Open AccessArticle
A New Approach to Estimating the Path Loss in Underground Wireless Sensor Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(3), 18; doi:10.3390/jsan6030018 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Unlike terrestrial Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), communication between buried nodes in WUSNs happens through the ground. Due to the complexity of soil, accurate estimation of the underground signal attenuation is challenging. Existing path loss models mainly rely on semi-empirical and empirical mixing models
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Unlike terrestrial Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), communication between buried nodes in WUSNs happens through the ground. Due to the complexity of soil, accurate estimation of the underground signal attenuation is challenging. Existing path loss models mainly rely on semi-empirical and empirical mixing models for calculating the dielectric properties of the soil. In this paper, two existing models for estimating the path loss in soil (i.e., the CRIM-Fresnel and Modified-Friis models) are compared with measurements obtained at three locations. In addition, an improved method is proposed for estimating the path loss based on a new approach for calculating the dielectric properties of soil from Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) measurements. The proposed approach calculates the complex permittivity values from TDR waveform based on a new modified method and subsequently use them as inputs into the Modified-Friis model. The results from the field trials were compared with the proposed method and the existing models. The results of this comparison showed that the proposed estimation technique provides a better estimation of Radio Frequency (RF) attenuation than the existing models. It also eliminates the need to take samples back to the laboratory by providing in situ calculation of attenuation based on TDR. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
RedEdge: A Novel Architecture for Big Data Processing in Mobile Edge Computing Environments
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(3), 17; doi:10.3390/jsan6030017 -
Abstract
We are witnessing the emergence of new big data processing architectures due to the convergence of the Internet of Things (IoTs), edge computing and cloud computing. Existing big data processing architectures are underpinned by the transfer of raw data streams to the cloud
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We are witnessing the emergence of new big data processing architectures due to the convergence of the Internet of Things (IoTs), edge computing and cloud computing. Existing big data processing architectures are underpinned by the transfer of raw data streams to the cloud computing environment for processing and analysis. This operation is expensive and fails to meet the real-time processing needs of IoT applications. In this article, we present and evaluate a novel big data processing architecture named RedEdge (i.e., data reduction on the edge) that incorporates mechanism to facilitate the processing of big data streams near the source of the data. The RedEdge model leverages mobile IoT-termed mobile edge devices as primary data processing platforms. However, in the case of the unavailability of computational and battery power resources, it offloads data streams in nearer mobile edge devices or to the cloud. We evaluate the RedEdge architecture and the related mechanism within a real-world experiment setting involving 12 mobile users. The experimental evaluation reveals that the RedEdge model has the capability to reduce big data stream by up to 92.86% without compromising energy and memory consumption on mobile edge devices. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Can a Network Attack Be Simulated in an Emulated Environment for Network Security Training?
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(3), 16; doi:10.3390/jsan6030016 -
Abstract
This paper outlines a tool developed with the purpose of creating a simple configurable emulated network environment that can be used in cyber defence exercises. Research has been conducted into the various related subject areas: cyber defence exercises, network threats, network emulation, network
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This paper outlines a tool developed with the purpose of creating a simple configurable emulated network environment that can be used in cyber defence exercises. Research has been conducted into the various related subject areas: cyber defence exercises, network threats, network emulation, network traffic replay, network topologies, and common network services. From this research a requirements specification was produced to encapsulate the features required to create this tool. A network, containing many of the aspects researched, was designed and implemented using Netkit-NG to act as a blueprint for the tool and to further knowledge in the construction of an emulated network. Following this the tool was developed and tested to ensure requirements were met. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On-Line RSSI-Range Model Learning for Target Localization and Tracking
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(3), 15; doi:10.3390/jsan6030015 -
Abstract
The interactions of Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) with the environment are very difficult to be modeled, inducing significant errors in RSSI-range models and highly disturbing target localization and tracking methods. Some techniques adopt a training-based approach in which they off-line learn the
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The interactions of Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) with the environment are very difficult to be modeled, inducing significant errors in RSSI-range models and highly disturbing target localization and tracking methods. Some techniques adopt a training-based approach in which they off-line learn the RSSI-range characteristics of the environment in a prior training phase. However, the training phase is a time-consuming process and must be repeated in case of changes in the environment, constraining flexibility and adaptability. This paper presents schemes in which each anchor node on-line learns its RSSI-range models adapted to the particularities of its environment and then uses its trained model for target localization and tracking. Two methods are presented. The first uses the information of the location of anchor nodes to dynamically adapt the RSSI-range model. In the second one, each anchor node uses estimates of the target location –anchor nodes are assumed equipped with cameras—to on-line adapt its RSSI-range model. The paper presents both methods, describes their operation integrated in localization and tracking schemes and experimentally evaluates their performance in the UBILOC testbed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Cooperative MAC Protocol for Navigation Carrier Ad Hoc Networks: A DiffServ-Based Approach
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(3), 14; doi:10.3390/jsan6030014 -
Abstract
In this paper, a dynamic cooperative MAC protocol (DDC-MAC) based on cluster network topology is proposed, which has the capability of differentiated service mechanisms and long-range communication. In DDC-MAC, heterogeneous communications are classified according to service types and quality of service (QoS) requirements,
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In this paper, a dynamic cooperative MAC protocol (DDC-MAC) based on cluster network topology is proposed, which has the capability of differentiated service mechanisms and long-range communication. In DDC-MAC, heterogeneous communications are classified according to service types and quality of service (QoS) requirements, i.e., periodic communication mode (PC mode) is extracted with a QoS guarantee for high-frequency periodic information exchange based on adapt-TDMA mechanisms, while other services are classified as being in on-demand communication mode (OC mode), which includes channel contention and access mechanisms based on a multiple priority algorithm. OC mode is embedded into the adapt-TDMA process adaptively, and the two communication modes can work in parallel. Furthermore, adaptive array hybrid antenna systems and cooperative communication with optimal relay are presented, to exploit the opportunity for long-range transmission, while an adaptive channel back-off sequence is deduced, to mitigate packet collision and network congestion. Moreover, we developed an analytical framework to quantify the performance of the DDC-MAC protocol and conducted extensive simulation. Simulation results show that the proposed DDC-MAC protocol enhances network performance in diverse scenarios, and significantly improves network throughput and reduces average delay compared with other MAC protocols. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Analyzing the Relationship between Human Behavior and Indoor Air Quality
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(3), 13; doi:10.3390/jsan6030013 -
Abstract
In the coming decades, as we experience global population growth and global aging issues, there will be corresponding concerns about the quality of the air we experience inside and outside buildings. Because we can anticipate that there will be behavioral changes that accompany
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In the coming decades, as we experience global population growth and global aging issues, there will be corresponding concerns about the quality of the air we experience inside and outside buildings. Because we can anticipate that there will be behavioral changes that accompany population growth and aging, we examine the relationship between home occupant behavior and indoor air quality. To do this, we collect both sensor-based behavior data and chemical indoor air quality measurements in smart home environments. We introduce a novel machine learning-based approach to quantify the correlation between smart home features and chemical measurements of air quality, and evaluate the approach using two smart homes. The findings may help us understand the types of behavior that measurably impact indoor air quality. This information could help us plan for the future by developing an automated building system that would be used as part of a smart city. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improvement of Ultrasound-Based Localization System Using Sine Wave Detector and CAN Network
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(3), 12; doi:10.3390/jsan6030012 -
Abstract
This paper presents an improved indoor localization system based on radio frequency (RF) and ultrasonic signals, which we named the SNSH system. This system is composed of a transmitter mounted in a mobile target and a series of receiver nodes that are managed
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This paper presents an improved indoor localization system based on radio frequency (RF) and ultrasonic signals, which we named the SNSH system. This system is composed of a transmitter mounted in a mobile target and a series of receiver nodes that are managed by a coordinator. By measuring the Time Delay of Arrival (TDoA) of RF and ultrasonic signals from the transmitter, the distance from the target to each receiver node is calculated and sent to the coordinator through the CAN network, then all the information is gathered in a PC to estimate the 3D position of the target. A sine wave detector and dynamic threshold filter are applied to provide excellent accuracy in measuring the range from the TDoA results before multilateration algorithms are realized to optimize the accuracy of coordinate determination. Specifically, Linear Least Square (LLS) and Nonlinear Least Square (NLS) techniques are implemented to contrast their performances in target coordinate estimation. RF signal encoding/decoding time, time delay in CAN network and math calculation time are carefully considered to ensure optimal system performance and prepare for field application. Experiments show that the sine wave detector algorithm has greatly improved the accuracy of range measurement, with a mean error of 2.2 mm and maximum error of 6.7 mm for distances below 5 m. In addition, 3D position accuracy is greatly enhanced by multilateration methods, with the mean error in position remaining under 15 mm. Furthermore, there are 90% confidence error values of 23 mm for LLS and 20 mm for NLS. The update in the overall system has been verified in real system operations, with a maximum rate of 25 ms, which is a better result than many other existing studies. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Review of Smart House Analysis Methods for Assisting Older People Living Alone
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(3), 11; doi:10.3390/jsan6030011 -
Abstract
Smart Houses are a prominent field of research referring to environments adapted to assist people in their everyday life. Older people and people with disabilities would benefit the most from the use of Smart Houses because they provide the opportunity for them to
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Smart Houses are a prominent field of research referring to environments adapted to assist people in their everyday life. Older people and people with disabilities would benefit the most from the use of Smart Houses because they provide the opportunity for them to stay in their home for as long as possible. In this review, the developments achieved in the field of Smart Houses for the last 16 years are described. The concept of Smart Houses, the most used analysis methods, and current challenges in Smart Houses are presented. A brief introduction of the analysis methods is given, and their implementation is also reported. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Distributed Routing and Channel Selection for Multi-Channel Wireless Sensor Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(3), 10; doi:10.3390/jsan6030010 -
Abstract
We propose a joint channel selection and quality aware routing scheme for multi-channel wireless sensor networks that apply asynchronous duty cycling to conserve energy, which is common in many environmental monitoring applications. Energy resources may vary from node to node due to differential
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We propose a joint channel selection and quality aware routing scheme for multi-channel wireless sensor networks that apply asynchronous duty cycling to conserve energy, which is common in many environmental monitoring applications. Energy resources may vary from node to node due to differential consumption as well as availability, as observed in rechargeable sensor networks. A data collection traffic pattern is assumed, where all sensor nodes periodically forward sensor data to a centralized base station (sink). Under these assumptions, the effect of overhearing dominates the energy consumption of the nodes. The proposed scheme achieves lifetime improvement by reducing the energy consumed in overhearing and also by dynamically balancing the lifetimes of nodes. Performance evaluations are presented from experimental tests as well as from extensive simulation studies, which show that the proposed scheme reduces overhearing by ∼60% with just 2 channels without significantly affecting the network performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An SVM-Based Method for Classification of External Interference in Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(2), 9; doi:10.3390/jsan6020009 -
Abstract
In recent years, the adoption of industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks (IWSANs) has greatly increased. However, the time-critical performance of IWSANs is considerably affected by external sources of interference. In particular, when an IEEE 802.11 network is coexisting in the same environment,
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In recent years, the adoption of industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks (IWSANs) has greatly increased. However, the time-critical performance of IWSANs is considerably affected by external sources of interference. In particular, when an IEEE 802.11 network is coexisting in the same environment, a significant drop in communication reliability is observed. This, in turn, represents one of the main challenges for a wide-scale adoption of IWSAN. Interference classification through spectrum sensing is a possible step towards interference mitigation, but the long sampling window required by many of the approaches in the literature undermines their run-time applicability in time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH)-based IWSAN. Aiming at minimizing both the sensing time and the memory footprint of the collected samples, a centralized interference classifier based on support vector machines (SVMs) is introduced in this article. The proposed mechanism, tested with sample traces collected in industrial scenarios, enables the classification of interference from IEEE 802.11 networks and microwave ovens, while ensuring high classification accuracy with a sensing duration below 300 ms. In addition, the obtained results show that the fast classification together with a contained sampling frequency ensure the suitability of the method for TSCH-based IWSAN. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Estimating the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Network Nodes through the Use of Embedded Analytical Battery Models
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(2), 8; doi:10.3390/jsan6020008 -
Abstract
The operation of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is subject to multiple constraints, among which one of the most critical is available energy. Sensor nodes are typically powered by electrochemical batteries. The stored energy in battery devices is easily influenced by the operating temperature
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The operation of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is subject to multiple constraints, among which one of the most critical is available energy. Sensor nodes are typically powered by electrochemical batteries. The stored energy in battery devices is easily influenced by the operating temperature and the discharge current values. Therefore, it becomes difficult to estimate their voltage/charge behavior over time, which are relevant variables for the implementation of energy-aware policies. Nowadays, there are hardware and/or software approaches that can provide information about the battery operating conditions. However, this type of hardware-based approach increases the battery production cost, which may impair its use for sensor node implementations. The objective of this work is to propose a software-based approach to estimate both the state of charge and the voltage of batteries inWSN nodes based on the use of a temperature-dependent analytical battery model. The achieved results demonstrate the feasibility of using embedded analytical battery models to estimate the lifetime of batteries, without affecting the tasks performed by the WSN nodes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Experimental Evaluation of the Reliability of LoRa Long-Range Low-Power Wireless Communication
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(2), 7; doi:10.3390/jsan6020007 -
Abstract
Recent technological innovations allow compact radios to transmit over long distances with minimal energy consumption and could drastically affect the way Internet of Things (IoT) technologies communicate in the near future. By extending the communication range of links, it is indeed possible to
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Recent technological innovations allow compact radios to transmit over long distances with minimal energy consumption and could drastically affect the way Internet of Things (IoT) technologies communicate in the near future. By extending the communication range of links, it is indeed possible to reduce the network diameter to a point that each node can communicate with almost every other node in the network directly. This drastically simplifies communication, removing the need of routing, and significantly reduces the overhead of data collection. Long-range low-power wireless technology, however, is still at its infancy, and it is yet unclear (i) whether it is sufficiently reliable to complement existing short-range and cellular technologies and (ii) which radio settings can sustain a high delivery rate while maximizing energy-efficiency. To shed light on this matter, this paper presents an extensive experimental study of the reliability of LoRa , one of the most promising long-range low-power wireless technologies to date. We focus our evaluation on the impact of physical layer settings on the effective data rate and energy efficiency of communications. Our results show that it is often not worth tuning parameters, thereby reducing the data rate in order to maximize the probability of successful reception, especially on links at the edge of their communication range. Furthermore, we study the impact of environmental factors on the performance of LoRa, and show that higher temperatures significantly decrease the received signal strength and may drastically affect packet reception. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Relayer-Enabled Retransmission Scheduling in 802.15.4e LLDN—Exploring a Reinforcement Learning Approach
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(2), 6; doi:10.3390/jsan6020006 -
Abstract
We consider the scheduling of retransmissions in the low-latency deterministic network (LLDN) extension to the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. We propose a number of retransmission schemes with varying degrees of required changes to the LLDN specification. In particular, we propose a retransmission scheme that
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We consider the scheduling of retransmissions in the low-latency deterministic network (LLDN) extension to the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. We propose a number of retransmission schemes with varying degrees of required changes to the LLDN specification. In particular, we propose a retransmission scheme that uses cooperative relayers and where the best relayer for a source node is learned using a reinforcement-learning method. The method allows for adapting relayer selections in the face of time-varying channels. Our results show that the relayer-based methods achieve a much better reliability over the other methods, both over static (but unknown) and over time-varying channels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Secure and Connected Wearable Intelligence for Content Delivery at a Mass Event: A Case Study
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(2), 5; doi:10.3390/jsan6020005 -
Abstract
Presently, smart and connected wearable systems, such as on-body sensors and head-mounted displays, as well as other small form factor but powerful personal computers are rapidly pervading all areas of our life. Motivated by the opportunities that next-generation wearable intelligence is expected to
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Presently, smart and connected wearable systems, such as on-body sensors and head-mounted displays, as well as other small form factor but powerful personal computers are rapidly pervading all areas of our life. Motivated by the opportunities that next-generation wearable intelligence is expected to provide, the goal of this work is to build a comprehensive understanding around some of the user-centric security and trust aspects of the emerging wearable and close-to-body wireless systems operating in mass events and under heterogeneous conditions. The paper thus intends to bring the attention of the research community to this emerging paradigm and discuss the pressing security and connectivity challenges within a popular consumer context. Our selected target scenario is that of a sports match, where wearable-equipped users may receive their preferred data over various radio access protocols. We also propose an authentication framework that allows for delivery of the desired content securely within the considered ecosystem. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Wireless Power Transfer Protocols in Sensor Networks: Experiments and Simulations
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(2), 4; doi:10.3390/jsan6020004 -
Abstract
Rapid technological advances in the domain of Wireless Power Transfer pave the way for novel methods for power management in systems of wireless devices, and recent research works have already started considering algorithmic solutions for tackling emerging problems. In this paper, we investigate
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Rapid technological advances in the domain of Wireless Power Transfer pave the way for novel methods for power management in systems of wireless devices, and recent research works have already started considering algorithmic solutions for tackling emerging problems. In this paper, we investigate the problem of efficient and balanced Wireless Power Transfer in Wireless Sensor Networks. We employ wireless chargers that replenish the energy of network nodes. We propose two protocols that configure the activity of the chargers. One protocol performs wireless charging focused on the charging efficiency, while the other aims at proper balance of the chargers’ residual energy. We conduct detailed experiments using real devices and we validate the experimental results via larger scale simulations. We observe that, in both the experimental evaluation and the evaluation through detailed simulations, both protocols achieve their main goals. The Charging Oriented protocol achieves good charging efficiency throughout the experiment, while the Energy Balancing protocol achieves a uniform distribution of energy within the chargers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Adaptive Transmission Protocol for Mobile Sensors that Improves Energy Efficiency and Removes the Limitation of State Based Adaptive Power Control Protocol (SAPC)
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(1), 3; doi:10.3390/jsan6010003 -
Abstract
In this paper, we have presented a novel transmission protocol which is suited for battery-powered sensors that are worn by a patient when under medical treatment, and allow constant monitoring of health indices. These body-wearable sensors log data from the patient and transmit
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In this paper, we have presented a novel transmission protocol which is suited for battery-powered sensors that are worn by a patient when under medical treatment, and allow constant monitoring of health indices. These body-wearable sensors log data from the patient and transmit the data to a base-station or gateway, via a wireless link at specific intervals. The signal link quality varies because the distance between the patient and the gateway is not fixed. This may lead to packet drops that increase the energy consumption due to repeated retransmission. The proposed novel transmission power control protocol combines a state based adaptive power control (SAPC) algorithm and an intelligent adaptive drop-off algorithm, to track the changes in the link quality, in order to maintain an acceptable Packet success rate (PSR)(~99%). This removes the limitation of the SAPC by making the drop-off rate adaptive. Simulations were conducted to emulate a subject’s movement in different physical scenarios—an indoor office environment and an outdoor running track. The simulation results were validated through experiments in which the transmitter, together with the sensor mounted on the subject, and the subject themselves were made to move freely within the communicable range. Results showed that the proposed protocol performs at par with the best performing SAPC corresponding to a fixed drop-off rate value. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Framework for Multiple Object Tracking in Underwater Acoustic MIMO Communication Channels
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(1), 2; doi:10.3390/jsan6010002 -
Abstract
This work presents a computational framework for the analysis and design of large-scale algorithms utilized in the estimation of acoustic, doubly-dispersive, randomly time-variant, underwater communication channels. Channel estimation results are used, in turn, in the proposed framework for the development of efficient high
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This work presents a computational framework for the analysis and design of large-scale algorithms utilized in the estimation of acoustic, doubly-dispersive, randomly time-variant, underwater communication channels. Channel estimation results are used, in turn, in the proposed framework for the development of efficient high performance algorithms, based on fast Fourier transformations, for the search, detection, estimation and tracking (SDET) of underwater moving objects through acoustic wavefront signal analysis techniques associated with real-time electronic surveillance and acoustic monitoring (eSAM) operations. Particular importance is given in this work to the estimation of the range and speed of deep underwater moving objects modeled as point targets. The work demonstrates how to use Kronecker products signal algebra (KSA), a branch of finite-dimensional tensor signal algebra, as a mathematical language for the formulation of novel variants of parallel orthogonal matching pursuit (POMP) algorithms, as well as a programming aid for mapping these algorithms to large-scale computational structures, using a modified Kuck’s paradigm for parallel computation. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of JSAN in 2016
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(1), 1; doi:10.3390/jsan6010001 -
Abstract
The editors of JSAN would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Cloud-Enhanced Robotic System for Smart City Crowd Control
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2016, 5(4), 20; doi:10.3390/jsan5040020 -
Abstract
Cloud robotics in smart cities is an emerging paradigm that enables autonomous robotic agents to communicate and collaborate with a cloud computing infrastructure. It complements the Internet of Things (IoT) by creating an expanded network where robots offload data-intensive computation to the ubiquitous
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Cloud robotics in smart cities is an emerging paradigm that enables autonomous robotic agents to communicate and collaborate with a cloud computing infrastructure. It complements the Internet of Things (IoT) by creating an expanded network where robots offload data-intensive computation to the ubiquitous cloud to ensure quality of service (QoS). However, offloading for robots is significantly complex due to their unique characteristics of mobility, skill-learning, data collection, and decision-making capabilities. In this paper, a generic cloud robotics framework is proposed to realize smart city vision while taking into consideration its various complexities. Specifically, we present an integrated framework for a crowd control system where cloud-enhanced robots are deployed to perform necessary tasks. The task offloading is formulated as a constrained optimization problem capable of handling any task flow that can be characterized by a Direct Acyclic Graph (DAG). We consider two scenarios of minimizing energy and time, respectively, and develop a genetic algorithm (GA)-based approach to identify the optimal task offloading decisions. The performance comparison with two benchmarks shows that our GA scheme achieves desired energy and time performance. We also show the adaptability of our algorithm by varying the values for bandwidth and movement. The results suggest their impact on offloading. Finally, we present a multi-task flow optimal path sequence problem that highlights how the robot can plan its task completion via movements that expend the minimum energy. This integrates path planning with offloading for robotics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to evaluate cloud-based task offloading for a smart city crowd control system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reducing Side-Sweep Accidents with Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2016, 5(4), 19; doi:10.3390/jsan5040019 -
Abstract
Side-sweep accidents are one of the major causes of loss of life and property damage on highways. This type of accident is caused by a driver initiating a lane change while another vehicle is blocking the road in the target lane. In this
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Side-sweep accidents are one of the major causes of loss of life and property damage on highways. This type of accident is caused by a driver initiating a lane change while another vehicle is blocking the road in the target lane. In this article, we are trying to quantify the degree to which different implementations of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication could reduce the occurrence of such accidents. We present the design of a simulator that takes into account common sources of lack of driver awareness such as blind-spots and lack of attention. Then, we study the impact of both traditional, non-technological communication means such as turning signals as well as unidirectional and bidirectional V2V communications. Full article
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