Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Novel Biomaterials Used in Medical 3D Printing Techniques
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 17; doi:10.3390/jfb9010017 -
Abstract
The success of an implant depends on the type of biomaterial used for its fabrication. An ideal implant material should be biocompatible, inert, mechanically durable, and easily moldable. The ability to build patient specific implants incorporated with bioactive drugs, cells, and proteins has
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The success of an implant depends on the type of biomaterial used for its fabrication. An ideal implant material should be biocompatible, inert, mechanically durable, and easily moldable. The ability to build patient specific implants incorporated with bioactive drugs, cells, and proteins has made 3D printing technology revolutionary in medical and pharmaceutical fields. A vast variety of biomaterials are currently being used in medical 3D printing, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. With continuous research and progress in biomaterials used in 3D printing, there has been a rapid growth in applications of 3D printing in manufacturing customized implants, prostheses, drug delivery devices, and 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The current review focuses on the novel biomaterials used in variety of 3D printing technologies for clinical applications. Most common types of medical 3D printing technologies, including fused deposition modeling, extrusion based bioprinting, inkjet, and polyjet printing techniques, their clinical applications, different types of biomaterials currently used by researchers, and key limitations are discussed in detail. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Carbon Nano-Allotrope/Magnetic Nanoparticle Hybrid Nanomaterials as T2 Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 16; doi:10.3390/jfb9010016 -
Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most powerful tool for deep penetration and high-quality 3D imaging of tissues with anatomical details. However, the sensitivity of the MRI technique is not as good as that of the radioactive or optical imaging methods. Carbon-based nanomaterials
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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most powerful tool for deep penetration and high-quality 3D imaging of tissues with anatomical details. However, the sensitivity of the MRI technique is not as good as that of the radioactive or optical imaging methods. Carbon-based nanomaterials have attracted significant attention in biomaterial research in recent decades due to their unique physical properties, versatile functionalization chemistry, as well as excellent biological compatibility. Researchers have employed various carbon nano-allotropes to develop hybrid MRI contrast agents for improved sensitivity. This review summarizes the new research progresses in carbon-based hybrid MRI contrast agents, especially those reported in the past five years. The review will only focus on T2-weighted MRI agents and will be categorized by the different carbon allotrope types and magnetic components. Considering the strong trend in recent bio-nanotechnology research towards multifunctional diagnosis and therapy, carbon-based MRI contrast agents integrated with other imaging modalities or therapeutic functions are also covered. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Towards Additive Manufacture of Functional, Spline-Based Morphometric Models of Healthy and Diseased Coronary Arteries: In Vitro Proof-of-Concept Using a Porcine Template
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 15; doi:10.3390/jfb9010015 -
Abstract
The aim of this study is to assess the additive manufacture of morphometric models of healthy and diseased coronary arteries. Using a dissected porcine coronary artery, a model was developed with the use of computer aided engineering, with splines used to design arteries
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The aim of this study is to assess the additive manufacture of morphometric models of healthy and diseased coronary arteries. Using a dissected porcine coronary artery, a model was developed with the use of computer aided engineering, with splines used to design arteries in health and disease. The model was altered to demonstrate four cases of stenosis displaying varying severity, based on published morphometric data available. Both an Objet Eden 250 printer and a Solidscape 3Z Pro printer were used in this analysis. A wax printed model was set into a flexible thermoplastic and was valuable for experimental testing with helical flow patterns observed in healthy models, dominating the distal LAD (left anterior descending) and left circumflex arteries. Recirculation zones were detected in all models, but were visibly larger in the stenosed cases. Resin models provide useful analytical tools for understanding the spatial relationships of blood vessels, and could be applied to preoperative planning techniques, but were not suitable for physical testing. In conclusion, it is feasible to develop blood vessel models enabling experimental work; further, through additive manufacture of bio-compatible materials, there is the possibility of manufacturing customized replacement arteries. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Advances in Degradable Embolic Microspheres: A State of the Art Review
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 14; doi:10.3390/jfb9010014 -
Abstract
Considerable efforts have been placed on the development of degradable microspheres for use in transarterial embolization indications. Using the guidance of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) special controls document for the preclinical evaluation of vascular embolization devices, this review consolidates all
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Considerable efforts have been placed on the development of degradable microspheres for use in transarterial embolization indications. Using the guidance of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) special controls document for the preclinical evaluation of vascular embolization devices, this review consolidates all relevant data pertaining to novel degradable microsphere technologies for bland embolization into a single reference. This review emphasizes intended use, chemical composition, degradative mechanisms, and pre-clinical safety, efficacy, and performance, while summarizing the key advantages and disadvantages for each degradable technology that is currently under development for transarterial embolization. This review is intended to provide an inclusive reference for clinicians that may facilitate an understanding of clinical and technical concepts related to this field of interventional radiology. For materials scientists, this review highlights innovative devices and current evaluation methodologies (i.e., preclinical models), and is designed to be instructive in the development of innovative/new technologies and evaluation methodologies. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Hydrogels for Hydrophobic Drug Delivery. Classification, Synthesis and Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 13; doi:10.3390/jfb9010013 -
Abstract
Hydrogels have been shown to be very useful in the field of drug delivery due to their high biocompatibility and ability to sustain delivery. Therefore, the tuning of their properties should be the focus of study to optimise their potential. Hydrogels have been
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Hydrogels have been shown to be very useful in the field of drug delivery due to their high biocompatibility and ability to sustain delivery. Therefore, the tuning of their properties should be the focus of study to optimise their potential. Hydrogels have been generally limited to the delivery of hydrophilic drugs. However, as many of the new drugs coming to market are hydrophobic in nature, new approaches for integrating hydrophobic drugs into hydrogels should be developed. This article discusses the possible new ways to incorporate hydrophobic drugs within hydrogel structures that have been developed through research. This review describes hydrogel-based systems for hydrophobic compound delivery included in the literature. The section covers all the main types of hydrogels, including physical hydrogels and chemical hydrogels. Additionally, reported applications of these hydrogels are described in the subsequent sections. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Route and Type of Formulation Administered Influences the Absorption and Disposition of Vitamin B12 Levels in Serum
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 12; doi:10.3390/jfb9010012 -
Abstract
The administration of biological compounds that optimize health benefits is an ever-evolving therapeutic goal. Pharmaceutical and other adjunctive biological compounds have been administered via many different routes in order to produce a systemic pharmacological effect. The article summarizes the findings from an Australian
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The administration of biological compounds that optimize health benefits is an ever-evolving therapeutic goal. Pharmaceutical and other adjunctive biological compounds have been administered via many different routes in order to produce a systemic pharmacological effect. The article summarizes the findings from an Australian comparative study in adults administered vitamin B12 through different oral delivery platforms. A total of 16 subjects (9 males, 7 females) voluntarily partook in a comparative clinical study of five different vitamin B12 formulations across a six-month period, completing 474 person-hours of cumulative contribution, that was equivalent to an n = 60 participation. A nanoparticle delivered vitamin B12 through a NanoCelle platform was observed to be significantly (p < 0.05) better absorbed than all other dose equivalent platforms (i.e., tablets, emulsions, or liposomes) from baseline to 1, 3, and 6 h of the study period. The nanoparticle platform delivered vitamin B12 demonstrated an enhanced and significant absorption profile as exemplified by rapid systemic detection (i.e., 1 h from baseline) when administered to the oro-buccal mucosa with no reports of any adverse events of toxicity. The nanoparticle formulation of methylcobalamin (1000 µg/dose in 0.3 mL volume) showed bioequivalence only with a chewable-dissolvable tablet that administered a five times higher dose of methylcobalamin (5000 µg) per tablet. This study has demonstrated that an active metabolite embedded in a functional biomaterial (NanoCelle) may constitute a drug delivery method that can better access the circulatory system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Trapezium Bone Density—A Comparison of Measurements by DXA and CT
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 9; doi:10.3390/jfb9010009 -
Abstract
Bone density may influence the primary fixation of cementless implants, and poor bone density may increase the risk of implant failure. Before deciding on using total joint replacement as treatment in osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal joint, it is valuable to determine the trapezium
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Bone density may influence the primary fixation of cementless implants, and poor bone density may increase the risk of implant failure. Before deciding on using total joint replacement as treatment in osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal joint, it is valuable to determine the trapezium bone density. The aim of this study was to: (1) determine the correlation between measurements of bone mineral density of the trapezium obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans by a circumference method and a new inner-ellipse method; and (2) to compare those to measurements of bone density obtained by computerized tomography (CT)-scans in Hounsfield units (HU). We included 71 hands from 59 patients with a mean age of 59 years (43–77). All patients had Eaton–Glickel stage II–IV trapeziometacarpal (TM) joint osteoarthritis, were under evaluation for trapeziometacarpal total joint replacement, and underwent DXA and CT wrist scans. There was an excellent correlation (r = 0.94) between DXA bone mineral density measures using the circumference and the inner-ellipse method. There was a moderate correlation between bone density measures obtained by DXA- and CT-scans with (r = 0.49) for the circumference method, and (r = 0.55) for the inner-ellipse method. DXA may be used in pre-operative evaluation of the trapezium bone quality, and the simpler DXA inner-ellipse measurement method can replace the DXA circumference method in estimation of bone density of the trapezium. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Formulation of Poloxamers for Drug Delivery
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 11; doi:10.3390/jfb9010011 -
Abstract
Poloxamers, also known as Pluronics®, are block copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), which have an amphiphilic character and useful association and adsorption properties emanating from this. Poloxamers find use in many applications that require solubilization or stabilization
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Poloxamers, also known as Pluronics®, are block copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), which have an amphiphilic character and useful association and adsorption properties emanating from this. Poloxamers find use in many applications that require solubilization or stabilization of compounds and also have notable physiological properties, including low toxicity. Accordingly, poloxamers serve well as excipients for pharmaceuticals. Current challenges facing nanomedicine revolve around the transport of typically water-insoluble drugs throughout the body, followed by targeted delivery. Judicious design of drug delivery systems leads to improved bioavailability, patient compliance and therapeutic outcomes. The rich phase behavior (micelles, hydrogels, lyotropic liquid crystals, etc.) of poloxamers makes them amenable to multiple types of processing and various product forms. In this review, we first present the general solution behavior of poloxamers, focusing on their self-assembly properties. This is followed by a discussion of how the self-assembly properties of poloxamers can be leveraged to encapsulate drugs using an array of processing techniques including direct solubilization, solvent displacement methods, emulsification and preparation of kinetically-frozen nanoparticles. Finally, we conclude with a summary and perspective. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Platelet Rich Plasma: New Insights for Cutaneous Wound Healing Management
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 10; doi:10.3390/jfb9010010 -
Abstract
The overall increase of chronic degenerative diseases associated with ageing makes wound care a tremendous socioeconomic burden. Thus, there is a growing need to develop novel wound healing therapies to improve cutaneous wound healing. The use of regenerative therapies is becoming increasingly popular
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The overall increase of chronic degenerative diseases associated with ageing makes wound care a tremendous socioeconomic burden. Thus, there is a growing need to develop novel wound healing therapies to improve cutaneous wound healing. The use of regenerative therapies is becoming increasingly popular due to the low-invasive procedures needed to apply them. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is gaining interest due to its potential to stimulate and accelerate the wound healing process. The cytokines and growth factors forming PRP play a crucial role in the healing process. This article reviews the emerging field of skin wound regenerative therapies with particular emphasis on PRP and the role of growth factors in the wound healing process. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
DNA-Based Single-Molecule Electronics: From Concept to Function
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 8; doi:10.3390/jfb9010008 -
Abstract
Beyond being the repository of genetic information, DNA is playing an increasingly important role as a building block for molecular electronics. Its inherent structural and molecular recognition properties render it a leading candidate for molecular electronics applications. The structural stability, diversity and programmability
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Beyond being the repository of genetic information, DNA is playing an increasingly important role as a building block for molecular electronics. Its inherent structural and molecular recognition properties render it a leading candidate for molecular electronics applications. The structural stability, diversity and programmability of DNA provide overwhelming freedom for the design and fabrication of molecular-scale devices. In the past two decades DNA has therefore attracted inordinate amounts of attention in molecular electronics. This review gives a brief survey of recent experimental progress in DNA-based single-molecule electronics with special focus on single-molecule conductance and I–V characteristics of individual DNA molecules. Existing challenges and exciting future opportunities are also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Methods to Improve Osseointegration of Dental Implants in Low Quality (Type-IV) Bone: An Overview
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 7; doi:10.3390/jfb9010007 -
Abstract
Nowadays, dental implants have become more common treatment for replacing missing teeth and aim to improve chewing efficiency, physical health, and esthetics. The favorable clinical performance of dental implants has been attributed to their firm osseointegration, as introduced by Brånemark in 1965. Although
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Nowadays, dental implants have become more common treatment for replacing missing teeth and aim to improve chewing efficiency, physical health, and esthetics. The favorable clinical performance of dental implants has been attributed to their firm osseointegration, as introduced by Brånemark in 1965. Although the survival rate of dental implants over a 10-year observation has been reported to be higher than 90% in totally edentulous jaws, the clinical outcome of implant treatment is challenged in compromised (bone) conditions, as are frequently present in elderly people. The biomechanical characteristics of bone in aged patients do not offer proper stability to implants, being similar to type-IV bone (Lekholm & Zarb classification), in which a decreased clinical fixation of implants has been clearly demonstrated. However, the search for improved osseointegration has continued forward for the new evolution of modern dental implants. This represents a continuum of developments spanning more than 20 years of research on implant related-factors including surgical techniques, implant design, and surface properties. The methods to enhance osseointegration of dental implants in low quality (type-IV) bone are described in a general manner in this review. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Calcium Phosphates as Delivery Systems for Bisphosphonates
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 6; doi:10.3390/jfb9010006 -
Abstract
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most utilized drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis, and are usefully employed also for other pathologies characterized by abnormally high bone resorption, including bone metastases. Due to the great affinity of these drugs for calcium ions, calcium phosphates are
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Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most utilized drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis, and are usefully employed also for other pathologies characterized by abnormally high bone resorption, including bone metastases. Due to the great affinity of these drugs for calcium ions, calcium phosphates are ideal delivery systems for local administration of BPs to bone, which is aimed to avoid/limit the undesirable side effects of their prolonged systemic use. Direct synthesis in aqueous medium and chemisorptions from solution are the two main routes proposed to synthesize BP functionalized calcium phosphates. The present review overviews the information acquired through the studies on the interaction between bisphosphonate molecules and calcium phosphates. Moreover, particular attention is addressed to some important recent achievements on the applications of BP functionalized calcium phosphates as biomaterials for bone substitution/repair. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Journal of Functional Biomaterials in 2017
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 5; doi:10.3390/jfb9010005 -
Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Journal of Functional Biomaterials maintains high quality standards for its published papers[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Assessment of Antimicrobial Activity of PLGA Films Loaded with 4-Hexylresorcinol
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 4; doi:10.3390/jfb9010004 -
Abstract
Profound screening and evaluation methods for biocide-releasing polymer films are crucial for predicting applicability and therapeutic outcome of these drug delivery systems. For this purpose, we developed an agar overlay assay embedding biopolymer composite films in a seeded microbial lawn. By combining this
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Profound screening and evaluation methods for biocide-releasing polymer films are crucial for predicting applicability and therapeutic outcome of these drug delivery systems. For this purpose, we developed an agar overlay assay embedding biopolymer composite films in a seeded microbial lawn. By combining this approach with model-dependent analysis for agar diffusion, antimicrobial potency of the entrapped drug can be calculated in terms of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Thus, the topical antiseptic 4-hexylresorcinol (4-HR) was incorporated into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films at different loadings up to 3.7 mg/cm2 surface area through a solvent casting technique. The antimicrobial activity of 4-HR released from these composite films was assessed against a panel of Gram-negative and Gram–positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi by the proposed assay. All the microbial strains tested were susceptible to PLGA-4-HR films with MIC values down to 0.4% (w/w). The presented approach serves as a reliable method in screening and quantifying the antimicrobial activity of polymer composite films. Moreover, 4-HR-loaded PLGA films are a promising biomaterial that may find future application in the biomedical and packaging sector. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Effect of Cryopreserved Human Placental Tissues on Biofilm Formation of Wound-Associated Pathogens
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 3; doi:10.3390/jfb9010003 -
Abstract
Biofilm, a community of bacteria, is tolerant to antimicrobial agents and ubiquitous in chronic wounds. In a chronic DFU (Diabetic Foot Ulcers) clinical trial, the use of a human cryopreserved viable amniotic membrane (CVAM) resulted in a high rate of wound closure and
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Biofilm, a community of bacteria, is tolerant to antimicrobial agents and ubiquitous in chronic wounds. In a chronic DFU (Diabetic Foot Ulcers) clinical trial, the use of a human cryopreserved viable amniotic membrane (CVAM) resulted in a high rate of wound closure and reduction of wound-related infections. Our previous study demonstrated that CVAM possesses intrinsic antimicrobial activity against a spectrum of wound-associated bacteria under planktonic culture conditions. In this study, we evaluated the effect of CVAM and cryopreserved viable umbilical tissue (CVUT) on biofilm formation of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, the two most prominent pathogens associated with chronic wounds. Firstly, we showed that, like CVAM, CVUT released antibacterial activity against multiple bacterial pathogens and the devitalization of CVUT reduced its antibacterial activity. The biofilm formation was then measured using a high throughput method and an ex vivo porcine dermal tissue model. We demonstrate that the formation of biofilm was significantly reduced in the presence of CVAM- or CVUT-derived conditioned media compared to control assay medium. The formation of P. aeruginosa biofilm on CVAM-conditioned medium saturated porcine dermal tissues was reduced 97% compared with the biofilm formation on the control medium saturated dermal tissues. The formation of S. auerus biofilm on CVUT-conditioned medium saturated dermal tissues was reduced 72% compared with the biofilm formation on the control tissues. This study is the first to show that human cryopreserved viable placental tissues release factors that inhibit biofilm formation. Our results provide an explanation for the in vivo observation of their ability to support wound healing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum Alloy (ASTM F75) on Bone Ingrowth in an Experimental Animal Model
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 2; doi:10.3390/jfb9010002 -
Abstract
Cr-Co-Mo (ASTM F75) alloy has been used in the medical environment, but its use as a rigid barrier membrane for supporting bone augmentation therapies has not been extensively investigated. In the present study, Cr-Co-Mo membranes of different heights were placed in New Zealand
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Cr-Co-Mo (ASTM F75) alloy has been used in the medical environment, but its use as a rigid barrier membrane for supporting bone augmentation therapies has not been extensively investigated. In the present study, Cr-Co-Mo membranes of different heights were placed in New Zealand white, male rabbit tibiae to assess the quality and volume of new bone formation, without the use of additional factors. Animals were euthanized at 20, 30, 40, and 60 days. Bone formation was observed in all of the cases, although the tibiae implanted with the standard membranes reached an augmentation of bone volume that agreed with the density values over the timecourse. In all cases, plasmatic exudate was found under the membrane and in contact with the new bone. Histological analysis indicated the presence of a large number of chondroblasts adjacent to the inner membrane surface in the first stages, and osteoblasts and osteocytes were observed under them. The bone formation was appositional. The Cr-Co-Mo alloy provides a scaffold with an adequate microenvironment for vertical bone volume augmentation, and the physical dimensions and disposition of the membrane itself influence the new bone formation. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Functionalization of Cotton Fabrics with Polycaprolactone Nanoparticles for Transdermal Release of Melatonin
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 1; doi:10.3390/jfb9010001 -
Abstract
Drug delivery by means of transdermal patches raised great interest as a non-invasive and sustained therapy. The present research aimed to design a patch for transdermal delivery of melatonin, which was encapsulated in polycaprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles (NPs) by employing flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) technique.
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Drug delivery by means of transdermal patches raised great interest as a non-invasive and sustained therapy. The present research aimed to design a patch for transdermal delivery of melatonin, which was encapsulated in polycaprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles (NPs) by employing flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) technique. Melatonin-loaded PCL nanoparticles were successfully prepared with precise control of the particle size by effectively tuning process parameters. The effect of process parameters on the particle size was assessed by dynamic light scattering for producing particles with suitable size for transdermal applications. Quantification of encapsulated melatonin was performed by mean of UV spectrophotometry, obtaining the estimation of encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and loading capacity (LC%). An EE% higher than 80% was obtained. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of NPs was performed to confirm effective encapsulation in the solid phase. Cotton fabrics, functionalized by imbibition with the nano-suspension, were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy to check morphology, adhesion and distribution of the NPs on the surface; melatonin transdermal release from the functionalized fabric was performed via Franz’s cells by using a synthetic membrane. NPs were uniformly distributed on cotton fibres, as confirmed by SEM observations; the release test showed a continuous and controlled release whose kinetics were satisfactorily described by Baker–Lonsdale model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental and Theoretical Studies on the Adsorption and Desorption Mechanisms of Chromate Ions on Cross-Linked Chitosan
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 51; doi:10.3390/jfb8040051 -
Abstract
In this work, chitosan bead materials were modified by cross-linking with epichlorohydrin (EP) and glutaraldehyde (GA) for the removal of heavy metals in wastewater. Using these cross-linked chitosan materials, the dependence of adsorption of chromate anions on pH was investigated experimentally and theoretically.
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In this work, chitosan bead materials were modified by cross-linking with epichlorohydrin (EP) and glutaraldehyde (GA) for the removal of heavy metals in wastewater. Using these cross-linked chitosan materials, the dependence of adsorption of chromate anions on pH was investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experimental results show that the adsorption process of the chromate (Cr) ions greatly depends on the pH of the solution, with the chitosan modified by cross-linking being an efficient adsorbent for chromate. On the other hand, quantum chemistry calculations were conducted to find out the factor determining the pH dependence of the adsorption efficiency of chromate ions on the dimer chitosan molecule, and show results similar to those found in the experiment. Both the experimental and numerical results show that the total charge numbers of the adsorbent and the adsorbate species and their relative molecular geometries are crucial in determining the adsorption efficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dicationic Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquid Coatings on Zirconia Surfaces: Physico-Chemical and Biological Characterization
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 50; doi:10.3390/jfb8040050 -
Abstract
In the present work, dicationic imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated as multi-functional coatings on a zirconia (ZrO2) surface to prevent biofilm formation and enhance the wear performance of zirconia while maintaining the material’s compatibility with host cells. ILs containing phenylalanine
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In the present work, dicationic imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated as multi-functional coatings on a zirconia (ZrO2) surface to prevent biofilm formation and enhance the wear performance of zirconia while maintaining the material’s compatibility with host cells. ILs containing phenylalanine and methionine were synthesized and deposited on zirconia. Intermolecular interactions driving IL deposition on zirconia were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Anti-biofilm activity and cell compatibility were evaluated in vitro after one and seven days, and wear performance was tested using a pin-on-disk apparatus. ILs were observed to form strong hydrogen bonds with zirconia. IL containing phenylalanine formed a stable film on the surface after one and seven days in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and artificial saliva and showed excellent anti-biofilm properties against Streptococcussalivarius and Streptococcussanguinis. Compatibility with gingival fibroblasts and pre-osteoblasts was maintained, and conditions for growth and differentiation were preserved. A significantly lower coefficient of friction and wear volume loss were observed for IL-coated surfaces as compared to non-coated substrates. Overall, zirconia is an emerging alternative to titanium in dental implants systems, and this study provides additional evidence of the materials’ behavior and IL coatings as a potential surface treatment technology for improvement of its properties. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Reconstruction of Craniomaxillofacial Bone Defects Using Tissue-Engineering Strategies with Injectable and Non-Injectable Scaffolds
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 49; doi:10.3390/jfb8040049 -
Abstract
Engineering craniofacial bone tissues is challenging due to their complex structures. Current standard autografts and allografts have many drawbacks for craniofacial bone tissue reconstruction; including donor site morbidity and the ability to reinstate the aesthetic characteristics of the host tissue. To overcome these
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Engineering craniofacial bone tissues is challenging due to their complex structures. Current standard autografts and allografts have many drawbacks for craniofacial bone tissue reconstruction; including donor site morbidity and the ability to reinstate the aesthetic characteristics of the host tissue. To overcome these problems; tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies have been developed as a potential way to reconstruct damaged bone tissue. Different types of new biomaterials; including natural polymers; synthetic polymers and bioceramics; have emerged to treat these damaged craniofacial bone tissues in the form of injectable and non-injectable scaffolds; which are examined in this review. Injectable scaffolds can be considered a better approach to craniofacial tissue engineering as they can be inserted with minimally invasive surgery; thus protecting the aesthetic characteristics. In this review; we also focus on recent research innovations with different types of stem-cell sources harvested from oral tissue and growth factors used to develop craniofacial bone tissue-engineering strategies. Full article
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