Open AccessArticle
Field Tests on Hydrodynamic and Hybrid Operation of a Bidirectional Thrust Bearing of a Pump-Turbine
Lubricants 2017, 5(4), 48; doi:10.3390/lubricants5040048 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In vertical shaft pump turbines operating in pumped storage power plants an important role is played by a thrust bearing. Due to the bidirectional character of operation, thrust bearing tilting pads have to be supported symmetrically, which is known to be unfavourable from
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In vertical shaft pump turbines operating in pumped storage power plants an important role is played by a thrust bearing. Due to the bidirectional character of operation, thrust bearing tilting pads have to be supported symmetrically, which is known to be unfavourable from the point of view of their performance. Large thrust bearings have to be carefully designed so as to minimise excessive thermo-elastic pad deformations. The research into fluid film thrust bearings has been quite extensive over the years, comprising theoretical studies of bearing properties with the use of more and more sophisticated calculation codes. On the other hand, the availability of experimental field data on bearing operation is limited, for obvious reasons. In this paper the authors present part of the results of extensive field tests of a large bearing of a pump-turbine they have conducted in a pumped storage power plant. Hopefully this data will be of interest to other researchers to compare theoretical predictions to measurement data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Damage Equivalent Test Methodologies as Design Elements for Journal Bearing Systems
Lubricants 2017, 5(4), 47; doi:10.3390/lubricants5040047 -
Abstract
The current paper addresses the field of experimental research of journal bearing systems. In this regard, the challenges are dealt with concerning simultaneous testing with a close correlation to the industrial application and with a high resolution of tribological processes. Concerning this aspect,
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The current paper addresses the field of experimental research of journal bearing systems. In this regard, the challenges are dealt with concerning simultaneous testing with a close correlation to the industrial application and with a high resolution of tribological processes. Concerning this aspect, two damage equivalent laboratory test methodologies for journal slide bearing systems are presented, and their ability to visualize certain performance parameters of bearing systems are emphasized (for instance friction performance, (start stop) wear processes, and seizure events). The results clearly emphasize that the applied methodologies provide accurate findings regarding specific effects of selective parameters/changes on the performance of bearing systems, such as polymer overlays may result in improved mixed friction sliding conditions if designed properly, and they provide superior start stop wear resistance; the use of specific corrosion inhibitors can successfully prevent tribo-corrosion on bronze bearings; a decrease of oil viscosity increases solid friction share but decreases fluid friction; lubricant anti-wear additives are able to improve seizure resistance and sliding properties of bearing systems depending on formulation harmonization; and novel bearing material coatings, e.g., sputtered SnCu, can significantly improve emergency running capabilities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Evaluation of Linear Complementarity Problem Method in Modeling the Fluid Cavitation for Squeeze Film Damper with Off-Centered Whirling Motion
Lubricants 2017, 5(4), 46; doi:10.3390/lubricants5040046 -
Abstract
For the application of squeeze film damper (SFD) in aero-engine, a cavitation model is evaluated by means of linear complementarity problem (LCP) method. Different from the conventional SFD study that employs circular-center orbits (CCOs), a realistic condition is explored where the shaft whirling
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For the application of squeeze film damper (SFD) in aero-engine, a cavitation model is evaluated by means of linear complementarity problem (LCP) method. Different from the conventional SFD study that employs circular-center orbits (CCOs), a realistic condition is explored where the shaft whirling center and bearing center are misaligned. Taking into account the fluid as incompressible and compressible, the governing equations, including film cavitation, are respectively solved by developing an algorithm using the LCP method. The numerical results are compared with experimental data and the effectiveness of the model is verified. The proposed model can provide some references to investigate the competency of this cavitation method in SFDs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reduction of the Adhesive Friction of Elastomers through Laser Texturing of Injection Molds
Lubricants 2017, 5(4), 45; doi:10.3390/lubricants5040045 -
Abstract
It is well known that elastomers usually possess poor dry sliding friction properties due to their highly adhesive character. In order to overcome this problematic behavior in industrial applications, interfacial materials such as oils, greases, coatings, or lacks are normally used in order
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It is well known that elastomers usually possess poor dry sliding friction properties due to their highly adhesive character. In order to overcome this problematic behavior in industrial applications, interfacial materials such as oils, greases, coatings, or lacks are normally used in order to separate or to functionalize the contact surfaces of elastomers. Alternatively, the high adhesion tendency of elastomers may be explicitly reduced by modifying the elastomer composition itself or by enabling a reduction of its effective contact area through, for example, surface laser texturing. This second approach, i.e., the reduction of the adhesive character of elastomers through laser structuring, will be the main topic of the present study. For this purpose, different micro-sized grooved structures were produced on flat injection molds using an ultra-short pulsed laser. The micro-structured molds were then used to produce injection molded micro-ridged Liquid Silicone Rubber (LSR) sample pads. The investigations consisted firstly of determining the degree of replication of the mold micro-structures onto the surface of the LSR pads and secondly, to ascertain the degree of reduction of the friction force (or coefficient of friction) of these micro-ridged LSR pads in comparison to the benchmark (unstructured LSR pads) when tested under dry conditions against Aluminum alloy (Al-6082) or PA6.6-GF30 plates. For this second part of the investigation, the normal force (or contact pressure) dependency of the coefficient of friction was determined through stepwise load increasing friction tests. The results of these investigations have shown that the production of micro-ridged surfaces on LSR pads through laser structuring of the injection molds could be successfully achieved and that it enables a significant reduction of the friction force for low normal forces (or contact pressures), where the component of adhesion friction is playing an important and determining role in the overall friction behavior of the LSR elastomer. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Chemically Modifying Vegetable Oils to Prepare Green Lubricants
Lubricants 2017, 5(4), 44; doi:10.3390/lubricants5040044 -
Abstract
Chemically modifying vegetable oils to produce an alternative to petroleum-based materials is one of the most important emerging industrial research areas today because of the adverse effects of petroleum products on the environment and the shortage of petroleum resources. Biolubricants, bioplasticizers, non-isocyanate polyurethanes,
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Chemically modifying vegetable oils to produce an alternative to petroleum-based materials is one of the most important emerging industrial research areas today because of the adverse effects of petroleum products on the environment and the shortage of petroleum resources. Biolubricants, bioplasticizers, non-isocyanate polyurethanes, biofuel, coating materials, biocomposites, and other value-added chemicals can easily be produced by chemically modifying vegetable oils. This short review discusses using vegetable oils or their derivatives to prepare lubricants that are environmentally safe. Chemically modified vegetable oils are generally used as base fluids to formulate environmentally friendly lubricants. Reports of their application as sustainable additives have attracted special attention recently because of their enhanced multifunctional performances (single additives perform several functions, i.e., viscosity index improver, pour point depressant, antiwear products) and biodegradability compared with commercial additives. Here, we have reviewed the use of chemically modified vegetable oils as base fluids and additives to prepare a cost-effective and environmentally friendly lubricant composition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Study of Lubricant Inertia Effects for Squeeze Film Dampers Incorporated into High-Speed Turbomachinery
Lubricants 2017, 5(4), 43; doi:10.3390/lubricants5040043 -
Abstract
This work proposes a numerical model that incorporates the effect of lubricant inertia on the hydrodynamic pressure distribution, fluid film reaction forces, and the fluid velocity component profiles for finite-length open-ended squeeze film dampers (SFDs). Firstly, the thin film flow equations for the
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This work proposes a numerical model that incorporates the effect of lubricant inertia on the hydrodynamic pressure distribution, fluid film reaction forces, and the fluid velocity component profiles for finite-length open-ended squeeze film dampers (SFDs). Firstly, the thin film flow equations for the SFD in presence of fluid inertia effects are introduced. Furthermore, a small first-order perturbation by means of the expressions for the fluid film velocity components and the lubricant pressure distribution that are expanded in power series of the squeeze film Reynolds number is applied to the flow equations. Subsequently the developed lubricant flow equations are solved to develop expressions for the velocity component profiles and the hydrodynamic pressure distribution in SFDs. The pressure expression is numerically solved by using Gauss–Seidel method with finite difference discretization. Moreover, the fluid film reaction forces are determined by numerically integrating the hydrodynamic pressure expressions over the journal surface. Additionally, the proposed pressure distribution expression and the numerical SFD forces are incorporated into a simulation model and the simulation results are compared with the existing models in the literature under different operating conditions, including eccentricity ratios and inertia effects (i.e., Reynolds numbers). The simulation results demonstrate the significant influence of both convective and temporal (i.e., unsteady) lubricant inertia terms on the SFD hydrodynamic pressure distribution and the fluid film reaction forces. Furthermore, the proposed SFD model is incorporated into a multi-mass flexible rotordynamic model to evaluate the effect of SFD fluid inertia on the mass unbalance induced steady-state vibrations of the rotor and the nodal transient orbits by implementing finite element method and transient modal integration with predictor–corrector solver. The results of the analysis demonstrate the significant effect of fluid inertia on the resonance frequencies of the rotor and the steady-state vibration amplitudes and the transient orbits at the resonance zone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Analysis of Grease Friction Properties on Sliding Textured Surfaces
Lubricants 2017, 5(4), 42; doi:10.3390/lubricants5040042 -
Abstract
There is comprehensive work on the tribological properties and lubrication mechanisms of oil lubricant used on textured surfaces, however the use of grease lubrication on textured surfaces is rather new. This research article presents an experimental study of the frictional behaviours of grease
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There is comprehensive work on the tribological properties and lubrication mechanisms of oil lubricant used on textured surfaces, however the use of grease lubrication on textured surfaces is rather new. This research article presents an experimental study of the frictional behaviours of grease lubricated sliding contact under mixed lubrication conditions. The influences of surface texture parameters on the frictional properties were investigated using a disc-on-ring tribometer. The results showed that the friction coefficient is largely dependent on texture parameters, with higher and lower texture density resulting in a higher friction coefficient at a fixed texture depth. The sample with texture density of 15% and texture depth of 19 μm exhibited the best friction properties in all experimental conditions because it can store more grease and trap wear debris. The reduction of friction is mainly attributable to the formation of a stable grease lubrication film composed of oil film, transfer film and deposited film, and the hydrodynamic pressure effect of the surface texture, which increases the mating gap and reduces the probability of asperity contact. This result will help in understanding the tribological behaviour of grease on a textured surface and in predicting the lubrication conditions of sliding bearings for better operation in any machinery. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Zhou, J.; et al. Experimental Performance Study of a High Speed Oil Lubricated Polymer Thrust Bearing. Lubricants 2015, 3, 3–13
Lubricants 2017, 5(4), 40; doi:10.3390/lubricants5040040 -
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [1]. In Table 2, the tensile strength (100 °C) of Babbitt is 40 MPa, not 45 MPa[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Non-Uniform Laser Surface Texturing of an Un-Tapered Square Pad for Tribological Applications
Lubricants 2017, 5(4), 41; doi:10.3390/lubricants5040041 -
Abstract
Femtosecond laser surface micro-texturing has emerged as a promising technology to enhance the tribological properties of different kinds of electromechanical devices. In this research paper, we have exploited the intrinsic flexibility and micrometric accuracy of femtosecond laser ablation to realize complex micro-structural modifications
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Femtosecond laser surface micro-texturing has emerged as a promising technology to enhance the tribological properties of different kinds of electromechanical devices. In this research paper, we have exploited the intrinsic flexibility and micrometric accuracy of femtosecond laser ablation to realize complex micro-structural modifications on the surface of a laboratory prototype of a steel thrust bearing (un-tapered) pad. The Bruggeman Texture Hydrodynamics theory (BTH) is employed for the design of the anisotropic and non-uniform texture maximizing the thrust load of the pad prototype. The preliminary experimental results, reported in this work, show that the non-uniform micro-texture largely affects the friction characteristics of the contact. In particular, in agreement with the BTH predictions, the tribo-system shows friction properties that are strongly sensitive to the direction of the sliding speed, as a consequence of the micro-fluid dynamics which are designed to occur only in a specific sliding direction. We suggest that the joint action of virtual prototyping (BTH lubrication theory) and ultrafast laser micro-prototyping can lead to unconventional and impressive results in terms of enhanced or tailored contact mechanics properties of the generic lubricated tribopair. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sealing of Dry Particles with Grease-Filled Non-Contacting Sealing Systems
Lubricants 2017, 5(4), 38; doi:10.3390/lubricants5040038 -
Abstract
There is no wear and no friction with non-contacting sealing systems. Because of this, there is in principle no lifetime-limit. However, this does not apply for grease-filled labyrinth seals. To seal against particles, the grease inside the gaps of the seal has to
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There is no wear and no friction with non-contacting sealing systems. Because of this, there is in principle no lifetime-limit. However, this does not apply for grease-filled labyrinth seals. To seal against particles, the grease inside the gaps of the seal has to bind pollution particles and the grease-filled gap must be opened. If the surfaces of the grease layers in the gaps are saturated with particles, further particles penetrating the sealing system can no longer be bound. The seal must then be relubricated. Based on the actual state of the art, this work shows the latest results of experiments to enable designers to unerringly develop non-contacting sealing systems with grease-filled gaps to seal dry particles with reliable function. To that end, a lot of experiments were done to expand existing design guidelines. Additionally, new operating instruction were found to ensure permanent operation. A possibility to reduce the complexity of the sealing system is presented at the end of the present work. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Growth of ZDDP-Based Tribofilms on Laser-Interference Patterned Cylinder Roller Bearings
Lubricants 2017, 5(4), 39; doi:10.3390/lubricants5040039 -
Abstract
Laser surface texturing has been successfully applied in the past to various machine elements in order to improve their tribological performance. In this study, direct laser interference patterning was used to produce periodic cross-like surface patterns on commercial cylinder roller bearings. The wear
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Laser surface texturing has been successfully applied in the past to various machine elements in order to improve their tribological performance. In this study, direct laser interference patterning was used to produce periodic cross-like surface patterns on commercial cylinder roller bearings. The wear behavior of as-patterned bearings was studied by a modified FE8 test rig under boundary lubrication. A mineral oil (ISO VG 100) as a base oil additivated with 0.02 wt % zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) was used for the tribological tests which were performed under a Hertzian pressure of 1.92 GPa and maintained at 80 °C and 20 rpm for 2 h. The laser-patterned bearings showed a significantly reduced mass loss by two orders of magnitude compared to the unpatterned reference bearings. A closer look at the samples proved the formation of the characteristic blue-colored ZDDP tribofilm on top of the laser-induced topography maximum positions. Due to the higher contact pressure at the laser-induced peaks, the tribofilm formation was preferable at those positions thus protecting against wear. The laser patterns nearly remained unworn compared to the reference samples. A subsequent Raman analysis of the laser-patterned bearings clearly revealed the formation of zinc and iron sulfides as well as phosphates at the peak points. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Current Insights Regarding Metal-on-Metal Bearings for Hip Arthroplasty
Lubricants 2017, 5(3), 37; doi:10.3390/lubricants5030037 -
Abstract
Modern small diameter metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings for total hip arthroplasty (THA) have been developed in the nineteen-eighties to address the problem of polyethylene wear related osteolysis. Subsequently large diameter MoM hip resurfacings (HRA) were designed for young and active patients to preserve bone
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Modern small diameter metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings for total hip arthroplasty (THA) have been developed in the nineteen-eighties to address the problem of polyethylene wear related osteolysis. Subsequently large diameter MoM hip resurfacings (HRA) were designed for young and active patients to preserve bone and avoid dislocation. Large diameter MoM THA were originally meant as an easy femoral component-only revision solution for femoral neck fractures in HRA, but were then advocated for primary THA as well. In the last decade however, increasing numbers of revisions for adverse local tissues reactions (ALTR) to metal debris have been reported. These ALTR are due to excessive wear of the MoM bearings, usually related to malpositioning of the components leading to edge loading, or in rare cases to metal sensitivity. Besides the immunological reactions, metal particles and ions have a potential local and systemic toxicity. Wear and tribocorrosion at the taper-trunnion connections of MoM THA but also THA with polyethylene and ceramic bearings have also been recognized as a cause of ALTR with extensive tissue destruction. Despite the fact that the long-term survivorship and functional results of certain MoM HRA are excellent and better than THA in the young and active patients group, MoM bearings have become very unpopular and are likely to be replaced by bearing couples of other materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Water Pool Behaviors of Water Lubricating for Glass/Steel Point Contact
Lubricants 2017, 5(3), 36; doi:10.3390/lubricants5030036 -
Abstract
The behavior of pools of water for lubrication under a point of contact between a glass disk and a steel ball is studied here, employing a home-built apparatus. A deformed water pool is found to form around the contact region under different rolling
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The behavior of pools of water for lubrication under a point of contact between a glass disk and a steel ball is studied here, employing a home-built apparatus. A deformed water pool is found to form around the contact region under different rolling speeds. To investigate the effect of rolling speed on the water pool, two parameters (advancing angle and receding angle) are introduced to describe the shape of the water pool. Two distinct glass surfaces, namely a smooth surface and a microgrooved surface, are observed. In the case of the smooth surface, the advancing/receding angle of the water pool significantly decreases with increasing rolling speed before the rolling speed reaches a critical value (80 mm/s). At speeds higher than 80 mm/s, the water pool is in a stable state and the advancing/receding angle remains steady. In the case of the microgrooved surface, the influence of the microgroove on water lubricating flow disappears when the rolling speed reaches a critical value (1030 mm/s). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Low Friction and High Solid-Solid Contact Ratio—A Contradiction for Laser-Patterned Surfaces?
Lubricants 2017, 5(3), 35; doi:10.3390/lubricants5030035 -
Abstract
Recording of Stribeck-like curves is a common way to study the effect of laser-patterned surfaces on the frictional efficiency. However, solely relying on the coefficient of friction when identifying the lubrication regime and the underlying working principles can be misleading. Consequently, a ball-on-disc
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Recording of Stribeck-like curves is a common way to study the effect of laser-patterned surfaces on the frictional efficiency. However, solely relying on the coefficient of friction when identifying the lubrication regime and the underlying working principles can be misleading. Consequently, a ball-on-disc tribometer was combined with an electrical resistivity circuit to simultaneously measure Stribeck-like curves and solid-solid contact ratios for polished and laser-patterned samples. Line-like surface patterns with different periodicities were produced by direct laser interference patterning on steel substrates (AISI304). The reference shows a Stribeck-like behavior well correlating with the contact ratios. The behavior deviates for high sliding velocities (high contact ratios) due to a loss of lubricant induced by centrifugal forces pulling the lubricant out of the contact zone. In contrast, the solid–solid contact ratio of the laser-patterned samples is around 80% for all sliding velocities. Those values can be explained by higher contact pressures and the structural depth induced by the surface topography which make a full separation of the surfaces unlikely. Despite those high values for the contact ratio, laser-patterning significantly reduces friction, which can be traced back to a reduced real contact area and the ability to store oil in the contact zone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Albumin Protein Cleavage Affects the Wear and Friction of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene
Lubricants 2017, 5(3), 33; doi:10.3390/lubricants5030033 -
Abstract
It is well established that the total protein concentration and albumin-to-globulin ratio influence the wear of ultra-high molecular polyethylene (UHMWPE, “polyethylene”) in joint prostheses. A factor on wear not yet studied, but of possible clinical relevance, is protein cleavage. Such cleavage is expected
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It is well established that the total protein concentration and albumin-to-globulin ratio influence the wear of ultra-high molecular polyethylene (UHMWPE, “polyethylene”) in joint prostheses. A factor on wear not yet studied, but of possible clinical relevance, is protein cleavage. Such cleavage is expected in the presence of an inflammatory response and as a result of wear processes at the articular interface. The aim of this study was to compare the tribological behavior of polyethylene articulated against an orthopedic wrought CoCrMo alloy for three lubricants: cleaved albumin, uncleaved albumin, and newborn calf serum (control). We hypothesized that the cleavage of albumin will increase the friction and wear rate of polyethylene, with a concomitant roughening of the polymer surface and the generation of larger wear debris particles. Cleavage of the bovine albumin into five fragments was performed by digestion with cyanogen bromide. In pin-on-flat (POF) wear tests of polyethylene pins made of Ticona GUR® 1020/1050 against CoCrMo alloy discs, the cleaved albumin led to the lowest polyethylene wear and highest friction coefficients, whereas albumin led to the highest wear rates. In knee simulator tests, the albumin lubricant also led to a 2.7-fold increase in the tibial insert wear rate compared to the regular bovine serum lubricant (a wear rate for the cleaved albumin could not be obtained). The generated polyethylene wear particles were of increasing size and fibrillar shape in going from serum to albumin to cleaved albumin, although only the shape achieved statistical significance. Unlike bovine serum, cleaved albumin led to wear scars for both the POF and simulator wear tests that closely emulated the morphological features observed on explanted polyethylene tibial inserts from total knee replacements. We posit that the smaller protein fragments can more efficiently adsorb on the surfaces of both the polyethylene and the metal, thus offering protection against wear, while at the same time leading to an increase in friction, particle size, and particle elongation, as the protein fragment films interact adhesively during sliding. The results of this study have implications for pre-clinical wear testing methodology as they suggest that albumin concentration may be more pertinent than total protein concentration for wear testing polyethylene. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Film Thickness and Friction Relationship in Grease Lubricated Rough Contacts
Lubricants 2017, 5(3), 34; doi:10.3390/lubricants5030034 -
Abstract
The relationship between the film generation and the coefficient of friction in grease lubricated contacts was investigated. Ball-on-disc tests were performed under different operating conditions: entrainment speed, lubricant temperature and surface roughness. The tests were performed with fully formulated greases and their base
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The relationship between the film generation and the coefficient of friction in grease lubricated contacts was investigated. Ball-on-disc tests were performed under different operating conditions: entrainment speed, lubricant temperature and surface roughness. The tests were performed with fully formulated greases and their base oils. The greases were formulated with different thickener types and also different base oils natures and viscosities. Film thickness measurements were performed in ball-on-glass disc tests, and Stribeck curves were measured in ball-on-steel disc tests with discs of different roughness. The role of the thickener and the base oil nature/viscosity on the film thickness and coefficient of friction was addressed and the greases’ performance was compared based on their formulation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Laser Textured Surfaces for Mixed Lubrication: Influence of Aspect Ratio, Textured Area and Dimple Arrangement
Lubricants 2017, 5(3), 32; doi:10.3390/lubricants5030032 -
Abstract
Unidirectional sliding experiments with polished and laser textured steel surfaces were carried out to investigate the effects of different textured area densities, aspect ratios and dimple arrangements. The system was lubricated with Polyalphaolefin (PAO) at 100 °C and the contact pressure was 3
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Unidirectional sliding experiments with polished and laser textured steel surfaces were carried out to investigate the effects of different textured area densities, aspect ratios and dimple arrangements. The system was lubricated with Polyalphaolefin (PAO) at 100 °C and the contact pressure was 3 MPa. For measuring Stribeck curves, the sliding speed was controlled between 40 and 2000 mm/s. The textured area density was varied between 5% and 30%, with the lowest friction values found for 10%. Aspect ratios ranging from 0.02 to 0.2 were investigated and for 0.1 the lowest friction values were measured. The dimple arrangements tested were cubic, hexagonal and a random distribution for a textured area density of 10% and an aspect ratio of 0.1. Our results demonstrate that the dimple arrangement does affect friction values, hinting to the fact that individual texture elements do influence each other. The optimum dimple arrangement was found in a hexagonal packing. This systematic variation of these three key texturing parameters for the morphological texturing of a tribological surface with dimples will allow a strategic choice of texturing parameters. This makes the most of the tremendous potential that laser surface texturing has for reducing friction forces and thereby CO2 emissions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lube Oil Wear Reduction via Organic Tribofilms
Lubricants 2017, 5(3), 30; doi:10.3390/lubricants5030030 -
Abstract
Effective tribofilms are desirable to protect mechanical systems. In the research, the reduction in wear and friction were investigated through the use of organic additives. Graphene-based organic additives were prepared by surface modification of graphene using organic moiety that will provide tribochemical reaction
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Effective tribofilms are desirable to protect mechanical systems. In the research, the reduction in wear and friction were investigated through the use of organic additives. Graphene-based organic additives were prepared by surface modification of graphene using organic moiety that will provide tribochemical reaction with rubbing metal surface. The role of surface protective additives becomes vital when operating conditions become severe and moving components operate in a boundary lubrication regime. After protecting film is slowly removed by rubbing, it can regenerate through the tribochemical reaction of the additives at the contact. Many researchers demonstrated that organic additives physically or chemically adsorbed on rubbing metal surfaces to form monolayers, with their shear strength deriving primarily from the weak van der Waal interactions between opposing hydrocarbon chains at the interfaces. Experiments were conducted on a base oil where 0.01 wt % of the additive was used. Tribological evaluation was conducted using four-ball tester under room temperature and the morphology of the worn surfaces were characterized using Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Experimental results showed a 16% reduction in friction and 30% reduction in wear when compared to the base oil containing no additive. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ionic Liquids as Grease Base Liquids
Lubricants 2017, 5(3), 31; doi:10.3390/lubricants5030031 -
Abstract
The rheological characteristics of one mineral oil and two ionic liquid (IL) based lubricating greases were explored as a function of thickener concentration. The ILs used are 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([BMIM][TFSI]) and trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([P6,6,6,14][TFSI]), with polytetra-fluoroethylene (PTFE) particles used as thickeners.
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The rheological characteristics of one mineral oil and two ionic liquid (IL) based lubricating greases were explored as a function of thickener concentration. The ILs used are 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([BMIM][TFSI]) and trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([P6,6,6,14][TFSI]), with polytetra-fluoroethylene (PTFE) particles used as thickeners. Greases with different base liquid concentrations (60–80 wt %) were investigated using small-amplitude oscillatory shear and viscous flow measurements, and contact angle measurements probed adhesion at base liquid–PTFE interfaces. Rheological properties are influenced by base liquid–PTFE adhesion and the chemical structure of the grease base liquids. With the addition of thickener, the greases generally have higher elasticity, strain resistance, and frequency independent properties. Viscometric rheological tests illustrate non-Newtonian shear-thinning behaviour for all greases. [BMIM][TFSI] based greases show the most elastic properties and strain resistance, as well as the highest initial and lowest final viscosities of the greases tested. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Influence of Non-Linear Rotor Dynamics on the Bearing Friction of Automotive Turbochargers
Lubricants 2017, 5(3), 29; doi:10.3390/lubricants5030029 -
Abstract
One of the possibilities to increase the efficiency of an internal combustion engine is to enhance its interaction with the charging system. With the help of new advanced simulation tools, the rotor dynamic behavior and bearing friction losses of turbochargers (TC) can be
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One of the possibilities to increase the efficiency of an internal combustion engine is to enhance its interaction with the charging system. With the help of new advanced simulation tools, the rotor dynamic behavior and bearing friction losses of turbochargers (TC) can be quantified in the early stage of the development process. This procedure enables virtual bearing development, leading to shortened development times and reduced testing costs. This paper presents a detailed view of the findings in current research; focusing on rotor dynamic simulations with emphasis on the non-linear dynamics (oil whirl; oil whip) and their impact on bearing friction losses. In order to obtain a detailed understanding of these effects; elastic multibody simulations (EMBS) with elastic hydrodynamic bearing (EHD) analysis including a mass-conservative approach are used. Measurement data is obtained using a unique test bench which is designed to quantify the bearing friction losses by means of a drag test. Additionally, hot gas test bench measurements are carried out to assess the non-linear rotor dynamics during steady state operation using shaft motion measurement equipment. In the first step; a multibody simulation model of a common automotive TC is set up; and a model of the friction test bench is mapped into it. The author will show that there is a high agreement between simulated and measured friction losses. In the second step; the TC model is detached from the virtual test bench and a variation of the essential parameters are carried out to identify the influence of the non-linear rotor dynamics on the bearing friction. A final model validation is obtained by comparing the measured shaft orbits for the TC hot gas test bench with the results from the multibody simulation. Full article
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