Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Cell-Adhesive Plasma Polymerized Allylamine Coating Reduces the In Vivo Inflammatory Response Induced by Ti6Al4V Modified with Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation of Copper
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 30; doi:10.3390/jfb8030030 -
Abstract
Copper (Cu) could be suitable to create anti-infective implants based on Titanium (Ti), for example by incorporating Cu into the implant surface using plasma immersion ion implantation (Cu-PIII). The cytotoxicity of Cu might be circumvented by an additional cell-adhesive plasma polymerized allylamine film
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Copper (Cu) could be suitable to create anti-infective implants based on Titanium (Ti), for example by incorporating Cu into the implant surface using plasma immersion ion implantation (Cu-PIII). The cytotoxicity of Cu might be circumvented by an additional cell-adhesive plasma polymerized allylamine film (PPAAm). Thus, this study aimed to examine in vivo local inflammatory reactions for Ti6Al4V implants treated with Cu-PIII (Ti-Cu), alone or with an additional PPAAm film (Ti-Cu-PPAAm), compared to untreated implants (Ti). Successful Cu-PIII and PPAAm treatment was confirmed with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Storage of Ti-Cu and Ti-Cu-PPAAm samples in double-distilled water for five days revealed a reduction of Cu release by PPAAm. Subsequently, Ti, Ti-Cu and Ti-Cu-PPAAm samples were simultaneously implanted into the neck musculature of 24 rats. After 7, 14 and 56 days, peri-implant tissue was retrieved from 8 rats/day for morphometric immunohistochemistry of different inflammatory cells. On day 56, Ti-Cu induced significantly stronger reactions compared to Ti (tissue macrophages, antigen-presenting cells, T lymphocytes) and to Ti-Cu-PPAAm (tissue macrophages, T lymphocytes, mast cells). The response for Ti-Cu-PPAAm was comparable with Ti. In conclusion, PPAAm reduced the inflammatory reactions caused by Cu-PIII. Combining both plasma processes could be useful to create antibacterial and tissue compatible Ti-based implants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pilot Study Using a Chitosan-Hydroxyapatite Implant for Guided Alveolar Bone Growth in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 29; doi:10.3390/jfb8030029 -
Abstract
Periodontitis is an infectious and inflammatory disease associated with significant loss of alveolar crest and soft tissue attached to the teeth. Chitosan and hydroxyapatite are biomaterials used for bone tissue repair because of their biodegradability and biocompatibility in nature. The present study evaluated
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Periodontitis is an infectious and inflammatory disease associated with significant loss of alveolar crest and soft tissue attached to the teeth. Chitosan and hydroxyapatite are biomaterials used for bone tissue repair because of their biodegradability and biocompatibility in nature. The present study evaluated the effects of chitosan (CH) in combination with hydroxyapatite (HAP) to promote alveolar bone growth. A chitosan implant mixed with hydroxyapatite was implanted into the affected area of 9 patients suffering chronic periodontitis. Patients were evaluated through X-ray images and a millimetric slide over a one year period. The application of CH/HAP produced an average alveolar bone growth of 5.77 mm (±1.87 mm). At the onset of the study, the dental pocket exhibited a depth level (DPDL) of 8.66 mm and decreased to 3.55 mm one year after the implant. Tooth mobility grade was 2.44 mm at the onset and 0.8 mm at the end of the study with a significant difference of p < 0.001. Moreover, the bone density in the affected areas was similar to the density of the bone adjacent to it. This result was confirmed with the software implant viewer from Anne Solutions Company. In conclusion, the CH/HAP implant promoted alveolar bone growth in periodontitis patients. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Feasibility and Functional Performance of Ternary Borate-Filled Hydrophilic Bone Cements: Targeting Therapeutic Release Thresholds for Strontium
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 28; doi:10.3390/jfb8030028 -
Abstract
We examine the feasibility and functionality of hydrophilic modifications to a borate glass reinforced resin composite; with the objective of meeting and maintaining therapeutic thresholds for Sr release over time, as a potential method of incorporating antiosteoporotic therapy into a vertebroplasty material. Fifteen
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We examine the feasibility and functionality of hydrophilic modifications to a borate glass reinforced resin composite; with the objective of meeting and maintaining therapeutic thresholds for Sr release over time, as a potential method of incorporating antiosteoporotic therapy into a vertebroplasty material. Fifteen composites were formulated with the hydrophilic agent hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate (HEMA, 15, 22.5, 30, 37.5 or 45 wt% of resin phase) and filled with a borate glass (55, 60 or 65 wt% of total cement) with known Sr release characteristics. Cements were examined with respect to degree of cure, water sorption, Sr release, and biaxial flexural strength over 60 days of incubation in phosphate buffered saline. While water sorption and glass degradation increased with increasing HEMA content, Sr release peaked with the 30% HEMA compositions, scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging confirmed the surface precipitation of a Sr phosphate compound. Biaxial flexural strengths ranged between 16 and 44 MPa, decreasing with increased HEMA content. Degree of cure increased with HEMA content (42 to 81%), while no significant effect was seen on setting times (209 to 263 s). High HEMA content may provide a method of increasing monomer conversion without effect on setting reaction, providing sustained mechanical strength over 60 days. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Orthodontic Metallic Lingual Brackets: The Dark Side of the Moon of Bond Failures?
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 27; doi:10.3390/jfb8030027 -
Abstract
Lingual orthodontics, among both young and adult patients, increased in popularity during last years. The purposes of the present investigation were to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) values and Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) scores of different lingual brackets compared with a vestibular
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Lingual orthodontics, among both young and adult patients, increased in popularity during last years. The purposes of the present investigation were to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) values and Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) scores of different lingual brackets compared with a vestibular control bracket. One hundred bovine teeth were extracted and embedded in resin blocks. Four different lingual brackets (Idea, Leone; STB, Ormco; TTR, RMO; 2D, Forestadent) and a vestibular control bracket (Victory, 3M) were bonded to the bovine enamel surfaces and subsequently shear tested to failure utilizing a Universal Testing Machine. SBS values were measured. A microscopic evaluation was performed to obtain ARI scores. Statistical analysis was performed at a statistically significant level of p < 0.05 to determine significant differences in SBS values and ARI Scores. No statistically significant variations in SBS were reported among the different groups. Conversely, significant differences were shown in ARI scores among the various groups. Clinical relevance of the present study is that orthodontists can expect similar resistance to debonding forces from lingual appliances as with vestibular brackets. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Color Stability of New Esthetic Restorative Materials: A Spectrophotometric Analysis
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 26; doi:10.3390/jfb8030026 -
Abstract
The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the color stability of different esthetic restorative materials (one microfilled composite, one nanofilled composite, one nanoceramic composite, one microfilled hybrid composite, one microfilled hybrid composite, one nanohybrid Ormocer based composite and
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The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the color stability of different esthetic restorative materials (one microfilled composite, one nanofilled composite, one nanoceramic composite, one microfilled hybrid composite, one microfilled hybrid composite, one nanohybrid Ormocer based composite and one supra-nano spherical hybrid composite) after exposure to different staining solutions (physiological saline, red wine, coffee). All materials were prepared and polymerized into silicon rings (2 mm × 6 mm × 8 mm) to obtain specimens identical in size. Thirty cylindrical specimens of each material were prepared. Specimens were immersed in staining solutions (physiological saline, coffee and red wine) over a 28-day test period. A colorimetric evaluation according to the CIE L*a*b* system was performed by a blind trained operator at 7, 14, 21, 28 days of the staining process. The Shapiro–Wilk test and ANOVA were applied to assess significant differences among restorative materials. A paired t-test was applied to test which CIE L*a*b* parameters significantly changed after immersion in staining solutions. All restorative materials showed significant color differences after immersion in coffee. Coffee caused a significant color change in all types of tested composite resins. Only Filtek Supreme XTE demonstrated a staining susceptibility to red wine; no other significant differences among the materials were demonstrated. Long-term exposure to some food dyes (coffee in particular) can significantly affect the color stability of modern esthetic restorative materials regardless of materials’ different compositions. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
An Injectable Glass Polyalkenoate Cement Engineered for Fracture Fixation and Stabilization
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 25; doi:10.3390/jfb8030025 -
Abstract
Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) have potential as bio-adhesives due to their ease of application, appropriate mechanical properties, radiopacity and chemical adhesion to bone. Aluminium (Al)-free GPCs have been discussed in the literature, but have proven difficult to balance injectability with mechanical integrity. For
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Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) have potential as bio-adhesives due to their ease of application, appropriate mechanical properties, radiopacity and chemical adhesion to bone. Aluminium (Al)-free GPCs have been discussed in the literature, but have proven difficult to balance injectability with mechanical integrity. For example, zinc-based, Al-free GPCs reported compressive strengths of 63 MPa, but set in under 2 min. Here, the authors design injectable GPCs (IGPCs) based on zinc-containing, Al-free silicate compositions containing GeO2, substituted for ZnO at 3% increments through the series. The setting reactions, injectability and mechanical properties of these GPCs were evaluated using both a hand-mix (h) technique, using a spatula for sample preparation and application and an injection (i) technique, using a 16-gauge needle, post mixing, for application. GPCs ability to act as a carrier for bovine serum albumin (BSA) was also evaluated. Germanium (Ge) and BSA containing IGPCs were produced and reported to have working times between 26 and 44 min and setting times between 37 and 55 min; the extended handling properties being as a result of less Ge. The incorporation of BSA into the cement had no effect on the handling and mechanical properties, but the latter were found to have increased compression strength with the addition of Ge from between 27 and 37 MPa after 30 days maturation. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Biocompatibility of HbV: Liposome-Encapsulated Hemoglobin Molecules-Liposome Effects on Immune Function
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 24; doi:10.3390/jfb8030024 -
Abstract
Hemoglobin vesicles (HbVs) are oxygen carriers consisting of Hb molecules and liposome in which human hemoglobin (Hb) molecules are encapsulated. Investigations of HbV biocompatibility have shown that HbVs have no significant effect on either the quality or quantity of blood components such as
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Hemoglobin vesicles (HbVs) are oxygen carriers consisting of Hb molecules and liposome in which human hemoglobin (Hb) molecules are encapsulated. Investigations of HbV biocompatibility have shown that HbVs have no significant effect on either the quality or quantity of blood components such as RBC, WBC, platelets, complements, or coagulation factors, reflecting its excellent biocompatibility. However, their effects on the immune system remain to be evaluated. HbVs might affect the function of macrophages because they accumulate in the reticuloendothelial system. Results show that splenic T cell proliferation is suppressed after injection of not only HbV but also empty liposome into rat, and show that macrophages that internalized liposomal particles are responsible for the suppression. However, the effect is transient. Antibody production is entirely unaffected. Further investigation revealed that those macrophages were similar to myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in terms of morphology, cell surface markers, and the immune-suppression mechanism. Considering that MDSCs appear in various pathological conditions, the appearance of MDSC-like cells might reflect the physiological immune system response against the substantial burden of liposomal microparticles. Therefore, despite the possible induction of immunosuppressive cells, HbVs are an acceptable and promising candidate for use as a blood substitute in a clinical setting. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Synergy of Iron Chelators and Therapeutic Peptide Sequences Delivered via a Magnetic Nanocarrier
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 23; doi:10.3390/jfb8030023 -
Abstract
Here, we report the synthesis, characterization, and efficacy study of Fe/Fe3O4-nanoparticles that were co-labeled with a tumor-homing and membrane-disrupting oligopeptide and the iron-chelator Dp44mT, which belongs to the group of the thiosemicarbazones. Dp44mT and the peptide sequence PLFAERL(D
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Here, we report the synthesis, characterization, and efficacy study of Fe/Fe3O4-nanoparticles that were co-labeled with a tumor-homing and membrane-disrupting oligopeptide and the iron-chelator Dp44mT, which belongs to the group of the thiosemicarbazones. Dp44mT and the peptide sequence PLFAERL(D[KLAKLAKKLAKLAK])CGKRK were tethered to the surface of Fe/Fe3O4 core/shell nanoparticles by utilizing dopamine-anchors. The 26-mer contains two important sequences, which are the tumor targeting peptide CGKRK, and D[KLAKLAK]2, known to disrupt the mitochondrial cell walls and to initiate programmed cell death (apoptosis). It is noteworthy that Fe/Fe3O4 nanoparticles can also be used for MRI imaging purposes in live mammals. In a first step of this endeavor, the efficacy of this nanoplatform has been tested on the highly metastatic 4T1 breast cancer cell line. At the optimal ratio of PLFAERD[KLAKLAK]2CGKRK to Dp44mT of 1 to 3.2 at the surface of the dopamine-coated Fe/Fe3O4-nanocarrier, the IC50 value after 24 h of incubation was found to be 2.2 times lower for murine breast cancer cells (4T1) than for a murine fibroblast cell line used as control. Based on these encouraging results, the reported approach has the potential of leading to a new generation of nanoplatforms for cancer treatment with considerably enhanced selectivity towards tumor cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Metal Ion-Loaded Nanofibre Matrices for Calcification Inhibition in Polyurethane Implants
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 22; doi:10.3390/jfb8030022 -
Abstract
Pathologic calcification leads to structural deterioration of implant materials via stiffening, stress cracking, and other structural disintegration mechanisms, and the effect can be critical for implants intended for long-term or permanent implantation. This study demonstrates the potential of using specific metal ions (MI)s
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Pathologic calcification leads to structural deterioration of implant materials via stiffening, stress cracking, and other structural disintegration mechanisms, and the effect can be critical for implants intended for long-term or permanent implantation. This study demonstrates the potential of using specific metal ions (MI)s for inhibiting pathological calcification in polyurethane (PU) implants. The hypothesis of using MIs as anti-calcification agents was based on the natural calcium-antagonist role of Mg2+ ions in human body, and the anti-calcification effect of Fe3+ ions in bio-prosthetic heart valves has previously been confirmed. In vitro calcification results indicated that a protective covering mesh of MI-doped PU can prevent calcification by preventing hydroxyapatite crystal growth. However, microstructure and mechanical characterisation revealed oxidative degradation effects from Fe3+ ions on the mechanical properties of the PU matrix. Therefore, from both a mechanical and anti-calcification effects point of view, Mg2+ ions are more promising candidates than Fe3+ ions. The in vitro MI release experiments demonstrated that PU microphase separation and the structural design of PU-MI matrices were important determinants of release kinetics. Increased phase separation in doped PU assisted in consistent long-term release of dissolved MIs from both hard and soft segments of the PU. The use of a composite-sandwich mesh design prevented an initial burst release which improved the late (>20 days) release rate of MIs from the matrix. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigation of Magnetic Nanoparticle-Enhanced Microwave Hyperthermia
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 21; doi:10.3390/jfb8030021 -
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate microwave heating enhancements offered by iron/iron oxide nanoparticles dispersed within tissue-mimicking media for improving efficacy of microwave thermal therapy. The following dopamine-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were considered: 10 and 20 nm diameter spherical core/shell Fe/Fe
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The objective of this study was to evaluate microwave heating enhancements offered by iron/iron oxide nanoparticles dispersed within tissue-mimicking media for improving efficacy of microwave thermal therapy. The following dopamine-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were considered: 10 and 20 nm diameter spherical core/shell Fe/Fe3O4, 20 nm edge-length cubic Fe3O4, and 45 nm edge-length/10 nm height hexagonal Fe3O4. Microwave heating enhancements were experimentally measured with MNPs dissolved in an agar phantom, placed within a rectangular waveguide. Effects of MNP concentration (2.5–20 mg/mL) and microwave frequency (2.0, 2.45 and 2.6 GHz) were evaluated. Further tests with 10 and 20 nm diameter spherical MNPs dispersed within a two-compartment tissue-mimicking phantom were performed with an interstitial dipole antenna radiating 15 W power at 2.45 GHz. Microwave heating of 5 mg/mL MNP-agar phantom mixtures with 10 and 20 nm spherical, and hexagonal MNPs in a waveguide yielded heating rates of 0.78 ± 0.02 °C/s, 0.72 ± 0.01 °C/s and 0.51 ± 0.03 °C/s, respectively, compared to 0.5 ± 0.1 °C/s for control. Greater heating enhancements were observed at 2.0 GHz compared to 2.45 and 2.6 GHz. Heating experiments in two-compartment phantoms with an interstitial dipole antenna demonstrated potential for extending the radial extent of therapeutic heating with 10 and 20 nm diameter spherical MNPs, compared to homogeneous phantoms (i.e., without MNPs). Of the MNPs considered in this study, spherical Fe/Fe3O4 nanoparticles offer the greatest heating enhancement when exposed to microwave radiation. These nanoparticles show strong potential for enhancing the rate of heating and radial extent of heating during microwave hyperthermia and ablation procedures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antimicrobial Activity of Nitric Oxide-Releasing Ti-6Al-4V Metal Oxide
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 20; doi:10.3390/jfb8020020 -
Abstract
Titanium and titanium alloy materials are commonly used in joint replacements, due to the high strength of the materials. Pathogenic microorganisms can easily adhere to the surface of the metal implant, leading to an increased potential for implant failure. The surface of a
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Titanium and titanium alloy materials are commonly used in joint replacements, due to the high strength of the materials. Pathogenic microorganisms can easily adhere to the surface of the metal implant, leading to an increased potential for implant failure. The surface of a titanium-aluminum-vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) metal oxide implant material was functionalized to deliver an small antibacterial molecule, nitric oxide. S-nitroso-penicillamine, a S-nitrosothiol nitric oxide donor, was covalently immobilized on the metal oxide surface using self-assembled monolayers. Infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm the attachment of the S-nitrosothiol donor to the Ti-Al-4V surface. Attachment of S-nitroso-penicillamine resulted in a nitric oxide (NO) release of 89.6 ± 4.8 nmol/cm2 under physiological conditions. This low concentration of nitric oxide reduced Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis growth by 41.5 ± 1.2% and 25.3 ± 0.6%, respectively. Combining the S-nitrosothiol releasing Ti-6Al-4V with tetracycline, a commonly-prescribed antibiotic, increased the effectiveness of the antibiotic by 35.4 ± 1.3%, which allows for lower doses of antibiotics to be used. A synergistic effect of ampicillin with S-nitroso-penicillamine-modified Ti-6Al-4V against S. epidermidis was not observed. The functionalized Ti-6Al-4V surface was not cytotoxic to mouse fibroblasts. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Laser Ablation for Cancer: Past, Present and Future
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 19; doi:10.3390/jfb8020019 -
Abstract
Laser ablation (LA) is gaining acceptance for the treatment of tumors as an alternative to surgical resection. This paper reviews the use of lasers for ablative and surgical applications. Also reviewed are solutions aimed at improving LA outcomes: hyperthermal treatment planning tools and
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Laser ablation (LA) is gaining acceptance for the treatment of tumors as an alternative to surgical resection. This paper reviews the use of lasers for ablative and surgical applications. Also reviewed are solutions aimed at improving LA outcomes: hyperthermal treatment planning tools and thermometric techniques during LA, used to guide the surgeon in the choice and adjustment of the optimal laser settings, and the potential use of nanoparticles to allow biologic selectivity of ablative treatments. Promising technical solutions and a better knowledge of laser-tissue interaction should allow LA to be used in a safe and effective manner as a cancer treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cellular Morphology-Mediated Proliferation and Drug Sensitivity of Breast Cancer Cells
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 18; doi:10.3390/jfb8020018 -
Abstract
The interpretation of the local microenvironment of the extracellular matrix for malignant tumor cells is in intimate relation with metastatic spread of cancer cells involving the associated issues of cellular proliferation and drug responsiveness. This study was aimed to assess the combination of
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The interpretation of the local microenvironment of the extracellular matrix for malignant tumor cells is in intimate relation with metastatic spread of cancer cells involving the associated issues of cellular proliferation and drug responsiveness. This study was aimed to assess the combination of both surface topographies (fiber alignments) and different stiffness of the polymeric substrates (poly(l-lactic acid) and poly(ε-caprolactone), PLLA and PCL, respectively) as well as collagen substrates (coat and gel) to elucidate the effect of the cellular morphology on cellular proliferation and drug sensitivities of two different types of breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7). The morphological spreading parameter (nucleus/cytoplasm area ratio) induced by the anthropogenic substrates has correlated intimately with the cellular proliferation and the drug sensitivity the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of cancer cells. This study demonstrated the promising results of the parameter for the evaluation of cancer cell malignancy. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Enhanced Osseointegration of a Modified Titanium Implant with Bound Phospho-Threonine: A Preliminary In Vivo Study
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 16; doi:10.3390/jfb8020016 -
Abstract
Implant surface topography is a key factor in achieving osseointegration. l-Threonine can be chemically and stably bonded to titanium surfaces by phosphorylation. This study investigated the degree of in vivo osseointegration of an implant with a novel o-phospho-l-threonine (p-Thr)-binding surface. MC3T3-E1 cells were
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Implant surface topography is a key factor in achieving osseointegration. l-Threonine can be chemically and stably bonded to titanium surfaces by phosphorylation. This study investigated the degree of in vivo osseointegration of an implant with a novel o-phospho-l-threonine (p-Thr)-binding surface. MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded on the p-Thr binding surface and machined surface disks, and initial cell attachment was evaluated. p-Thr-binding and machined surface implants were tested in vivo by implantation into the femurs of three male New Zealand white rabbits, and the osseointegration was assessed by measurement of removal torque (RT) and bone-implant contact (BIC) ratio. Initial cell attachment was greater for the p-Thr-binding than for the machined surface implant group (P < 0.05). In addition, RT and BIC values were higher for the p-Thr-binding surface than for the machined surface (P < 0.05). These results indicate that our implant with a p-Thr-binding surface can achieve enhanced osseointegration. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Effect of Platelet-Rich Fibrin, Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate, Platelet-Rich Plasma and Resorbable Collagen on Soft Tissue Closure of Extraction Sites
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 17; doi:10.3390/jfb8020017 -
Abstract
Rapid and complete soft tissue healing after tooth extraction minimizes surgical complications and facilitates subsequent implant placement. We used four treatment methods and assessed changes in soft tissue socket closure following tooth extraction in humans. The effects of platelet-rich fibrin-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (PRF-CSH),
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Rapid and complete soft tissue healing after tooth extraction minimizes surgical complications and facilitates subsequent implant placement. We used four treatment methods and assessed changes in soft tissue socket closure following tooth extraction in humans. The effects of platelet-rich fibrin-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (PRF-CSH), platelet-rich plasma-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (PRP-CSH), a resorbable collagen dressing (RCD), and no grafting material were compared in a randomized, controlled pilot study with a blinded parallel design (N = 23). Patients with a hopeless tooth scheduled for extraction were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Socket measurements were obtained immediately after extraction and treatment, as well as after 21 days. There was a significant decrease in the total epithelialized external surface area of the extraction sockets in each group at all time points. However, there were no significant differences in soft tissue closure (p > 0.05) at any time point and PRF-CSH or PRP-CSH did not provide any additional benefit to enhance the soft tissue closure of extraction sockets compared with either RCD or sites without graft. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Laxative Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Sujiaonori Algal Biomaterial in Japanese Adult Women with Functional Constipation: A Case Study
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 15; doi:10.3390/jfb8020015 -
Abstract
Constipation is a gastrointestinal motility disorder that represents a major health problem in Japan. Approximately 26% of young Japanese adult women are reported to have this complaint. We report on the health effects of daily intake of Sujiaonori algal biomaterial (SBM) on constipation
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Constipation is a gastrointestinal motility disorder that represents a major health problem in Japan. Approximately 26% of young Japanese adult women are reported to have this complaint. We report on the health effects of daily intake of Sujiaonori algal biomaterial (SBM) on constipation on 12 Japanese adult women. Data are from a four-week dietary intervention study on the health effects of daily Sujiaonori supplementation on cardiovascular, skin, and gastrointestinal health in which 32 adult Japanese volunteers (age range: 20–54 years) participated. They underwent clinical and laboratory investigations, and completed two study questionnaires (the brief diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) and the current health questionnaire) before and after dietary intervention. Of the 12 women volunteers with functional constipation, there were six SBM-supplemented subjects who received 3 g of Sujiaonori powder twice daily during meal, whereas the six others (controls) were from the group of those who took 3 g of a power made of 70% corn starch and 30% Japanese spinach mixture. The analysis of data on daily nutrient intake showed no significant dietary changes for nutrients (minerals, proteins, fiber, fat) and calorie intake (except alcohol intake that was reduced) in both groups. In SBM group, a significant reduction of the proportion of women with constipation was observed (p < 0.001), whereas no significant change was noted within the control group (p > 0.05). When both groups were compared, SBM was more effective than the control product; 66.7% (4/6) of SBM-supplemented women had their constipation relieved, whereas only one control (16.7%) controls benefited from dietary intervention (p < 0.001). In addition, no adverse effect was reported in the SBM group, whereas two controls reported nausea at post-survey. These results suggest that Sujiaonori contains compounds that can improve gastrointestinal function and relieve constipation. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Artificial Red Blood Cells as Potential Photosensitizers in Dye Laser Treatment Against Port-Wine Stains
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 14; doi:10.3390/jfb8020014 -
Abstract
We suggest a novel method that uses artificial blood cells (hemoglobin vesicles, Hb-Vs) as photosensitizers in dye laser treatment (at 595-nm wavelength) for port-wine stains (i.e., capillary malformations presenting as red birthmarks) based on the results of animal experiments. As compared with human
[...] Read more.
We suggest a novel method that uses artificial blood cells (hemoglobin vesicles, Hb-Vs) as photosensitizers in dye laser treatment (at 595-nm wavelength) for port-wine stains (i.e., capillary malformations presenting as red birthmarks) based on the results of animal experiments. As compared with human red blood cells, Hb-Vs have the same absorbance of 595 nm wavelength light and produce the same level of heat following dye laser irradiation. Small sized Hb-Vs (250 nm) distribute in the plasma phase in blood and tend to flow in the marginal zone of microvessels. Intravenous injections of Hb-Vs caused the dilatation of microvessels, and dye laser treatment with Hb-Vs destroyed the vessel wall effectively. Following the intravenous injection of Hb-Vs, the microvessels contained more Hb that absorbed laser photons and produced heat. This extra Hb tended to flow near the endothelial cells, which were the target of the laser treatment. These attributes of Hb-Vs will potentially contribute to enhancing the efficacy of dye laser treatment for port-wine stains. Hemoglobin is a type of porphyrin. Thus, our proposed treatment may have aspects of photodynamic therapy using porphyrin that leads to a cytotoxicity effect by active oxygen. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication
Patient Education for Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: Preliminary Experience Using 3D-Printed Clinical Imaging Data
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 13; doi:10.3390/jfb8020013 -
Abstract
Within the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) medical space, a relatively small fraction of patients follow through with elective surgeries to fix ailments such as a deviated septum or occluded sinus passage. Patient understanding of their diagnosis and treatment plan is integral to
[...] Read more.
Within the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) medical space, a relatively small fraction of patients follow through with elective surgeries to fix ailments such as a deviated septum or occluded sinus passage. Patient understanding of their diagnosis and treatment plan is integral to compliance, which ultimately yields improved medical outcomes and better quality of life. Here we report the usage of advanced, polyjet 3D printing methods to develop a multimaterial replica of human nasal sinus anatomy, derived from clinical X-ray computed tomography (CT) data, to be used as an educational aid during physician consultation. The final patient education model was developed over several iterations to optimize material properties, anatomical accuracy and overall display. A two-arm, single-center, randomized, prospective study was then performed in which 50 ENT surgical candidates (and an associated control group, n = 50) were given an explanation of their anatomy, disease state, and treatment options using the education model as an aid. Statistically significant improvements in patient ratings of their physician’s explanation of their treatment options (p = 0.020), self-rated anatomical understanding (p = 0.043), self-rated understanding of disease state (p = 0.016), and effectiveness of the visualization (p = 0.007) were noted from the population that viewed the 3D education model, indicating it is an effective tool which ENT surgeons may use to educate and interact with patients. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Endovascular Embolization by Transcatheter Delivery of Particles: Past, Present, and Future
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 12; doi:10.3390/jfb8020012 -
Abstract
Minimally invasive techniques to occlude flow within blood vessels, initially pioneered in the 1970s with autologous materials and subsequently advanced with increasingly sophisticated engineered biomaterials, are routinely performed for a variety of medical conditions. Contemporary interventional radiologists have at their disposal a wide
[...] Read more.
Minimally invasive techniques to occlude flow within blood vessels, initially pioneered in the 1970s with autologous materials and subsequently advanced with increasingly sophisticated engineered biomaterials, are routinely performed for a variety of medical conditions. Contemporary interventional radiologists have at their disposal a wide armamentarium of occlusive agents to treat a range of disease processes through a small incision in the skin. In this review, we provide a historical perspective on endovascular embolization tools, summarize the current state-of-the-art, and highlight burgeoning technologies that promise to advance the field in the near future. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Comparison of the Pharmacokinetic Properties of Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(1), 11; doi:10.3390/jfb8010011 -
Abstract
Hemoglobin (Hb) is an ideal material for use in the development of an oxygen carrier in view of its innate biological properties. However, the vascular retention of free Hb is too short to permit a full therapeutic effect because Hb is rapidly cleared
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Hemoglobin (Hb) is an ideal material for use in the development of an oxygen carrier in view of its innate biological properties. However, the vascular retention of free Hb is too short to permit a full therapeutic effect because Hb is rapidly cleared from the kidney via glomerular filtration or from the liver via the haptogloblin-CD 163 pathway when free Hb is administered in the blood circulation. Attempts have been made to develop alternate acellular and cellular types of Hb based oxygen carriers (HBOCs), in which Hb is processed via various routes in order to regulate its pharmacokinetic properties. These HBOCs have been demonstrated to have superior pharmacokinetic properties including a longer half-life than the Hb molecule in preclinical and clinical trials. The present review summarizes and compares the pharmacokinetic properties of acellular and cellular type HBOCs that have been developed through different approaches, such as polymerization, PEGylation, cross-linking, and encapsulation. Full article
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