Open AccessArticle
Wind-Wave Characterization in a Wind-Jet Region: The Ebro Delta Case
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2017, 5(1), 12; doi:10.3390/jmse5010012 -
Abstract
This manuscript describes the wind-wave generation, development and fading in a complex area: a wind-jet region. The study region is the offshore Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean Sea) where strong cross-shelf winds occur due to a topographic channelization. This leads to relatively short-fetch conditions,
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This manuscript describes the wind-wave generation, development and fading in a complex area: a wind-jet region. The study region is the offshore Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean Sea) where strong cross-shelf winds occur due to a topographic channelization. This leads to relatively short-fetch conditions, which interact with the swell component. The third-generation wave model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) is implemented and fed by high-resolution wind fields. A combination of buoy and High Frequency (HF) radar data is used for model validation, resulting in a reasonable level of agreement. The numerical results characterize the wind-wave evolution during a wind jet. A bimodal spectrum is observed due to the interaction of swell and sea systems. The wave directional spreading exhibits lower values at the wind-jet axis. Finally, a reliability analysis of the wave data from an HF radar deployed at the region is carried out. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Scheduling of Maintenance Tasks and Routing of a Joint Vessel Fleet for Multiple Offshore Wind Farms
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2017, 5(1), 11; doi:10.3390/jmse5010011 -
Abstract
Maintenance costs related to offshore wind farms are severely limiting their potential for being profitable. This paper proposes a new mathematical model that considers how maintenance tasks should be scheduled and performed by technicians transported using a fleet of dedicated vessels. The model
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Maintenance costs related to offshore wind farms are severely limiting their potential for being profitable. This paper proposes a new mathematical model that considers how maintenance tasks should be scheduled and performed by technicians transported using a fleet of dedicated vessels. The model is novel in its combination of modelling several work shifts and including vessels that can stay offshore for several shifts, while handling large maintenance tasks and accurate calculation of downtime costs. Simulation is used to evaluate the performance of the model in its pure form, as well as when solved heuristically using a rolling horizon heuristic. The results indicate that the end-of-horizon effects of the mathematical formulation are handled effectively. Computational experiments also illustrate how the mathematical model coupled with simulation can be used to evaluate strategic decisions regarding the composition of a vessel fleet used to execute maintenance tasks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Application of State of Art Modeling Techniques to Predict Flooding and Waves for an Exposed Coastal Area
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2017, 5(1), 10; doi:10.3390/jmse5010010 -
Abstract
Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) are developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to provide guidance in establishing the risk to structures and infrastructure in the coastal zone from storm surge and coincidental waves. The maps are used by state agencies and
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Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) are developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to provide guidance in establishing the risk to structures and infrastructure in the coastal zone from storm surge and coincidental waves. The maps are used by state agencies and municipalities to help guide coastal planning and establish the minimum elevation standard for new or substantially improved structures. A summary of the methods used and results of 2012 FIRM mapping are presented for Charlestown, RI; a coastal community located along the exposed, southern shoreline of the state. Concerns with the methods used in the 2012 analysis are put in context with the National Research Council’s (NRC) 2009 review of the FEMA coastal mapping program. New mapping is then performed using state of the art, fully coupled surge and wave modeling and data analysis methods to address the concerns in the NRC review. The new maps and methodologies are in compliance with FEMA regulations and guidelines. The approach makes extensive use of the numerical modeling results from the recent US Army Corp of Engineers (USACE), North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (NACCS 2015). Revised flood maps are presented and compared with the 2012 FIRM map to provide insight into the differences. The new maps highlight the importance of developing better estimates of offshore surge dynamics and its coupling to waves, dune erosion based on local observations, and the advancement in nearshore mapping of waves in flood inundated areas by the use of state of the art, two-dimensional wave transformation models. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Energy Balance of Biogas Production from Microalgae: Effect of Harvesting Method, Multiple Raceways, Scale of Plant and Combined Heat and Power Generation
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2017, 5(1), 9; doi:10.3390/jmse5010009 -
Abstract
A previously-developed mechanistic energy balance model for production of biogas from the anaerobic digestion of microalgal biomass grown in open raceway systems was used to consider the energetic viability of a number of scenarios, and to explore some of the most critical parameters
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A previously-developed mechanistic energy balance model for production of biogas from the anaerobic digestion of microalgal biomass grown in open raceway systems was used to consider the energetic viability of a number of scenarios, and to explore some of the most critical parameters affecting net energy production. The output demonstrated that no single harvesting method of those considered (centrifugation, settlement or flocculation) produced an energy output sufficiently greater than operational energy inputs to make microalgal biogas production energetically viable. Combinations of harvesting methods could produce energy outputs 2.3–3.4 times greater than the operational energy inputs. Electrical energy to power pumps, mixers and harvesting systems was 5–8 times greater than the heating energy requirement. If the energy to power the plant is generated locally in a combined heat and power unit, a considerable amount of “low grade” heat will be available that is not required by the process, and for the system to show a net operational energy return this must be exploited. It is concluded that the production of microalgal biogas may be energetically viable, but it is dependent on the effective use of the heat generated by the combustion of biogas in combined heat and power units to show an operational energy return. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of the New Status of Nador Lagoon (Morocco) after the Implementation of the Management Plan
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2017, 5(1), 7; doi:10.3390/jmse5010007 -
Abstract
The present study was carried out in 2011 with the aims of (1) evaluating the changes in sedimentary distribution that occurred in Nador lagoon seabed (Morocco) after the implementation of the lagoon management plan in 2009; and (2) characterizing its new sedimentary status
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The present study was carried out in 2011 with the aims of (1) evaluating the changes in sedimentary distribution that occurred in Nador lagoon seabed (Morocco) after the implementation of the lagoon management plan in 2009; and (2) characterizing its new sedimentary status in 2011. Due to the lack of a baseline, we used the 1992 sedimentary status for comparison. The seabed surface sediment distribution showed a great change between 1992 and 2011. We found the same four sediment facies, which were present in 1992, namely: mud, sandy mud, muddy sand, and fine sand. However, in 2011, mud covered more than 54% of the lagoon seabed surface, mostly located in the middle part of the seabed, whereas in 1992, more than 80% of the lagoon seabed was covered by sandy mud. The sediments’ characteristics showed moderately to poorly sorted facies (S0), ranging between platykurtic and leptokurtic (SK) and with various symmetry indices (SG). The organic matter content in sediment has strongly decreased, from values higher than 20% in most areas in 1992 to a mean value of 3.9% in 2011, ranging from 0.2% to 10.4%, thus confirming that the management actions implemented in 2009 were likely effective in reducing the organic pollution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Towards the Development of an Operational Forecast System for the Florida Coast
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2017, 5(1), 8; doi:10.3390/jmse5010008 -
Abstract
A nowcasting and forecasting system for storm surge, inundation, waves, and baroclinic flow for the Florida coast has been developed. The system is based on dynamically coupled CH3D and SWAN models and can use a variety of modules to provide different input forcing,
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A nowcasting and forecasting system for storm surge, inundation, waves, and baroclinic flow for the Florida coast has been developed. The system is based on dynamically coupled CH3D and SWAN models and can use a variety of modules to provide different input forcing, boundary and initial conditions. The system is completely automated and operates unattended at pre-scheduled intervals as well as in event-triggered mode in response to Atlantic-basin tropical cyclone advisories issued by the National Hurricane Center. The system provides up to 72-h forecasts forward depending on the input dataset duration. Spatially, the system spans the entire Florida coastline by employing four high-resolution domains with resolutions as fine as 10–30 m in the near-shore and overland to allow the system to resolve fine estuarine details such as in the Intracoastal Waterway and minor tributaries. The system has been validated in both hindcast and nowcast/forecast modes using water level and salinity data from a variety of sources and has been found to run robustly during the test periods. Low level products (e.g., raw output datasets) are disseminated using THREDDS while a custom defined web-based graphical user interface (GUI) was developed for high level access. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Recirculation Modeling for Power Plants in an Estuarine Environment
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2017, 5(1), 5; doi:10.3390/jmse5010005 -
Abstract
Many power plants require large quantities of water for cooling purposes. The water taken from the source water body (e.g., lakes, estuaries, bays and rivers) circulates through the plant and returns to the source through outfall with a higher temperature. For optimal performance
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Many power plants require large quantities of water for cooling purposes. The water taken from the source water body (e.g., lakes, estuaries, bays and rivers) circulates through the plant and returns to the source through outfall with a higher temperature. For optimal performance of the power plant, the intake inlet and discharge outlet should be meticulously placed so that the heated water will not recirculate back into the power plant. In this study, the Flow module of the Delft3D software is employed to simulate the temperature transport within the study area in three-dimensional and nested format. Model results are used to optimize the location of intake inlets, outfall outlets and diffuser port orientations. The physical processes used in the study are tidal fluctuations, winds, river discharges, salinity and temperature. The subject power plant (power plant parameters presented in this paper are realistic; however, they do not target any specific power plant within the study area) has a nominal capacity of 2600 MW and is planned to be located in Delaware Bay, USA. Existing field measurements are used to calibrate the model in a coupled two-staged fashion for main tidal constituents, currents and water temperature. The sensitivity of the model against various input parameters is tested, and conservative values are selected. The location of the intake is fixed, and the location of the outfall is changed until the thermal impact to the intake is less than 1 °C. Analysis of the results shows that there is a linear logarithmic relation between the excess temperatures at the intake inlet and horizontal eddy diffusivity. The k-ϵ turbulence closure results in higher excess temperature and a more conservative design. Extending the outfall location to the deeper portion of the estuary combined with port orientations reduces the impact by keeping the thermal plume away from the intake inlet and meeting the established criteria. It is concluded that an approximate distance of 1300 m is the optimal location for the power plant outfall outlets. In addition, the diffuser ports should not discharge the heated water toward the intake and have to be oriented away from the line connecting outfall to the intake. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of JMSE in 2016
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2017, 5(1), 6; doi:10.3390/jmse5010006 -
Abstract
The editors of JMSE would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016. We greatly appreciate the contribution of expert reviewers, which is crucial to the journal’s editorial process. We aim to recognize reviewer contributions through
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The editors of JMSE would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016. We greatly appreciate the contribution of expert reviewers, which is crucial to the journal’s editorial process. We aim to recognize reviewer contributions through several mechanisms, of which the annual publication of reviewer names is one. Reviewers receive a voucher entitling them to a discount on their next MDPI publication and can download a certificate of recognition directly from our submission system. Additionally, reviewers can sign up to the service Publons (https://publons.com) to receive recognition. Of course, in these initiatives we are careful not to compromise reviewer confidentiality. Many reviewers see their work as a voluntary and often unseen part of their role as researchers. We are grateful to the time reviewers donate to our journals and the contribution they make. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Information Theoretic Source Seeking Strategies for Multiagent Plume Tracking in Turbulent Fields
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2017, 5(1), 3; doi:10.3390/jmse5010003 -
Abstract
We present information theoretic search strategies for single and multi-robot teams to localize the source of biochemical contaminants in turbulent flows. The robots synthesize the information provided by sporadic and intermittent sensor readings to optimize their exploration strategy. By leveraging the spatio-temporal sensing
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We present information theoretic search strategies for single and multi-robot teams to localize the source of biochemical contaminants in turbulent flows. The robots synthesize the information provided by sporadic and intermittent sensor readings to optimize their exploration strategy. By leveraging the spatio-temporal sensing capabilities of a mobile sensing network, our strategies result in control actions that maximize the information gained by the team while minimizing the time spent localizing the biochemical source. By leveraging the team’s ability to obtain simultaneous measurements at different locations, we show how a multi-robot team is able to speed up the search process resulting in a collaborative information theoretic search strategy. We validate our proposed strategies in both simulations and experiments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Reliability of Counting Bacteria Using Epifluorescence Microscopy
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2017, 5(1), 4; doi:10.3390/jmse5010004 -
Abstract
The common practice of counting bacteria using epifluorescence microscopy involves selecting 5–30 random fields of view on a glass slide to calculate the arithmetic mean which is then used to estimate the total bacterial abundance. However, not much is known about the accuracy
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The common practice of counting bacteria using epifluorescence microscopy involves selecting 5–30 random fields of view on a glass slide to calculate the arithmetic mean which is then used to estimate the total bacterial abundance. However, not much is known about the accuracy of the arithmetic mean when it is calculated by selecting random fields of view and its effect on the overall abundance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the arithmetic mean by estimating total bacterial abundance and to calculate its variance using a bootstrapping technique. Three fixed suspensions obtained from a three-week-old marine biofilm were stained and dispersed on glass slides. Bacterial cells were counted from a total of 13,924 fields of view on each slide. Total bacterial count data obtained were used for calculating the arithmetic mean and associated variance and bias for sample field sizes of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40. The study revealed a non-uniform distribution of bacterial cells on the glass slide. A minimum of 20 random fields of view or a minimum of 350 bacterial cells need to be counted to obtain a reliable value of the arithmetic mean to estimate the total bacterial abundance for a marine biofilm sample dispersed on a glass slide. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Layered Stratification in the Baltic Sea: Insight from a Modeling Study with Reference to Environmental Conditions
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2017, 5(1), 2; doi:10.3390/jmse5010002 -
Abstract
The hydrodynamic and transport characteristics of the Baltic Sea in the period 2000–2009 were studied using a fully calibrated and validated 3D hydrodynamic model with a horizontal resolution of 4.8 km. This study provided new insight into the type and dynamics of vertical
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The hydrodynamic and transport characteristics of the Baltic Sea in the period 2000–2009 were studied using a fully calibrated and validated 3D hydrodynamic model with a horizontal resolution of 4.8 km. This study provided new insight into the type and dynamics of vertical structure in the Baltic Sea, not considered in previous studies. Thermal and salinity stratification are both addressed, with a focus on the structural properties of the layers. The detection of cooler regions (dicothermal) within the layer structure is an important finding. The detailed investigation of thermal stratification for a 10-year period (i.e., 2000–2009) revealed some new features. A multilayered structure that contains several thermocline and dicothermal layers was identified from this study. Statistical analysis of the simulation results made it possible to derive the mean thermal stratification properties, expressed as mean temperatures and the normalized layer thicknesses. The three-layered model proposed by previous investigators appears to be valid only during the winter periods; for other periods, a multi-layered structure with more than five layers has been identified during this investigation. This study provides detailed insight into thermal and salinity stratification in the Baltic Sea during a recent decade that can be used as a basis for diverse environmental assessments. It extends previous studies on stratification in the Baltic Sea regarding both the extent and the nature of stratification. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Role of Beach Morphology in Wave Overtopping Hazard Assessment
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2017, 5(1), 1; doi:10.3390/jmse5010001 -
Abstract
Understanding the role of beach morphology in controlling wave overtopping volume will further minimise uncertainties in flood risk assessments at coastal locations defended by engineered structures worldwide. XBeach is used to model wave overtopping volume for a 1:200 year joint probability distribution of
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Understanding the role of beach morphology in controlling wave overtopping volume will further minimise uncertainties in flood risk assessments at coastal locations defended by engineered structures worldwide. XBeach is used to model wave overtopping volume for a 1:200 year joint probability distribution of waves and water levels with measured, pre- and post-storm beach profiles. The simulation with measured bathymetry is repeated with and without morphological evolution enabled during the modelled storm event. This research assesses the role of morphology in controlling wave overtopping volumes for hazardous events that meet the typical design level of coastal defence structures. Results show that disabling storm-driven morphology under-represents modelled wave overtopping volumes by up to 39% under high Hs conditions and has a greater impact on the wave overtopping rate than the variability applied within the boundary conditions due to the range of wave-water level combinations that meet the 1:200 year joint probability criterion. Accounting for morphology in flood modelling is therefore critical for accurately predicting wave overtopping volumes and the resulting flood hazard and to assess economic losses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Variations in the Wave Climate and Sediment Transport Due to Climate Change along the Coast of Vietnam
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4(4), 86; doi:10.3390/jmse4040086 -
Abstract
This study quantifies the climate change (CC)-driven variations in wave characteristics and the resulting variations in potential longshore sediment transport rate along the ~2000 km mainland coast of Vietnam. Wind fields derived from global circulation models (GCM) for current and future (2041–2060 and
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This study quantifies the climate change (CC)-driven variations in wave characteristics and the resulting variations in potential longshore sediment transport rate along the ~2000 km mainland coast of Vietnam. Wind fields derived from global circulation models (GCM) for current and future (2041–2060 and 2081–2100) climate conditions are used to force a numerical wave model (MIKE21 SW) to derive the deep water wave climate. The offshore wave climate is translated to nearshore wave conditions using another numerical model (Simulating WAves Nearshore—SWAN) and finally, a sediment transport model (GENEralized model for Simulating Shoreline Change—GENESIS) is used to estimate potential sediment transport for current and future climate conditions. Results indicate that CC effects are substantially different in the northern, central and southern parts of the coast of Vietnam. The 2081–2100 mean significant wave height along the northern coast is estimated to be up to 8 cm lower (relative to 1981–2000), while projections for central and southern coasts of Vietnam indicate slightly higher (increases of up to 5 cm and 7 cm respectively). Wave direction along the northern coast of Vietnam is projected to shift by up to 4° towards the south (clockwise) by 2081–2100 (relative to 1981–2000), up to 6° clockwise along the central coast and by up to 8° anti-clockwise (to the north) along the southern coast. The projected potential longshore sediment transport rates show very substantial and spatially variable future changes in net transport rates along the coast of Vietnam, with increases of up to 0.5 million m3/year at some locations (by 2081–2100 relative to 1981–2000), implying major changes in future coastline position and/or orientation. The vicinity of the highly developed city of Da Nang is likely to be particularly subject to coastline changes, with potentially an additional 875,000 m3 of sand being transported away from the area per year by the turn of the 21st century. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Coastal Erosion on Storm Surge: A Case Study in the Southern Coast of Rhode Island
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4(4), 85; doi:10.3390/jmse4040085 -
Abstract
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of shoreline retreat and dune erosion on coastal flooding in a case study located in the southern coast of Rhode Island, USA. Using an extensive dataset collected during 2011, an ADCIRC model was
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The objective of this study was to assess the effect of shoreline retreat and dune erosion on coastal flooding in a case study located in the southern coast of Rhode Island, USA. Using an extensive dataset collected during 2011, an ADCIRC model was developed to simulate the propagation of storm surge in the coastal areas, including coastal inlets and ponds. A simplified methodology, based on the geological assessment of historical trends of the shoreline retreat and dune erosion in this area, was incorporated in the model to represent coastal erosion. The results showed that for extreme storms (e.g., a 100-year event), where coastal dunes are overtopped and low-lying areas are flooded, the flooding extent is not significantly sensitive to coastal erosion. However, failure of the dunes leads to a significant increase of the flooding extent for smaller storms. Substantial dampening of the storm surge elevation in coastal ponds for moderate and small storms was associated with coastal inlets connecting to coastal ponds which are often not resolved in regional surge models. The shoreline change did not significantly affect the extent of flooding. It was also shown that the accuracy of a storm surge model highly depends on its ability to resolve coastal inlets, which is critical for reliable storm surge predictions in areas with inlet-basin systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancement of Protein and Pigment Content in Two Chlorella Species Cultivated on Industrial Process Water
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4(4), 84; doi:10.3390/jmse4040084 -
Abstract
Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Chlorella vulgaris were cultivated in pre-gasified industrial process water with high concentration of ammonia representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of growth media and cultivation duration on the nutritional composition of biomass.
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Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Chlorella vulgaris were cultivated in pre-gasified industrial process water with high concentration of ammonia representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of growth media and cultivation duration on the nutritional composition of biomass. Variations in proteins, lipid, fatty acid composition, amino acids, tocopherols, and pigments were studied. Both species grew well in industrial process water. The contents of proteins were affected significantly by the growth media and cultivation duration. Microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa produced the highest concentrations of protein (65.2% ± 1.30% DW) while Chlorella vulgaris accumulated extremely high concentrations of lutein and chlorophylls (7.14 ± 0.66 mg/g DW and 32.4 ± 1.77 mg/g DW, respectively). Cultivation of Chlorella species in industrial process water is an environmentally friendly, sustainable bioremediation method with added value biomass production and resource valorization, since the resulting biomass also presented a good source of proteins, amino acids, and carotenoids for potential use in aquaculture feed industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Line Force and Damping at Full and Partial Stator Overlap in a Linear Generator for Wave Power
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4(4), 81; doi:10.3390/jmse4040081 -
Abstract
A full scale linear generator for wave power has been experimentally evaluated by measuring the line force and translator position throughout the full translator stroke. The measured line force, in relation to translator speed, generator damping and stator overlap, has been studied by
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A full scale linear generator for wave power has been experimentally evaluated by measuring the line force and translator position throughout the full translator stroke. The measured line force, in relation to translator speed, generator damping and stator overlap, has been studied by comparing the line force and the damping coefficient, γ, for multiple load cases along the translator stroke length. The study also compares the generator’s behavior during upward and downward motion, studies oscillations and determines the no load losses at two different speeds. The generator damping factor, γ, was determined for five different load cases during both upward and downward motion. The γ value was found to be constant for full stator overlap and to decrease linearly with a decreasing overlap, as the translator moved towards the endstops. The decline varied with the external load case, as previously suggested but not shown. In addition, during partial stator overlap, a higher γ value was noted as the translator was leaving the stator, compared to when it was entering the stator. Finally, new insights were gained regarding how translator weight and generator damping will affect the translator downward motion during offshore operation. This is important for power production and for avoiding damaging forces acting on the wave energy converter during operation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Procedure for Application-Oriented Optimisation of Marine Propellers
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4(4), 83; doi:10.3390/jmse4040083 -
Abstract
The use of automated optimisation in engineering applications is emerging. In particular, nature inspired algorithms are frequently used because of their variability and robust application in constraints and multi-objective optimisation problems. The purpose of this paper is the comparison of four different algorithms
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The use of automated optimisation in engineering applications is emerging. In particular, nature inspired algorithms are frequently used because of their variability and robust application in constraints and multi-objective optimisation problems. The purpose of this paper is the comparison of four different algorithms and several optimisation strategies on a set of seven test propellers in realistic industrial design setting. The propellers are picked from real commercial projects and the manual final designs were delivered to customers. The different approaches are evaluated and final results of the automated optimisation toolbox are compared with designs generated in a manual design process. We identify a two-stage optimisation for marine propellers, where the geometry is first modified by parametrised geometry distribution curves to gather knowledge of the test case. Here we vary the optimisation strategy in terms of applied algorithms, constraints and objectives. A second supporting optimisation aims to improve the design by locally changing the geometry, based on the results of the first optimisation. The optimisation algorithms and strategies yield propeller designs that are comparable to the manually designed propeller blade geometries, thus being suitable as robust and advanced design support tools. The supporting optimisation, with local modification of the blade geometry and the proposed cavity shape constraints, features particular good performance in modifying cavitation on the blade and is, with the AS NSGA-II (adaptive surrogate-assisted NSGA-II), superior in lead time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling Water Clarity and Light Quality in Oceans
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4(4), 80; doi:10.3390/jmse4040080 -
Abstract
Phytoplankton is a primary producer of organic compounds, and it forms the base of the food chain in ocean waters. The concentration of phytoplankton in the water column controls water clarity and the amount and quality of light that penetrates through it. The
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Phytoplankton is a primary producer of organic compounds, and it forms the base of the food chain in ocean waters. The concentration of phytoplankton in the water column controls water clarity and the amount and quality of light that penetrates through it. The availability of adequate light intensity is a major factor in the health of algae and phytoplankton. There is a strong negative coupling between light intensity and phytoplankton concentration (e.g., through self-shading by the cells), which reduces available light and in return affects the growth rate of the cells. Proper modeling of this coupling is essential to understand primary productivity in the oceans. This paper provides the methodology to model light intensity in the water column, which can be included in relevant water quality models. The methodology implements relationships from bio-optical models, which use phytoplankton chlorophyll a (chl-a) concentration as a surrogate for light attenuation, including absorption and scattering by other attenuators. The presented mathematical methodology estimates the reduction in light intensity due to absorption by pure seawater, chl-a pigment, non-algae particles (NAPs) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), as well as backscattering by pure seawater, phytoplankton particles and NAPs. The methods presented facilitate the prediction of the effects of various environmental and management scenarios (e.g., global warming, altered precipitation patterns, greenhouse gases) on the wellbeing of phytoplankton communities in the oceans as temperature-driven chl-a changes take place. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of the Hydrodynamic Model for Long-Term Simulation of Water Quality Processes of the Tidal James River, Virginia
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4(4), 82; doi:10.3390/jmse4040082 -
Abstract
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have frequently occurred in the James River. The State has convened a Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to review the James River chlorophyll-a standards. The SAP will conduct a scientific study to review the basis for setting the chlorophyll-a standards.
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Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have frequently occurred in the James River. The State has convened a Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to review the James River chlorophyll-a standards. The SAP will conduct a scientific study to review the basis for setting the chlorophyll-a standards. To support the SAP study of chlorophyll-a standards, the State of Virginia has decided to develop a numerical modeling system that is capable of simulating phytoplankton and HABs. The modeling system includes a watershed model, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model and water quality models. The focus of this study will be on the development and verification of the hydrodynamic model. In order to simulate the complex geometry of the James River, a high-resolution model has been implemented. The model has been calibrated for a long-term period of 23 years. A series of model experiments was conducted to evaluate the impact of forcings on dynamic simulation and transport time. It was found that freshwater discharge is the most sensitive for an accurate simulation of salinity and transport time. The water age predicted by the model in the tidal freshwater region represents the fluctuation of transport processes, and it has a good correlation with the algal bloom, while at the downstream, the transport time simulation agrees with the delay of the HAB in the mesohaline of the James after the HAB occurred in the Elizabeth River due to the transport processes. The results indicate that the hydrodynamic model is capable of simulating the dynamic processes of the James and driving water quality models in the James River. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tidal Datum Changes Induced by Morphological Changes of North Carolina Coastal Inlets
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4(4), 79; doi:10.3390/jmse4040079 -
Abstract
In support of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s VDatum program, a new version of a tidal datum product for the North Carolina coastal waters has been developed to replace the initial version released in 2004. Compared with the initial version, the new
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In support of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s VDatum program, a new version of a tidal datum product for the North Carolina coastal waters has been developed to replace the initial version released in 2004. Compared with the initial version, the new version used a higher resolution grid to cover more areas and incorporated up-to-date tide, bathymetry, and shoreline data. Particularly, the old bathymetry datasets that were collected from the 1930s to the 1970s and were used in the initial version have been replaced by the new bathymetry datasets collected in the 2010s in the new version around five North Carolina inlets. This study aims at evaluating and quantifying tidal datum changes induced by morphological changes over about 40 to 80 years around the inlets. A series of tidal simulations with either the old or new bathymetry datasets used around five inlets were conducted to quantify the consequent tidal datum changes. The results showed that around certain inlets, approximately 10% change in the averaged depth could result in over 30% change in the tidal datum magnitude. Further investigation also revealed that tidal datum changes behind the barrier islands are closely associated with the cross-inlet tidal flux changes. Full article
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