Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Novel Heterocyclic Compounds on Cryptococcal Biofilm
J. Fungi 2017, 3(3), 42; doi:10.3390/jof3030042 -
Abstract
Biofilm formation by microorganisms depends on their communication by quorum sensing, which is mediated by small diffusible signaling molecules that accumulate in the extracellular environment. During human infection, the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans can form biofilm on medical devices, which protects the organism
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Biofilm formation by microorganisms depends on their communication by quorum sensing, which is mediated by small diffusible signaling molecules that accumulate in the extracellular environment. During human infection, the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans can form biofilm on medical devices, which protects the organism and increases its resistance to antifungal agents. The aim of this study was to test two novel heterocyclic compounds, S-8 (thiazolidinedione derivative, TZD) and NA-8 (succinimide derivative, SI), for their anti-biofilm activity against strains of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Biofilms were formed in a defined medium in 96-well polystyrene plates and 8-well micro-slides. The effect of sub-inhibitory concentrations of S-8 and NA-8 on biofilm formation was measured after 48 h by a metabolic reduction assay and by confocal laser microscopy analysis using fluorescent staining. The formation and development of cryptococcal biofilms was inhibited significantly by these compounds in concentrations below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. These compounds may have a potential role in preventing fungal biofilm development on indwelling medical devices or even as a therapeutic measure after the establishment of biofilm. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Strategies to Reduce Mortality in Adult and Neonatal Candidemia in Developing Countries
J. Fungi 2017, 3(3), 41; doi:10.3390/jof3030041 -
Abstract
Candidemia, the commonest invasive fungal infection, is associated with high morbidity and mortality in developing countries, though the exact prevalence is not known due to lack of systematic epidemiological data from those countries. The limited studies report a very high incidence of candidemia
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Candidemia, the commonest invasive fungal infection, is associated with high morbidity and mortality in developing countries, though the exact prevalence is not known due to lack of systematic epidemiological data from those countries. The limited studies report a very high incidence of candidemia and unique epidemiology with a different spectrum of Candida species. The recent global emergence of multi-drug resistant Candida auris is looming large as an important threat in hospitalized patients of developing countries. While managing candidemia cases in those countries several challenges are faced, which include poor infrastructure; compromised healthcare and infection control practices; misuse and overuse of antibiotics and steroids; lack of awareness in fungal infections; non-availability of advance diagnostic tests and antifungal drugs in many areas; poor compliance to antifungal therapy and stewardship program. Considering the above limitations, innovative strategies are required to reduce mortality due to candidemia in adults and neonates. In the present review, we have unraveled the challenges of candidemia faced by low resource countries and propose a ten part strategy to reduce mortality due candidemia. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Metabolic Interactions between Bacteria and Fungi in Commensal Oral Biofilms
J. Fungi 2017, 3(3), 40; doi:10.3390/jof3030040 -
Abstract
Oral health is more than just the absence of disease. The key to oral health is a diverse microbiome in an ecological balance. The oral microbiota is one of the most complex and diverse microbial communities in the human body. To maintain oral
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Oral health is more than just the absence of disease. The key to oral health is a diverse microbiome in an ecological balance. The oral microbiota is one of the most complex and diverse microbial communities in the human body. To maintain oral health, balance between the human host and the intrinsic microorganisms is essential. The healthy oral cavity is represented by a great microbial diversity, including both bacteria and fungi. The bacterial microbiome is very well studied. In contrast, fungi inhabiting the oral cavity are often overlooked. All microbial species in the oral cavity form communities which establish a variety of micro-niches and inter- and intra-species interactions. These interactions can be classified into three main groups: physical, chemical and metabolic interactions. Different metabolic interactions are reviewed in this report, among which are the metabolism of sugars, carbon, lactate and oxygen. This review set out with the aim of assessing the importance of metabolic interactions between fungi and bacteria in the healthy oral cavity. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Fusarium
J. Fungi 2017, 3(3), 39; doi:10.3390/jof3030039 -
Abstract
Many fungi of the genus Fusarium stand out for the complexity of their secondary metabolism. Individual species may differ in their metabolic capacities, but they usually share the ability to synthesize carotenoids, a family of hydrophobic terpenoid pigments widely distributed in nature. Early
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Many fungi of the genus Fusarium stand out for the complexity of their secondary metabolism. Individual species may differ in their metabolic capacities, but they usually share the ability to synthesize carotenoids, a family of hydrophobic terpenoid pigments widely distributed in nature. Early studies on carotenoid biosynthesis in Fusariumaquaeductuum have been recently extended in Fusarium fujikuroi and Fusarium oxysporum, well-known biotechnological and phytopathogenic models, respectively. The major Fusarium carotenoid is neurosporaxanthin, a carboxylic xanthophyll synthesized from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate through the activity of four enzymes, encoded by the genes carRA, carB, carT and carD. These fungi produce also minor amounts of β-carotene, which may be cleaved by the CarX oxygenase to produce retinal, the rhodopsin’s chromophore. The genes needed to produce retinal are organized in a gene cluster with a rhodopsin gene, while other carotenoid genes are not linked. In the investigated Fusarium species, the synthesis of carotenoids is induced by light through the transcriptional induction of the structural genes. In some species, deep-pigmented mutants with up-regulated expression of these genes are affected in the regulatory gene carS. The molecular mechanisms underlying the control by light and by the CarS protein are currently under investigation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Dyeing Properties of the Pigments Produced by Talaromyces spp.
J. Fungi 2017, 3(3), 38; doi:10.3390/jof3030038 -
Abstract
The high production yields of pigments by Talaromyces spp. and their high thermal stability have implied that industrial application interests may emerge in the food and textile industries, as they both involve subjecting the colourants to high temperatures. The present study aimed to
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The high production yields of pigments by Talaromyces spp. and their high thermal stability have implied that industrial application interests may emerge in the food and textile industries, as they both involve subjecting the colourants to high temperatures. The present study aimed to assess the potential application of the pigments produced by Talaromyces spp. in the textile area by studying their dyeing properties. Dyeing studies were performed on wool. The dyeing process consisted of three stages: scouring, mordanting, and dyeing. Two different mordants (alum, A; ferric chloride, F) were tested at different concentrations on fabric weight (A: 5, 10, 15%; F: 10, 20, 30%). The mordanting process had a significant effect on the final colour of the dyed fabrics obtained. The values of dyeing rate constant (k), half-time of dyeing (t1/2), and sorption kinetics behaviour were evaluated and discussed. The obtained results showed that pigments produced by Talaromyces spp. could serve as a source for the natural dyeing of wool textiles. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Methodological Issues in Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Malassezia pachydermatis
J. Fungi 2017, 3(3), 37; doi:10.3390/jof3030037 -
Abstract
Reference methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts have been developed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). These methods are intended to test the main pathogenic yeasts that cause invasive infections, namely
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Reference methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts have been developed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). These methods are intended to test the main pathogenic yeasts that cause invasive infections, namely Candida spp. and Cryptococcusneoformans, while testing other yeast species introduces several additional problems in standardization not addressed by these reference procedures. As a consequence, a number of procedures have been employed in the literature to test the antifungal susceptibility of Malassezia pachydermatis. This has resulted in conflicting results. The aim of the present study is to review the procedures and the technical parameters (growth media, inoculum preparation, temperature and length of incubation, method of reading) employed for susceptibility testing of M. pachydermatis, and when possible, to propose recommendations for or against their use. Such information may be useful for the future development of a reference assay. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biodiversity of Pigmented Fungi Isolated from Marine Environment in La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean: New Resources for Colored Metabolites
J. Fungi 2017, 3(3), 36; doi:10.3390/jof3030036 -
Abstract
Marine ecosystems cover about 70% of the planet surface and are still an underexploited source of useful metabolites. Among microbes, filamentous fungi are captivating organisms used for the production of many chemical classes of secondary metabolites bound to be used in various fields
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Marine ecosystems cover about 70% of the planet surface and are still an underexploited source of useful metabolites. Among microbes, filamentous fungi are captivating organisms used for the production of many chemical classes of secondary metabolites bound to be used in various fields of industrial application. The present study was focused on the collection, isolation, screening and genotyping of pigmented filamentous fungi isolated from tropical marine environments around La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean. About 150 micromycetes were revived and isolated from 14 marine samples (sediments, living corals, coral rubble, sea water and hard substrates) collected in four different locations. Forty-two colored fungal isolates belonging to 16 families, 25 genera and 31 species were further studied depending on their ability to produce pigments and thus subjected to molecular identification. From gene sequence analysis, the most frequently identified colored fungi belong to the widespread Penicillium, Talaromyces and Aspergillus genera in the family Trichocomaceae (11 species), then followed by the family Hypocreaceae (three species). This study demonstrates that marine biotopes in La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean, from coral reefs to underwater slopes of this volcanic island, shelter numerous species of micromycetes, from common or uncommon genera. This unstudied biodiversity comes along with the ability for some fungal marine inhabitants, to produce a range of pigments and hues. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Innate Immune Responses to Cryptococcus
J. Fungi 2017, 3(3), 35; doi:10.3390/jof3030035 -
Abstract
Cryptococcus species are encapsulated fungi found in the environment that predominantly cause disease in immunocompromised hosts after inhalation into the lungs. Even with contemporary antifungal regimens, patients with cryptococcosis continue to have high morbidity and mortality rates. The development of more effective therapies
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Cryptococcus species are encapsulated fungi found in the environment that predominantly cause disease in immunocompromised hosts after inhalation into the lungs. Even with contemporary antifungal regimens, patients with cryptococcosis continue to have high morbidity and mortality rates. The development of more effective therapies may depend on our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the host promotes sterilizing immunity against the fungus. This review will highlight our current knowledge of how Cryptococcus, primarily the species C. neoformans, is sensed by the mammalian host and how subsequent signaling pathways direct the anti-cryptococcal response by effector cells of the innate immune system. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Production and New Extraction Method of Polyketide Red Pigments Produced by Ascomycetous Fungi from Terrestrial and Marine Habitats
J. Fungi 2017, 3(3), 34; doi:10.3390/jof3030034 -
Abstract
The use of ascomycetous fungi as pigment producers opens the way to an alternative to synthetic dyes, especially in the red-dye industries, which have very few natural pigment alternatives. The present paper aimed to bio-prospect and screen out 15 selected ascomycetous fungal strains,
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The use of ascomycetous fungi as pigment producers opens the way to an alternative to synthetic dyes, especially in the red-dye industries, which have very few natural pigment alternatives. The present paper aimed to bio-prospect and screen out 15 selected ascomycetous fungal strains, originating from terrestrial and marine habitats belonging to seven different genera (Penicillium, Talaromyces, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Dreschlera, and Paecilomyces). We identified four strains, Penicillium purpurogenum rubisclerotium, Fusarium oxysporum, marine strains identified as Talaromyces spp., and Trichoderma atroviride, as potential red pigment producers. The extraction of the pigments is a crucial step, whereby the qualitative and quantitative compositions of each fungal extract need to be respected for reliable identification, as well as preserving bioactivity. Furthermore, there is a growing demand for more sustainable and cost-effective extraction methods. Therefore, a pressurized liquid extraction technique was carried out in this study, allowing a greener and faster extraction step of the pigments, while preserving their chemical structures and bioactivities in comparison to conventional extraction processes. The protocol was illustrated with the production of pigment extracts from P. purpurogenum rubisclerotium and Talaromyces spp. Extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid-chromatography combined with photodiode array-detection (HPLC-DAD) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). The more promising strain was the isolate Talaromyces spp. of marine origin. The main polyketide pigment produced by this strain has been characterized as N-threoninerubropunctamine, a non-toxic red Monascus-like azaphilone pigment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Perstraction of Intracellular Pigments through Submerged Fermentation of Talaromyces spp. in a Surfactant Rich Media: A Novel Approach for Enhanced Pigment Recovery
J. Fungi 2017, 3(3), 33; doi:10.3390/jof3030033 -
Abstract
A high percentage of the pigments produced by Talaromyces spp. remains inside the cell, which could lead to a high product concentration inhibition. To overcome this issue an extractive fermentation process, perstraction, was suggested, which involves the extraction of the intracellular products out
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A high percentage of the pigments produced by Talaromyces spp. remains inside the cell, which could lead to a high product concentration inhibition. To overcome this issue an extractive fermentation process, perstraction, was suggested, which involves the extraction of the intracellular products out of the cell by using a two-phase system during the fermentation. The present work studied the effect of various surfactants on secretion of intracellular pigments produced by Talaromyces spp. in submerged fermentation. Surfactants used were: non-ionic surfactants (Tween 80, Span 20 and Triton X-100) and a polyethylene glycerol polymer 8000, at different concentrations (5, 20, 35 g/L). The highest extracellular pigment yield (16 OD500nm) was reached using Triton X-100 (35 g/L), which was 44% higher than the control (no surfactant added). The effect of addition time of the selected surfactant was further studied. The highest extracellular pigment concentration (22 OD500nm) was achieved when the surfactant was added at 120 h of fermentation. Kinetics of extracellular and intracellular pigments were examined. Total pigment at the end of the fermentation using Triton X-100 was 27.7% higher than the control, confirming that the use of surfactants partially alleviated the product inhibition during the pigment production culture. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Role of Virulence Determinants in Candida albicans’ Resistance to Novel 2-bromo-2-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl)-1-phenylethanone
J. Fungi 2017, 3(3), 32; doi:10.3390/jof3030032 -
Abstract
We investigated the role of KEX2, SAP4-6, EFG1, and CPH1 in the virulence of Candida under a novel compound 2-bromo-2-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl)-1-phenylethanone (Compound 4). We examined whether the exposure of C. albicans cells to Compound 4, non-cytotoxic to mammalian cells,
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We investigated the role of KEX2, SAP4-6, EFG1, and CPH1 in the virulence of Candida under a novel compound 2-bromo-2-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl)-1-phenylethanone (Compound 4). We examined whether the exposure of C. albicans cells to Compound 4, non-cytotoxic to mammalian cells, reduces their adhesion to the human epithelium. We next assessed whether the exposure of C. albicans cells to Compound 4 modulates the anti-inflammatory response (IL-10) and induces human macrophages to respond to the Candida cells. There was a marked reduction in the growth of the sap4Δsap5Δsap6Δ mutant cells when incubated with Compound 4. Under Compound 4 (minimal fungicidal concentration MFC = 0.5–16 µg/mL): (1) wild type strain SC5314 showed a resistant phenotype with down-regulation of the KEX2 expression; (2) the following mutants of C.albicans: sap4Δ, sap5Δ, sap6Δ, and cph1Δ displayed decreased susceptibility with the paradoxical effect and up-regulation of the KEX2 expression compared to SC5314; (3) the immune recognition of C. albicans by macrophages and (4) the stimulation of IL-10 were not blocked ex vivo. The effect of deleting KEX2 in C. albicans had a minor impact on the direct activation of Compound 4’s antifungal activity. The adhesion of kex2Δ is lower than that of the wild parental strain SC5314, and tends to decrease if grown in the presence of a sub-endpoint concentration of Compound 4. Our results provide evidence that SAP4–6 play a role as regulators of the anti-Candida resistance to Compound 4. Compound 4 constitutes a suitable core to be further exploited for lead optimization to develop potent antimycotics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Macrophage Migration Is Impaired within Candida albicans Biofilms
J. Fungi 2017, 3(3), 31; doi:10.3390/jof3030031 -
Abstract
Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that infects immunocompromised patients. Infection control requires phagocytosis by innate immune cells, including macrophages. Migration towards, and subsequent recognition of, C. albicans fungal cell wall components by macrophages is critical for phagocytosis. Using live-cell imaging of
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Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that infects immunocompromised patients. Infection control requires phagocytosis by innate immune cells, including macrophages. Migration towards, and subsequent recognition of, C. albicans fungal cell wall components by macrophages is critical for phagocytosis. Using live-cell imaging of phagocytosis, the macrophage cell line J774.1 showed enhanced movement in response to C. albicans cell wall mutants, particularly during the first 30 min, irrespective of the infection ratio. However, phagocyte migration was reduced up to 2-fold within a C. albicans biofilm compared to planktonic fungal cells. Biofilms formed from C. albicans glycosylation mutant cells also inhibited macrophage migration to a similar extent as wildtype Candida biofilms, suggesting that the physical structure of the biofilm, rather than polysaccharide matrix composition, may hamper phagocyte migration. These data illustrate differential macrophage migratory capacities, dependent upon the form of C. albicans encountered. Impaired migration of macrophages within a C. albicans biofilm may contribute to the recalcitrant nature of clinical infections in which biofilm formation occurs. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Mode of Infection of Metarhizium spp. Fungus and Their Potential as Biological Control Agents
J. Fungi 2017, 3(2), 30; doi:10.3390/jof3020030 -
Abstract
Chemical insecticides have been commonly used to control agricultural pests, termites, and biological vectors such as mosquitoes and ticks. However, the harmful impacts of toxic chemical insecticides on the environment, the development of resistance in pests and vectors towards chemical insecticides, and public
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Chemical insecticides have been commonly used to control agricultural pests, termites, and biological vectors such as mosquitoes and ticks. However, the harmful impacts of toxic chemical insecticides on the environment, the development of resistance in pests and vectors towards chemical insecticides, and public concern have driven extensive research for alternatives, especially biological control agents such as fungus and bacteria. In this review, the mode of infection of Metarhizium fungus on both terrestrial and aquatic insect larvae and how these interactions have been widely employed will be outlined. The potential uses of Metarhizium anisopliae and Metarhizium acridum biological control agents and molecular approaches to increase their virulence will be discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Isolation of Ovicidal Fungi from Fecal Samples of Captive Animals Maintained in a Zoological Park
J. Fungi 2017, 3(2), 29; doi:10.3390/jof3020029 -
Abstract
Abstract: There are certain saprophytic fungi in the soil able to develop an antagonistic effect against eggs of parasites. Some of these fungal species are ingested by animals during grazing, and survive in their feces after passing through the digestive tract. To
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Abstract: There are certain saprophytic fungi in the soil able to develop an antagonistic effect against eggs of parasites. Some of these fungal species are ingested by animals during grazing, and survive in their feces after passing through the digestive tract. To identify and isolate ovicidal fungi in the feces of wild captive animals, a total of 60 fecal samples were taken from different wild animals kept captive in the Marcelle Natureza Zoological Park (Lugo, Spain). After the serial culture of the feces onto Petri dishes with different media, their parasicitide activity was assayed against eggs of trematodes (Calicophoron daubneyi) and ascarids (Parascaris equorum). Seven fungal genera were identified in the feces. Isolates from Fusarium, Lecanicillium, Mucor, Trichoderma, and Verticillium showed an ovicidal effect classified as type 3, because of their ability to adhere to the eggshell, penetrate, and damage permanently the inner embryo. Penicillium and Gliocladium developed a type 1 effect (hyphae attach to the eggshell but morphological damage was not provoked). These results provide very interesting and useful information about fungi susceptible for being used in biological control procedures against parasites. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Monocyte Phenotype and IFN-γ-Inducible Cytokine Responses Are Associated with Cryptococcal Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome
J. Fungi 2017, 3(2), 28; doi:10.3390/jof3020028 -
Abstract
A third of adults with AIDS and cryptococcal meningitis (CM) develop immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) after initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is thought to result from exaggerated inflammatory antigen-specific T cell responses. The contribution of monocytes to the immunopathogenesis of cryptococcal IRIS
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A third of adults with AIDS and cryptococcal meningitis (CM) develop immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) after initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is thought to result from exaggerated inflammatory antigen-specific T cell responses. The contribution of monocytes to the immunopathogenesis of cryptococcal IRIS remains unclear. We compared monocyte subset frequencies and immune responses in HIV-infected Ugandans at time of CM diagnosis (IRIS-Baseline) for those who later developed CM-IRIS, controls who did not develop CM-IRIS (Control-Baseline) at CM-IRIS (IRIS-Event), and for controls at a time point matched for ART duration (Control-Event) to understand the association of monocyte distribution and immune responses with cryptococcal IRIS. At baseline, stimulation with IFN-γ ex vivo induced a higher frequency of TNF-α- and IL-6-producing monocytes among those who later developed IRIS. Among participants who developed IRIS, ex vivo IFN-γ stimulation induced higher frequencies of activated monocytes, IL-6+, TNF-α+ classical, and IL-6+ intermediate monocytes compared with controls. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that monocyte subset phenotype and cytokine responses prior to ART are associated with and may be predictive of CM-IRIS. Larger studies to further delineate innate immunological responses and the efficacy of immunomodulatory therapies during cryptococcal IRIS are warranted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
MIC Distributions and Evaluation of Fungicidal Activity for Amphotericin B, Itraconazole, Voriconazole, Posaconazole and Caspofungin and 20 Species of Pathogenic Filamentous Fungi Determined Using the CLSI Broth Microdilution Method
J. Fungi 2017, 3(2), 27; doi:10.3390/jof3020027 -
Abstract
For filamentous fungi (moulds), species-specific interpretive breakpoints and epidemiological cut-off values (ECVs) have only been proposed for a limited number of fungal species–antifungal agent combinations, with the result that clinical breakpoints are lacking for most emerging mould pathogens. In the current study, we
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For filamentous fungi (moulds), species-specific interpretive breakpoints and epidemiological cut-off values (ECVs) have only been proposed for a limited number of fungal species–antifungal agent combinations, with the result that clinical breakpoints are lacking for most emerging mould pathogens. In the current study, we have compiled minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data for 4869 clinical mould isolates and present full MIC distributions for amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin with these isolates which comprise 20 species/genera. In addition, we present the results of an assessment of the fungicidal activity of these same five antifungal agents against a panel of 123 mould isolates comprising 16 of the same species. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Innate and Adaptive Immune Defects in Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis
J. Fungi 2017, 3(2), 26; doi:10.3390/jof3020026 -
Abstract
We evaluated the expression of biomarkers of innate and adaptive immune response in correlation with underlying conditions in 144 patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). Patients with complete medical and radiological records, white cell counts, and a complete panel of CD3, CD4, CD8,
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We evaluated the expression of biomarkers of innate and adaptive immune response in correlation with underlying conditions in 144 patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). Patients with complete medical and radiological records, white cell counts, and a complete panel of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, and CD56 lymphocyte subsets were included. Eighty-four (58%) patients had lymphopenia. Six (4%) patients had lymphopenia in all five CD variables. There were 62 (43%) patients with low CD56 and 62 (43%) patients with low CD19. Ten (7%) patients had isolated CD19 lymphopenia, 18 (13%) had isolated CD56 lymphopenia, and 15 (10%) had combined CD19 and CD56 lymphopenia only. Forty-eight (33%) patients had low CD3 and 46 (32%) had low CD8 counts. Twenty-five (17%) patients had low CD4, 15 (10%) of whom had absolute CD4 counts <200/μL. Multivariable logistic regression showed associations between: low CD19 and pulmonary sarcoidosis (Odds Ratio (OR), 5.53; 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.43–21.33; p = 0.013), and emphysema (OR, 4.58; 95% CI; 1.36–15.38; p = 0.014), low CD56 and no bronchiectasis (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.10–0.77; p = 0.014), low CD3 and both multicavitary CPA disease (OR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.30–6.72; p = 0.010) and pulmonary sarcoidosis (OR, 4.94; 95% CI, 1.39–17.57; p = 0.014). Several subtle immune defects are found in CPA. Full article
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Open AccessReview
NK Cells and Their Role in Invasive Mold Infection
J. Fungi 2017, 3(2), 25; doi:10.3390/jof3020025 -
Abstract
There is growing evidence that Natural Killer (NK) cells exhibit in vitro activity against both Aspergillus and non-Aspergillus molds. Cytotoxic molecules such as NK cell-derived perforin seem to play an important role in the antifungal activity. In addition, NK cells release a
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There is growing evidence that Natural Killer (NK) cells exhibit in vitro activity against both Aspergillus and non-Aspergillus molds. Cytotoxic molecules such as NK cell-derived perforin seem to play an important role in the antifungal activity. In addition, NK cells release a number of cytokines upon stimulation by fungi, which modulate both innate and adaptive host immune responses. Whereas the in vitro data of the antifungal activity of NK cells are supported by animal studies, clinical data are scarce to date. Full article
Open AccessReview
Revisiting Species Distribution and Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida Bloodstream Isolates from Latin American Medical Centers
J. Fungi 2017, 3(2), 24; doi:10.3390/jof3020024 -
Abstract
The epidemiology of candidemia varies geographically, and there is still scarce data on the epidemiology of candidemia in Latin America (LA). After extensive revision of medical literature, we found reliable and robust information on the microbiological aspects of candidemia in patients from 11
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The epidemiology of candidemia varies geographically, and there is still scarce data on the epidemiology of candidemia in Latin America (LA). After extensive revision of medical literature, we found reliable and robust information on the microbiological aspects of candidemia in patients from 11 out of 21 medical centers from LA countries and 1 out of 20 from Caribbean countries/territories. Based on 40 papers attending our search strategy, we noted that C. albicans remains the most common species causing candidemia in our region, followed by C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. In Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia, a trend towards an increase in frequency of C. glabrata candidemia was observed. Although resistance rates to fluconazole is under 3%, there was a slight increase in the resistance rates to C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis isolates. Echinocandin resistance has been reported in a few surveys, but no single study confirmed the resistant phenotype reported by using molecular methods. We highlight the importance of conducting continuous surveillance studies to identify new trends in terms of species distribution of Candida and antifungal resistance related to episodes of candidemia in LA. This information is critical for helping clinicians to prevent and control Candida bloodstream infections in their medical centers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Local-Level Genetic Diversity and Structure of Matsutake Mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake) Populations in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, Revealed by 15 Microsatellite Markers
J. Fungi 2017, 3(2), 23; doi:10.3390/jof3020023 -
Abstract
The annual yield of matsutake mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake) has consistently decreased in Japan over the past few decades. We used 15 polymorphic and codominant simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, developed using next-generation sequencing, to carry out genetic analyses of 10 populations
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The annual yield of matsutake mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake) has consistently decreased in Japan over the past few decades. We used 15 polymorphic and codominant simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, developed using next-generation sequencing, to carry out genetic analyses of 10 populations in Nagano, Japan. Using the SSRs, we identified 223 genotypes, none of which was observed in more than one population. The mean expected heterozygosity and standardized allelic richness values were 0.67 and 4.05, respectively. Many alleles appeared in only one of the 10 populations; 34 of these private alleles were detected with a mean number per population of 3.4. The fixation index (FST) and standardized genetic differentiation (GST) values were 0.019 and 0.028, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that the contribution of among population, among genets within a population, and within genets variation to the total variation was 2.91%, 11.62%, and 85.47%, respectively, with genetic differentiation being detected for all sources. Twenty-eight of 45 pairwise FST values were significantly larger than zero, and no pattern of isolation by distance was detected among the 10 populations. Bayesian-based clustering did not show clear differences among populations. These results suggest that reestablishment of a colony would be best accomplished by transplantation within a field; if this is not possible, then transplantation from within several dozen kilometers will cause little damage to the original population genetic structure. Full article
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