Open AccessArticle
Molecular Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility Patterns of Clinical Dermatophytes Following CLSI and EUCAST Guidelines
J. Fungi 2017, 3(2), 17; doi:10.3390/jof3020017 -
Abstract
Dermatophytes are associated with superficial infections in humans worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the species distribution and susceptibility patterns of clinical dermatophytes. Samples received for routine mycological processing from 124 suspected cases attending a dermatologic clinic in a
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Dermatophytes are associated with superficial infections in humans worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the species distribution and susceptibility patterns of clinical dermatophytes. Samples received for routine mycological processing from 124 suspected cases attending a dermatologic clinic in a tertiary care hospital were included in the study. On direct microscopy, 74.1% (92/124) were positive and 53.2% (66/124) grew on culture. The isolates were comprised of Trichophytoninterdigitale (56%) followed by Trichophytontonsurans (25.7%), Trichophytonrubrum (7.5%), Trichophytonviolaceum (4.5%), Microsporumgypseum (4.5%), and Trichophytonverrucosum (1.5%). Conventional mycological identification was concordant with ITS sequencing except for T.mentagrophytes. High minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values (geometric mean, >1 µg/mL) were observed for T.tonsurans and T.rubrum to terbinafine and griseofulvin. This study highlights the shift in epidemiology from T.rubrum to T.interdigitale. It also raises a concern of high MICs of terbinafine and griseofulvin among our isolates. Surveillance of antifungal susceptibility patterns can provide clinicians with local MIC data that can further aid in guiding better management in relapse cases of dermatomycosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Activity of Amphotericin B and Anidulafungin Combined with Rifampicin, Clarithromycin, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid, N-Acetylcysteine, and Farnesol against Candida tropicalis Biofilms
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 16; doi:10.3390/jof3010016 -
Abstract
We evaluated the activity of (1) amphotericin-B (AMB), combined with rifampicin (RIF), clarithromycin (CLA), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and farnesol (FAR) (1000, 1000, 1000, 4000, and 30,000 mg/L, and 300 µM, respectively), against Candida tropicalis biofilms formed on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and
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We evaluated the activity of (1) amphotericin-B (AMB), combined with rifampicin (RIF), clarithromycin (CLA), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and farnesol (FAR) (1000, 1000, 1000, 4000, and 30,000 mg/L, and 300 µM, respectively), against Candida tropicalis biofilms formed on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and (2) anidulafungin (ANF) combined with the same compounds at 8, 10, 5, 40, and 30 mg/L, and 30 µM, respectively, against biofilms formed on titanium. Biofilm growth kinetics were performed in a CDC Biofilm Reactor (CBR). PTFE or titanium disks were removed from the CBR at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h to determine the Log10CFU/cm2. Killing kinetics were performed by adding the drugs to 24-h-mature biofilms (time 0). Disks were removed after 24, 48, and 72 h of drug exposure to determine Log10CFU/cm2. Viable cells in biofilms were 4.73 and 4.29 Log10CFU/cm2 on PTFE and titanium, respectively. Maximum Log10 decreases in CFU/cm2 depend on the combination and were: 3.53 (AMB + EDTA), 2.65 (AMB + RIF), 3.07 (AMB + NAC), 2.52 (AMB + CLA), 1.49 (AMB + FAR), 2.26 (ANF + EDTA), 2.45 (ANF + RIF), 2.47 (ANF + NAC), 1.52 (ANF + CLA), and 0.44 (ANF + FAR). In conclusion, EDTA, NAC, RIF, and CLA improve the activity of AMB and ANF against biofilms developed on both surfaces, which could be an effective strategy against C. tropicalis biofilm-related infections. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microscopic Analysis of Pigments Extracted from Spalting Fungi
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 15; doi:10.3390/jof3010015 -
Abstract
Pigments that are currently available in the market usually come from synthetic sources, or, if natural, often need mordants to bind to the target substrate. Recent research on the fungal pigment extracts from Scytalidium cuboideum, Scytalidium ganodermophthorum, Chlorociboria aeruginosa, and
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Pigments that are currently available in the market usually come from synthetic sources, or, if natural, often need mordants to bind to the target substrate. Recent research on the fungal pigment extracts from Scytalidium cuboideum, Scytalidium ganodermophthorum, Chlorociboria aeruginosa, and Chlorociboria aeruginascens have been shown to successfully dye materials, like wood, bamboo, and textiles, however, there is no information about their binding mechanisms. Due to this, a microscopic study was performed to provide information to future manufacturers interested in these pigments. The results of this study show that S. ganodermophthorum and C. aeruginosa form an amorphous layer on substrates, while S. cuboideum forms crystal-like structures. The attachment and morphology indicate that there might be different chemical and physical interactions between the extracted pigments and the materials. This possibility can explain the high resistance of the pigments to UV light and color fastness that makes them competitive against synthetic pigments. These properties make these pigments a viable option for an industry that demands natural pigments with the properties of the synthetic ones. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Candida albicans Biofilm Matrix: Composition, Structure and Function
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 14; doi:10.3390/jof3010014 -
Abstract
A majority of infections caused by Candida albicans—the most frequent fungal pathogen—are associated with biofilm formation. A salient feature of C. albicans biofilms is the presence of the biofilm matrix. This matrix is composed of exopolymeric materials secreted by sessile cells within
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A majority of infections caused by Candida albicans—the most frequent fungal pathogen—are associated with biofilm formation. A salient feature of C. albicans biofilms is the presence of the biofilm matrix. This matrix is composed of exopolymeric materials secreted by sessile cells within the biofilm, in which all classes of macromolecules are represented, and provides protection against environmental challenges. In this review, we summarize the knowledge accumulated during the last two decades on the composition, structure, and function of the C. albicans biofilm matrix. Knowledge of the matrix components, its structure, and function will help pave the way to novel strategies to combat C. albicans biofilm infections. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Real-Time Approach to Flow Cell Imaging of Candida albicans Biofilm Development
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 13; doi:10.3390/jof3010013 -
Abstract
The ability of Candida albicans to form biofilms is a virulence factor that allows tissue attachment and subsequent infection of host tissues. Fungal biofilms have been particularly well studied, however the vast majority of these studies have been conducted under static conditions. Oral
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The ability of Candida albicans to form biofilms is a virulence factor that allows tissue attachment and subsequent infection of host tissues. Fungal biofilms have been particularly well studied, however the vast majority of these studies have been conducted under static conditions. Oral biofilms form in the presence of salivary flow, therefore we developed a novel flow system used for real-time imaging of fungal biofilm development. C. albicans wild-type (WT) cells readily attached to the substrate surface during the 2 h attachment phase, then formed heterogeneous biofilms after 18 h flow. Quantitative values for biomass, rates of attachment and detachment, and cell–cell adhesion events were obtained for C. albicans WT cells and for a hyperfilamentous mutant Δhog1. Attachment rates of C. albicans WT cells were nearly 2-fold higher than C. albicans Δhog1 cells, although Δhog1 cells formed 4-fold higher biomass. The reduced normalized detachment rate was the primary factor responsible for the increased biomass of Δhog1 biofilm, showing that cell detachment rates are an important predictor for ultimate biofilm mass under flow. Unlike static biofilms, C. albicans cells under constant laminar flow undergo continuous detachment and seeding that may be more representative of the development of in vivo biofilms. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Candida glabrata Biofilms: How Far Have We Come?
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 11; doi:10.3390/jof3010011 -
Abstract
Infections caused by Candida species have been increasing in the last decades and can result in local or systemic infections, with high morbidity and mortality. After Candida albicans, Candida glabrata is one of the most prevalent pathogenic fungi in humans. In addition
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Infections caused by Candida species have been increasing in the last decades and can result in local or systemic infections, with high morbidity and mortality. After Candida albicans, Candida glabrata is one of the most prevalent pathogenic fungi in humans. In addition to the high antifungal drugs resistance and inability to form hyphae or secret hydrolases, C. glabrata retain many virulence factors that contribute to its extreme aggressiveness and result in a low therapeutic response and serious recurrent candidiasis, particularly biofilm formation ability. For their extraordinary organization, especially regarding the complex structure of the matrix, biofilms are very resistant to antifungal treatments. Thus, new approaches to the treatment of C. glabrata’s biofilms are emerging. In this article, the knowledge available on C. glabrata’s resistance will be highlighted, with a special focus on biofilms, as well as new therapeutic alternatives to control them. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Blue Mold Penicillium Species Isolated from Stored Fruits Using Multiple Highly Conserved Loci
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 12; doi:10.3390/jof3010012 -
Abstract
Penicillium is a large genus of common molds with over 400 described species; however, identification of individual species is difficult, including for those species that cause postharvest rots. In this study, blue rot fungi from stored apples and pears were isolated from a
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Penicillium is a large genus of common molds with over 400 described species; however, identification of individual species is difficult, including for those species that cause postharvest rots. In this study, blue rot fungi from stored apples and pears were isolated from a variety of hosts, locations, and years. Based on morphological and cultural characteristics and partial amplification of the β-tubulin locus, the isolates were provisionally identified as several different species of Penicillium. These isolates were investigated further using a suite of molecular DNA markers and compared to sequences of the ex-type for cognate species in GenBank, and were identified as P. expansum (3 isolates), P. solitum (3 isolates), P. carneum (1 isolate), and P. paneum (1 isolate). Three of the markers we used (ITS, internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence; benA, β-tubulin; CaM, calmodulin) were suitable for distinguishing most of our isolates from one another at the species level. In contrast, we were unable to amplify RPB2 sequences from four of the isolates. Comparison of our sequences with cognate sequences in GenBank from isolates with the same species names did not always give coherent data, reinforcing earlier studies that have shown large intraspecific variability in many Penicillium species, as well as possible errors in some sequence data deposited in GenBank. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Crucial Role of Biofilms in Cryptococcus neoformans Survival within Macrophages and Colonization of the Central Nervous System
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 10; doi:10.3390/jof3010010 -
Abstract
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus capable of causing life threatening meningoencephalitis in patients with impaired immunity. This microbe primarily infects the host via inhalation but has the ability to disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS) either as a single cell
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Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus capable of causing life threatening meningoencephalitis in patients with impaired immunity. This microbe primarily infects the host via inhalation but has the ability to disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS) either as a single cell or inside of macrophages. Upon traversing the blood brain barrier, C. neoformans has the capacity to form biofilm-like structures known as cryptococcomas. Hence, we will discuss the C. neoformans elements contributing to biofilm formation including the fungus’ ability to survive in the acidic environment of a macrophage phagosome and inside of the CNS. The purpose of this mini-review is to instill fresh interest in understanding the importance of biofilms on fungal pathogenesis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Combinatorial Biosynthesis of Novel Multi-Hydroxy Carotenoids in the Red Yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 9; doi:10.3390/jof3010009 -
Abstract
The red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is an established platform for the synthesis of carotenoids. It was used for the generation of novel multi oxygenated carotenoid structures. This was achieved by a combinatorial approach starting with the selection of a β-carotene accumulating mutant, stepwise
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The red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is an established platform for the synthesis of carotenoids. It was used for the generation of novel multi oxygenated carotenoid structures. This was achieved by a combinatorial approach starting with the selection of a β-carotene accumulating mutant, stepwise pathway engineering by integration of three microbial genes into the genome and finally the chemical reduction of the resulting 4,4’-diketo-nostoxanthin (2,3,2’,3’-tetrahydroxy-4,4’-diketo-β-carotene) and 4-keto-nostoxanthin (2,3,2’,3’-tetrahydroxy-4-monoketo-β-carotene). Both keto carotenoids and the resulting 4,4’-dihydroxy-nostoxanthin (2,3,4,2’,3’,4’-hexahydroxy-β-carotene) and 4-hydroxy-nostoxanthin (2,3,4,2’3’-pentahydroxy-β-carotene) were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Their molecular masses and fragmentation patterns allowed the unequivocal identification of all four carotenoids. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Candida Species Biofilms’ Antifungal Resistance
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 8; doi:10.3390/jof3010008 -
Abstract
Candida infections (candidiasis) are the most prevalent opportunistic fungal infection on humans and, as such, a major public health problem. In recent decades, candidiasis has been associated to Candida species other than Candida albicans. Moreover, biofilms have been considered the most prevalent
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Candida infections (candidiasis) are the most prevalent opportunistic fungal infection on humans and, as such, a major public health problem. In recent decades, candidiasis has been associated to Candida species other than Candida albicans. Moreover, biofilms have been considered the most prevalent growth form of Candida cells and a strong causative agent of the intensification of antifungal resistance. As yet, no specific resistance factor has been identified as the sole responsible for the increased recalcitrance to antifungal agents exhibited by biofilms. Instead, biofilm antifungal resistance is a complex multifactorial phenomenon, which still remains to be fully elucidated and understood. The different mechanisms, which may be responsible for the intrinsic resistance of Candida species biofilms, include the high density of cells within the biofilm, the growth and nutrient limitation, the effects of the biofilm matrix, the presence of persister cells, the antifungal resistance gene expression and the increase of sterols on the membrane of biofilm cells. Thus, this review intends to provide information on the recent advances about Candida species biofilm antifungal resistance and its implication on intensification of the candidiasis. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Global Aspects of Triazole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus with Focus on Latin American Countries
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 5; doi:10.3390/jof3010005 -
Abstract
Azole resistance in Aspergillus has emerged as an escalating problem in health care, and it has been detected in patients exposed, or not, to these drugs. It is known that azole antifungals are widely applied not only in clinical treatments for fungal infections,
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Azole resistance in Aspergillus has emerged as an escalating problem in health care, and it has been detected in patients exposed, or not, to these drugs. It is known that azole antifungals are widely applied not only in clinical treatments for fungal infections, but also as agricultural fungicides, resulting in a significant threat for human health. Although the number of cases of azole-resistant aspergillosis is still limited, various resistance mechanisms are described from clinical and environmental isolates. These mechanisms consist mainly of alterations in the target of azole action (CYP51A gene)—specifically on TR34/L98H and TR46/Y121F/T289A, which are responsible for over 90% of resistance cases. This review summarizes the epidemiology, management, and extension of azole resistance in A. fumigatus worldwide and its potential impact in Latin American countries, emphasizing its relevance to clinical practice. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Cutaneous Disseminated and Extracutaneous Sporotrichosis: Current Status of a Complex Disease
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 6; doi:10.3390/jof3010006 -
Abstract
Sporotrichosis is an implantation or inoculation mycosis caused by species of Sporothrix schenckii complex; its main manifestations are limited to skin; however, cutaneous-disseminated, disseminated (visceral) and extracutaneous variants of sporotrichosis can be associated with immunosuppression, including HIV-AIDS, chronic alcoholism or more virulent strains.
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Sporotrichosis is an implantation or inoculation mycosis caused by species of Sporothrix schenckii complex; its main manifestations are limited to skin; however, cutaneous-disseminated, disseminated (visceral) and extracutaneous variants of sporotrichosis can be associated with immunosuppression, including HIV-AIDS, chronic alcoholism or more virulent strains. The most common extracutaneous form of sporotrichosis includes pulmonary, osteoarticular and meningeal. The laboratory diagnosis requires observing yeast forms and isolating the fungus; the two main causative agents are Sporothrix schenckii (ss) and Sporothrix brasiliensis. Antibody levels and species recognition by Polimerase Chain Reaction using biological samples or cultures are also useful. The treatment of choice for most cases is amphotericin B and subsequent itraconazole for maintenance therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Efficacies of Antimicrobial Catheter Lock Solutions for Fungal Biofilm Eradication in an in Vitro Model of Catheter-Related Fungemia
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 7; doi:10.3390/jof3010007 -
Abstract
Fungal catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs)—primarily due to Candida species—account for over 12% of all CRBSIs, and have been progressively increasing in prevalence. They present significant health and economic burdens, and high mortality rates. Antimicrobial catheter lock solutions are an important prophylactic option for
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Fungal catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs)—primarily due to Candida species—account for over 12% of all CRBSIs, and have been progressively increasing in prevalence. They present significant health and economic burdens, and high mortality rates. Antimicrobial catheter lock solutions are an important prophylactic option for preventing fungal CRBSIs. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of two FDA-approved catheter lock solutions (heparin and saline) and three experimental antimicrobial catheter lock solutions—30% citrate, taurolidine-citrate-heparin (TCH), and nitroglycerin-citrate-ethanol (NiCE)—in an in vitro model of catheters colonized by fungi. The fungi tested were five different strains of Candida clinical isolates from cancer patients who contracted CRBSIs. Time-to-biofilm-eradication was assessed in the model with 15, 30, and 60 min exposures to the lock solutions. Only the NiCE lock solution was able to fully eradicate all fungal biofilms within 60 min. Neither 30% citrate nor TCH was able to fully eradicate any of the Candida biofilms in this time frame. The NiCE lock solution was significantly superior to TCH in eradicating biofilms of five different Candida species (p = 0.002 for all). Full article
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Open AccessReview
Entomopathogenicity and Biological Attributes of Himalayan Treasured Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Yarsagumba)
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 4; doi:10.3390/jof3010004 -
Abstract
Members of the entomophagous fungi are considered very crucial in the fungal domain relative to their natural phenomenon and economic perspectives; however, inadequate knowledge of their mechanisms of interaction keeps them lagging behind in parallel studies of fungi associated with agro-ecology, forest pathology
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Members of the entomophagous fungi are considered very crucial in the fungal domain relative to their natural phenomenon and economic perspectives; however, inadequate knowledge of their mechanisms of interaction keeps them lagging behind in parallel studies of fungi associated with agro-ecology, forest pathology and medical biology. Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), an intricate fungus-caterpillar complex after it parasitizes the larva of the moth, is a highly prized medicinal fungus known widely for ages due to its peculiar biochemical assets. Recent technological innovations have significantly contributed a great deal to profiling the variable clinical importance of this fungus and other related fungi with similar medicinal potential. However, a detailed mechanism behind fungal pathogenicity and fungal-insect interactions seems rather ambiguous and is poorly justified, demanding special attention. The goal of the present review is to divulge an update on the published data and provides promising insights on different biological events that have remained underemphasized in previous reviews on fungal biology with relation to life-history trade-offs, host specialization and selection pressures. The infection of larvae by a fungus is not a unique event in Cordyceps; hence, other fungal species are also reviewed for effective comparison. Conceivably, the rationale and approaches behind the inheritance of pharmacological abilities acquired and stored within the insect framework at a time when they are completely hijacked and consumed by fungal parasites, and the molecular mechanisms involved therein, are clearly documented. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Journal of Fungi in 2016
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 3; doi:10.3390/jof3010003 -
Abstract The editors of Journal of Fungi would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Biocontrol Properties of Basidiomycetes: An Overview
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 2; doi:10.3390/jof3010002 -
Abstract
In agriculture, there is an urgent need for alternate ecofriendly products to control plant diseases. These alternate products must possess preferable characteristics such as new modes of action, cost effectiveness, biodegradability, and target specificity. In the current scenario, studies on macrofungi have been
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In agriculture, there is an urgent need for alternate ecofriendly products to control plant diseases. These alternate products must possess preferable characteristics such as new modes of action, cost effectiveness, biodegradability, and target specificity. In the current scenario, studies on macrofungi have been an area of importance for scientists. Macrofungi grow prolifically and are found in many parts of the world. Basidiomycetes (mushrooms) flourish ubiquitously under warm and humid climates. Basidiomycetes are rich sources of natural antibiotics. The secondary metabolites produced by them possess antimicrobial, antitumor, and antioxidant properties. The present review discusses the potential role of Basidiomycetes as anti-phytofungal, anti-phytobacterial, anti-phytoviral, mosquito larvicidal, and nematicidal agents. Full article
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Open AccessReview
New Trends in Paracoccidioidomycosis Epidemiology
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 1; doi:10.3390/jof3010001 -
Abstract
Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic fungal disease occurring in Latin America and more prevalent in South America. The disease is caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides spp. whose major hosts are humans and armadillos. The fungus grows in soil and its infection is associated
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Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic fungal disease occurring in Latin America and more prevalent in South America. The disease is caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides spp. whose major hosts are humans and armadillos. The fungus grows in soil and its infection is associated with exposure to the rural environment and to agricultural activities, with a higher risk in coffee and tobacco plantations. Population studies assessing the reactivity to Paracoccidioides spp. antigens by intradermal reaction or serological tests have detected previous subclinical infections in a significant proportion of healthy individuals living in various endemic countries. Paracoccidioidomycosis-disease is manifested by a small minority of infected individuals. The risk of developing the disease and its type of clinical form are related to the personal and life style characteristics of infected individuals, including genetic background, age, sex, ethnicity, smoking habit, alcohol drinking, and eventual cellular immunosuppression. Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, and Ecuador have endemic areas that had already been defined in the 20th century. The incidence of paracoccidioidomycosis can be altered by climate phenomena and mainly by human migration and occupation of poorly explored territories. In Brazil, the endemy tends to expand towards the North and Center-West around the Amazon Region. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Quest for a Vaccine Against Coccidioidomycosis: A Neglected Disease of the Americas
J. Fungi 2016, 2(4), 34; doi:10.3390/jof2040034 -
Abstract
Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever) is a disease caused by inhalation of Coccidioides spp. This neglected disease has substantial public health impact despite its geographic restriction to desert areas of the southwestern U.S., Mexico, Central and South America. The incidence of this infection in California
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Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever) is a disease caused by inhalation of Coccidioides spp. This neglected disease has substantial public health impact despite its geographic restriction to desert areas of the southwestern U.S., Mexico, Central and South America. The incidence of this infection in California and Arizona has been increasing over the past fifteen years. Several large cities are within the endemic region in the U.S. Coccidioidomycosis accounts for 25,000 hospital admissions per year in California. While most cases of coccidioidomycosis resolve spontaneously, up to 40% are severe enough to require anti-fungal treatment, and a significant number disseminate beyond the lungs. Disseminated infection involving the meninges is fatal without appropriate treatment. Infection with Coccidioides spp. is protective against a second infection, so vaccination seems biologically plausible. This review of efforts to develop a vaccine against coccidioidomycosis focuses on vaccine approaches and the difficulties in identifying protein antigen/adjuvant combinations that protect in experimental mouse models. Although the quest for a vaccine is still in the early stage, scientific efforts for vaccine development may pave the way for future success. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue: Novel Antifungal Drug Discovery
J. Fungi 2016, 2(4), 33; doi:10.3390/jof2040033 -
Abstract
This Special Issue is designed to highlight the latest research and development on new antifungal compounds with mechanisms of action different from the ones of polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins. The papers presented here highlight new pathways and targets that could be exploited for
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This Special Issue is designed to highlight the latest research and development on new antifungal compounds with mechanisms of action different from the ones of polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins. The papers presented here highlight new pathways and targets that could be exploited for the future development of new antifungal agents to be used alone or in combination with existing antifungals. A computational model for better predicting antifungal drug resistance is also presented. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue “Aspergillus fumigatus: From Diagnosis to Therapy”
J. Fungi 2016, 2(4), 31; doi:10.3390/jof2040031 -
Abstract Aspergillus fumigatus is an enigmatic pathogen. Full article