Open AccessReview
Treatment of Primary Pulmonary Aspergillosis: An Assessment of the Evidence
J. Fungi 2016, 2(3), 25; doi:10.3390/jof2030025 -
Abstract
Aspergillus spp. are a group of filamentous molds that were first described due to a perceived similarity to an aspergillum, or liturgical device used to sprinkle holy water, when viewed under a microscope. Although commonly inhaled due to their ubiquitous nature within [...] Read more.
Aspergillus spp. are a group of filamentous molds that were first described due to a perceived similarity to an aspergillum, or liturgical device used to sprinkle holy water, when viewed under a microscope. Although commonly inhaled due to their ubiquitous nature within the environment, an invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a rare outcome that is often reserved for those patients who are immunocompromised. Given the potential for significant morbidity and mortality within this patient population from IFI due to Aspergillus spp., along with the rise in the use of therapies that confer immunosuppression, there is an increasing need for appropriate initial clinical suspicion leading to accurate diagnosis and effective treatment. Voriconazole remains the first line agent for therapy; however, the use of polyenes, novel triazole agents, or voriconazole in combination with an echinocandin may also be utilized. Consideration as to which particular agent and for what duration should be made in the individual context for each patient based upon underlying immunosuppression, comorbidities, and overall tolerance of therapy. Full article
Open AccessReview
Inositol Polyphosphate Kinases, Fungal Virulence and Drug Discovery
J. Fungi 2016, 2(3), 24; doi:10.3390/jof2030024 -
Abstract
Opportunistic fungi are a major cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Developing new treatments to combat invasive fungal disease is challenging given that fungal and mammalian host cells are eukaryotic, with similar organization and physiology. Even therapies targeting [...] Read more.
Opportunistic fungi are a major cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Developing new treatments to combat invasive fungal disease is challenging given that fungal and mammalian host cells are eukaryotic, with similar organization and physiology. Even therapies targeting unique fungal cell features have limitations and drug resistance is emerging. New approaches to the development of antifungal drugs are therefore needed urgently. Cryptococcus neoformans, the commonest cause of fungal meningitis worldwide, is an accepted model for studying fungal pathogenicity and driving drug discovery. We recently characterized a phospholipase C (Plc1)-dependent pathway in C. neoformans comprising of sequentially-acting inositol polyphosphate kinases (IPK), which are involved in synthesizing inositol polyphosphates (IP). We also showed that the pathway is essential for fungal cellular function and pathogenicity. The IP products of the pathway are structurally diverse, each consisting of an inositol ring, with phosphate (P) and pyrophosphate (PP) groups covalently attached at different positions. This review focuses on (1) the characterization of the Plc1/IPK pathway in C. neoformans; (2) the identification of PP-IP5 (IP7) as the most crucial IP species for fungal fitness and virulence in a mouse model of fungal infection; and (3) why IPK enzymes represent suitable candidates for drug development. Full article
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Open AccessReview
PCR Technology for Detection of Invasive Aspergillosis
J. Fungi 2016, 2(3), 23; doi:10.3390/jof2030023 -
Abstract
The application of molecular technologies to aid diagnosis and management of infectious diseases has had a major impact and many assays are in routine use. Diagnosis of aspergillosis has lagged behind. Lack of standardization and limited commercial interest have meant that PCR [...] Read more.
The application of molecular technologies to aid diagnosis and management of infectious diseases has had a major impact and many assays are in routine use. Diagnosis of aspergillosis has lagged behind. Lack of standardization and limited commercial interest have meant that PCR was not included in consensus diagnostic criteria for invasive fungal disease. In the last ten years careful evaluation and validation by the Aspergillus European PCR initiative with the development of standardized extraction, amplification and detection protocols for various specimen types, has provided the opportunity for clinical utility to be investigated. PCR has the potential to not only exclude a diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis but in combination with antigen testing may offer an approach for the early diagnosis and treatment of invasive aspergillosis in high-risk populations, with the added benefit of detection of genetic markers associated with antifungal resistance. Full article
Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Kwon-Chung, K.J. et al. Is Cryptococcus gattii a Primary Pathogen? J. Fungi 2015, 1, 154–167
J. Fungi 2016, 2(3), 20; doi:10.3390/jof2030020 -
Abstract The authors of the published paper [1] would like to correct Table 1.[...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Galactomannan and 1,3-β-d-Glucan Testing for the Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis
J. Fungi 2016, 2(3), 22; doi:10.3390/jof2030022 -
Abstract
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a severe complication among hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients or patients with hematological malignancies and neutropenia following anti-cancer therapy. Moreover, IA is increasingly observed in other populations, such as solid-organ transplant recipients, patients with solid tumors or auto-immune [...] Read more.
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a severe complication among hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients or patients with hematological malignancies and neutropenia following anti-cancer therapy. Moreover, IA is increasingly observed in other populations, such as solid-organ transplant recipients, patients with solid tumors or auto-immune diseases, and among intensive care unit patients. Frequent delay in diagnosis is associated with high mortality rates. Cultures from clinical specimens remain sterile in many cases and the diagnosis of IA often only relies on non-specific radiological signs in the presence of host risk factors. Tests for detection of galactomannan- (GM) and 1,3-β-d-glucan (BDG) are useful adjunctive tools for the early diagnosis of IA and may have a role in monitoring response to therapy. However, the sensitivity and specificity of these fungal biomarkers are not optimal and variations between patient populations are observed. This review discusses the role and interpretation of GM and BDG testing for the diagnosis of IA in different clinical samples (serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, cerebrospinal fluid) and different groups of patients (onco-hematological patients, solid-organ transplant recipients, other patients at risk of IA). Full article
Open AccessReview
Triazole Resistance in Aspergillus spp.: A Worldwide Problem?
J. Fungi 2016, 2(3), 21; doi:10.3390/jof2030021 -
Abstract
Since the first description of an azole-resistant A. fumigatus strain in 1997, there has been an increasing number of papers describing the emergence of azole resistance. Firstly reported in the USA and soon after in Europe, it has now been described worldwide, [...] Read more.
Since the first description of an azole-resistant A. fumigatus strain in 1997, there has been an increasing number of papers describing the emergence of azole resistance. Firstly reported in the USA and soon after in Europe, it has now been described worldwide, challenging the management of human aspergillosis. The main mechanism of resistance is the modification of the azole target enzyme: 14-α sterol demethylase, encoded by the cyp51A gene; although recently, other resistance mechanisms have also been implicated. In addition, a shift in the epidemiology has been noted with other Aspergillus species (mostly azole resistant) increasingly being reported as causative agents of human disease. This paper reviews the current situation of Aspergillus azole resistance and its implications in the clinical setting. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Pediatric Invasive Aspergillosis
J. Fungi 2016, 2(2), 19; doi:10.3390/jof2020019 -
Abstract
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a disease of increasing importance in pediatrics due to growth of the immunocompromised populations at risk and improvements in long-term survival for many of these groups. While general principles of diagnosis and therapy apply similarly across the age [...] Read more.
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a disease of increasing importance in pediatrics due to growth of the immunocompromised populations at risk and improvements in long-term survival for many of these groups. While general principles of diagnosis and therapy apply similarly across the age spectrum, there are unique considerations for clinicians who care for children and adolescents with IA. This review will highlight important differences in the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and therapy of pediatric IA. Full article
Open AccessReview
Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis—Where Are We? and Where Are We Going?
J. Fungi 2016, 2(2), 18; doi:10.3390/jof2020018 -
Abstract
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is estimated to affect 3 million people worldwide making it an under recognised, but significant health problem across the globe, conferring significant morbidity and mortality. With variable disease forms, high levels of associated respiratory co-morbidity, limited therapeutic options [...] Read more.
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is estimated to affect 3 million people worldwide making it an under recognised, but significant health problem across the globe, conferring significant morbidity and mortality. With variable disease forms, high levels of associated respiratory co-morbidity, limited therapeutic options and prolonged treatment strategies, CPA is a challenging disease for both patients and healthcare professionals. CPA can mimic smear-negative tuberculosis (TB), pulmonary histoplasmosis or coccidioidomycosis. Cultures for Aspergillus are usually negative, however, the detection of Aspergillus IgG is a simple and sensitive test widely used in diagnosis. When a fungal ball/aspergilloma is visible radiologically, the diagnosis has been made late. Sometimes weight loss and fatigue are predominant symptoms; pyrexia is rare. Despite the efforts of the mycology community, and significant strides being taken in optimising the care of these patients, much remains to be learnt about this patient population, the disease itself and the best use of available therapies, with the development of new therapies being a key priority. Here, current knowledge and practices are reviewed, and areas of research priority highlighted. Full article
Open AccessReview
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis
J. Fungi 2016, 2(2), 17; doi:10.3390/jof2020017 -
Abstract
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), a progressive fungal allergic lung disease, is a common complication of asthma or cystic fibrosis. Although ABPA has been recognized since the 1950s, recent research has underscored the importance of Th2 immune deviation and granulocyte activation in its [...] Read more.
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), a progressive fungal allergic lung disease, is a common complication of asthma or cystic fibrosis. Although ABPA has been recognized since the 1950s, recent research has underscored the importance of Th2 immune deviation and granulocyte activation in its pathogenesis. There is also strong evidence of widespread under-diagnosis due to the complexity and lack of standardization of diagnostic criteria. Treatment has long focused on downregulation of the inflammatory response with prolonged courses of oral glucocorticosteroids, but more recently concerns with steroid toxicity and availability of new treatment modalities has led to trials of oral azoles, inhaled amphotericin, pulse intravenous steroids, and subcutaneously-injected anti-IgE monoclonal antibody omalizumab, all of which show evidence of efficacy and reduced toxicity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Low Titer Pneumocystis jirovecii Infections: More than Just Colonization?
J. Fungi 2016, 2(2), 16; doi:10.3390/jof2020016 -
Abstract
Non-pneumonia Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization is thought to occur frequently in immunocompetent individuals. The aim was to analyze if P. jirovecii low-titer detections have more impact than just colonization. From our total cohort of patients for which P. jirovecii testing by qPCR was [...] Read more.
Non-pneumonia Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization is thought to occur frequently in immunocompetent individuals. The aim was to analyze if P. jirovecii low-titer detections have more impact than just colonization. From our total cohort of patients for which P. jirovecii testing by qPCR was requested, we selected exclusively those that were fully immunocompetent. Patients were defined as fully immunocompetent if they did not receive immunosuppressive therapy, displayed regular antibody titers, and did not suffer from acquired, inherited or autoimmune diseases. Only those patients with complete medical records available were included. A retrospective analysis identified patients with P. jirovecii colonization and successful antibiotic therapy in response to laboratory pathogen detection. We identified 30 fully immunocompetent patients with P. jirovecii colonization suspected to suffer from infection with the pathogen, but with milder symptoms than pneumonia. All patients were successfully treated with cotrimoxazole against P. jirovecii and resolved from chronic cough and recurrent pulmonary infections. The fact that all patients displayed recovery from their clinical symptoms gives raise to the hypothesis that P. jirovecii infections may also occur in immunocompetent patients but with milder symptoms. Full article
Open AccessReview
Aspergillosis in Chronic Granulomatous Disease
J. Fungi 2016, 2(2), 15; doi:10.3390/jof2020015 -
Abstract
Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) have the highest life-time incidence of invasive aspergillosis and despite the availability of antifungal prophylaxis, infections by Aspergillus species remain the single most common infectious cause of death in CGD. Recent developments in curative treatment options, [...] Read more.
Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) have the highest life-time incidence of invasive aspergillosis and despite the availability of antifungal prophylaxis, infections by Aspergillus species remain the single most common infectious cause of death in CGD. Recent developments in curative treatment options, such as haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, will change the prevalence of infectious complications including invasive aspergillosis in CGD patients. However, invasive aspergillosis in a previously healthy host is often the first presenting feature of this primary immunodeficiency. Recognizing the characteristic clinical presentation and understanding how to diagnose and treat invasive aspergillosis in CGD is of utmost relevance to improve clinical outcomes. Significant differences exist in fungal epidemiology, clinical signs and symptoms, and the usefulness of non-culture based diagnostic tools between the CGD host and neutropenic patients, reflecting underlying differences in the pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis shaped by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase deficiency. Full article
Open AccessCommentary
Preemptive Therapy for Cryptococcal Meningitis: A Valid Strategy for Latin America?
J. Fungi 2016, 2(2), 14; doi:10.3390/jof2020014 -
Abstract
AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis continues to cause a substantial burden of death in low and middle income countries. Better diagnostics allow detection of cryptococcosis in the asymptomatic phase and using these technologies to screen at-risk persons would likely reduce mortality. The World Health [...] Read more.
AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis continues to cause a substantial burden of death in low and middle income countries. Better diagnostics allow detection of cryptococcosis in the asymptomatic phase and using these technologies to screen at-risk persons would likely reduce mortality. The World Health Organization recommends cryptococcal antigen screening among populations with a prevalence of cryptococcal antigenaemia (CRAG) > 3%. There is scarce data about CRAG prevalence in Latin America. Four studies (only one published as a full text) showed asymptomatic CRAG prevalence between 2.7% and 6.2% in several sub-sets of HIV-infected patients. The CRAG lateral flow assay (LFA) has several advantages over other techniques for actual implementation of a screening program. Although more studies are necessary to confirm available data, implementation of the CRAG screening strategy seems to be opportune in Latin America. Full article
Open AccessReview
Exploitation of Aspergillus terreus for the Production of Natural Statins
J. Fungi 2016, 2(2), 13; doi:10.3390/jof2020013 -
Abstract
The fungus Aspergillus (A.) terreus has dominated the biological production of the “blockbuster” drugs known as statins. The statins are a class of drugs that inhibit HMG-CoA reductase and lead to lower cholesterol production. The statins were initially discovered in fungi and [...] Read more.
The fungus Aspergillus (A.) terreus has dominated the biological production of the “blockbuster” drugs known as statins. The statins are a class of drugs that inhibit HMG-CoA reductase and lead to lower cholesterol production. The statins were initially discovered in fungi and for many years fungi were the sole source for the statins. At present, novel chemically synthesised statins are produced as inspired by the naturally occurring statin molecules. The isolation of the natural statins, compactin, mevastatin and lovastatin from A. terreus represents one of the great achievements of industrial microbiology. Here we review the discovery of statins, along with strategies that have been applied to scale up their production by A. terreus strains. The strategies encompass many of the techniques available in industrial microbiology and include the optimization of media and fermentation conditions, the improvement of strains through classical mutagenesis, induced genetic manipulation and the use of statistical design. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Colony-PCR Is a Rapid Method for DNA Amplification of Hyphomycetes
J. Fungi 2016, 2(2), 12; doi:10.3390/jof2020012 -
Abstract
Fungal pure cultures identified with both classical morphological methods and through barcoding sequences are a basic requirement for reliable reference sequences in public databases. Improved techniques for an accelerated DNA barcode reference library construction will result in considerably improved sequence databases covering [...] Read more.
Fungal pure cultures identified with both classical morphological methods and through barcoding sequences are a basic requirement for reliable reference sequences in public databases. Improved techniques for an accelerated DNA barcode reference library construction will result in considerably improved sequence databases covering a wider taxonomic range. Fast, cheap, and reliable methods for obtaining DNA sequences from fungal isolates are, therefore, a valuable tool for the scientific community. Direct colony PCR was already successfully established for yeasts, but has not been evaluated for a wide range of anamorphic soil fungi up to now, and a direct amplification protocol for hyphomycetes without tissue pre-treatment has not been published so far. Here, we present a colony PCR technique directly from fungal hyphae without previous DNA extraction or other prior manipulation. Seven hundred eighty-eight fungal strains from 48 genera were tested with a success rate of 86%. PCR success varied considerably: DNA of fungi belonging to the genera Cladosporium, Geomyces, Fusarium, and Mortierella could be amplified with high success. DNA of soil-borne yeasts was always successfully amplified. Absidia, Mucor, Trichoderma, and Penicillium isolates had noticeably lower PCR success. Full article
Open AccessReview
Omics for Investigating Chitosan as an Antifungal and Gene Modulator
J. Fungi 2016, 2(1), 11; doi:10.3390/jof2010011 -
Abstract
Chitosan is a biopolymer with a wide range of applications. The use of chitosan in clinical medicine to control infections by fungal pathogens such as Candida spp. is one of its most promising applications in view of the reduced number of antifungals [...] Read more.
Chitosan is a biopolymer with a wide range of applications. The use of chitosan in clinical medicine to control infections by fungal pathogens such as Candida spp. is one of its most promising applications in view of the reduced number of antifungals available. Chitosan increases intracellular oxidative stress, then permeabilizes the plasma membrane of sensitive filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa and yeast. Transcriptomics reveals plasma membrane homeostasis and oxidative metabolism genes as key players in the response of fungi to chitosan. A lipase and a monosaccharide transporter, both inner plasma membrane proteins, and a glutathione transferase are main chitosan targets in N. crassa. Biocontrol fungi such as Pochonia chlamydosporia have a low content of polyunsaturated free fatty acids in their plasma membranes and are resistant to chitosan. Genome sequencing of P. chlamydosporia reveals a wide gene machinery to degrade and assimilate chitosan. Chitosan increases P. chlamydosporia sporulation and enhances parasitism of plant parasitic nematodes by the fungus. Omics studies allow understanding the mode of action of chitosan and help its development as an antifungal and gene modulator. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Invasive Candidiasis in Various Patient Populations: Incorporating Non-Culture Diagnostic Tests into Rational Management Strategies
J. Fungi 2016, 2(1), 10; doi:10.3390/jof2010010 -
Abstract
Mortality rates due to invasive candidiasis remain unacceptably high, in part because the poor sensitivity and slow turn-around time of cultures delay the initiation of antifungal treatment. β-d-glucan (Fungitell) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based (T2Candida) assays are FDA-approved adjuncts to cultures for [...] Read more.
Mortality rates due to invasive candidiasis remain unacceptably high, in part because the poor sensitivity and slow turn-around time of cultures delay the initiation of antifungal treatment. β-d-glucan (Fungitell) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based (T2Candida) assays are FDA-approved adjuncts to cultures for diagnosing invasive candidiasis, but their clinical roles are unclear. We propose a Bayesian framework for interpreting non-culture test results and developing rational patient management strategies, which considers test performance and types of invasive candidiasis that are most common in various patient populations. β-d-glucan sensitivity/specificity for candidemia and intra-abdominal candidiasis is ~80%/80% and ~60%/75%, respectively. In settings with 1%–10% likelihood of candidemia, anticipated β-d-glucan positive and negative predictive values are ~4%–31% and ≥97%, respectively. Corresponding values in settings with 3%–30% likelihood of intra-abdominal candidiasis are ~7%–51% and ~78%–98%. β-d-glucan is predicted to be useful in guiding antifungal treatment for wide ranges of populations at-risk for candidemia (incidence ~5%–40%) or intra-abdominal candidiasis (~7%–20%). Validated PCR-based assays should broaden windows to include populations at lower-risk for candidemia (incidence ≥~2%) and higher-risk for intra-abdominal candidiasis (up to ~40%). In the management of individual patients, non-culture tests may also have value outside of these windows. The proposals we put forth are not definitive treatment guidelines, but rather represent starting points for clinical trial design and debate by the infectious diseases community. The principles presented here will be applicable to other assays as they enter the clinic, and to existing assays as more data become available from different populations. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Genome Studies on Nematophagous and Entomogenous Fungi in China
J. Fungi 2016, 2(1), 9; doi:10.3390/jof2010009 -
Abstract
The nematophagous and entomogenous fungi are natural enemies of nematodes and insects and have been utilized by humans to control agricultural and forestry pests. Some of these fungi have been or are being developed as biological control agents in China and worldwide. [...] Read more.
The nematophagous and entomogenous fungi are natural enemies of nematodes and insects and have been utilized by humans to control agricultural and forestry pests. Some of these fungi have been or are being developed as biological control agents in China and worldwide. Several important nematophagous and entomogenous fungi, including nematode-trapping fungi (Arthrobotrys oligospora and Drechslerella stenobrocha), nematode endoparasite (Hirsutella minnesotensis), insect pathogens (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium spp.) and Chinese medicinal fungi (Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris), have been genome sequenced and extensively analyzed in China. The biology, evolution, and pharmaceutical application of these fungi and their interacting with host nematodes and insects revealed by genomes, comparing genomes coupled with transcriptomes are summarized and reviewed in this paper. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of the Journal of Fungi in 2015
J. Fungi 2016, 2(1), 8; doi:10.3390/jof2010008 -
Abstract The editors of the Journal of Fungi would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2015. [...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Transcriptomic Crosstalk between Fungal Invasive Pathogens and Their Host Cells: Opportunities and Challenges for Next-Generation Sequencing Methods
J. Fungi 2016, 2(1), 7; doi:10.3390/jof2010007 -
Abstract
Fungal invasive infections are an increasing health problem. The intrinsic complexity of pathogenic fungi and the unmet clinical need for new and more effective treatments requires a detailed knowledge of the infection process. During infection, fungal pathogens are able to trigger a [...] Read more.
Fungal invasive infections are an increasing health problem. The intrinsic complexity of pathogenic fungi and the unmet clinical need for new and more effective treatments requires a detailed knowledge of the infection process. During infection, fungal pathogens are able to trigger a specific transcriptional program in their host cells. The detailed knowledge of this transcriptional program will allow for a better understanding of the infection process and consequently will help in the future design of more efficient therapeutic strategies. Simultaneous transcriptomic studies of pathogen and host by high-throughput sequencing (dual RNA-seq) is an unbiased protocol to understand the intricate regulatory networks underlying the infectious process. This protocol is starting to be applied to the study of the interactions between fungal pathogens and their hosts. To date, our knowledge of the molecular basis of infection for fungal pathogens is still very limited, and the putative role of regulatory players such as non-coding RNAs or epigenetic factors remains elusive. The wider application of high-throughput transcriptomics in the near future will help to understand the fungal mechanisms for colonization and survival, as well as to characterize the molecular responses of the host cell against a fungal infection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Proteomic Analysis of Pathogenic Fungi Reveals Highly Expressed Conserved Cell Wall Proteins
J. Fungi 2016, 2(1), 6; doi:10.3390/jof2010006 -
Abstract
We are presenting a quantitative proteomics tally of the most commonly expressed conserved fungal proteins of the cytosol, the cell wall, and the secretome. It was our goal to identify fungi-typical proteins that do not share significant homology with human proteins. Such [...] Read more.
We are presenting a quantitative proteomics tally of the most commonly expressed conserved fungal proteins of the cytosol, the cell wall, and the secretome. It was our goal to identify fungi-typical proteins that do not share significant homology with human proteins. Such fungal proteins are of interest to the development of vaccines or drug targets. Protein samples were derived from 13 fungal species, cultured in rich or in minimal media; these included clinical isolates of Aspergillus, Candida, Mucor, Cryptococcus, and Coccidioides species. Proteomes were analyzed by quantitative MSE (Mass Spectrometry—Elevated Collision Energy). Several thousand proteins were identified and quantified in total across all fractions and culture conditions. The 42 most abundant proteins identified in fungal cell walls or supernatants shared no to very little homology with human proteins. In contrast, all but five of the 50 most abundant cytosolic proteins had human homologs with sequence identity averaging 59%. Proteomic comparisons of the secreted or surface localized fungal proteins highlighted conserved homologs of the Aspergillus fumigatus proteins 1,3-β-glucanosyltransferases (Bgt1, Gel1-4), Crf1, Ecm33, EglC, and others. The fact that Crf1 and Gel1 were previously shown to be promising vaccine candidates, underlines the value of the proteomics data presented here. Full article
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