Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Development of a Methodology for Condition-Based Maintenance in a Large-Scale Application Field
Machines 2018, 6(2), 17; doi:10.3390/machines6020017 -
Abstract
This paper describes a methodology, developed by the authors, for condition monitoring and diagnostics of several critical components in the large-scale applications with machines. For industry, the main target of condition monitoring is to prevent the machine stopping suddenly and thus avoid economic
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This paper describes a methodology, developed by the authors, for condition monitoring and diagnostics of several critical components in the large-scale applications with machines. For industry, the main target of condition monitoring is to prevent the machine stopping suddenly and thus avoid economic losses due to lack of production. Once the target is reached at a local level, usually through an R&D project, the extension to a large-scale market gives rise to new goals, such as low computational costs for analysis, easily interpretable results by local technicians, collection of data from worldwide machine installations, and the development of historical datasets to improve methodology, etc. This paper details an approach to condition monitoring, developed together with a multinational corporation, that covers all the critical points mentioned above. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Hub Parameters on Joining Forces and Torque Transmission Output of Plastically-Joined Shaft-Hub-Connections with a Knurled Contact Surface
Machines 2018, 6(2), 16; doi:10.3390/machines6020016 -
Abstract
A knurled interference fit is a machine part connection made by a plastic joining, which includes the advantages of commonly-used shaft-hub-connections. The combination of the friction and form fit, which are responsible for torque transmission, results in a higher power density than conventional
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A knurled interference fit is a machine part connection made by a plastic joining, which includes the advantages of commonly-used shaft-hub-connections. The combination of the friction and form fit, which are responsible for torque transmission, results in a higher power density than conventional connections. In this paper, parameter gaps are bridged with the aim of enhance the design calculation of the knurled interference fit. Experimental investigations on the shaft chamfer angle (100Cr6) and hub-diameter-ratio (AlSi1MgMn) were performed. The analytical approaches are developed for calculating the joining force and maximal torque capacity by accounting for experimentally investigated loss of load transmission at high hub-diameter-ratios and high shaft chamfer angles. The presented calculation approach is an accurate tool for the assessment of early machine designs of the knurled interference fit and helps to save from having to perform time-extensive tests. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Over-Polishing of Silicon Carbide in Annular Polishing
Machines 2018, 6(2), 15; doi:10.3390/machines6020015 -
Abstract
Annular polishing technology is an important optical machining method for achieving a high-precision mirror surface on silicon carbide. However, the inevitable over-polishing of the specimen edge in annular polishing deteriorates achieved surface quality. In the present work, we first analytically investigate the kinematic
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Annular polishing technology is an important optical machining method for achieving a high-precision mirror surface on silicon carbide. However, the inevitable over-polishing of the specimen edge in annular polishing deteriorates achieved surface quality. In the present work, we first analytically investigate the kinematic coupling of multiple relative motions in the annular polishing process and subsequently derive an analytical model that addresses the principle of material removal at specimen edge based on the Preston equation and the rigid body contact model. We then perform finite element simulations and experiments involving annular polishing of silicon carbide (SiC), which jointly exhibit agreement with the derived analytical model of material removal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Setting Errors (Insert Run-Outs) on Surface Roughness in Face Milling When Using Circular Inserts
Machines 2018, 6(2), 14; doi:10.3390/machines6020014 -
Abstract
In face milling, the roughness of the machined surface varies due to the movement of the cutting edge. Changes in roughness parameter values in the axis of rotation (symmetry plane) have been examined at a constant depth of cut for symmetrical milling. In
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In face milling, the roughness of the machined surface varies due to the movement of the cutting edge. Changes in roughness parameter values in the axis of rotation (symmetry plane) have been examined at a constant depth of cut for symmetrical milling. In this paper, the effect of increasing feed per tooth on the topography of the surface is studied in fly-cutting and in multi-point face milling. The study takes into account the axial run-out of the inserts. Theoretical roughness values were modelled, the real values were tested in experiments and in both cases the impact of the run-out of the cutting edges and the change of the chip cross-section were also taken into account. Based on the performed experiments it can be stated that the accuracy of the introduced roughness prediction method increases with the increase in feed and therefore the application of the method in the case of high-feed milling is particularly effective. The results have also shown that the run-out of the insert significantly effects the roughness of the milled surfaces and therefore the measurement and minimization of these setting errors is essential. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis of Machining Procedures
Machines 2018, 6(2), 13; doi:10.3390/machines6020013 -
Abstract
The in-depth analysis of cutting procedure is a topic of particular interest in manufacturing efficiency because in large-scale production the effective use of production capacities and the revenue-increasing capacity of production are key conditions of competitiveness. That is why the analysis of time
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The in-depth analysis of cutting procedure is a topic of particular interest in manufacturing efficiency because in large-scale production the effective use of production capacities and the revenue-increasing capacity of production are key conditions of competitiveness. That is why the analysis of time and material removal rate, which are in close relation to production, are important in planning a machining procedure. In the paper three procedures applied in hard cutting are compared on the basis of these parameters and a new parameter, the practical parameter of material removal rate, is introduced. It measures not only the efficiency of cutting but also that of the whole machining process because it includes the values measured by time analysis as well. In the investigations the material removal rate was analyzed, first on the basis of geometrical data of the component. After that different machining procedures (hard machining) were compared for some typical surfaces. The results can give some useful indications about machining procedure selection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
System Identification Algorithm for Computing the Modal Parameters of Linear Mechanical Systems
Machines 2018, 6(2), 12; doi:10.3390/machines6020012 -
Abstract
The goal of this investigation is to construct a computational procedure for identifying the modal parameters of linear mechanical systems. The methodology employed in the paper is based on the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm implemented in conjunction with the Observer/Kalman Filter Identification method (ERA/OKID).
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The goal of this investigation is to construct a computational procedure for identifying the modal parameters of linear mechanical systems. The methodology employed in the paper is based on the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm implemented in conjunction with the Observer/Kalman Filter Identification method (ERA/OKID). This method represents an effective and efficient system identification numerical procedure based on the time domain. The algorithm developed in this work is tested by means of numerical experiments on a full-car vehicle model. To this end, the modal parameters necessary for the design of active and semi-active suspension systems are obtained for the vehicle system considered as an illustrative example. In order to analyze the performance of the methodology developed in this investigation, the system identification numerical procedure was tested considering two case studies, namely a full state measurement and an incomplete state measurement. As expected, the numerical results found for the identified dynamical model showed a good agreement with the modal parameters of the mechanical system model. Furthermore, numerical results demonstrated that the proposed method has good performance considering a scenario in which the signal-to-noise ratio of the input and output measurements is relatively high. The method developed in this paper can be effectively used for solving important engineering problems such as the design of control systems for road vehicles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Setup Design for Selective Laser Sintering of High-Temperature Polymer Materials with the Alignment Control System of Layer Deposition
Machines 2018, 6(1), 11; doi:10.3390/machines6010011 -
Abstract
This paper presents the design of an additive setup for the selective laser sintering (SLS) of high-temperature polymeric materials, which is distinguished by an original control system for aligning the device for depositing layers of polyether ether ketone (PEEK) powder. The kinematic and
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This paper presents the design of an additive setup for the selective laser sintering (SLS) of high-temperature polymeric materials, which is distinguished by an original control system for aligning the device for depositing layers of polyether ether ketone (PEEK) powder. The kinematic and laser-optical schemes are given. The main cooling circuits are described. The proposed technical and design solutions enable conducting the SLS process in different types of high-temperature polymer powders. The principles of the device adjustment for depositing powder layers based on an integral thermal analysis are disclosed. The PEEK sinterability was shown on the designed installation. The physic-mechanical properties of the tested 3D parts were evaluated in comparison with the known data and showed an acceptable quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Precision CNC Machining of Femoral Component of Knee Implant: A Case Study
Machines 2018, 6(1), 10; doi:10.3390/machines6010010 -
Abstract
The design and manufacturing of medical implants constitutes an active and highly important field of research, both from a medical and an engineering point of view. From an engineering aspect, the machining of implants is undoubtedly challenging due to the complex shape of
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The design and manufacturing of medical implants constitutes an active and highly important field of research, both from a medical and an engineering point of view. From an engineering aspect, the machining of implants is undoubtedly challenging due to the complex shape of the implants and the associated restrictive geometrical and dimensional requirements. Furthermore, it is crucial to ensure that the surface integrity of the implant is not severely affected, in order for the implant to be durable and wear resistant. In the present work, the methodology of designing and machining the femoral component of total knee replacement using a 3-axis Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine is presented, and then, the results of the machining process, as well as the evaluation of implant surface quality are discussed in detail. At first, a preliminary design of the components of the knee implant is performed and the planning for the production of the femoral component is implemented in Computed Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software. Then, three femoral components are machined under different process conditions and the surface quality is evaluated in terms of surface roughness. Analysis of the results indicated the appropriate process conditions for each part of the implant surface and led to the determination of optimum machining strategy for the finishing stage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Dimensional Precision of Forming Windows in Bearing Cages
Machines 2018, 6(1), 9; doi:10.3390/machines6010009 -
Abstract
In the case of double row tapered roller bearings, the windows found in bearing cages could be obtained using various machining methods. Some such machining methods are based on the cold forming process. There are many factors that are able to affect the
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In the case of double row tapered roller bearings, the windows found in bearing cages could be obtained using various machining methods. Some such machining methods are based on the cold forming process. There are many factors that are able to affect the machining accuracy of the windows that exist in bearing cages. On the dimensional precision of windows, the clearance between punches and die, the work stroke length, and the workpiece thickness could exert influence. To evaluate this influence, experimental research was developed taking into consideration the height and the length of the cage window and the distance between the contact elements of the cage. By mathematical processing of the experimental results, empirical mathematical models were determined and analyzed. The empirical models highlighted the intensity of the influence exerted by the considered forming process input factors on the dimensional precision of the windows obtained in bearing cages. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modal Coupling in Presence of Dry Friction
Machines 2018, 6(1), 8; doi:10.3390/machines6010008 -
Abstract
In this paper, we analyze the behavior of a single pad system in the presence of dry friction. The goal is to investigate the path that leads a stable mechanical system to unstable behavior. In doing so, we studied the behavior of a
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In this paper, we analyze the behavior of a single pad system in the presence of dry friction. The goal is to investigate the path that leads a stable mechanical system to unstable behavior. In doing so, we studied the behavior of a discrete three DOF model, a continuous model and a finite element model of the pad. The numerical results are consistent with the experimental investigation conducted on a brake disk for railway application. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adaptive Synchronization for Heterogeneous Multi-Agent Systems with Switching Topologies
Machines 2018, 6(1), 7; doi:10.3390/machines6010007 -
Abstract
This work provides a multi-agent extension of output-feedback model reference adaptive control (MRAC), designed to synchronize a network of heterogeneous uncertain agents. The implementation of this scheme is based on multi-agent matching conditions. The practical advantage of the proposed MRAC is the possibility
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This work provides a multi-agent extension of output-feedback model reference adaptive control (MRAC), designed to synchronize a network of heterogeneous uncertain agents. The implementation of this scheme is based on multi-agent matching conditions. The practical advantage of the proposed MRAC is the possibility of handling the case of the unknown dynamics of the agents only by using the output and the control input of its neighbors. In addition, it is reasonable to consider the case when the communication topology is time-varying. In this work, the time-varying communication leads to a switching control structure that depends on the number of the predecessor of the agents. By using the switching control structure to handle the time-varying topologies, we show that synchronization can be achieved. The multi-agent adaptive switching controller is first analyzed, and numerical simulations based on formation control of simplifier quadcopter dynamics are provided. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical and Experimental Characterization of a Railroad Switch Machine
Machines 2018, 6(1), 6; doi:10.3390/machines6010006 -
Abstract
This contribution deals with the numerical and experimental characterization of the structural behavior of a railroad switch machine. Railroad switch machines must meet a number of safety-related conditions such as, for instance, exhibiting the appropriate resistance against any undesired movements of the points
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This contribution deals with the numerical and experimental characterization of the structural behavior of a railroad switch machine. Railroad switch machines must meet a number of safety-related conditions such as, for instance, exhibiting the appropriate resistance against any undesired movements of the points due to the extreme forces exerted by a passing train. This occurrence can produce very high stress on the components, which has to be predicted by designers. In order to assist them in the development of new machines and in defining what the critical components are, FEA models have been built and stresses have been calculated on the internal components of the switch machine. The results have been validated by means of an ad-hoc designed experimental apparatus, now installed at the facilities of the Department of Industrial Engineering of the University of Bologna. This apparatus is particularly novel and original, as no Standards are available that provide recommendations for its design, and no previous studies have dealt with the development of similar rigs. Moreover, it has wide potential applications for lab tests aimed at assessing the safety of railroad switch machines and the fulfilment of the specifications by many railway companies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design Procedure for High-Speed PM Motors Aided by Optimization Algorithms
Machines 2018, 6(1), 5; doi:10.3390/machines6010005 -
Abstract
This paper considers the electromagnetic and structural co-design of superficial permanent magnet synchronous machines for high-speed applications, with the aid of a Pareto optimization procedure. The aim of this work is to present a design procedure for the afore-mentioned machines that relies on
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This paper considers the electromagnetic and structural co-design of superficial permanent magnet synchronous machines for high-speed applications, with the aid of a Pareto optimization procedure. The aim of this work is to present a design procedure for the afore-mentioned machines that relies on the combined used of optimization algorithms and finite element analysis. The proposed approach allows easy analysis of the results and a lowering of the computational burden. The proposed design method is presented through a practical example starting from the specifications of an aeronautical actuator. The design procedure is based on static finite element simulations for electromagnetic analysis and on analytical formulas for structural design. The final results are validated through detailed transient finite element analysis to verify both electromagnetic and structural performance. The step-by-step presentation of the proposed design methodology allows the reader to easily adapt it to different specifications. Finally, a comparison between a distributed-winding (24 slots) and a concentrated-winding (6 slots) machine is presented demonstrating the advantages of the former winding arrangement for high-speed applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics Analysis and Comparison of High-Speed 4/2 and Hybrid 4/4 Poles Switched Reluctance Motor
Machines 2018, 6(1), 4; doi:10.3390/machines6010004 -
Abstract
This paper presents a characteristics analysis and performance comparison of high-speed two-phase 4/2 and hybrid single-phase 4/4 switched reluctance motors (SRMs). Although the motors are advantageous as high-speed drives, both conventional structures have high torque ripple as a result of the presence of
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This paper presents a characteristics analysis and performance comparison of high-speed two-phase 4/2 and hybrid single-phase 4/4 switched reluctance motors (SRMs). Although the motors are advantageous as high-speed drives, both conventional structures have high torque ripple as a result of the presence of the torque dead zone. In this paper, solutions to the torque dead zone problem for each motor are discussed. For the 4/2 SRM, a wide-rotor stepper-type is adopted, while for the 4/4 SRM, the structure is changed to a hybrid by adding permanent magnets (PMs). Both motors have a non-uniform air gap to modify their inductance profile, which leads to the elimination of the torque dead zone. A finite-element method was used to analyze the characteristics of each motor. Then, the manufactured motors were tested through experiments, and lastly, their performance was compared. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Machines in 2017
Machines 2018, 6(1), 3; doi:10.3390/machines6010003 -
Abstract
The editors of Machines would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2017.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Methodology for the Lightweight Design of Modern Transfer Machine Tools
Machines 2018, 6(1), 2; doi:10.3390/machines6010002 -
Abstract
This paper deals with a modern design approach via finite elements in the definition of the main structural elements (rotary table and working unit) of an innovative family of transfer machine tools. Using the concepts of green design and manufacture, as well as
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This paper deals with a modern design approach via finite elements in the definition of the main structural elements (rotary table and working unit) of an innovative family of transfer machine tools. Using the concepts of green design and manufacture, as well as sustainable development thinking, the paper highlights the advantages derived from their application in this specific field (i.e., the clever use of lightweight materials to allow ruling out high-consumption hydraulic pump systems). The design is conceived in a modular way, so that the final solution can cover transfers from four to 15 working stations. Two versions of the machines are examined. The first one has a rotary table with nine divisions, which can be considered as a prototype: this machine has been studied in order to set up the numerical predictive model, then validated by experimental tests. The second one, equipped with a rotary table with 15 divisions, is the biggest of the range: this machine has been entirely designed with the aid of the previously developed numerical model. The loading input forces for the analyses have been evaluated experimentally via drilling operations carried out on a three-axis CNC unit. The definition of the design force made it possible to accurately assess both the rotary table and the working units installed in the machine. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Minimal-Sensing Framework for Monitoring Multistage Manufacturing Processes Using Product Quality Measurements
Machines 2018, 6(1), 1; doi:10.3390/machines6010001 -
Abstract
For implementing data analytic tools in real-world applications, researchers face major challenges such as the complexity of machines or processes, their dynamic operating regimes and the limitations on the availability, sufficiency and quality of the data measured by sensors. The limits on using
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For implementing data analytic tools in real-world applications, researchers face major challenges such as the complexity of machines or processes, their dynamic operating regimes and the limitations on the availability, sufficiency and quality of the data measured by sensors. The limits on using sensors are often related to the costs associated with them and the inaccessibility of critical locations within machines or processes. Manufacturing processes, as a large group of applications in which data analytics can bring significant value to, are the focus of this study. As the cost of instrumenting the machines in a manufacturing process is significant, an alternative solution which relies solely on product quality measurements is greatly desirable in the manufacturing industry. In this paper, a minimal-sensing framework for machine anomaly detection in multistage manufacturing processes based on product quality measurements is introduced. This framework, which relies on product quality data along with products’ manufacturing routes, allows the detection of variations in the quality of the products and is able to pinpoint the machine which is the cause of anomaly. A moving window is applied to the data, and a statistical metric is extracted by comparing the performance of a machine to its peers. This approach is expanded to work for multistage processes. The proposed method is validated using a dataset from a real-world manufacturing process and additional simulated datasets. Moreover, an alternative approach based on Bayesian Networks is provided and the performance of the two proposed methods is evaluated from an industrial implementation perspective. The results showed that the proposed similarity-based approach was able to successfully identify the root cause of the quality variations and pinpoint the machine that adversely impacted the product quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vibration Protection of a Famous Statue against Ambient and Earthquake Excitation Using A Tuned Inerter–Damper
Machines 2017, 5(4), 33; doi:10.3390/machines5040033 -
Abstract
This paper deals with the performance analysis of a vibration-isolation system for Michelangelo Buonarroti’s famous Ronadanini Pietà statue based on the monitoring and analysis of vibration signals. A tuned mass-damper–inerter is introduced in order to increase the effectiveness of the isolator in the
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This paper deals with the performance analysis of a vibration-isolation system for Michelangelo Buonarroti’s famous Ronadanini Pietà statue based on the monitoring and analysis of vibration signals. A tuned mass-damper–inerter is introduced in order to increase the effectiveness of the isolator in the horizontal direction. Specifically, a multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) model for the system, including non-linear terms, is proposed. The monitoring data of the structure inside the museum were utilized to update the MDOF model of this structure. Then, the effect of different parameters was analysed, and some modifications proposed to enhance the efficiency of the isolation system in its working condition. A combination of tuned mass-dampers (TMD) with an inerter is proposed to attain a considerable increase in the performance of the isolation system based on the main feature of the tuned mass-damper–inerter (TMDI), which can apply high apparent mass to a system without adding considerable real mass to the original system. Various performance functions are used to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed TMDI. It is shown that a significant effect of this passive method is to reduce the level of vibration in the updated model of this sensitive and valuable object. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Moving 3D Laser Scanner for Automated Underbridge Inspection
Machines 2017, 5(4), 32; doi:10.3390/machines5040032 -
Abstract
Recent researches have proven that the underbridge geometry can be reconstructed by mounting a 3D laser scanner on a motorized cart travelling on a walkway located under the bridge. The walkway is moved by a truck and the accuracy of the bridge model
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Recent researches have proven that the underbridge geometry can be reconstructed by mounting a 3D laser scanner on a motorized cart travelling on a walkway located under the bridge. The walkway is moved by a truck and the accuracy of the bridge model depends on the accuracy of the trajectory of the scanning head with respect to a fixed reference system. In this paper, we describe a vision-based measurement system that can be used to identify the relative motion of the cart that moves the 3D laser scanner with respect to the walkway. The orientation of the walkway with respect to the bridge is determined using inclinometers and a camera that detect the position of a laser spot, while the position of the truck with respect to the bridge is measured using a conventional odometer. The accuracy of the proposed system was initially evaluated by numerical simulations and successively verified by experiments in laboratory conditions. The complete system has then been tested by comparing the geometry of buildings reconstructed using the proposed system with the geometry obtained with a static scan. Results showed that the error is less than 6 mm; given the satisfying quality of the point clouds obtained, it is also possible to detect small defects on the surface. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Equivalence Analysis of Mass and Inertia for Simulated Space Manipulator Based on Constant Mass
Machines 2017, 5(4), 31; doi:10.3390/machines5040031 -
Abstract
A simulated space manipulator is designed to verify the reliability of the zero-gravity simulation system, which can avoid the risks of experiments involving the space manipulator in this zero-gravity ground system. To achieve similarity between the simulated and actual space manipulators, the mass,
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A simulated space manipulator is designed to verify the reliability of the zero-gravity simulation system, which can avoid the risks of experiments involving the space manipulator in this zero-gravity ground system. To achieve similarity between the simulated and actual space manipulators, the mass, barycenter, and inertia must be considered. In this study, a counterweight component is designed and an optimization method is used to match the mass parameters of the simulated joints to those of the space joints. In addition, an equivalence method is used to establish the relationship between the torques of these two manipulators. Full article
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