Machines2015, 3(2), 107-122; doi:10.3390/machines3020107 (registering DOI) - published 21 May 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Polymer microchannels can be commonly processed using many non-lithographic methods for reducing the manufacturing cost and steps. In this research, an inexpensive and high-precision thermal engraving technology is developed and achieved to machine polymer microchannels ranging from tens to hundreds of micrometers. This paper presents the design of a thermal engraving device, the processing method and the experimental procedure. Thermal engraving microscribers can fabricate microchannels with a width less than 100 μm. Furthermore, the effects of velocity and temperature on the roughness of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microchannels are also discussed. Finally, a smooth microchannel with these parameters optimally coordinated is achieved. Meanwhile, the contact angle (CA) and the electro-osmotic flow (EOF) of microchannels fabricated by this technology are also measured. The experimental results show that this method of fabrication has the advantages of low cost, high efficiency and small polymer microchannel size compared with several non-lithographic methods. This method of fabrication would be attractive for labs lacking extremely clean rooms and expensive photolithography apparatuses.
Abstract: Cyber physical systems (CPS) in a manufacturing and automation context can be referred to different manufacturing process, including design, simulation, control, and verification. However, for data analytics, the concept of CPS is relatively new, and a standard methodology is lacking on how to incorporate this type of interface for automation applications. This study discusses a modeling methodology for a cyber physical interface and presents the five levels of information for a cyber physical system, that range from the data connection level to the system configuration level. In order to achieve this awareness and health state of the machine and system, a technical approach that uses adaptive health monitoring algorithms is presented. Lastly, an experimental study on a machine tool ball screw is highlighted, in which a predictive model and a cyber physical interface is developed for this application. The outcomes from this study demonstrate that machine health state awareness is feasible, and the core technologies can aim mechanical systems systematically develop its CPS. This can lead to additional product revenue for the manufacturers, and also a potential competitive edge in the market place.
Abstract: Packaging the integrated circuit (IC) chip is a necessary step in the manufacturing process of IC products. In general, wafers with the same size and process should have a fixed number of packaged dies. However, many factors decrease the number of the actually packaged dies, such as die scratching, die contamination, and die breakage, which are not considered in the existing die-counting methods. Here we propose a robust method that can automatically determine the number of actual packaged dies by using machine vision techniques. During the inspection, the image is taken from the top of the wafer, in which most dies have been removed and packaged. There are five steps in the proposed method: wafer region detection, wafer position calibration, dies region detection, detection of die sawing lines, and die number counting. The abnormal cases of fractional dies in the wafer boundary and dropped dies during the packaging are considered in the proposed method as well. The experimental results show that the precision and recall rates reach 99.83% and 99.84%, respectively, when determining the numbers of actual packaged dies in the 41 test cases.
Abstract: A current challenge in additive manufacturing (commonly known as 3D printing) is the detection of defects. Detection of defects (or the lack thereof) in bespoke industrial manufacturing may be safety critical and reduce or eliminate the need for testing of printed objects. In consumer and prototype printing, early defect detection may facilitate the printer taking corrective measures (or pausing printing and alerting a user), preventing the need to re-print objects after the compounding of a small error occurs. This paper considers one approach to defect detection. It characterizes the efficacy of using a multi-camera system and image processing software to assess printing progress (thus detecting completion failure defects) and quality. The potential applications and extrapolations of this type of a system are also discussed.
Abstract: This paper presents the design of a new axial-flux switched-reluctance motor (AFSRM) topology for in-wheel drive vehicle applications. The features of the topology include a short flux path and an outer-rotor configuration. The proposed topology also uses a sintered-lamellar soft magnetic composite core material, and permits displacement of the rotor along the suspension axis, which reduces damage to the stator caused by impacts and vibrations. The combination of these features makes this new topology competitive with other in-wheel motors in regard to torque density, durability, and cost. To describe the behaviour of the topology, a model of the topology is developed using a new integral inductance function. That model is used to select the design parameters of an 8/6 AFSRM, for which a fuzzy controller is also developed to control the phase current. Several simulations of the 8/6 AFSRM are performed to calculate its energy conversion efficiency, thermal performance, and torque density, and results indicate that the new AFSRM has a higher energy conversion efficiency, and can produce more torque/kg than other switched-reluctance motors used for in-wheel drive vehicle applications.
Abstract: This paper deals with the operational behavior of the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Wind Energy Conversion System under power electronic converter and rotor terminals faulty conditions. More specifically, the effect of the short-circuit fault both in one IGBT of the back-to-back power electronic converter and in rotor phases on the overall system behavior has been investigated via simulation using a system of 2 MW. Finally, the consequences of these faults have been evaluated.