Open AccessArticle
Intelligence and Sensory Sensitivity as Predictors of Emotion Recognition Ability
J. Intell. 2017, 5(4), 35; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5040035 -
Abstract
The ability to recognize emotions from nonverbal cues (emotion recognition ability, ERA) is a core component of emotional intelligence, which has recently been conceptualized as a second-stratum factor of intelligence (MacCann et al., 2014). However, only few studies have empirically investigated the link
[...] Read more.
The ability to recognize emotions from nonverbal cues (emotion recognition ability, ERA) is a core component of emotional intelligence, which has recently been conceptualized as a second-stratum factor of intelligence (MacCann et al., 2014). However, only few studies have empirically investigated the link between ERA, intelligence, and other mental abilities. The present study examined the associations between ERA, fluid intelligence, and sensory sensitivity in a sample of 214 participants. Results showed that both fluid intelligence and sensory sensitivity explained unique portions of variance in ERA. These findings suggest that future studies on ERA should include intelligence measures to assess the incremental validity of ERA above and beyond intelligence. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Measuring Reasoning about Teaching for Graduate Admissions in Psychology and Related Disciplines
J. Intell. 2017, 5(4), 34; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5040034 -
Abstract
Teaching- and teaching-evaluation skills are critically important to professional success in psychology and related disciplines. We explored the possibility of measuring reasoning-about-teaching skills as a supplementary measure for admissions in psychology and related behavioral-sciences disciplines. We tested 103 students for their reasoning about
[...] Read more.
Teaching- and teaching-evaluation skills are critically important to professional success in psychology and related disciplines. We explored the possibility of measuring reasoning-about-teaching skills as a supplementary measure for admissions in psychology and related behavioral-sciences disciplines. We tested 103 students for their reasoning about teaching and their reasoning about research, as well as for their cognitive- (abstract reasoning) and educational skills. We found that women performed better than men on our reasoning-about-teaching measure, and that factorially, our reasoning-about-teaching measure clustered with our reasoning-about-research measures but not with our measures of abstract cognitive reasoning and educational skills. Full article
Open AccessCommentary
Overemphasized “g”
J. Intell. 2017, 5(4), 33; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5040033 -
Abstract
In this paper I argue that the emphasis on “g” has become a hindrance to the study of broadly defined human cognitive abilities. Abilities captured by the first- and second-stratum factors in the Cattel-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory have been neglected. The focus has been
[...] Read more.
In this paper I argue that the emphasis on “g” has become a hindrance to the study of broadly defined human cognitive abilities. Abilities captured by the first- and second-stratum factors in the Cattel-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory have been neglected. The focus has been on a narrow range of cognitive processes that excludes those common to some sensory modalities and a host of new tasks and constructs that have become available through recent conceptual analyses and technological developments. These new areas have emerged from psychology itself (complex problem solving tasks and emotional intelligence) and from disciplines related to psychology like education and economics (economic games and cognitive biases in decision-making). Full article
Open AccessBrief Report
Maltreatment Related Trauma Symptoms Affect Academic Achievement through Cognitive Functioning: A Preliminary Examination in Japan
J. Intell. 2017, 5(4), 32; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5040032 -
Abstract
Child abuse and neglect could have some deleterious impacts on both intellectual and academic performance of school students. The aim of this study was to examine relationships among child maltreatment, trauma symptoms, cognitive functioning, and academic achievement. Data were collected from child guidance
[...] Read more.
Child abuse and neglect could have some deleterious impacts on both intellectual and academic performance of school students. The aim of this study was to examine relationships among child maltreatment, trauma symptoms, cognitive functioning, and academic achievement. Data were collected from child guidance centers, where maltreated children were substantiated, assessed, evaluated, protected, and treated clinically. The selection criteria for subjects included Japanese children (1) who had a history of maltreatment; (2) whose IQs were measured using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children second edition (KABC-II); and (3) whose traumatic stress was evaluated using the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children alternate version (TSCC-A). Covariance structure analysis showed the model that explains the relations of trauma symptom (measured by TSCC-A) on academic achievement (measured by KABC-II) as being intervened by cognitive functioning (measured by KABC-II). Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Cross-Lagged Panel Analysis of Psychometric Intelligence and Achievement in Reading and Math
J. Intell. 2017, 5(3), 31; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5030031 -
Abstract
A cross-lagged panel analysis of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) intelligence test scores and reading and math achievement test scores of 337 students twice assessed for special education eligibility across a test-retest interval of 2.85 years was conducted. General intelligence (
[...] Read more.
A cross-lagged panel analysis of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) intelligence test scores and reading and math achievement test scores of 337 students twice assessed for special education eligibility across a test-retest interval of 2.85 years was conducted. General intelligence (g) was loaded by the four WISC-IV factor index scores whereas reading and math were composite scores. After confirming measurement invariance, it was found that g, reading, and math were stable across time and synchronously correlated. The cross-lagged paths from g at time 1 to reading and math at time 2 (0.26 and 0.39, respectively) were both significantly greater than zero whereas the paths from reading and math at time 1 to g at time 2 (0.03 and 0.23, respectively) were not statistically significant. Given this pattern of relationships and extant research on the correlates of general intelligence, it was tentatively inferred that general intelligence was the temporal precursor to reading and math achievement. Full article
Figures

Open AccessEditorial
From Cognitive Development to Intelligence: Translating Developmental Mental Milestones into Intellect
J. Intell. 2017, 5(3), 30; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5030030 -
Abstract
This special issue aimed to contribute to the unification of two disciplines focusing on cognition and intelligence: the psychology of cognitive development and the psychology of intelligence. The general principles of the organization and development of human intelligence are discussed first. Each paper
[...] Read more.
This special issue aimed to contribute to the unification of two disciplines focusing on cognition and intelligence: the psychology of cognitive development and the psychology of intelligence. The general principles of the organization and development of human intelligence are discussed first. Each paper is then summarized and discussed vis-à-vis these general principles. The implications for major theories of cognitive development and intelligence are briefly discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Measuring Scientific Reasoning for Graduate Admissions in Psychology and Related Disciplines
J. Intell. 2017, 5(3), 29; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5030029 -
Abstract
In two studies, we examined the convergent and discriminant validation of a new assessment of scientific reasoning that could be used for graduate admissions in psychology, educational psychology, human development, and in the psychological sciences more generally. The full assessment ultimately consisted of
[...] Read more.
In two studies, we examined the convergent and discriminant validation of a new assessment of scientific reasoning that could be used for graduate admissions in psychology, educational psychology, human development, and in the psychological sciences more generally. The full assessment ultimately consisted of tests of generating hypotheses, generating experiments, drawing conclusions, serving as a reviewer of a scientific article, and serving as an editor of a scientific journal. The tests had generally good convergent-discriminant validity. Certain socially defined ethnic/racial group differences were observed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Fluid Ability (Gf) and Complex Problem Solving (CPS)
J. Intell. 2017, 5(3), 28; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5030028 -
Abstract
Complex problem solving (CPS) has emerged over the past several decades as an important construct in education and in the workforce. We examine the relationship between CPS and general fluid ability (Gf) both conceptually and empirically. A review of definitions of the two
[...] Read more.
Complex problem solving (CPS) has emerged over the past several decades as an important construct in education and in the workforce. We examine the relationship between CPS and general fluid ability (Gf) both conceptually and empirically. A review of definitions of the two factors, prototypical tasks, and the information processing analyses of performance on those tasks suggest considerable conceptual overlap. We review three definitions of CPS: a general definition emerging from the human problem solving literature; a more specialized definition from the “German School” emphasizing performance in many-variable microworlds, with high domain-knowledge requirements; and a third definition based on performance in Minimal Complex Systems (MCS), with fewer variables and reduced knowledge requirements. We find a correlation of 0.86 between expert ratings of the importance of CPS and Gf across 691 occupations in the O*NET database. We find evidence that employers value both Gf and CPS skills, but CPS skills more highly, even after controlling for the importance of domain knowledge. We suggest that this may be due to CPS requiring not just cognitive ability but additionally skill in applying that ability in domains. We suggest that a fruitful future direction is to explore the importance of domain knowledge in CPS. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Bifactor Model Fits Better Than the Higher-Order Model in More Than 90% of Comparisons for Mental Abilities Test Batteries
J. Intell. 2017, 5(3), 27; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5030027 -
Abstract
The factor structure of mental abilities has most often been depicted using a higher-order model. Under this model, general mental ability (g) is placed at the top of a pyramid, with “loading” arrows going from it to the other factors of
[...] Read more.
The factor structure of mental abilities has most often been depicted using a higher-order model. Under this model, general mental ability (g) is placed at the top of a pyramid, with “loading” arrows going from it to the other factors of intelligence, which in turn go to subtest scores. In contrast, under the bifactor model (also known as the nested factors/direct hierarchical model), each subtest score has its own direct loading on g; the non-g factors (e.g., the broad abilities) do not mediate the relationships of the subtest scores with g. Here we summarized past research that compared the fit of higher-order and bifactor models using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). We also analyzed additional archival datasets to compare the fit of the two models. Using a total database consisting of 31 test batteries, 58 datasets, and 1,712,509 test takers, we found stronger support for a bifactor model of g than for the traditional higher-order model. Across 166 comparisons, the bifactor model had median increases of 0.076 for the Comparative Fit Index (CFI), 0.083 for the Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI), and 0.078 for the Normed Fit Index (NFI) and decreases of 0.028 for the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) and 1343 for the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Consequently, researchers should consider using bifactor models when conducting CFAs. The bifactor model also makes the unique contributions of g and the broad abilities to subtest scores more salient to test users. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Intelligence and Verbal Short-Term Memory/Working Memory: Their Interrelationships from Childhood to Young Adulthood and Their Impact on Academic Achievement
J. Intell. 2017, 5(2), 26; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5020026 -
Abstract
Although recent developmental studies exploring the predictive power of intelligence and working memory (WM) for educational achievement in children have provided evidence for the importance of both variables, findings concerning the relative impact of IQ and WM on achievement have been inconsistent. Whereas
[...] Read more.
Although recent developmental studies exploring the predictive power of intelligence and working memory (WM) for educational achievement in children have provided evidence for the importance of both variables, findings concerning the relative impact of IQ and WM on achievement have been inconsistent. Whereas IQ has been identified as the major predictor variable in a few studies, results from several other developmental investigations suggest that WM may be the stronger predictor of academic achievement. In the present study, data from the Munich Longitudinal Study on the Genesis of Individual Competencies (LOGIC) were used to explore this issue further. The secondary data analysis included data from about 200 participants whose IQ and WM was first assessed at the age of six and repeatedly measured until the ages of 18 and 23. Measures of reading, spelling, and math were also repeatedly assessed for this age range. Both regression analyses based on observed variables and latent variable structural equation modeling (SEM) were carried out to explore whether the predictive power of IQ and WM would differ as a function of time point of measurement (i.e., early vs. late assessment). As a main result of various regression analyses, IQ and WM turned out to be reliable predictors of academic achievement, both in early and later developmental stages, when previous domain knowledge was not included as additional predictor. The latter variable accounted for most of the variance in more comprehensive regression models, reducing the impact of both IQ and WM considerably. Findings from SEM analyses basically confirmed this outcome, indicating IQ impacts on educational achievement in the early phase, and illustrating the strong additional impact of previous domain knowledge on achievement at later stages of development. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommentary
A Differential–Developmental Model (DDM): Mental Speed, Attention Lapses, and General Intelligence (g)
J. Intell. 2017, 5(2), 25; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5020025 -
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to provide a parsimonious account of developmental and individual differences in intelligence (measured as g). The paper proposes a Differential–Developmental Model (DDM), which focuses on factors common to intelligence and cognitive development (e.g., mental speed and attention
[...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to provide a parsimonious account of developmental and individual differences in intelligence (measured as g). The paper proposes a Differential–Developmental Model (DDM), which focuses on factors common to intelligence and cognitive development (e.g., mental speed and attention lapses). It also proposes a complementary method based on Jensen’s box, a chronometric device. The device systematically varies task complexity, and separates two components of mental speed that differentially predict intelligence and cognitive development (reaction time and movement time). The paper reviews key assumptions of DDM, preliminary findings relevant to DDM, and future research on DDM. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Binet’s Error: Developmental Change and Individual Differences in Intelligence Are Related to Different Mechanisms
J. Intell. 2017, 5(2), 24; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5020024 -
Abstract
In common with most, if not all, papers in this special issue, I will argue that understanding the nature of developmental change and individual differences in intelligence requires a theory of the mechanisms underlying both factors. Insofar as these mechanisms constitute part of
[...] Read more.
In common with most, if not all, papers in this special issue, I will argue that understanding the nature of developmental change and individual differences in intelligence requires a theory of the mechanisms underlying both factors. Insofar as these mechanisms constitute part of the fundamental architecture of cognition, this is also an exercise in unifying the discipline and research on intelligence in both children and adults. However, I argue that a variety of data support a theory suggesting that developmental change is the province of mechanisms commonly regarded as components of executive functioning or cognitive control, whereas individual differences are constrained by the speed of information processing. Perhaps paradoxically, this leads to the conclusion that Binet’s fundamental insight—that children’s increasing ability to solve problems of increasing difficulty could generate a single scale of intelligence—is wrong. Compounding the paradox, this means that mental age and IQ are not simply two different ways of expressing the same thing, but are related to two different dimensions of g itself. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Developmental Differentiation and Binding of Mental Processes with g through the Life-Span
J. Intell. 2017, 5(2), 23; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5020023 -
Abstract
Integration/differentiation of mental processes is major mechanism of development. Developmental theories ascribe intellectual development to it. In psychometric theory, Spearman’s law of diminishing returns postulates that increasing g allows increasing differentiation of cognitive abilities, because increased mental power allows variable investment in domain-specific
[...] Read more.
Integration/differentiation of mental processes is major mechanism of development. Developmental theories ascribe intellectual development to it. In psychometric theory, Spearman’s law of diminishing returns postulates that increasing g allows increasing differentiation of cognitive abilities, because increased mental power allows variable investment in domain-specific learning. Empirical evidence has been inconsistent so far, with some studies supporting and others contradicting this mechanism. This state of affairs is due to a developmental phenomenon: Both differentiation and strengthening of relations between specific processes and g may happen but these changes are phase-specific and ability-specific, depending upon the developmental priorities in the formation of g in each phase. We present eight studies covering the age span from 4 to 85 years in support of this phenomenon. Using new powerful modeling methods we showed that differentiation and binding of mental processes in g occurs in cycles. Specific processes intertwine with g at the beginning of cycles when they are integrated into it; when well established, these processes may vary with increasing g, reflecting its higher flexibility. Representational knowledge, inductive inference and awareness of it, and grasp of logical constraints framing inference are the major markers of g, first intertwining with in their respective cycles and differentiating later during the periods of 2–6, 7–11, and 11–20 years, respectively. The implications of these findings for an overarching cognitive developmental/differential theory of human mind are discussed. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Symmetry: Explaining Contradictory Results Concerning Working Memory, Reasoning, and Complex Problem Solving
J. Intell. 2017, 5(2), 22; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5020022 -
Abstract
Findings of studies on the unique effects of reasoning and working memory regarding complex problem solving are inconsistent. To find out if these inconsistencies are due to a lack of symmetry between the studies, we reconsidered the findings of three published studies on
[...] Read more.
Findings of studies on the unique effects of reasoning and working memory regarding complex problem solving are inconsistent. To find out if these inconsistencies are due to a lack of symmetry between the studies, we reconsidered the findings of three published studies on this issue, which resulted in conflicting conclusions regarding the inter-relations between reasoning, working memory, and complex problem solving. This was achieved by analysing so far unpublished problem solving data from the study of Bühner, Krumm, Ziegler, and Plücken (2006) (N= 124). One of the three published studies indicated unique effects of working memory and reasoning on complex problem solving using aggregated scores, a second study found no unique contribution of working memory using only figural scores, and a third study reported a unique influence only for reasoning using only numerical scores. Our data featured an evaluation of differences across content facets and levels of aggregation of the working memory scores. Path models showed that the results of the first study could not be replicated using content aggregated scores; the results of the second study could be replicated if only figural scores were used, and the results of the third study could be obtained by using only numerical scores. For verbal content, none of the published results could be replicated. This leads to the assumption that not only symmetry is an issue when correlating non-symmetrical data, but that content also has to be taken into account when comparing different studies on the same topic. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Is the Correlation between Storage Capacity and Matrix Reasoning Driven by the Storage of Partial Solutions? A Pilot Study of an Experimental Approach
J. Intell. 2017, 5(2), 21; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5020021 -
Abstract
Working memory capacity (WMC) and reasoning abilities—as assessed by figural matrices tests—are substantially correlated. It is controversially discussed whether this correlation is only caused by controlled attention or also by storage capacity. This study aims at investigating storage of partial solutions as a
[...] Read more.
Working memory capacity (WMC) and reasoning abilities—as assessed by figural matrices tests—are substantially correlated. It is controversially discussed whether this correlation is only caused by controlled attention or also by storage capacity. This study aims at investigating storage of partial solutions as a possible mechanism by which storage capacity may contribute to solving figural matrices tests. For this purpose, we analyzed how an experimental manipulation of storage demands changes the pattern of correlations between WMC and performance in a matrix task. We manipulated the storage demands by applying two test formats: one providing the externalization of partial solutions and one without the possibility of externalization. Storage capacity was assessed by different types of change detection tasks. We found substantial correlations between storage capacity and matrices test performance, but they were of comparable size for both test formats. We take this as evidence that the necessity to store partial solutions is not the limiting factor which causes the association between storage capacity and matrices test. It is discussed how this approach can be used to investigate alternative mechanisms by that storage may influence performance in matrices tests. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Comparing Business Experts and Novices in Complex Problem Solving
J. Intell. 2017, 5(2), 20; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5020020 -
Abstract
Business owners are faced with complex problems and are required to make decisions on a daily basis. The purpose of this study was to investigate complex problem solving (CPS) between experts and novices and to explore the competing theories of expert-rigidity versus expert-adaptability,
[...] Read more.
Business owners are faced with complex problems and are required to make decisions on a daily basis. The purpose of this study was to investigate complex problem solving (CPS) between experts and novices and to explore the competing theories of expert-rigidity versus expert-adaptability, as part of exploring which theory better explains crystallized intelligence. Participants were 140 business owners, business management undergraduate students and psychology students. Each participant managed a highly complex simulated chocolate company. Decisions and systems data were automatically saved in log files. Results revealed that small business owners performed best, followed by business students and then psychology students. A process analysis revealed that experts compared to novices spent more time initially exploring the complex situation. Experts were found to have greater flexibility in their decisions, having made the most personnel and advertising changes in response to situational demands. Adaptability and flexibility were predictive of performance, with results supporting the adaptability/flexibility theory of expertise. This study shows the influence of expertise on complex problem solving and the importance of flexibility when solving dynamic business problems. Complex business simulations are not only useful tools for research, but could also be used as tools in training programs teaching decision making and problem solving strategies. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessBrief Report
Negative Correlation between Serum Cytokine Levels and Cognitive Abilities in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
J. Intell. 2017, 5(2), 19; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5020019 -
Abstract
Evidence suggests that cytokines may be one of the major factors influencing cognitive development in those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To shed light on the neural and cognitive mechanisms of ASD, we investigated the association between peripheral cytokine levels and cognitive profiles
[...] Read more.
Evidence suggests that cytokines may be one of the major factors influencing cognitive development in those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To shed light on the neural and cognitive mechanisms of ASD, we investigated the association between peripheral cytokine levels and cognitive profiles in children with ASD. The serum levels of 10 cytokines (granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α) were examined in 14 children with ASD using the Human Ultrasensitive Cytokine Magnetic 10-Plex Panel for the Luminex platform. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) was administered to each subject, and the relationships between WISC scores and serum levels of the cytokines were examined. The full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) was significantly negatively correlated with the levels of IL-6 (Spearman’s rank, p < 0.0001, false discovery rate q < 0.01). The levels of IL-6 and IFN-γ showed significant negative correlations with the verbal comprehension index (p < 0.001, q < 0.01) and working memory index (p < 0.01, q < 0.05), respectively. No other cytokines were significantly correlated with full-scale IQ or with any of the subscale scores of the WISC. The present results suggest negative correlations of IL-6 and IFN-γ levels with cognitive development of children with ASD. Our preliminary findings add to the evidence that cytokines may play a role in the neural development in ASD. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessHypothesis
Intelligence as a Developing Function: A Neuroconstructivist Approach
J. Intell. 2017, 5(2), 18; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5020018 -
Abstract
The concept of intelligence encompasses the mental abilities necessary to survival and advancement in any environmental context. Attempts to grasp this multifaceted concept through a relatively simple operationalization have fostered the notion that individual differences in intelligence can often be expressed by a
[...] Read more.
The concept of intelligence encompasses the mental abilities necessary to survival and advancement in any environmental context. Attempts to grasp this multifaceted concept through a relatively simple operationalization have fostered the notion that individual differences in intelligence can often be expressed by a single score. This predominant position has contributed to expect intelligence profiles to remain substantially stable over the course of ontogenetic development and, more generally, across the life-span. These tendencies, however, are biased by the still limited number of empirical reports taking a developmental perspective on intelligence. Viewing intelligence as a dynamic concept, indeed, implies the need to identify full developmental trajectories, to assess how genes, brain, cognition, and environment interact with each other. In the present paper, we describe how a neuroconstructivist approach better explains why intelligence can rise or fall over development, as a result of a fluctuating interaction between the developing system itself and the environmental factors involved at different times across ontogenesis. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle
Short-Term Storage and Executive Working Memory Processing Predict Fluid Intelligence in Primary School Children
J. Intell. 2017, 5(2), 17; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5020017 -
Abstract
Working memory (WM) includes short-term storage and executive processing of information. WM has been suggested to be one of the key concepts to explain individual differences in fluid intelligence (Gf). However, only a few studies have investigated the association of the two different
[...] Read more.
Working memory (WM) includes short-term storage and executive processing of information. WM has been suggested to be one of the key concepts to explain individual differences in fluid intelligence (Gf). However, only a few studies have investigated the association of the two different aspects of WM in relation to Gf. Furthermore, even fewer studies have included children. Therefore, we first investigated the inter-relations between the WM aspects (verbal and visual-spatial storage, verbal and visual-spatial executive processing). Second, we explored the relation between a general WM factor and Gf. Third, we analyzed the relations between the different WM aspects and Gf while we controlled for common variance among all WM tasks. Nine- to 11-year olds had to solve simple and complex span tasks. Correlations and structural equation modeling techniques were used to examine these relations. Most inter-relations among simple and complex spans were found to be substantial and positive. The general WM factor was related to Gf. Furthermore, after controlling for common variance among all WM tasks, individual differences in verbal storage, visual-spatial storage and verbal processing still uniquely related to Gf. Visual-spatial processing, however, was not related to Gf. Results are discussed in terms of underlying mechanisms. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Network Models for Cognitive Development and Intelligence
J. Intell. 2017, 5(2), 16; doi:10.3390/jintelligence5020016 -
Abstract
Cronbach’s (1957) famous division of scientific psychology into two disciplines is still apparent for the fields of cognition (general mechanisms) and intelligence (dimensionality of individual differences). The welcome integration of the two fields requires the construction of mechanistic models of cognition and cognitive
[...] Read more.
Cronbach’s (1957) famous division of scientific psychology into two disciplines is still apparent for the fields of cognition (general mechanisms) and intelligence (dimensionality of individual differences). The welcome integration of the two fields requires the construction of mechanistic models of cognition and cognitive development that explain key phenomena in individual differences research. In this paper, we argue that network modeling is a promising approach to integrate the processes of cognitive development and (developing) intelligence into one unified theory. Network models are defined mathematically, describe mechanisms on the level of the individual, and are able to explain positive correlations among intelligence subtest scores—the empirical basis for the well-known g-factor—as well as more complex factorial structures. Links between network modeling, factor modeling, and item response theory allow for a common metric, encompassing both discrete and continuous characteristics, for cognitive development and intelligence. Full article
Figures

Figure 1