Open AccessReview
NK Cells and Their Role in Invasive Mold Infection
J. Fungi 2017, 3(2), 25; doi:10.3390/jof3020025 -
Abstract
There is growing evidence that Natural Killer (NK) cells exhibit in vitro activity against both Aspergillus and non-Aspergillus molds. Cytotoxic molecules such as NK cell-derived perforin seem to play an important role in the antifungal activity. In addition, NK cells release a
[...] Read more.
There is growing evidence that Natural Killer (NK) cells exhibit in vitro activity against both Aspergillus and non-Aspergillus molds. Cytotoxic molecules such as NK cell-derived perforin seem to play an important role in the antifungal activity. In addition, NK cells release a number of cytokines upon stimulation by fungi, which modulate both innate and adaptive host immune responses. Whereas the in vitro data of the antifungal activity of NK cells are supported by animal studies, clinical data are scarce to date. Full article
Open AccessReview
Revisiting Species Distribution and Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida Bloodstream Isolates from Latin American Medical Centers
J. Fungi 2017, 3(2), 24; doi:10.3390/jof3020024 -
Abstract
The epidemiology of candidemia varies geographically, and there is still scarce data on the epidemiology of candidemia in Latin America (LA). After extensive revision of medical literature, we found reliable and robust information on the microbiological aspects of candidemia in patients from 11
[...] Read more.
The epidemiology of candidemia varies geographically, and there is still scarce data on the epidemiology of candidemia in Latin America (LA). After extensive revision of medical literature, we found reliable and robust information on the microbiological aspects of candidemia in patients from 11 out of 21 medical centers from LA countries and 1 out of 20 from Caribbean countries/territories. Based on 40 papers attending our search strategy, we noted that C. albicans remains the most common species causing candidemia in our region, followed by C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. In Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia, a trend towards an increase in frequency of C. glabrata candidemia was observed. Although resistance rates to fluconazole is under 3%, there was a slight increase in the resistance rates to C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis isolates. Echinocandin resistance has been reported in a few surveys, but no single study confirmed the resistant phenotype reported by using molecular methods. We highlight the importance of conducting continuous surveillance studies to identify new trends in terms of species distribution of Candida and antifungal resistance related to episodes of candidemia in LA. This information is critical for helping clinicians to prevent and control Candida bloodstream infections in their medical centers. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Local-Level Genetic Diversity and Structure of Matsutake Mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake) Populations in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, Revealed by 15 Microsatellite Markers
J. Fungi 2017, 3(2), 23; doi:10.3390/jof3020023 -
Abstract
The annual yield of matsutake mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake) has consistently decreased in Japan over the past few decades. We used 15 polymorphic and codominant simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, developed using next-generation sequencing, to carry out genetic analyses of 10 populations
[...] Read more.
The annual yield of matsutake mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake) has consistently decreased in Japan over the past few decades. We used 15 polymorphic and codominant simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, developed using next-generation sequencing, to carry out genetic analyses of 10 populations in Nagano, Japan. Using the SSRs, we identified 223 genotypes, none of which was observed in more than one population. The mean expected heterozygosity and standardized allelic richness values were 0.67 and 4.05, respectively. Many alleles appeared in only one of the 10 populations; 34 of these private alleles were detected with a mean number per population of 3.4. The fixation index (FST) and standardized genetic differentiation (GST) values were 0.019 and 0.028, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that the contribution of among population, among genets within a population, and within genets variation to the total variation was 2.91%, 11.62%, and 85.47%, respectively, with genetic differentiation being detected for all sources. Twenty-eight of 45 pairwise FST values were significantly larger than zero, and no pattern of isolation by distance was detected among the 10 populations. Bayesian-based clustering did not show clear differences among populations. These results suggest that reestablishment of a colony would be best accomplished by transplantation within a field; if this is not possible, then transplantation from within several dozen kilometers will cause little damage to the original population genetic structure. Full article
Figures

Open AccessReview
Fungal Biofilms and Polymicrobial Diseases
J. Fungi 2017, 3(2), 22; doi:10.3390/jof3020022 -
Abstract
Biofilm formation is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi. Both yeasts and filamentous fungi can adhere to biotic and abiotic surfaces, developing into highly organized communities that are resistant to antimicrobials and environmental conditions. In recent years, new genera of fungi have
[...] Read more.
Biofilm formation is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi. Both yeasts and filamentous fungi can adhere to biotic and abiotic surfaces, developing into highly organized communities that are resistant to antimicrobials and environmental conditions. In recent years, new genera of fungi have been correlated with biofilm formation. However, Candida biofilms remain the most widely studied from the morphological and molecular perspectives. Biofilms formed by yeast and filamentous fungi present differences, and studies of polymicrobial communities have become increasingly important. A key feature of resistance is the extracellular matrix, which covers and protects biofilm cells from the surrounding environment. Furthermore, to achieve cell–cell communication, microorganisms secrete quorum-sensing molecules that control their biological activities and behaviors and play a role in fungal resistance and pathogenicity. Several in vitro techniques have been developed to study fungal biofilms, from colorimetric methods to omics approaches that aim to identify new therapeutic strategies by developing new compounds to combat these microbial communities as well as new diagnostic tools to identify these complex formations in vivo. In this review, recent advances related to pathogenic fungal biofilms are addressed. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Assessment of Grapevine Wood Colonization by the Dieback Fungus Eutypa lata
J. Fungi 2017, 3(2), 21; doi:10.3390/jof3020021 -
Abstract
Eutypa lata is a fungal pathogen causing severe dieback in vineyards worldwide. This fungus colonizes vines through pruning wounds, eventually causing a brown sectorial necrosis in wood as well as stunted vegetative growth. Several years may pass between infection and the expression of
[...] Read more.
Eutypa lata is a fungal pathogen causing severe dieback in vineyards worldwide. This fungus colonizes vines through pruning wounds, eventually causing a brown sectorial necrosis in wood as well as stunted vegetative growth. Several years may pass between infection and the expression of external symptoms, hindering the rapid evaluation of both grapevine cultivars susceptibility and E. lata variation in aggressiveness. We aimed to develop a rapid quantitative method for the assessment of wood colonization after inoculation of cuttings in controlled conditions. We used several grape cultivars varying in susceptibility in the vineyard and fungal isolates with different levels of aggressiveness to monitor wood colonization during a maximum period of 2 months. Re-isolation allowed demonstration of the effects of both cultivars and fungal isolates on the rate of wood colonization. We also developed a real-time PCR method that was efficient in measuring fungal biomass, which was found to be correlated with isolate aggressiveness based on foliar symptom severity. The real-time PCR approach appears to be a useful technology to evaluate grapevine susceptibility to E. lata, and could be adapted to other pathogens associated with grapevine trunk diseases. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An Assessment of In Vitro Antifungal Activities of Efinaconazole and Itraconazole against Common Non-Dermatophyte Fungi Causing Onychomycosis
J. Fungi 2017, 3(2), 20; doi:10.3390/jof3020020 -
Abstract
Onychomycosis is a fungal nail infection which is relatively common and difficult to treat. Treatment modalities include nail avulsion, surgical debridement and combination therapy with oral and topical antifungal drugs. In spite of a host of available drugs, clinical cure rates remain discouraging.
[...] Read more.
Onychomycosis is a fungal nail infection which is relatively common and difficult to treat. Treatment modalities include nail avulsion, surgical debridement and combination therapy with oral and topical antifungal drugs. In spite of a host of available drugs, clinical cure rates remain discouraging. Drug toxicities, prolonged regimens, lack of patient compliance, and high keratin affinity of drugs are all contributive factors. Efinaconazole is a novel topical triazole antifungal agent that has shown excellent in vitro activity against both dermatophyte and non-dermatophyte fungi causing onychomycosis. This study presents the in vitro susceptibility profiles of 44 common non-dermatophyte fungi against efinaconazole and itraconazole, another azole drug used in the treatment of onychomycosis. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Fusarium: A Practical Approach
J. Fungi 2017, 3(2), 19; doi:10.3390/jof3020019 -
Abstract
In vitro susceptibility testing of Fusarium is becoming increasingly important because of frequency and diversity of infections and because resistance profiles are species-specific. Reference methods for antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) are those of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on
[...] Read more.
In vitro susceptibility testing of Fusarium is becoming increasingly important because of frequency and diversity of infections and because resistance profiles are species-specific. Reference methods for antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) are those of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility (EUCAST), but breakpoints (BPs) have not yet been established. One of the problems is that phylogenetic distances between Fusarium species are much smaller than between species of, e.g., Candida. Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) for some Fusarium species have been determined in order to differentiate wild-type from non-wild-type isolates. In clinical routine, commercially available assays such as Etest, Sensititre or others provide essential agreement with reference methods. Our objective is to summarize antifungal susceptibility testing of Fusarium genus in the clinical laboratory: how to do it, when to do it, and how to interpret it. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Reduced Multidrug Susceptibility Profile Is a Common Feature of Opportunistic Fusarium Species: Fusarium Multi-Drug Resistant Pattern
J. Fungi 2017, 3(2), 18; doi:10.3390/jof3020018 -
Abstract
The resistance among various opportunistic Fusarium species to different antifungal agents has emerged as a cause of public health problems worldwide. Considering the significance of multi-drug resistant (MDR), this paper emphasizes the problems associated with MDR and the need to understand its clinical
[...] Read more.
The resistance among various opportunistic Fusarium species to different antifungal agents has emerged as a cause of public health problems worldwide. Considering the significance of multi-drug resistant (MDR), this paper emphasizes the problems associated with MDR and the need to understand its clinical significance to combat microbial infections. The search platform PubMed/MEDLINE and a review of 32 cases revealed a common multidrug-resistant profile exists, and clinically relevant members of Fusarium are intrinsically resistant to most currently used antifungals. Dissemination occurs in patients with prolonged neutropenia, immune deficiency, and especially hematological malignancies. Amphotericin B displayed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrarions (MICs) followed by voriconazole, and posaconazole. Itraconazole and fluconazole showed high MIC values, displaying in vitro resistance. Echinocandins showed the highest MIC values. Seven out of ten (70%) patients with neutropenia died, including those with fungemia that progressed to skin lesions. Clinical Fusarium isolates displayed a common MDR profile and high MIC values for the most available antifungal agents with species- and strain-specific differences in antifungal susceptibility. Species identification of Fusarium infections is important. While the use of natamycin resulted in a favorable outcome in keratitis, AmB and VRC are the most used agents for the treatment of fusariosis in clinical settings. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Molecular Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility Patterns of Clinical Dermatophytes Following CLSI and EUCAST Guidelines
J. Fungi 2017, 3(2), 17; doi:10.3390/jof3020017 -
Abstract
Dermatophytes are associated with superficial infections in humans worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the species distribution and susceptibility patterns of clinical dermatophytes. Samples received for routine mycological processing from 124 suspected cases attending a dermatologic clinic in a
[...] Read more.
Dermatophytes are associated with superficial infections in humans worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the species distribution and susceptibility patterns of clinical dermatophytes. Samples received for routine mycological processing from 124 suspected cases attending a dermatologic clinic in a tertiary care hospital were included in the study. On direct microscopy, 74.1% (92/124) were positive and 53.2% (66/124) grew on culture. The isolates were comprised of Trichophytoninterdigitale (56%) followed by Trichophytontonsurans (25.7%), Trichophytonrubrum (7.5%), Trichophytonviolaceum (4.5%), Microsporumgypseum (4.5%), and Trichophytonverrucosum (1.5%). Conventional mycological identification was concordant with ITS sequencing except for T.mentagrophytes. High minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values (geometric mean, >1 µg/mL) were observed for T.tonsurans and T.rubrum to terbinafine and griseofulvin. This study highlights the shift in epidemiology from T.rubrum to T.interdigitale. It also raises a concern of high MICs of terbinafine and griseofulvin among our isolates. Surveillance of antifungal susceptibility patterns can provide clinicians with local MIC data that can further aid in guiding better management in relapse cases of dermatomycosis. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Activity of Amphotericin B and Anidulafungin Combined with Rifampicin, Clarithromycin, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid, N-Acetylcysteine, and Farnesol against Candida tropicalis Biofilms
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 16; doi:10.3390/jof3010016 -
Abstract
We evaluated the activity of (1) amphotericin-B (AMB), combined with rifampicin (RIF), clarithromycin (CLA), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and farnesol (FAR) (1000, 1000, 1000, 4000, and 30,000 mg/L, and 300 µM, respectively), against Candida tropicalis biofilms formed on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and
[...] Read more.
We evaluated the activity of (1) amphotericin-B (AMB), combined with rifampicin (RIF), clarithromycin (CLA), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and farnesol (FAR) (1000, 1000, 1000, 4000, and 30,000 mg/L, and 300 µM, respectively), against Candida tropicalis biofilms formed on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and (2) anidulafungin (ANF) combined with the same compounds at 8, 10, 5, 40, and 30 mg/L, and 30 µM, respectively, against biofilms formed on titanium. Biofilm growth kinetics were performed in a CDC Biofilm Reactor (CBR). PTFE or titanium disks were removed from the CBR at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h to determine the Log10CFU/cm2. Killing kinetics were performed by adding the drugs to 24-h-mature biofilms (time 0). Disks were removed after 24, 48, and 72 h of drug exposure to determine Log10CFU/cm2. Viable cells in biofilms were 4.73 and 4.29 Log10CFU/cm2 on PTFE and titanium, respectively. Maximum Log10 decreases in CFU/cm2 depend on the combination and were: 3.53 (AMB + EDTA), 2.65 (AMB + RIF), 3.07 (AMB + NAC), 2.52 (AMB + CLA), 1.49 (AMB + FAR), 2.26 (ANF + EDTA), 2.45 (ANF + RIF), 2.47 (ANF + NAC), 1.52 (ANF + CLA), and 0.44 (ANF + FAR). In conclusion, EDTA, NAC, RIF, and CLA improve the activity of AMB and ANF against biofilms developed on both surfaces, which could be an effective strategy against C. tropicalis biofilm-related infections. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Microscopic Analysis of Pigments Extracted from Spalting Fungi
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 15; doi:10.3390/jof3010015 -
Abstract
Pigments that are currently available in the market usually come from synthetic sources, or, if natural, often need mordants to bind to the target substrate. Recent research on the fungal pigment extracts from Scytalidium cuboideum, Scytalidium ganodermophthorum, Chlorociboria aeruginosa, and
[...] Read more.
Pigments that are currently available in the market usually come from synthetic sources, or, if natural, often need mordants to bind to the target substrate. Recent research on the fungal pigment extracts from Scytalidium cuboideum, Scytalidium ganodermophthorum, Chlorociboria aeruginosa, and Chlorociboria aeruginascens have been shown to successfully dye materials, like wood, bamboo, and textiles, however, there is no information about their binding mechanisms. Due to this, a microscopic study was performed to provide information to future manufacturers interested in these pigments. The results of this study show that S. ganodermophthorum and C. aeruginosa form an amorphous layer on substrates, while S. cuboideum forms crystal-like structures. The attachment and morphology indicate that there might be different chemical and physical interactions between the extracted pigments and the materials. This possibility can explain the high resistance of the pigments to UV light and color fastness that makes them competitive against synthetic pigments. These properties make these pigments a viable option for an industry that demands natural pigments with the properties of the synthetic ones. Full article
Figures

Open AccessReview
The Candida albicans Biofilm Matrix: Composition, Structure and Function
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 14; doi:10.3390/jof3010014 -
Abstract
A majority of infections caused by Candida albicans—the most frequent fungal pathogen—are associated with biofilm formation. A salient feature of C. albicans biofilms is the presence of the biofilm matrix. This matrix is composed of exopolymeric materials secreted by sessile cells within
[...] Read more.
A majority of infections caused by Candida albicans—the most frequent fungal pathogen—are associated with biofilm formation. A salient feature of C. albicans biofilms is the presence of the biofilm matrix. This matrix is composed of exopolymeric materials secreted by sessile cells within the biofilm, in which all classes of macromolecules are represented, and provides protection against environmental challenges. In this review, we summarize the knowledge accumulated during the last two decades on the composition, structure, and function of the C. albicans biofilm matrix. Knowledge of the matrix components, its structure, and function will help pave the way to novel strategies to combat C. albicans biofilm infections. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Real-Time Approach to Flow Cell Imaging of Candida albicans Biofilm Development
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 13; doi:10.3390/jof3010013 -
Abstract
The ability of Candida albicans to form biofilms is a virulence factor that allows tissue attachment and subsequent infection of host tissues. Fungal biofilms have been particularly well studied, however the vast majority of these studies have been conducted under static conditions. Oral
[...] Read more.
The ability of Candida albicans to form biofilms is a virulence factor that allows tissue attachment and subsequent infection of host tissues. Fungal biofilms have been particularly well studied, however the vast majority of these studies have been conducted under static conditions. Oral biofilms form in the presence of salivary flow, therefore we developed a novel flow system used for real-time imaging of fungal biofilm development. C. albicans wild-type (WT) cells readily attached to the substrate surface during the 2 h attachment phase, then formed heterogeneous biofilms after 18 h flow. Quantitative values for biomass, rates of attachment and detachment, and cell–cell adhesion events were obtained for C. albicans WT cells and for a hyperfilamentous mutant Δhog1. Attachment rates of C. albicans WT cells were nearly 2-fold higher than C. albicans Δhog1 cells, although Δhog1 cells formed 4-fold higher biomass. The reduced normalized detachment rate was the primary factor responsible for the increased biomass of Δhog1 biofilm, showing that cell detachment rates are an important predictor for ultimate biofilm mass under flow. Unlike static biofilms, C. albicans cells under constant laminar flow undergo continuous detachment and seeding that may be more representative of the development of in vivo biofilms. Full article
Figures

Open AccessReview
Candida glabrata Biofilms: How Far Have We Come?
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 11; doi:10.3390/jof3010011 -
Abstract
Infections caused by Candida species have been increasing in the last decades and can result in local or systemic infections, with high morbidity and mortality. After Candida albicans, Candida glabrata is one of the most prevalent pathogenic fungi in humans. In addition
[...] Read more.
Infections caused by Candida species have been increasing in the last decades and can result in local or systemic infections, with high morbidity and mortality. After Candida albicans, Candida glabrata is one of the most prevalent pathogenic fungi in humans. In addition to the high antifungal drugs resistance and inability to form hyphae or secret hydrolases, C. glabrata retain many virulence factors that contribute to its extreme aggressiveness and result in a low therapeutic response and serious recurrent candidiasis, particularly biofilm formation ability. For their extraordinary organization, especially regarding the complex structure of the matrix, biofilms are very resistant to antifungal treatments. Thus, new approaches to the treatment of C. glabrata’s biofilms are emerging. In this article, the knowledge available on C. glabrata’s resistance will be highlighted, with a special focus on biofilms, as well as new therapeutic alternatives to control them. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Blue Mold Penicillium Species Isolated from Stored Fruits Using Multiple Highly Conserved Loci
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 12; doi:10.3390/jof3010012 -
Abstract
Penicillium is a large genus of common molds with over 400 described species; however, identification of individual species is difficult, including for those species that cause postharvest rots. In this study, blue rot fungi from stored apples and pears were isolated from a
[...] Read more.
Penicillium is a large genus of common molds with over 400 described species; however, identification of individual species is difficult, including for those species that cause postharvest rots. In this study, blue rot fungi from stored apples and pears were isolated from a variety of hosts, locations, and years. Based on morphological and cultural characteristics and partial amplification of the β-tubulin locus, the isolates were provisionally identified as several different species of Penicillium. These isolates were investigated further using a suite of molecular DNA markers and compared to sequences of the ex-type for cognate species in GenBank, and were identified as P. expansum (3 isolates), P. solitum (3 isolates), P. carneum (1 isolate), and P. paneum (1 isolate). Three of the markers we used (ITS, internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence; benA, β-tubulin; CaM, calmodulin) were suitable for distinguishing most of our isolates from one another at the species level. In contrast, we were unable to amplify RPB2 sequences from four of the isolates. Comparison of our sequences with cognate sequences in GenBank from isolates with the same species names did not always give coherent data, reinforcing earlier studies that have shown large intraspecific variability in many Penicillium species, as well as possible errors in some sequence data deposited in GenBank. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
The Crucial Role of Biofilms in Cryptococcus neoformans Survival within Macrophages and Colonization of the Central Nervous System
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 10; doi:10.3390/jof3010010 -
Abstract
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus capable of causing life threatening meningoencephalitis in patients with impaired immunity. This microbe primarily infects the host via inhalation but has the ability to disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS) either as a single cell
[...] Read more.
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus capable of causing life threatening meningoencephalitis in patients with impaired immunity. This microbe primarily infects the host via inhalation but has the ability to disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS) either as a single cell or inside of macrophages. Upon traversing the blood brain barrier, C. neoformans has the capacity to form biofilm-like structures known as cryptococcomas. Hence, we will discuss the C. neoformans elements contributing to biofilm formation including the fungus’ ability to survive in the acidic environment of a macrophage phagosome and inside of the CNS. The purpose of this mini-review is to instill fresh interest in understanding the importance of biofilms on fungal pathogenesis. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Combinatorial Biosynthesis of Novel Multi-Hydroxy Carotenoids in the Red Yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 9; doi:10.3390/jof3010009 -
Abstract
The red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is an established platform for the synthesis of carotenoids. It was used for the generation of novel multi oxygenated carotenoid structures. This was achieved by a combinatorial approach starting with the selection of a β-carotene accumulating mutant, stepwise
[...] Read more.
The red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is an established platform for the synthesis of carotenoids. It was used for the generation of novel multi oxygenated carotenoid structures. This was achieved by a combinatorial approach starting with the selection of a β-carotene accumulating mutant, stepwise pathway engineering by integration of three microbial genes into the genome and finally the chemical reduction of the resulting 4,4’-diketo-nostoxanthin (2,3,2’,3’-tetrahydroxy-4,4’-diketo-β-carotene) and 4-keto-nostoxanthin (2,3,2’,3’-tetrahydroxy-4-monoketo-β-carotene). Both keto carotenoids and the resulting 4,4’-dihydroxy-nostoxanthin (2,3,4,2’,3’,4’-hexahydroxy-β-carotene) and 4-hydroxy-nostoxanthin (2,3,4,2’3’-pentahydroxy-β-carotene) were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Their molecular masses and fragmentation patterns allowed the unequivocal identification of all four carotenoids. Full article
Figures

Open AccessReview
Candida Species Biofilms’ Antifungal Resistance
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 8; doi:10.3390/jof3010008 -
Abstract
Candida infections (candidiasis) are the most prevalent opportunistic fungal infection on humans and, as such, a major public health problem. In recent decades, candidiasis has been associated to Candida species other than Candida albicans. Moreover, biofilms have been considered the most prevalent
[...] Read more.
Candida infections (candidiasis) are the most prevalent opportunistic fungal infection on humans and, as such, a major public health problem. In recent decades, candidiasis has been associated to Candida species other than Candida albicans. Moreover, biofilms have been considered the most prevalent growth form of Candida cells and a strong causative agent of the intensification of antifungal resistance. As yet, no specific resistance factor has been identified as the sole responsible for the increased recalcitrance to antifungal agents exhibited by biofilms. Instead, biofilm antifungal resistance is a complex multifactorial phenomenon, which still remains to be fully elucidated and understood. The different mechanisms, which may be responsible for the intrinsic resistance of Candida species biofilms, include the high density of cells within the biofilm, the growth and nutrient limitation, the effects of the biofilm matrix, the presence of persister cells, the antifungal resistance gene expression and the increase of sterols on the membrane of biofilm cells. Thus, this review intends to provide information on the recent advances about Candida species biofilm antifungal resistance and its implication on intensification of the candidiasis. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Global Aspects of Triazole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus with Focus on Latin American Countries
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 5; doi:10.3390/jof3010005 -
Abstract
Azole resistance in Aspergillus has emerged as an escalating problem in health care, and it has been detected in patients exposed, or not, to these drugs. It is known that azole antifungals are widely applied not only in clinical treatments for fungal infections,
[...] Read more.
Azole resistance in Aspergillus has emerged as an escalating problem in health care, and it has been detected in patients exposed, or not, to these drugs. It is known that azole antifungals are widely applied not only in clinical treatments for fungal infections, but also as agricultural fungicides, resulting in a significant threat for human health. Although the number of cases of azole-resistant aspergillosis is still limited, various resistance mechanisms are described from clinical and environmental isolates. These mechanisms consist mainly of alterations in the target of azole action (CYP51A gene)—specifically on TR34/L98H and TR46/Y121F/T289A, which are responsible for over 90% of resistance cases. This review summarizes the epidemiology, management, and extension of azole resistance in A. fumigatus worldwide and its potential impact in Latin American countries, emphasizing its relevance to clinical practice. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Cutaneous Disseminated and Extracutaneous Sporotrichosis: Current Status of a Complex Disease
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 6; doi:10.3390/jof3010006 -
Abstract
Sporotrichosis is an implantation or inoculation mycosis caused by species of Sporothrix schenckii complex; its main manifestations are limited to skin; however, cutaneous-disseminated, disseminated (visceral) and extracutaneous variants of sporotrichosis can be associated with immunosuppression, including HIV-AIDS, chronic alcoholism or more virulent strains.
[...] Read more.
Sporotrichosis is an implantation or inoculation mycosis caused by species of Sporothrix schenckii complex; its main manifestations are limited to skin; however, cutaneous-disseminated, disseminated (visceral) and extracutaneous variants of sporotrichosis can be associated with immunosuppression, including HIV-AIDS, chronic alcoholism or more virulent strains. The most common extracutaneous form of sporotrichosis includes pulmonary, osteoarticular and meningeal. The laboratory diagnosis requires observing yeast forms and isolating the fungus; the two main causative agents are Sporothrix schenckii (ss) and Sporothrix brasiliensis. Antibody levels and species recognition by Polimerase Chain Reaction using biological samples or cultures are also useful. The treatment of choice for most cases is amphotericin B and subsequent itraconazole for maintenance therapy. Full article
Figures