Open AccessArticle
Chemical/Structural Modification of Canola Oil and Canola Biodiesel: Kinetic Studies and Biodegradability of the Alkoxides
Lubricants 2017, 5(2), 11; doi:10.3390/lubricants5020011 -
Abstract
Canola oil and canola biodiesel derived alkoxides are prepared in the present investigation through a series of structural modifications. Epoxidation of canola oil and canola biodiesel were carried out by hydrogen peroxide using IR-120 as an acidic catalyst. The alkoxylation of epoxidized feedstocks
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Canola oil and canola biodiesel derived alkoxides are prepared in the present investigation through a series of structural modifications. Epoxidation of canola oil and canola biodiesel were carried out by hydrogen peroxide using IR-120 as an acidic catalyst. The alkoxylation of epoxidized feedstocks was promoted using 2-propanol and tert-Butyl alcohol in the presence of montmorillonite catalyst and optimum reaction conditions were obtained for complete epoxide conversion to alkoxylated products as follows: reaction temperature of 90 °C, epoxide to alcohol molar ratio of 1:6, and reaction time between 6 and 8 h. The products were identified with one- and two-dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques, and the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the alkoxylation reactions were also investigated. The thermo-oxidative stability, rheology, biodegradability and lubricity properties of the prepared alkoxides were determined using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and American Oil Chemists Society (AOCS) standard methods. Structural modification of the feedstocks enhanced the significant properties for lubrication and exhibited their potential application as gear and engine oils. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Specific Features of Aerodynamic Journal Bearings with Elastically Supported Pads
Lubricants 2017, 5(2), 10; doi:10.3390/lubricants5020010 -
Abstract
Aerodynamic bearings with elastically supported tilting pads have operational properties comparable with widely-used foil journal bearings. They combine the excellent stability of tilting pad bearings, as a result of very small cross-coupling stiffness terms, with the positive properties of foil bearings, namely their
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Aerodynamic bearings with elastically supported tilting pads have operational properties comparable with widely-used foil journal bearings. They combine the excellent stability of tilting pad bearings, as a result of very small cross-coupling stiffness terms, with the positive properties of foil bearings, namely their ability to adapt to changing operating conditions and presence of additional damping due to friction between elastic members and bearing casings. Air cycle machines (ACMs) are used in the environmental control systems of aircrafts to manage the pressurization of the cabin. An ACM with the abovementioned type of bearings and an operational speed of 60,000 rpm was designed and successfully tested, even under conditions of strong external excitation. Some problems with rotor stability in certain operation regimes were encountered. Rotor relative vibrations measured at both bearing locations increased substantially when excitation frequency was close to the lowest rotor eigenvalues. In spite of that and the 1000 start/stop cycles passed by the end of the test, any traces of wear on the bearing sliding surfaces were negligible. When the bearing distance had to be shortened in order to insert the machine into the defined space, the rotor quickly became unstable at relatively low speeds. Although rotor stability reserve was reduced only slightly, the rotor had to be redesigned in order to achieve stability. Operation characteristics of aerodynamic bearings with elastically supported tilting pads are presented together with rotor dynamic analysis and validated with measured results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Friction Reduction Tested for a Downsized Diesel Engine with Low-Viscosity Lubricants Including a Novel Polyalkylene Glycol
Lubricants 2017, 5(2), 9; doi:10.3390/lubricants5020009 -
Abstract
With the increasing pressure to reduce emissions, friction reduction is always an up-to-date topic in the automotive industry. Among the various possibilities to reduce mechanical friction, the usage of a low-viscosity lubricant in the engine is one of the most effective and most
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With the increasing pressure to reduce emissions, friction reduction is always an up-to-date topic in the automotive industry. Among the various possibilities to reduce mechanical friction, the usage of a low-viscosity lubricant in the engine is one of the most effective and most economic options. Therefore, lubricants of continuously lower viscosity are being developed and offered on the market that promise to reduce engine friction while avoiding deleterious mixed lubrication and wear. In this work, a 1.6 L downsized Diesel engine is used on a highly accurate engine friction test-rig to determine the potential for friction reduction using low viscosity lubricants under realistic operating conditions including high engine loads. In particular, two hydrocarbon-based lubricants, 0W30 and 0W20, are investigated as well as a novel experimental lubricant, which is based on a polyalkylene glycol base stock. Total engine friction is measured for all three lubricants, which show a general 5% advantage for the 0W20 in comparison to the 0W30 lubricant. The polyalkylene glycol-based lubricant, however, shows strongly reduced friction losses, which are about 25% smaller than for the 0W20 lubricant. As the 0W20 and the polyalkylene glycol-based lubricant have the same HTHS-viscosity , the findings contradict the common understanding that the HTHS-viscosity is the dominant driver related to the friction losses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Organo-Sulfur Compounds with Overbased Calcium Compounds on Lubrication in Cold Forming
Lubricants 2017, 5(1), 8; doi:10.3390/lubricants5010008 -
Abstract
The authors analyzed the structures of sulfurized olefins using NMR spectroscopy and studied the effects of sulfur chain length and alkyl structure on the ironing performance. They found that branched chain olefins, which contain branched alkyl groups, show superior ironing performance to straight
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The authors analyzed the structures of sulfurized olefins using NMR spectroscopy and studied the effects of sulfur chain length and alkyl structure on the ironing performance. They found that branched chain olefins, which contain branched alkyl groups, show superior ironing performance to straight chain olefins, provided that their carbon numbers are relatively low. When the sulfurized olefins were used in combination with overbased detergents (calcium sulfonate or salicylate), they showed a higher performance in ironing than with sulfurized olefins alone. It was also found that lubricating films consisting of both iron sulfide and calcium carbonate seem to improve ironing performance. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Rotordynamic and Friction Loss Measurements on a High Speed Laval Rotor Supported by Floating Ring Bearings
Lubricants 2017, 5(1), 7; doi:10.3390/lubricants5010007 -
Abstract
Floating ring bearings are the commonly used type of bearing for automotive turbochargers. The automotive industry continuously investigates how to reduce the bearing friction losses and how to create silent turbochargers. Many of these studies involve creating a numerical model of the rotor-bearing
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Floating ring bearings are the commonly used type of bearing for automotive turbochargers. The automotive industry continuously investigates how to reduce the bearing friction losses and how to create silent turbochargers. Many of these studies involve creating a numerical model of the rotor-bearing system and performing validation on a test bench on which a turbocharger is driven by hot gases. This approach, however, involves many uncertainties which diminish the validity of the measurement results. In this study, we present a test setup in which these uncertainties are minimized. The measurement results show the behavior of the floating ring bearing as a function of oil feed pressure, oil feed temperature, rotor unbalance and bearing clearances. Next to an increased validity, the test setup provides measurement data with good repeatability and can therefore represent a case study which can be used for validation of rotor-bearing models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Non-Circular Bearing Shapes in Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings on the Vibration Behavior of Turbocharger Structures
Lubricants 2017, 5(1), 6; doi:10.3390/lubricants5010006 -
Abstract
Increasing quality demands of combustion engines require, amongst others, improvements of the engine’s acoustics and all (sub)components mounted to the latter. A significant impact to the audible tonal noise spectrum results from the vibratory motions of fast-rotating turbocharger rotor systems in multiple hydrodynamic
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Increasing quality demands of combustion engines require, amongst others, improvements of the engine’s acoustics and all (sub)components mounted to the latter. A significant impact to the audible tonal noise spectrum results from the vibratory motions of fast-rotating turbocharger rotor systems in multiple hydrodynamic bearings such as floating bearing rings. Particularly, the study of self-excited non-linear vibrations of the rotor-bearing systems is crucial for the understanding, prevention or reduction of the noise and, consequently, for a sustainable engine acoustics development. This work presents an efficient modeling approach for the investigation, optimization, and design improvement of complex turbocharger rotors in hydrodynamic journal bearings, including floating bearing rings with circular and non-circular bearing geometries. The capability of tonal non-synchronous vibration prevention using non-circular bearing shapes is demonstrated with dynamic run-up simulations of the presented model. These findings and the performance of our model are compared and validated with results of a classical Laval/Jeffcott rotor-bearing model and a specific turbocharger model found in the literature. It is shown that the presented simulation method yields fast and accurate results and furthermore, that non-circular bearing shapes are an effective measure to reduce or even prevent self-excited tonal noise. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Progress in Tribological Properties of Nano-Composite Hard Coatings under Water Lubrication
Lubricants 2017, 5(1), 5; doi:10.3390/lubricants5010005 -
Abstract
The tribological properties, under water-lubricated conditions, of three major nano-composite coatings, i.e., diamond-like carbon (DLC or a-C), amorphous carbon nitride (a-CNx) and transition metallic nitride-based (TiN-based, CrN-based), coatings are reviewed. The influences of microstructure (composition and architecture) and test conditions (counterparts and friction
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The tribological properties, under water-lubricated conditions, of three major nano-composite coatings, i.e., diamond-like carbon (DLC or a-C), amorphous carbon nitride (a-CNx) and transition metallic nitride-based (TiN-based, CrN-based), coatings are reviewed. The influences of microstructure (composition and architecture) and test conditions (counterparts and friction parameters) on their friction and wear behavior under water lubrication are systematically elucidated. In general, DLC and a-CNx coatings exhibit superior tribological performance under water lubrication due to the formation of the hydrophilic group and the lubricating layer with low shear strength, respectively. In contrast, TiN-based and CrN-based coatings present relatively poor tribological performance in pure water, but are expected to present promising applications in sea water because of their good corrosion resistance. No matter what kind of coatings, an appropriate selection of counterpart materials would make their water-lubricated tribological properties more prominent. Currently, Si-based materials are deemed as beneficial counterparts under water lubrication due to the formation of silica gel originating from the hydration of Si. In the meantime, the tribological properties of nano-composite coatings in water could be enhanced at appropriate normal load and sliding velocity due to mixed or hydrodynamic lubrication. At the end of this article, the main research that is now being developed concerning the development of nano-composite coatings under water lubrication is described synthetically. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Editorial: Friction and Lubricants Related to Human Bodies
Lubricants 2017, 5(1), 4; doi:10.3390/lubricants5010004 -
Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Tool Texture on Friction and Lubrication in Strip Reduction Testing
Lubricants 2017, 5(1), 3; doi:10.3390/lubricants5010003 -
Abstract
While texturing of workpiece surfaces to promote lubrication in metal forming has been applied for several decades, tool surface texturing is rather new. In the present paper, tool texturing is studied as a method to prevent galling. A strip reduction test was conducted
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While texturing of workpiece surfaces to promote lubrication in metal forming has been applied for several decades, tool surface texturing is rather new. In the present paper, tool texturing is studied as a method to prevent galling. A strip reduction test was conducted with tools provided with shallow, longitudinal pockets oriented perpendicular to the sliding direction. The pockets had small angles to the workpiece surface and the distance between them were varied. The experiments reveal that the distance between pockets should be larger than the pocket width, thereby creating a topography similar to flat table mountains to avoid mechanical interlocking in the valleys; otherwise, an increase in drawing load and pick-up on the tools are observed. The textured tool surface lowers friction and improves lubrication performance, provided that the distance between pockets is 2–4 times larger than the pocket width. Larger drawing speed facilitates escape of the entrapped lubricant in the pockets. Testing with low-to-medium viscosity oils leads to a low sheet roughness on the plateaus, but also local workpiece material pick-up on the tool plateaus. Large lubricant viscosity results in higher sheet plateau roughness, but also prevents pick-up and galling. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Lubricants in 2016
Lubricants 2017, 5(1), 2; doi:10.3390/lubricants5010002 -
Abstract The editors of Lubricants would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Surface Film Adsorption and Lubricity of Soybean Oil In-Water Emulsion and Triblock Copolymer Aqueous Solution: A Comparative Study
Lubricants 2017, 5(1), 1; doi:10.3390/lubricants5010001 -
Abstract
This paper investigates the surface film adsorption and lubricity of two different types of potential environmentally friendly cold metal forming lubricants: soybean vegetable oil in water VO/W emulsions and triblock copolymer aqueous solutions. The lubricants have different visual appearance, surface film adsorption characteristic,
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This paper investigates the surface film adsorption and lubricity of two different types of potential environmentally friendly cold metal forming lubricants: soybean vegetable oil in water VO/W emulsions and triblock copolymer aqueous solutions. The lubricants have different visual appearance, surface film adsorption characteristic, lubricity and surface cleaning behaviour. The effects of concentration, temperature and emulsification ultrasonic energy (for VO/W emulsion) are studied. The result shows that the soybean VO/W emulsions have stronger adsorption, superior lubricity and anti-wear property compared to the copolymer solutions. The effect of temperature is investigated at 30 °C and 65 °C which are below and above cloud point of the aqueous copolymer solutions. Both lubricants show improved friction and anti-wear property at 65 °C. However, tenacious residual film remained on the discs surface after surface cleaning indicates lower cleanability of the soybean VO/W emulsions compared to the copolymer solutions, postulating the need for extra post-processing cleaning operations after cold forming process with VO/W emulsion lubricant. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Potential Synthetic Biolubricant as an Alternative to Bovine Serum
Lubricants 2016, 4(4), 38; doi:10.3390/lubricants4040038 -
Abstract
It is crucial that orthopaedic implant materials are tested in conditions that replicate the natural body’s environment as closely as possible. Bovine serum is currently recommended for use by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) for the wear testing of these implant materials,
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It is crucial that orthopaedic implant materials are tested in conditions that replicate the natural body’s environment as closely as possible. Bovine serum is currently recommended for use by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) for the wear testing of these implant materials, however, the rheological properties of bovine serum do not match fully those of the body’s natural lubricant, synovial fluid. This study looks at a potential alternative to bovine serum for the testing of orthopaedic implant materials; 0.5% gellan gum fluid gel. Wear tests using multidirectional motion were conducted on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) pins rubbing against stainless steel plates. Roughness measurements were performed during testing along with particle analysis of the testing lubricant. At two million cycles (equivalent to 121.3 km of sliding), the mean wear factor for the four UHMWPE pins was 0.25 (standard deviation (SD) 0.03) × 10−6 mm3/Nm and there was no evidence of any transfer film on the plate surfaces. The wear factor produced by 0.5% gellan gum fluid gel was lower than that measured in previous studies using bovine serum as the lubricant but greater than the wear factor shown in published work using a similar alternative lubricant (sodium alginate mixed with gellan gum). Work on the development of a suitable alternative lubricant to bovine serum will continue. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tribological Stress of Lubricating Greases in the Light of System Entropy
Lubricants 2016, 4(4), 37; doi:10.3390/lubricants4040037 -
Abstract
Lubricating greases show a structural degradation due to friction stress. The shear process dissipates energy. This results in a breakdown of the thickener structure, heat and entropy generation. Tribo-systems are energy driven systems. The stressed lubricating grease is modeled as a subsystem and
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Lubricating greases show a structural degradation due to friction stress. The shear process dissipates energy. This results in a breakdown of the thickener structure, heat and entropy generation. Tribo-systems are energy driven systems. The stressed lubricating grease is modeled as a subsystem and presents an open thermodynamic system. Investigations were made to obtain more information about the correlation of system entropy and structural degradation of a lubricating grease. Experimental studies were done to estimate the role in terms of entropy transport for the open system. The degradation-entropy theorem was applied with the help of an empirical model to describe the correlation between degradation process and entropy production for the special case of a closed and stationary system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Silicon Nitride Bearings for Total Joint Arthroplasty
Lubricants 2016, 4(4), 35; doi:10.3390/lubricants4040035 -
Abstract
The articulation performance of silicon nitride against conventional and highly cross-linked polyethylene, as well as for self-mated silicon nitride bearings, was examined in a series of standard hip simulation studies. Wear rates for polyethylene liners against silicon nitride femoral heads were consistent with
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The articulation performance of silicon nitride against conventional and highly cross-linked polyethylene, as well as for self-mated silicon nitride bearings, was examined in a series of standard hip simulation studies. Wear rates for polyethylene liners against silicon nitride femoral heads were consistent with reported literature, although higher than cobalt chromium controls. Excessive protein precipitation was a confounding factor in interpretation of the wear data. Post wear-test Raman spectroscopy of the cross-linked polyethylene liners showed no oxidative degradation. Wear of self-mated silicon nitride was found to be essentially zero and indistinguishable from alumina controls using continuously orbital hip simulation for up to three million cycles. However, introduction of an alternative loading profile from three to five million cycles, including a stop-dwell-start sequence, significantly increased wear for two of six silicon nitride couples. This behavior is associated with formation and disruption of a gelatinous silicic acid tribochemical film, and is consistent with a recurrent transition from fluid-film to boundary lubrication. Overall, these results suggest that silicon nitride articulation against dissimilar counterface surfaces (e.g., highly cross-linked polyethylene) is preferred. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Phase Friction and Wear Reduction by Copper Nanopartices
Lubricants 2016, 4(4), 36; doi:10.3390/lubricants4040036 -
Abstract
Finely dispersed copper nanoparticles were added as an additive to fully-formulated engine oils. The copper additive was in colloidal form, with an inner core of Cu2+ atoms covered by surfactants to form stable reverse micelles that are completely dispersible in the base
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Finely dispersed copper nanoparticles were added as an additive to fully-formulated engine oils. The copper additive was in colloidal form, with an inner core of Cu2+ atoms covered by surfactants to form stable reverse micelles that are completely dispersible in the base oil. The tribological process to form protective films at the metal surface is comprised of three phases. Phase I can be considered a physical process involving the build-up of polar molecules by absorption to produce a friction modifier film, whereas phases II and III have to be treated as mechanochemical processes comprising a combination of redox reactions and a third body formation. The tribological performance was investigated using atomic force microscopy, a microtribometer, a pin-on-disk tribometer in combination with continuous and high-resolution wear measurements with radionuclide technique, and high pressure stressing in a thrust roller bearing test rig. In addition, the nanostructure of the additive was characterized by atomic force microscopy. Finally, the chemical composition of the metal surface was analyzed using photoelectron spectroscopy. Full article
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Open AccessReview
On Monitoring Physical and Chemical Degradation and Life Estimation Models for Lubricating Greases
Lubricants 2016, 4(3), 34; doi:10.3390/lubricants4030034 -
Abstract Degradation mechanisms for lubricating grease are categorized and described. An extensive survey of the available empirical and analytical grease life estimation models including degradation monitoring standards and methods are presented. A summary of the important contributions on grease degradation is presented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Towards Accurate Prediction of Unbalance Response, Oil Whirl and Oil Whip of Flexible Rotors Supported by Hydrodynamic Bearings
Lubricants 2016, 4(3), 33; doi:10.3390/lubricants4030033 -
Abstract
Journal bearings are used to support rotors in a wide range of applications. In order to ensure reliable operation, accurate analyses of these rotor-bearing systems are crucial. Coupled analysis of the rotor and the journal bearing is essential in the case that the
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Journal bearings are used to support rotors in a wide range of applications. In order to ensure reliable operation, accurate analyses of these rotor-bearing systems are crucial. Coupled analysis of the rotor and the journal bearing is essential in the case that the rotor is flexible. The accuracy of prediction of the model at hand depends on its comprehensiveness. In this study, we construct three bearing models of increasing modeling comprehensiveness and use these to predict the response of two different rotor-bearing systems. The main goal is to evaluate the correlation with measurement data as a function of modeling comprehensiveness: 1D versus 2D pressure prediction, distributed versus lumped thermal model, Newtonian versus non-Newtonian fluid description and non-mass-conservative versus mass-conservative cavitation description. We conclude that all three models predict the existence of critical speeds and whirl for both rotor-bearing systems. However, the two more comprehensive models in general show better correlation with measurement data in terms of frequency and amplitude. Furthermore, we conclude that a thermal network model comprising temperature predictions of the bearing surroundings is essential to obtain accurate predictions. The results of this study aid in developing accurate and computationally-efficient models of flexible rotors supported by plain journal bearings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tribological Performance of MoS2 Coatings in Various Environments
Lubricants 2016, 4(3), 32; doi:10.3390/lubricants4030032 -
Abstract
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a well-known solid lubricant for tribosystems running in vacuum or dry gases. Problems arise due to its sensitivity to humidity, which is a drawback for its application under ambient conditions. However, by using a physical vapor deposition
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Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a well-known solid lubricant for tribosystems running in vacuum or dry gases. Problems arise due to its sensitivity to humidity, which is a drawback for its application under ambient conditions. However, by using a physical vapor deposition (PVD) process, deposition parameters can be optimized not only to gain a coatings structure with favorable frictional properties but also to minimize the sensitivity to attack by water molecules. Therefore, an improved tribological behavior even under moist conditions can be achieved. MoS2 coatings are also candidates for being applied at cryogenic temperatures. They already have proven their suitability, e.g., for sliding support elements between superconducting magnets of the nuclear fusion-experiment Wendelstein 7-X. However, these coatings were exclusively produced for this particular application and the utilization for more common tribosystems may be precluded due to cost considerations. In view of a wider range of applications, pure and Cr containing PVD-MoS2 coatings with an optimized structure were tested under varying environments including hydrogen gas and cryogenic temperatures. Results of the most promising variant are presented in this paper. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Tribological Properties of Multi-Layered Graphene as Additives of PAO2 Oil in Steel–Steel Contacts
Lubricants 2016, 4(3), 30; doi:10.3390/lubricants4030030 -
Abstract
Multi-layered graphene was prepared by supercritical CO2 exfoliation of graphite. As the additives of polyalphaolefin-2 (PAO2) oil, its tribological properties were investigated using four-ball test method. The friction reduction and anti-wear ability of pure lubricant was improved by the addition of graphene.
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Multi-layered graphene was prepared by supercritical CO2 exfoliation of graphite. As the additives of polyalphaolefin-2 (PAO2) oil, its tribological properties were investigated using four-ball test method. The friction reduction and anti-wear ability of pure lubricant was improved by the addition of graphene. With a favorable concentration, the graphene was dispersive. The PAO2 oil with 0.05 wt % graphene showed better tribological properties than that for the other concentration of graphene additives. It could be used as a good lubricant additive for its excellent tribological characteristics, and the multi-layered graphene can bear the load of the steel ball and prevent direct contact of the mating metal surfaces. However, a higher concentration would cause the agglomeration of graphene and weaken the improvement of tribological properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Tribological Behavior of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE)-Lignin Composites
Lubricants 2016, 4(3), 31; doi:10.3390/lubricants4030031 -
Abstract
In this paper, we report the synthesis and characterization of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)-lignin composites. During this study four different compositions, namely UHMWPE, UHMWPE-13 wt. % lignin, UHMWPE-25 wt. % lignin and UHMWPE-42.5 wt. % lignin were fabricated by hot pressing. Detailed
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In this paper, we report the synthesis and characterization of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)-lignin composites. During this study four different compositions, namely UHMWPE, UHMWPE-13 wt. % lignin, UHMWPE-25 wt. % lignin and UHMWPE-42.5 wt. % lignin were fabricated by hot pressing. Detailed microstructural studies by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that UHMWPE and UHMWPE-13 wt. % lignin had a uniform microstructure, whereas UHMWPE-25 wt. % lignin and UHMWPE-42.5 wt. % lignin samples were riddled with pores. UHMWPE and UHMWPE-13% lignin showed comparable flexural strengths of ~32.2 MPa and ~32.4 MPa, respectively. However, the flexural strength dropped drastically in UHMWPE-25 wt. % lignin and UHMWPE-42.5 wt. % samples to ~13 MPa and ~8 MPa, respectively. The tribology of UHMWPE-lignin composites is governed by the tribofilm formation. All the compositions showed similar µmean values and the specific wear rates (WR) decreased gradually as the concentration of lignin in UHMWPE was increased. Full article
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