 8/6 AFSRM are performed to calculate its energy conversion efficiency, thermal performance, and torque density, and results indicate that the new AFSRM has a higher energy conversion efficiency, and can produce more torque/kg than other switched-reluctance motors used for in-wheel drive vehicle applications.
Abstract: This paper deals with the operational behavior of the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Wind Energy Conversion System under power electronic converter and rotor terminals faulty conditions. More specifically, the effect of the short-circuit fault both in one IGBT of the back-to-back power electronic converter and in rotor phases on the overall system behavior has been investigated via simulation using a system of 2 MW. Finally, the consequences of these faults have been evaluated.
Abstract: Contactless mechanical components are mechanical sets for conversion of torque/speed, whose gears and moving parts do not touch each other, but rather they provide movement with magnets and magnetic materials that exert force from a certain distance. Magneto-mechanical transmission devices have several advantages over conventional mechanisms: no friction between rotatory elements (no power losses or heat generation by friction so increase of efficiency), no lubrication is needed (oil-free mechanisms and no lubrication auxiliary systems), reduced maintenance (no lubricant so no need of oil replacements), wider operational temperature ranges (no lubricant evaporation or freezing), overload protection (if overload occurs magnet simply slides but no teeth brake), through-wall connection (decoupling of thermal and electrical paths and environmental isolation), larger operative speeds (more efficient operative conditions), ultralow noise and vibrations (no contact no noise generation). All these advantages permit us to foresee in the long term several common industrial applications in which including contactless technology would mean a significant breakthrough for their performance. In this work, we present three configurations of contactless mechanical passive components: magnetic gears, magnetic torque limiters and superconducting magnetic bearings. We summarize the main characteristic and range of applications for each type; we show experimental results of the most recent developments showing their performance.