J. Clin. Med.2014, 3(4), 1511-1541; doi:10.3390/jcm3041511 (registering DOI) - published 19 December 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: For many decades, we have relied on immortalised retinal cell lines, histology of enucleated human eyes, animal models, clinical observation, genetic studies and human clinical trials to learn more about the pathogenesis of retinal diseases and explore treatment options. The recent availability of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) for deriving retinal lineages has added a powerful alternative tool for discovering new disease-causing mutations, studying genotype-phenotype relationships, performing therapeutics-toxicity screening and developing personalised cell therapy. This review article provides a clinical perspective on the current and potential benefits of iPSC for managing the most common blinding diseases of the eye: inherited retinal diseases and age-related macular degeneration.
J. Clin. Med.2014, 3(4), 1490-1510; doi:10.3390/jcm3041490 - published 17 December 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: More than 500 rare genetic bone disorders have been described, but for many of them only limited treatment options are available. Challenges for studying these bone diseases come from a lack of suitable animal models and unavailability of skeletal tissues for studies. Effectors for skeletal abnormalities of bone disorders may be abnormal bone formation directed by osteoblasts or anomalous bone resorption by osteoclasts, or both. Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be generated from somatic cells of various tissue sources and in theory can be differentiated into any desired cell type. However, successful differentiation of hiPSCs into functional bone cells is still a challenge. Our group focuses on the use of human iPSCs (hiPSCs) to identify osteoclast defects in craniometaphyseal dysplasia. In this review, we describe the impact of stem cell technology on research for better treatment of such disorders, the generation of hiPSCs from patients with rare genetic bone disorders and current protocols for differentiating hiPSCs into osteoclasts.
J. Clin. Med.2014, 3(4), 1466-1489; doi:10.3390/jcm3041466 - published 15 December 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Internal tandem duplications (ITDs) of the gene encoding the Fms-Like Tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) receptor are present in approximately 25% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The mutation is associated with poor prognosis, and the aberrant protein product has been hypothesized as an attractive therapeutic target. Various tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been developed targeting FLT3, but in spite of initial optimism the first generation TKIs tested in clinical studies generally induce only partial and transient hematological responses. The limited treatment efficacy generally observed may be explained by numerous factors; extensively pretreated and high risk cohorts, suboptimal pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of the compounds, acquired TKI resistance, or the possible fact that inhibition of mutated FLT3 alone is not sufficient to avoid disease progression. The second-generation agent quizartinb is showing promising outcomes and seems better tolerated and with less toxic effects than traditional chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, new generations of TKIs might be feasible for use in combination therapy or in a salvage setting in selected patients. Here, we sum up experiences so far, and we discuss the future outlook of targeting dysregulated FLT3 signaling in the treatment of AML.
J. Clin. Med.2014, 3(4), 1437-1465; doi:10.3390/jcm3041437 - published 15 December 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This chapter is an overview of the current status of the law in the United States regarding prenatal genetic testing with an emphasis on issues related to professional liability and other challenges affecting patient access to prenatal genetic testing. The chapter discusses the roles that federal regulations, promulgated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), play in the regulation of prenatal genetic tests. The chapter discusses tort litigation based on allegations of malpractice in the provision of prenatal genetic testing and how courts have analyzed issues related to causation, damages and mitigation of damages. The chapter provides reference information regarding how individual states address causes of action under the tort theories of wrongful birth and wrongful life. The chapter concludes with a discussion of future legal issues that may affect clinical prenatal genetic testing services arising from the continued expansion of prenatal genetic testing, legal restrictions on access to abortion and the potential development of embryonic treatments.
J. Clin. Med.2014, 3(4), 1402-1436; doi:10.3390/jcm3041402 - published 12 December 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The future hope of generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) from Alzheimer’s disease patients is multifold. Firstly, they may help to uncover novel mechanisms of the disease, which could lead to the development of new and unprecedented drugs for patients and secondly, they could also be directly used for screening and testing of potential new compounds for drug discovery. In addition, in the case of familial known mutations, these cells could be targeted by use of advanced gene-editing techniques to correct the mutation and be used for future cell transplantation therapies. This review summarizes the work so far in regards to production and characterization of iPS cell lines from both sporadic and familial Alzheimer’s patients and from other iPS cell lines that may help to model the disease. It provides a detailed comparison between published reports and states the present hurdles we face with this new technology. The promise of new gene-editing techniques and accelerated aging models also aim to move this field further by providing better control cell lines for comparisons and potentially better phenotypes, respectively.
J. Clin. Med.2014, 3(4), 1392-1401; doi:10.3390/jcm3041392 - published 12 December 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) often presents as a brain mass with encephalitis. In a patient with GBM, subsequent presentation with new onset encephalitis may be due to another GBM or Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis. We present a case of HSV-1 encephalitis mimicking GBM in a patient with previous GBM.