Open AccessEditorial
Complex Problem Solving and Its Position in the Wider Realm of the Human Intellect
J. Intell. 2018, 6(1), 5; doi:10.3390/jintelligence6010005 -
Abstract
We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.[...] Full article
Open AccessCommentary
Speculations on the Role of Successful Intelligence in Solving Contemporary World Problems
J. Intell. 2018, 6(1), 4; doi:10.3390/jintelligence6010004 -
Abstract
In this article, I argue that conventional views of intelligence and its measurement have contributed toward at least some of the societal problems of today. I suggest that to escape from a degenerative process, society needs to consider the importance not only of
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In this article, I argue that conventional views of intelligence and its measurement have contributed toward at least some of the societal problems of today. I suggest that to escape from a degenerative process, society needs to consider the importance not only of intelligence, as conventionally defined but also of successful intelligence, involving in addition to conventional analytical intelligence, common sense, creativity, and wisdom. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Journal of Intelligence in 2017
J. Intell. 2018, 6(1), 3; doi:10.3390/jintelligence6010003 -
Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Journal of Intelligence maintains high quality standards for its published papers [...]
Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Search for Personality–Intelligence Relations: Methodological and Conceptual Issues
J. Intell. 2018, 6(1), 2; doi:10.3390/jintelligence6010002 -
Abstract
Prior to empirical investigation of trait level measures, it had been suggested that, on balance, well-adjusted individuals tended to have a higher level of intelligence than poorly adjusted individuals. The underlying inference was that there should be positive correlations found between personality traits
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Prior to empirical investigation of trait level measures, it had been suggested that, on balance, well-adjusted individuals tended to have a higher level of intelligence than poorly adjusted individuals. The underlying inference was that there should be positive correlations found between personality traits associated with “adjustment” and intelligence, at least at the level of general mental abilities. Over the last several decades, empirical research has suggested that, while there are sources of common variance among personality and intellectual ability measures, the relations are more scattered and provide few general findings (other than broad assessments of neuroticism and so-called engagement traits and intellectual abilities). The status of the empirical research foundation is briefly reviewed. Conceptual and methodological issues, such as non-linear relations, typical and maximal behaviors, contextualized assessment, and missing linkages are discussed in an effort to explore personality and intelligence traits in a manner that might better reveal underlying relations between these domains. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Reliability and Validity of a Self-Report Measure of Cognitive Abilities in Older Adults: More Personality than Cognitive Function
J. Intell. 2018, 6(1), 1; doi:10.3390/jintelligence6010001 -
Abstract
The development of brief, reliable and valid self-report measures of cognitive abilities would facilitate research in areas including cognitive ageing. This is due to both practical and economic limitations of formal cognitive testing procedures. This study examined the reliability and validity of the
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The development of brief, reliable and valid self-report measures of cognitive abilities would facilitate research in areas including cognitive ageing. This is due to both practical and economic limitations of formal cognitive testing procedures. This study examined the reliability and validity of the newly developed Self-Report Measure of Cognitive Abilities (SRMCA; Jacobs & Roodenburg, 2014); a multi-item self-report tool designed to assess cognitive function in the ability areas of fluid reasoning (Gf), comprehension-knowledge (Gc) and visual processing (Gv). Participants were (n = 93) cognitively healthy older adults aged between 52 and 82 years who completed the SRMCA, the Big Five Inventory and a battery of cognitive tasks. Results revealed adequate reliability for the SRMCA and convergent validity for the Gc domain but not for Gf or Gv. Moreover, significant personality bias was evident with Extraversion (positively), Openness to Experience (positively) and Neuroticism (negatively) predicting SRMCA responses independently of actual cognitive performance. Thus, although the SRMCA appears to be reliable in older adults, personality was a stronger predictor of self-estimated cognitive abilities than actual cognitive performance, questioning the utility of this tool as a subjective measure of cognitive ability. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Working Memory Training for Schoolchildren Improves Working Memory, with No Transfer Effects on Intelligence
J. Intell. 2017, 5(4), 36; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5040036 -
Abstract
Working memory contributes to many higher-order cognitive processes and predicts general cognitive skills. It is therefore important to know if its functions are trainable. In this study we investigated the malleability of working memory processes in schoolchildren whose cognitive functions are still developing.
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Working memory contributes to many higher-order cognitive processes and predicts general cognitive skills. It is therefore important to know if its functions are trainable. In this study we investigated the malleability of working memory processes in schoolchildren whose cognitive functions are still developing. We also analyzed transfer effects to both general and specific intellectual skills. To address these issues, we examined the effectiveness of working memory training (10 training sessions) in terms of practice effects (trained tasks), near-transfer effects (working memory capacity), and far-transfer effects (psychometric intelligence). Sixty-nine children aged 8–10 participated in the study. The experimental group (42 children) participated in working memory training that intensely engaged the updating function of working memory. The training tasks, implemented as computer games, were based on the n-back and keep track paradigms. There was also an active control group (27 children). The results suggest that the experimental group improved their working memory capacity, as measured with both trained and untrained tasks. Regarding intelligence, far-transfer effects were weak and may be attributed to mere repetition of measurements. Moreover, whereas improvement in the training tasks could be observed after 15 months, the far-transfer effects disappeared in the delayed assessment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Intelligence and Sensory Sensitivity as Predictors of Emotion Recognition Ability
J. Intell. 2017, 5(4), 35; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5040035 -
Abstract
The ability to recognize emotions from nonverbal cues (emotion recognition ability, ERA) is a core component of emotional intelligence, which has recently been conceptualized as a second-stratum factor of intelligence (MacCann et al., 2014). However, only few studies have empirically investigated the link
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The ability to recognize emotions from nonverbal cues (emotion recognition ability, ERA) is a core component of emotional intelligence, which has recently been conceptualized as a second-stratum factor of intelligence (MacCann et al., 2014). However, only few studies have empirically investigated the link between ERA, intelligence, and other mental abilities. The present study examined the associations between ERA, fluid intelligence, and sensory sensitivity in a sample of 214 participants. Results showed that both fluid intelligence and sensory sensitivity explained unique portions of variance in ERA. These findings suggest that future studies on ERA should include intelligence measures to assess the incremental validity of ERA above and beyond intelligence. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Measuring Reasoning about Teaching for Graduate Admissions in Psychology and Related Disciplines
J. Intell. 2017, 5(4), 34; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5040034 -
Abstract
Teaching- and teaching-evaluation skills are critically important to professional success in psychology and related disciplines. We explored the possibility of measuring reasoning-about-teaching skills as a supplementary measure for admissions in psychology and related behavioral-sciences disciplines. We tested 103 students for their reasoning about
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Teaching- and teaching-evaluation skills are critically important to professional success in psychology and related disciplines. We explored the possibility of measuring reasoning-about-teaching skills as a supplementary measure for admissions in psychology and related behavioral-sciences disciplines. We tested 103 students for their reasoning about teaching and their reasoning about research, as well as for their cognitive- (abstract reasoning) and educational skills. We found that women performed better than men on our reasoning-about-teaching measure, and that factorially, our reasoning-about-teaching measure clustered with our reasoning-about-research measures but not with our measures of abstract cognitive reasoning and educational skills. Full article
Open AccessCommentary
Overemphasized “g”
J. Intell. 2017, 5(4), 33; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5040033 -
Abstract
In this paper I argue that the emphasis on “g” has become a hindrance to the study of broadly defined human cognitive abilities. Abilities captured by the first- and second-stratum factors in the Cattel-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory have been neglected. The focus has been
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In this paper I argue that the emphasis on “g” has become a hindrance to the study of broadly defined human cognitive abilities. Abilities captured by the first- and second-stratum factors in the Cattel-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory have been neglected. The focus has been on a narrow range of cognitive processes that excludes those common to some sensory modalities and a host of new tasks and constructs that have become available through recent conceptual analyses and technological developments. These new areas have emerged from psychology itself (complex problem solving tasks and emotional intelligence) and from disciplines related to psychology like education and economics (economic games and cognitive biases in decision-making). Full article
Open AccessBrief Report
Maltreatment Related Trauma Symptoms Affect Academic Achievement through Cognitive Functioning: A Preliminary Examination in Japan
J. Intell. 2017, 5(4), 32; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5040032 -
Abstract
Child abuse and neglect could have some deleterious impacts on both intellectual and academic performance of school students. The aim of this study was to examine relationships among child maltreatment, trauma symptoms, cognitive functioning, and academic achievement. Data were collected from child guidance
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Child abuse and neglect could have some deleterious impacts on both intellectual and academic performance of school students. The aim of this study was to examine relationships among child maltreatment, trauma symptoms, cognitive functioning, and academic achievement. Data were collected from child guidance centers, where maltreated children were substantiated, assessed, evaluated, protected, and treated clinically. The selection criteria for subjects included Japanese children (1) who had a history of maltreatment; (2) whose IQs were measured using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children second edition (KABC-II); and (3) whose traumatic stress was evaluated using the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children alternate version (TSCC-A). Covariance structure analysis showed the model that explains the relations of trauma symptom (measured by TSCC-A) on academic achievement (measured by KABC-II) as being intervened by cognitive functioning (measured by KABC-II). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Cross-Lagged Panel Analysis of Psychometric Intelligence and Achievement in Reading and Math
J. Intell. 2017, 5(3), 31; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5030031 -
Abstract
A cross-lagged panel analysis of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) intelligence test scores and reading and math achievement test scores of 337 students twice assessed for special education eligibility across a test-retest interval of 2.85 years was conducted. General intelligence (
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A cross-lagged panel analysis of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) intelligence test scores and reading and math achievement test scores of 337 students twice assessed for special education eligibility across a test-retest interval of 2.85 years was conducted. General intelligence (g) was loaded by the four WISC-IV factor index scores whereas reading and math were composite scores. After confirming measurement invariance, it was found that g, reading, and math were stable across time and synchronously correlated. The cross-lagged paths from g at time 1 to reading and math at time 2 (0.26 and 0.39, respectively) were both significantly greater than zero whereas the paths from reading and math at time 1 to g at time 2 (0.03 and 0.23, respectively) were not statistically significant. Given this pattern of relationships and extant research on the correlates of general intelligence, it was tentatively inferred that general intelligence was the temporal precursor to reading and math achievement. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
From Cognitive Development to Intelligence: Translating Developmental Mental Milestones into Intellect
J. Intell. 2017, 5(3), 30; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5030030 -
Abstract
This special issue aimed to contribute to the unification of two disciplines focusing on cognition and intelligence: the psychology of cognitive development and the psychology of intelligence. The general principles of the organization and development of human intelligence are discussed first. Each paper
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This special issue aimed to contribute to the unification of two disciplines focusing on cognition and intelligence: the psychology of cognitive development and the psychology of intelligence. The general principles of the organization and development of human intelligence are discussed first. Each paper is then summarized and discussed vis-à-vis these general principles. The implications for major theories of cognitive development and intelligence are briefly discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Measuring Scientific Reasoning for Graduate Admissions in Psychology and Related Disciplines
J. Intell. 2017, 5(3), 29; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5030029 -
Abstract
In two studies, we examined the convergent and discriminant validation of a new assessment of scientific reasoning that could be used for graduate admissions in psychology, educational psychology, human development, and in the psychological sciences more generally. The full assessment ultimately consisted of
[...] Read more.
In two studies, we examined the convergent and discriminant validation of a new assessment of scientific reasoning that could be used for graduate admissions in psychology, educational psychology, human development, and in the psychological sciences more generally. The full assessment ultimately consisted of tests of generating hypotheses, generating experiments, drawing conclusions, serving as a reviewer of a scientific article, and serving as an editor of a scientific journal. The tests had generally good convergent-discriminant validity. Certain socially defined ethnic/racial group differences were observed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Fluid Ability (Gf) and Complex Problem Solving (CPS)
J. Intell. 2017, 5(3), 28; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5030028 -
Abstract
Complex problem solving (CPS) has emerged over the past several decades as an important construct in education and in the workforce. We examine the relationship between CPS and general fluid ability (Gf) both conceptually and empirically. A review of definitions of the two
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Complex problem solving (CPS) has emerged over the past several decades as an important construct in education and in the workforce. We examine the relationship between CPS and general fluid ability (Gf) both conceptually and empirically. A review of definitions of the two factors, prototypical tasks, and the information processing analyses of performance on those tasks suggest considerable conceptual overlap. We review three definitions of CPS: a general definition emerging from the human problem solving literature; a more specialized definition from the “German School” emphasizing performance in many-variable microworlds, with high domain-knowledge requirements; and a third definition based on performance in Minimal Complex Systems (MCS), with fewer variables and reduced knowledge requirements. We find a correlation of 0.86 between expert ratings of the importance of CPS and Gf across 691 occupations in the O*NET database. We find evidence that employers value both Gf and CPS skills, but CPS skills more highly, even after controlling for the importance of domain knowledge. We suggest that this may be due to CPS requiring not just cognitive ability but additionally skill in applying that ability in domains. We suggest that a fruitful future direction is to explore the importance of domain knowledge in CPS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Bifactor Model Fits Better Than the Higher-Order Model in More Than 90% of Comparisons for Mental Abilities Test Batteries
J. Intell. 2017, 5(3), 27; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5030027 -
Abstract
The factor structure of mental abilities has most often been depicted using a higher-order model. Under this model, general mental ability (g) is placed at the top of a pyramid, with “loading” arrows going from it to the other factors of
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The factor structure of mental abilities has most often been depicted using a higher-order model. Under this model, general mental ability (g) is placed at the top of a pyramid, with “loading” arrows going from it to the other factors of intelligence, which in turn go to subtest scores. In contrast, under the bifactor model (also known as the nested factors/direct hierarchical model), each subtest score has its own direct loading on g; the non-g factors (e.g., the broad abilities) do not mediate the relationships of the subtest scores with g. Here we summarized past research that compared the fit of higher-order and bifactor models using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). We also analyzed additional archival datasets to compare the fit of the two models. Using a total database consisting of 31 test batteries, 58 datasets, and 1,712,509 test takers, we found stronger support for a bifactor model of g than for the traditional higher-order model. Across 166 comparisons, the bifactor model had median increases of 0.076 for the Comparative Fit Index (CFI), 0.083 for the Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI), and 0.078 for the Normed Fit Index (NFI) and decreases of 0.028 for the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) and 1343 for the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Consequently, researchers should consider using bifactor models when conducting CFAs. The bifactor model also makes the unique contributions of g and the broad abilities to subtest scores more salient to test users. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Intelligence and Verbal Short-Term Memory/Working Memory: Their Interrelationships from Childhood to Young Adulthood and Their Impact on Academic Achievement
J. Intell. 2017, 5(2), 26; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5020026 -
Abstract
Although recent developmental studies exploring the predictive power of intelligence and working memory (WM) for educational achievement in children have provided evidence for the importance of both variables, findings concerning the relative impact of IQ and WM on achievement have been inconsistent. Whereas
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Although recent developmental studies exploring the predictive power of intelligence and working memory (WM) for educational achievement in children have provided evidence for the importance of both variables, findings concerning the relative impact of IQ and WM on achievement have been inconsistent. Whereas IQ has been identified as the major predictor variable in a few studies, results from several other developmental investigations suggest that WM may be the stronger predictor of academic achievement. In the present study, data from the Munich Longitudinal Study on the Genesis of Individual Competencies (LOGIC) were used to explore this issue further. The secondary data analysis included data from about 200 participants whose IQ and WM was first assessed at the age of six and repeatedly measured until the ages of 18 and 23. Measures of reading, spelling, and math were also repeatedly assessed for this age range. Both regression analyses based on observed variables and latent variable structural equation modeling (SEM) were carried out to explore whether the predictive power of IQ and WM would differ as a function of time point of measurement (i.e., early vs. late assessment). As a main result of various regression analyses, IQ and WM turned out to be reliable predictors of academic achievement, both in early and later developmental stages, when previous domain knowledge was not included as additional predictor. The latter variable accounted for most of the variance in more comprehensive regression models, reducing the impact of both IQ and WM considerably. Findings from SEM analyses basically confirmed this outcome, indicating IQ impacts on educational achievement in the early phase, and illustrating the strong additional impact of previous domain knowledge on achievement at later stages of development. Full article
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Open AccessCommentary
A Differential–Developmental Model (DDM): Mental Speed, Attention Lapses, and General Intelligence (g)
J. Intell. 2017, 5(2), 25; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5020025 -
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to provide a parsimonious account of developmental and individual differences in intelligence (measured as g). The paper proposes a Differential–Developmental Model (DDM), which focuses on factors common to intelligence and cognitive development (e.g., mental speed and attention
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The aim of this paper is to provide a parsimonious account of developmental and individual differences in intelligence (measured as g). The paper proposes a Differential–Developmental Model (DDM), which focuses on factors common to intelligence and cognitive development (e.g., mental speed and attention lapses). It also proposes a complementary method based on Jensen’s box, a chronometric device. The device systematically varies task complexity, and separates two components of mental speed that differentially predict intelligence and cognitive development (reaction time and movement time). The paper reviews key assumptions of DDM, preliminary findings relevant to DDM, and future research on DDM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Binet’s Error: Developmental Change and Individual Differences in Intelligence Are Related to Different Mechanisms
J. Intell. 2017, 5(2), 24; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5020024 -
Abstract
In common with most, if not all, papers in this special issue, I will argue that understanding the nature of developmental change and individual differences in intelligence requires a theory of the mechanisms underlying both factors. Insofar as these mechanisms constitute part of
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In common with most, if not all, papers in this special issue, I will argue that understanding the nature of developmental change and individual differences in intelligence requires a theory of the mechanisms underlying both factors. Insofar as these mechanisms constitute part of the fundamental architecture of cognition, this is also an exercise in unifying the discipline and research on intelligence in both children and adults. However, I argue that a variety of data support a theory suggesting that developmental change is the province of mechanisms commonly regarded as components of executive functioning or cognitive control, whereas individual differences are constrained by the speed of information processing. Perhaps paradoxically, this leads to the conclusion that Binet’s fundamental insight—that children’s increasing ability to solve problems of increasing difficulty could generate a single scale of intelligence—is wrong. Compounding the paradox, this means that mental age and IQ are not simply two different ways of expressing the same thing, but are related to two different dimensions of g itself. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Developmental Differentiation and Binding of Mental Processes with g through the Life-Span
J. Intell. 2017, 5(2), 23; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5020023 -
Abstract
Integration/differentiation of mental processes is major mechanism of development. Developmental theories ascribe intellectual development to it. In psychometric theory, Spearman’s law of diminishing returns postulates that increasing g allows increasing differentiation of cognitive abilities, because increased mental power allows variable investment in domain-specific
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Integration/differentiation of mental processes is major mechanism of development. Developmental theories ascribe intellectual development to it. In psychometric theory, Spearman’s law of diminishing returns postulates that increasing g allows increasing differentiation of cognitive abilities, because increased mental power allows variable investment in domain-specific learning. Empirical evidence has been inconsistent so far, with some studies supporting and others contradicting this mechanism. This state of affairs is due to a developmental phenomenon: Both differentiation and strengthening of relations between specific processes and g may happen but these changes are phase-specific and ability-specific, depending upon the developmental priorities in the formation of g in each phase. We present eight studies covering the age span from 4 to 85 years in support of this phenomenon. Using new powerful modeling methods we showed that differentiation and binding of mental processes in g occurs in cycles. Specific processes intertwine with g at the beginning of cycles when they are integrated into it; when well established, these processes may vary with increasing g, reflecting its higher flexibility. Representational knowledge, inductive inference and awareness of it, and grasp of logical constraints framing inference are the major markers of g, first intertwining with in their respective cycles and differentiating later during the periods of 2–6, 7–11, and 11–20 years, respectively. The implications of these findings for an overarching cognitive developmental/differential theory of human mind are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Symmetry: Explaining Contradictory Results Concerning Working Memory, Reasoning, and Complex Problem Solving
J. Intell. 2017, 5(2), 22; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5020022 -
Abstract
Findings of studies on the unique effects of reasoning and working memory regarding complex problem solving are inconsistent. To find out if these inconsistencies are due to a lack of symmetry between the studies, we reconsidered the findings of three published studies on
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Findings of studies on the unique effects of reasoning and working memory regarding complex problem solving are inconsistent. To find out if these inconsistencies are due to a lack of symmetry between the studies, we reconsidered the findings of three published studies on this issue, which resulted in conflicting conclusions regarding the inter-relations between reasoning, working memory, and complex problem solving. This was achieved by analysing so far unpublished problem solving data from the study of Bühner, Krumm, Ziegler, and Plücken (2006) (N= 124). One of the three published studies indicated unique effects of working memory and reasoning on complex problem solving using aggregated scores, a second study found no unique contribution of working memory using only figural scores, and a third study reported a unique influence only for reasoning using only numerical scores. Our data featured an evaluation of differences across content facets and levels of aggregation of the working memory scores. Path models showed that the results of the first study could not be replicated using content aggregated scores; the results of the second study could be replicated if only figural scores were used, and the results of the third study could be obtained by using only numerical scores. For verbal content, none of the published results could be replicated. This leads to the assumption that not only symmetry is an issue when correlating non-symmetrical data, but that content also has to be taken into account when comparing different studies on the same topic. Full article
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