Open AccessReview
Reconstruction of Craniomaxillofacial Bone Defects Using Tissue-Engineering Strategies with Injectable and Non-Injectable Scaffolds
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 49; doi:10.3390/jfb8040049 -
Abstract
Engineering craniofacial bone tissues is challenging due to their complex structures. Current standard autografts and allografts have many drawbacks for craniofacial bone tissue reconstruction; including donor site morbidity and the ability to reinstate the aesthetic characteristics of the host tissue. To overcome these
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Engineering craniofacial bone tissues is challenging due to their complex structures. Current standard autografts and allografts have many drawbacks for craniofacial bone tissue reconstruction; including donor site morbidity and the ability to reinstate the aesthetic characteristics of the host tissue. To overcome these problems; tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies have been developed as a potential way to reconstruct damaged bone tissue. Different types of new biomaterials; including natural polymers; synthetic polymers and bioceramics; have emerged to treat these damaged craniofacial bone tissues in the form of injectable and non-injectable scaffolds; which are examined in this review. Injectable scaffolds can be considered a better approach to craniofacial tissue engineering as they can be inserted with minimally invasive surgery; thus protecting the aesthetic characteristics. In this review; we also focus on recent research innovations with different types of stem-cell sources harvested from oral tissue and growth factors used to develop craniofacial bone tissue-engineering strategies. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Evaluation of PBS Treatment and PEI Coating Effects on Surface Morphology and Cellular Response of 3D-Printed Alginate Scaffolds
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 48; doi:10.3390/jfb8040048 -
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology for the fabrication of scaffolds to repair/replace damaged tissue/organs in tissue engineering. This paper presents our study on 3D printed alginate scaffolds treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) coating and their impacts on
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Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology for the fabrication of scaffolds to repair/replace damaged tissue/organs in tissue engineering. This paper presents our study on 3D printed alginate scaffolds treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) coating and their impacts on the surface morphology and cellular response of the printed scaffolds. In our study, sterile alginate was prepared by means of the freeze-drying method and then, used to prepare the hydrogel for 3D printing into calcium chloride, forming 3D scaffolds. Scaffolds were treated with PBS for a time period of two days and seven days, respectively, and PEI coating; then they were seeded with Schwann cells (RSC96) for the examination of cellular response (proliferation and differentiation). In addition, swelling and stiffness (Young’s modulus) of the treated scaffolds was evaluated, while their surface morphology was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images revealed significant changes in scaffold surface morphology due to degradation caused by the PBS treatment over time. Our cell proliferation assessment over seven days showed that a two-day PBS treatment could be more effective than seven-day PBS treatment for improving cell attachment and elongation. While PEI coating of alginate scaffolds seemed to contribute to cell growth, Schwann cells stayed round on the surface of alginate over the period of cell culture. In conclusion, PBS-treatment may offer the potential to induce surface physical cues due to degradation of alginate, which could improve cell attachment post cell-seeding of 3D-printed alginate scaffolds. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Optimization of Bicomponent Electrospun Fibers for Therapeutic Use: Post-Treatments to Improve Chemical and Biological Stability
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 47; doi:10.3390/jfb8040047 -
Abstract
Bicomponent electrospun nanofibers based on the combination of synthetic (i.e., aliphatic polyesters such as polycaprolactone (PCL)) and natural proteins (i.e., gelatin) have been extensively investigated as temporary platforms to instruct cells by the release of molecular/pharmaceutical signals for the regeneration of several tissues.
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Bicomponent electrospun nanofibers based on the combination of synthetic (i.e., aliphatic polyesters such as polycaprolactone (PCL)) and natural proteins (i.e., gelatin) have been extensively investigated as temporary platforms to instruct cells by the release of molecular/pharmaceutical signals for the regeneration of several tissues. Here, water soluble proteins (i.e., gelatin), strictly embedded to PCL, act as carriers of bioactive molecules, thus improving bioavailability and supporting cell activities during in vitro regeneration. However, these proteins are rapidly digested by enzymes, locally produced by many different cell types, both in vitro and in vivo, with significant drawbacks in the control of molecular release. Hence, we have investigated three post-processing strategies based on the use of different crosslinking agents—(1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride) (EDC), glyceraldehyde (GC), and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE)—to delay the dissolution time of gelatin macromolecules from bicomponent fibers. All of the qualitative (i.e., SEM, TGA) and quantitative (i.e., Trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNBS) and bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assays) morphological/chemical analyses as well as biocompatibility assays indicate that EDC crosslinking improves the chemical stability of bicomponent fibers at 37 °C and provides a more efficient encapsulation and controlled sustained release of drug, thus resulting in the best post-treatment to design bio-inspired fibrous platforms for the extended in vitro release of drugs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fe Core–Carbon Shell Nanoparticles as Advanced MRI Contrast Enhancer
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 46; doi:10.3390/jfb8040046 -
Abstract
The aim of this study is to fabricate a hybrid composite of iron (Fe) core–carbon (C) shell nanoparticles with enhanced magnetic properties for contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These new classes of magnetic core–shell nanoparticles are synthesized using a one-step top–down
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The aim of this study is to fabricate a hybrid composite of iron (Fe) core–carbon (C) shell nanoparticles with enhanced magnetic properties for contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These new classes of magnetic core–shell nanoparticles are synthesized using a one-step top–down approach through the electric plasma discharge generated in the cavitation field in organic solvents by an ultrasonic horn. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed the core–shell nanoparticles with 10–85 nm in diameter with excellent dispersibility in water without any agglomeration. TEM showed the structural confirmation of Fe nanoparticles with body centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure. Magnetic multi-functional hybrid composites of Fe core–C shell nanoparticles were then evaluated as negative MRI contrast agents, displaying remarkably high transverse relaxivity (r2) of 70 mM−1·S−1 at 7 T. This simple one-step synthesis procedure is highly versatile and produces desired nanoparticles with high efficacy as MRI contrast agents and potential utility in other biomedical applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Findings of Titanium Functionalized with Estradiol via Polydopamine Adlayer
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 45; doi:10.3390/jfb8040045 -
Abstract
To improve orthopedic implant fixation and reduce post-operative complications, osteogenic molecules are delivered locally by immobilizing them on the surface of implants, which will modulate the biology of cell attachment and differentiation on the implant surface. Estradiol, a natural steroid hormone, maintains bone
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To improve orthopedic implant fixation and reduce post-operative complications, osteogenic molecules are delivered locally by immobilizing them on the surface of implants, which will modulate the biology of cell attachment and differentiation on the implant surface. Estradiol, a natural steroid hormone, maintains bone metabolism by decreasing bone resorption. It either directly or indirectly affects osteoclasts. In this work, estradiol was immobilized on a titanium surface by polydopamine adlayer. Immobilization of estradiol was confirmed by X-ray electron spectroscopy (XPS), immunofluorescence staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Estradiol-modified substrates enhanced alkaline phosphatases activity (ALP) and calcium deposition of osteoblasts. However, these substrates did not decrease tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and actin ring formation of the osteoclast. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images of estradiol-modified substrates showed the formation of estradiol crystals, which decreased the potency of immobilized estradiol. Despite having a successful immobilization of estradiol via the polydopamine technique, the bioavailability and potency of coated estradiol is reduced due to crystallization, suggesting that this is not a suitable system for localized estradiol delivery as tested in vitro here. Consequently, other suitable platforms have to be explored for immobilizing estradiol that will prevent crystal formation while preserving the biological activity. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Biodegradable Materials and Metallic Implants—A Review
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 44; doi:10.3390/jfb8040044 -
Abstract
Recent progress made in biomaterials and their clinical applications is well known. In the last five decades, great advances have been made in the field of biomaterials, including ceramics, glasses, polymers, composites, glass-ceramics and metal alloys. A variety of bioimplants are currently used
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Recent progress made in biomaterials and their clinical applications is well known. In the last five decades, great advances have been made in the field of biomaterials, including ceramics, glasses, polymers, composites, glass-ceramics and metal alloys. A variety of bioimplants are currently used in either one of the aforesaid forms. Some of these materials are designed to degrade or to be resorbed inside the body rather than removing the implant after its function is served. Many properties such as mechanical properties, non-toxicity, surface modification, degradation rate, biocompatibility, and corrosion rate and scaffold design are taken into consideration. The current review focuses on state-of-the-art biodegradable bioceramics, polymers, metal alloys and a few implants that employ bioresorbable/biodegradable materials. The essential functions, properties and their critical factors are discussed in detail, in addition to their challenges to be overcome. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Suitability of EGCG as a Means of Stabilizing a Porcine Osteochondral Xenograft
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 43; doi:10.3390/jfb8040043 -
Abstract
As a non-crosslinked osteochondral xenograft would be mechanically inferior to native cartilage and vulnerable to premature degradation, we seek a safe and effective method of xenograft stabilization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity for epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) to stabilize
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As a non-crosslinked osteochondral xenograft would be mechanically inferior to native cartilage and vulnerable to premature degradation, we seek a safe and effective method of xenograft stabilization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity for epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) to stabilize a decellularized porcine osteochondral xenograft through collagen crosslinking. Our objectives were to assess the effects of EGCG on the degree of crosslinking, mechanical properties, collagenase resistance, cytotoxicity, and in vitro biocompatibility. EGCG is a green tea polyphenol that acts as a collagen crosslinker. Porcine osteochondral plugs were decellularized and then crosslinked by soaking in EGCG. The degree of crosslinking, cartilage compressive stiffness, cartilage-bone interface strength, coefficient of friction, and residual mass after collagenase exposure all increased with an increasing EGCG concentration. With the exception of the coefficient of friction, EGCG treatment could restore mechanical properties to levels equal to, or exceeding those, of native cartilage. EGCG treatment profoundly increased the enzymatic resistance, and 1% EGCG provided protection equivalent to 1% glutaraldehyde. EGCG up to 0.5 mM was essentially not cytotoxic to chondrocytes embedded in alginate, and autologous chondrocytes attached to decellularized, EGCG-fixed cartilage were all viable five days after seeding. Results demonstrate that EGCG has many beneficial effects on a decellularized osteochondral xenograft, and may be suitable for use in stabilizing such a graft prior to implantation for the repair of a defect. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Effect of RANKL/OPG Balance on Reducing Implant Complications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 42; doi:10.3390/jfb8040042 -
Abstract
Despite the phenomenal success of implants particularly in the realms of dentistry and orthopaedics, there are still challenges to overcome. The failure of implants resulting from infection, prosthetic loosening, and non-union continue to be the most notorious examples. The cascade of fracture healing
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Despite the phenomenal success of implants particularly in the realms of dentistry and orthopaedics, there are still challenges to overcome. The failure of implants resulting from infection, prosthetic loosening, and non-union continue to be the most notorious examples. The cascade of fracture healing and bone repair, especially with the presence of an implant, is complex because it involves a multifaceted immune response alongside the intricate process of bone formation and remodelling. Bone loss is a serious clinical problem that is frequently accompanied by chronic inflammation, illustrating that there is a convoluted relationship between inflammation and bone erosion. The effects of pro-inflammatory factors play a significant role in initiating and maintaining osteoclastogenesis that results in bone resorption by osteoclasts. This is because there is a disruption of the relative ratio between Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κB-Ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), which is central to modulating bone repair and remodelling. This review aims to provide a background to the bone remodelling process, the bone repair cascade post-implantation, and the associated complications. Furthermore, current clinical solutions that can influence bone formation via either internal or extrinsic mechanisms will be described. These efficacious treatments for osteolysis via targeting the RANKL/OPG ratio may be crucial to reducing the incidence of related implant failures in the future. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Biomineralization of Fucoidan-Peptide Blends and Their Potential Applications in Bone Tissue Regeneration
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 41; doi:10.3390/jfb8030041 -
Abstract
Fucoidan (Fuc), a natural polysaccharide derived from brown seaweed algae, and gelatin (Gel) were conjugated to form a template for preparation of biomimetic scaffolds for potential applications in bone tissue regeneration. To the Fuc–Gel we then incorporated the peptide sequence MTNYDEAAMAIASLN (MTN) derived
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Fucoidan (Fuc), a natural polysaccharide derived from brown seaweed algae, and gelatin (Gel) were conjugated to form a template for preparation of biomimetic scaffolds for potential applications in bone tissue regeneration. To the Fuc–Gel we then incorporated the peptide sequence MTNYDEAAMAIASLN (MTN) derived from the E-F hand domain, known for its calcium binding properties. To mimic the components of the extracellular matrix of bone tissue, the Fuc–Gel–MTN assemblies were incubated in simulated body fluid (SBF) to induce biomineralization, resulting in the formation of β-tricalcium phosphate, and hydroxyapatite (HAp). The formed Fuc–Gel–MTN–beta–TCP/HAP scaffolds were found to display an average Young’s Modulus value of 0.32 GPa (n = 5) with an average surface roughness of 91 nm. Rheological studies show that the biomineralized scaffold exhibited higher storage and loss modulus compared to the composites formed before biomineralization. Thermal phase changes were studied through DSC and TGA analysis. XRD and EDS analyses indicated a biphasic mixture of β-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite and the composition of the scaffold. The scaffold promoted cell proliferation, differentiation and displayed actin stress fibers indicating the formation of cell-scaffold matrices in the presence of MT3C3-E1 mouse preosteoblasts. Osteogenesis and mineralization were found to increase with Fuc–Gel–MTN–beta–TCP/HAP scaffolds. Thus, we have developed a novel scaffold for possible applications in bone tissue engineering. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Dental Composite Formulation Design with Bioactivity on Protein Adsorption Combined with Crack-Healing Capability
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 40; doi:10.3390/jfb8030040 -
Abstract
Fracture and secondary caries are the primary reasons for the failure of dental restorations. To face this omnipresent problem, we report the formulation design and synthesis of a protein-resistant dental composite composed of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) that also can self-repair damage and recover
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Fracture and secondary caries are the primary reasons for the failure of dental restorations. To face this omnipresent problem, we report the formulation design and synthesis of a protein-resistant dental composite composed of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) that also can self-repair damage and recover the load-bearing capability via microencapsulated triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and N,N-dihydroxy ethyl-p-toluidine (DHEPT). The bioactivity of the resulting MPC-microencapsulated TEGDMA-DHEPT was evaluated on protein adsorption through early bacterial attachment. Its mechanical properties were also investigated, including self-healing assessment. Microcapsules of poly (urea-formaldehyde) (PUF) were synthesized by incorporating a TEGDMA-DHEPT healing liquid. A set of composites that contained 7.5% of MPC, 10% of microcapsules, and without MPC/microcapsules were also prepared as controls. The two distinct characteristics of strong protein repellency and load-bearing recovery were achieved by the combined strategies. The novel dual composite with a combination of protein-repellent MPC and PUF microcapsules for restoring microcracks is a promising strategy for dental restorations to address the two main challenges of fracture and secondary caries. The new dual composite formulation design has the potential to improve the longevity of dental restorations significantly. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Evaluation of Polyethylene Glycol Diacrylate-Polycaprolactone Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 39; doi:10.3390/jfb8030039 -
Abstract
Polyethylene Glycol Diacrylate (PEGDA) tissue scaffolds having a thickness higher than 1 mm and without the presence of nutrient conduit networks were shown to have limited applications in tissue engineering due to the inability of cells to adhere and migrate within the scaffold.
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Polyethylene Glycol Diacrylate (PEGDA) tissue scaffolds having a thickness higher than 1 mm and without the presence of nutrient conduit networks were shown to have limited applications in tissue engineering due to the inability of cells to adhere and migrate within the scaffold. The PEGDA scaffold has been coated with polycaprolactone (PCL) electrospun nanofiber (ENF) membrane on both sides to overcome these limitations, thereby creating a functional PEGDA-PCL scaffold. This study examined the physical, mechanical, and biological properties of the PEGDA and PEGDA-PCL scaffolds to determine the effect of PCL coating on PEGDA. The physical characterization of PEGDA-PCL samples demonstrated the effectiveness of combining PCL with a PEGDA scaffold to expand its applications in tissue engineering. This study also found a significant improvement of elasticity of PEGDA due to the addition of PCL layers. This study shows that PEGDA-PCL scaffolds absorb nutrients with time and can provide an ideal environment for the survival of cells. Furthermore, cell viability tests indicate that the cell adhered, proliferated, and migrated in the PEGDA-PCL scaffold. Therefore, PCL ENF coating has a positive influence on PEGDA scaffold. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Bio-Corrosion of Magnesium Alloys for Orthopaedic Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 38; doi:10.3390/jfb8030038 -
Abstract
Three Mg alloys, Mg–1.34% Ca–3% Zn (MCZ), Mg–1.34% Ca–3% Zn–0.2% Sr (MCZS), and Mg–2% Sr (MS), were examined to understand their bio-corrosion behavior. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization scans were performed after 6 days of immersion in cell culture medium, and ion release
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Three Mg alloys, Mg–1.34% Ca–3% Zn (MCZ), Mg–1.34% Ca–3% Zn–0.2% Sr (MCZS), and Mg–2% Sr (MS), were examined to understand their bio-corrosion behavior. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization scans were performed after 6 days of immersion in cell culture medium, and ion release and changes in media pH were tracked over a 28 day time period. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of alloy microstructure was performed to help interpret the results of the electrochemical testing. Results indicate that corrosion resistance of the alloys is as follows: MCZ > MCZS > MS. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report
Sujiaonori-Derived Algal Biomaterials Inhibit Allergic Reaction in Allergen-Sensitized RBL-2H3 Cell Line and Improve Skin Health in Humans
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 37; doi:10.3390/jfb8030037 -
Abstract
Sujiaonori, a river alga growing in the Kochi prefecture, Japan, contains several bioactive compounds such as sulfated polysaccharides (ulvans), ω-3 fatty acids, and vitamins. Dietary intake of this alga-based supplement has been reported to increase circulatory adiponectin, a salutary hormone that is reported
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Sujiaonori, a river alga growing in the Kochi prefecture, Japan, contains several bioactive compounds such as sulfated polysaccharides (ulvans), ω-3 fatty acids, and vitamins. Dietary intake of this alga-based supplement has been reported to increase circulatory adiponectin, a salutary hormone that is reported to be associated with healthy longevity and prevents a number of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. This report highlights theanti-allergic and skin health enhancing effects of Sujiaonori-derived ulvan (Tosalvan) and supplement, respectively. RBL-2H3 cell line was used to investigate the anti-allergic effect of algal SP through the evaluation of β-hexosaminidase activity. Algal sulfated polysaccharides or SP (Tosalvan, Yoshino SP) were extracted from powders of dried alga samples provided by local food manufacturers. Report on the effect of daily dietary intake of Sujiaonori-based supplement on skin health is part of a four-week clinical investigation that, in comparison with a supplement made of 70% corn starch powder and 30% spinach powder mixture (twice 3 g daily), explore the beneficial effects of Sujiaonori algal biomaterial (SBM; 3 g taken twice daily) on cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and skin health in a sample of Japanese women. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was the skin health marker used in this study and was measured with the use of a corneometer. Significant reduction of β-hexosaminidase activity was observed in Tosalvan and Yoshino SP-treated cells (vs. control; p < 0.05), whereas dietary intake of SBM markedly reduced TEWL level after four weeks of supplementation, as compared to baseline TEWL (p < 0.001). Additionally, SBM improved TEWL better than the control product (p < 0.001). Findings contained in this report suggest that Sujiaonori-derived Tosalvan and Yoshino SP have anti-allergic potential and that the dietary intake of SBM has a beneficial effect on skin health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mn2+-ZnSe/ZnS@SiO2 Nanoparticles for Turn-on Luminescence Thiol Detection
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 36; doi:10.3390/jfb8030036 -
Abstract
Biological thiols are antioxidants essential for the prevention of disease. For example, low levels of the tripeptide glutathione are associated with heart disease, cancer, and dementia. Mn2+-doped wide bandgap semiconductor nanocrystals exhibit luminescence and magnetic properties that make them attractive for
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Biological thiols are antioxidants essential for the prevention of disease. For example, low levels of the tripeptide glutathione are associated with heart disease, cancer, and dementia. Mn2+-doped wide bandgap semiconductor nanocrystals exhibit luminescence and magnetic properties that make them attractive for bimodal imaging. We found that these nanocrystals and silica-encapsulated nanoparticle derivatives exhibit enhanced luminescence in the presence of thiols in both organic solvent and aqueous solution. The key to using these nanocrystals as sensors is control over their surfaces. The addition of a ZnS barrier layer or shell produces more stable nanocrystals that are isolated from their surroundings, and luminescence enhancement is only observed with thinner, intermediate shells. Tunability is demonstrated with dodecanethiol and sensitivities decrease with thin, medium, and thick shells. Turn-on nanoprobe luminescence is also generated by several biological thiols, including glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, cysteine, and dithiothreitol. Nanoparticles prepared with different ZnS shell thicknesses demonstrated varying sensitivity to glutathione, which allows for the tuning of particle sensitivity without optimization. The small photoluminescence response to control amino acids and salts indicates selectivity for thiols. Preliminary magnetic measurements highlight the challenge of optimizing sensors for different imaging modalities. In this work, we assess the prospects of using these nanoparticles as luminescent turn-on thiol sensors and for MRI. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Correlation and Comparison of Cortical and Hippocampal Neural Progenitor Morphology and Differentiation through the Use of Micro- and Nano-Topographies
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 35; doi:10.3390/jfb8030035 -
Abstract
Neuronal morphology and differentiation have been extensively studied on topography. The differentiation potential of neural progenitors has been shown to be influenced by brain region, developmental stage, and time in culture. However, the neurogenecity and morphology of different neural progenitors in response to
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Neuronal morphology and differentiation have been extensively studied on topography. The differentiation potential of neural progenitors has been shown to be influenced by brain region, developmental stage, and time in culture. However, the neurogenecity and morphology of different neural progenitors in response to topography have not been quantitatively compared. In this study, the correlation between the morphology and differentiation of hippocampal and cortical neural progenitor cells was explored. The morphology of differentiated neural progenitors was quantified on an array of topographies. In spite of topographical contact guidance, cell morphology was observed to be under the influence of regional priming, even after differentiation. This influence of regional priming was further reflected in the correlations between the morphological properties and the differentiation efficiency of the cells. For example, neuronal differentiation efficiency of cortical neural progenitors showed a negative correlation with the number of neurites per neuron, but hippocampal neural progenitors showed a positive correlation. Correlations of morphological parameters and differentiation were further enhanced on gratings, which are known to promote neuronal differentiation. Thus, the neurogenecity and morphology of neural progenitors is highly responsive to certain topographies and is committed early on in development. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Collective Migration of Lens Epithelial Cell Induced by Differential Microscale Groove Patterns
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 34; doi:10.3390/jfb8030034 -
Abstract
Herein, a micro-patterned cell adhesive surface is prepared for the future design of medical devices. One-dimensional polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro patterns were prepared by a photolithography process. We investigated the effect of microscale topographical patterned surfaces on decreasing the collective cell migration rate. PDMS
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Herein, a micro-patterned cell adhesive surface is prepared for the future design of medical devices. One-dimensional polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro patterns were prepared by a photolithography process. We investigated the effect of microscale topographical patterned surfaces on decreasing the collective cell migration rate. PDMS substrates were prepared through soft lithography using Si molds fabricated by photolithography. Afterwards, we observed the collective cell migration of human lens epithelial cells (B-3) on various groove/ridge patterns and evaluated the migration rate to determine the pattern most effective in slowing down the cell sheet spreading speed. Microgroove patterns were variable, with widths of 3, 5, and 10 µm. After the seeding, time-lapse images were taken under controlled cell culturing conditions. Cell sheet borders were drawn in order to assess collective migration rate. Our experiments revealed that the topographical patterned surfaces could be applied to intraocular lenses to prevent or slow the development of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) by delaying the growth and spread of human lens epithelial cells. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Immunological Responses to Total Hip Arthroplasty
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 33; doi:10.3390/jfb8030033 -
Abstract
The use of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has been continuously rising to meet the demands of the increasingly ageing population. To date, this procedure has been highly successful in relieving pain and restoring the functionality of patients’ joints, and has significantly improved their
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The use of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has been continuously rising to meet the demands of the increasingly ageing population. To date, this procedure has been highly successful in relieving pain and restoring the functionality of patients’ joints, and has significantly improved their quality of life. However, these implants are expected to eventually fail after 15–25 years in situ due to slow progressive inflammatory responses at the bone-implant interface. Such inflammatory responses are primarily mediated by immune cells such as macrophages, triggered by implant wear particles. As a result, aseptic loosening is the main cause for revision surgery over the mid and long-term and is responsible for more than 70% of hip revisions. In some patients with a metal-on-metal (MoM) implant, metallic implant wear particles can give rise to metal sensitivity. Therefore, engineering biomaterials, which are immunologically inert or support the healing process, require an in-depth understanding of the host inflammatory and wound-healing response to implanted materials. This review discusses the immunological response initiated by biomaterials extensively used in THA, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), cobalt chromium (CoCr), and alumina ceramics. The biological responses of these biomaterials in bulk and particulate forms are also discussed. In conclusion, the immunological responses to bulk and particulate biomaterials vary greatly depending on the implant material types, the size of particulate and its volume, and where the response to bulk forms of differing biomaterials are relatively acute and similar, while wear particles can initiate a variety of responses such as osteolysis, metal sensitivity, and so on. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Potential New Non-Invasive Therapy Using Artificial Oxygen Carriers for Pre-Eclampsia
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 32; doi:10.3390/jfb8030032 -
Abstract
The molecular mechanisms of pre-eclampsia are being increasingly clarified in animals and humans. With the uncovering of these mechanisms, preventive therapy strategies using chronic infusion of adrenomedullin, vascular endothelial growth factor-121 (VEGF-121), losartan, and sildenafil have been proposed to block narrow spiral artery
[...] Read more.
The molecular mechanisms of pre-eclampsia are being increasingly clarified in animals and humans. With the uncovering of these mechanisms, preventive therapy strategies using chronic infusion of adrenomedullin, vascular endothelial growth factor-121 (VEGF-121), losartan, and sildenafil have been proposed to block narrow spiral artery formation in the placenta by suppressing related possible factors for pre-eclampsia. However, although such preventive treatments have been partly successful, they have failed in ameliorating fetal growth restriction and carry the risk of possible side-effects of drugs on pregnant mothers. In this study, we attempted to develop a new symptomatic treatment for pre-eclampsia by directly rescuing placental ischemia with artificial oxygen carriers (hemoglobin vesicles: HbV) since previous data indicate that placental ischemia/hypoxia may alone be sufficient to lead to pre-eclampsia through up-regulation of sFlt-1, one of the main candidate molecules for the cause of pre-eclampsia. Using a rat model, the present study demonstrated that a simple treatment using hemoglobin vesicles for placental ischemia rescues placental and fetal hypoxia, leading to appropriate fetal growth. The present study is the first to demonstrate hemoglobin vesicles successfully decreasing maternal plasma levels of sFlt-1 and ameliorating fetal growth restriction in the pre-eclampsia rat model (p < 0.05, one-way ANOVA). In future, chronic infusion of hemoglobin vesicles could be a potential effective and noninvasive therapy for delaying or even alleviating the need for Caesarean sections in pre-eclampsia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of a Particulate and a Putty-Like Tricalcium Phosphate-Based Bone-grafting Material on Bone Formation, Volume Stability and Osteogenic Marker Expression after Bilateral Sinus Floor Augmentation in Humans
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 31; doi:10.3390/jfb8030031 -
Abstract
This study examines the effect of a hyaluronic acid (HyAc) containing tricalcium phosphate putty scaffold material (TCP-P) and of a particulate tricalcium phosphate (TCP-G) graft on bone formation, volume stability and osteogenic marker expression in biopsies sampled 6 months after bilateral sinus floor
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This study examines the effect of a hyaluronic acid (HyAc) containing tricalcium phosphate putty scaffold material (TCP-P) and of a particulate tricalcium phosphate (TCP-G) graft on bone formation, volume stability and osteogenic marker expression in biopsies sampled 6 months after bilateral sinus floor augmentation (SFA) in 7 patients applying a split-mouth design. 10% autogenous bone chips were added to the grafting material during surgery. The grain size of the TCP granules was 700 to 1400 µm for TCP-G and 125 to 250 µm and 500 to 700 µm (ratio 1:1) for TCP-P. Biopsies were processed for immunohistochemical analysis of resin-embedded sections. Sections were stained for collagen type I (Col I), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and bone sialoprotein (BSP). Furthermore, the bone area and biomaterial area fraction were determined histomorphometrically. Cone-beam CT data recorded after SFA and 6 months later were used for calculating the graft volume at these two time points. TCP-P displayed more advantageous surgical handling properties and a significantly greater bone area fraction and smaller biomaterial area fraction. This was accompanied by significantly greater expression of Col I and BSP and in osteoblasts and osteoid and a less pronounced reduction in grafting volume with TCP-P. SFA using both types of materials resulted in formation of sufficient bone volume for facilitating stable dental implant placement with all dental implants having been in function without any complications for 6 years. Since TCP-P displayed superior surgical handling properties and greater bone formation than TCP-G, without the HyAc hydrogel matrix having any adverse effect on bone formation or graft volume stability, TCP-P can be regarded as excellent grafting material for SFA in a clinical setting. The greater bone formation observed with TCP-P may be related to the difference in grain size of the TCP granules and/or the addition of the HyAc. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Cell-Adhesive Plasma Polymerized Allylamine Coating Reduces the In Vivo Inflammatory Response Induced by Ti6Al4V Modified with Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation of Copper
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 30; doi:10.3390/jfb8030030 -
Abstract
Copper (Cu) could be suitable to create anti-infective implants based on Titanium (Ti), for example by incorporating Cu into the implant surface using plasma immersion ion implantation (Cu-PIII). The cytotoxicity of Cu might be circumvented by an additional cell-adhesive plasma polymerized allylamine film
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Copper (Cu) could be suitable to create anti-infective implants based on Titanium (Ti), for example by incorporating Cu into the implant surface using plasma immersion ion implantation (Cu-PIII). The cytotoxicity of Cu might be circumvented by an additional cell-adhesive plasma polymerized allylamine film (PPAAm). Thus, this study aimed to examine in vivo local inflammatory reactions for Ti6Al4V implants treated with Cu-PIII (Ti-Cu), alone or with an additional PPAAm film (Ti-Cu-PPAAm), compared to untreated implants (Ti). Successful Cu-PIII and PPAAm treatment was confirmed with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Storage of Ti-Cu and Ti-Cu-PPAAm samples in double-distilled water for five days revealed a reduction of Cu release by PPAAm. Subsequently, Ti, Ti-Cu and Ti-Cu-PPAAm samples were simultaneously implanted into the neck musculature of 24 rats. After 7, 14 and 56 days, peri-implant tissue was retrieved from 8 rats/day for morphometric immunohistochemistry of different inflammatory cells. On day 56, Ti-Cu induced significantly stronger reactions compared to Ti (tissue macrophages, antigen-presenting cells, T lymphocytes) and to Ti-Cu-PPAAm (tissue macrophages, T lymphocytes, mast cells). The response for Ti-Cu-PPAAm was comparable with Ti. In conclusion, PPAAm reduced the inflammatory reactions caused by Cu-PIII. Combining both plasma processes could be useful to create antibacterial and tissue compatible Ti-based implants. Full article
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