Open AccessFeature PaperCase Report
Clinical Remission of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Auricle with Cetuximab and Nivolumab
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(1), 10; doi:10.3390/jcm7010010 -
Abstract
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) affecting the regions of the head and neck can be challenging to resect surgically and refractory to chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Consequently; the treatment of squamous cell carcinomas of the skin is a focus of current research. One
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Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) affecting the regions of the head and neck can be challenging to resect surgically and refractory to chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Consequently; the treatment of squamous cell carcinomas of the skin is a focus of current research. One such advancement is immunotherapy. Herein we describe clinical remission of invasive, poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the pre-auricular region with external auditory canal involvement using cetuximab, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody; and nivolumab, a programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) antibody. Such durable and comprehensive disease resolution demonstrates the therapeutic potential of cetuximab and nivolumab in surgically challenging, treatment-resistant cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of JCM in 2017
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(1), 8; doi:10.3390/jcm7010008 -
Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that JCM maintains high quality standards for its published papers. In 2017, a total of 116 papers were published in the journal.[...] Full article
Open AccessReview
The Evolving Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Disease through Guideline-Directed Recommendations
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(1), 9; doi:10.3390/jcm7010009 -
Abstract
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) refers to partial or complete occlusion of one or more non-coronary arteries that leads to compromised blood flow and ischemia. Numerous processes are involved in arterial stenosis, however, atherosclerosis remains the most common etiology. PAD constitutes a major health
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Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) refers to partial or complete occlusion of one or more non-coronary arteries that leads to compromised blood flow and ischemia. Numerous processes are involved in arterial stenosis, however, atherosclerosis remains the most common etiology. PAD constitutes a major health economic problem, and it is estimated that over 200 million people around the world suffer from PAD, with at least 20% having some degree of claudication. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast the guidelines on PAD published in 2005, 2011 and 2016 in terms of new recommendations and level of evidence for practicing clinicians. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
FOLFIRINOX Chemotherapy in Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Retrospective and Phase II Studies
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(1), 7; doi:10.3390/jcm7010007 -
Abstract
The introduction of the FOLFIRINOX regimen within the last decade marked the first progress in the clinical field of metastatic pancreatic cancer which had not seen any improvements in treatment availability for several years. In a phase III randomized clinical trial, FOLFIRINOX showed
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The introduction of the FOLFIRINOX regimen within the last decade marked the first progress in the clinical field of metastatic pancreatic cancer which had not seen any improvements in treatment availability for several years. In a phase III randomized clinical trial, FOLFIRINOX showed superior efficacy compared to the previous standard treatment of gemcitabine monotherapy. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether the superior results observed in this single phase III clinical trial can be translated more broadly to clinical practice. Our investigation sought to analyze all published evidence of the FOLFIRINOX regimen in series and phase II trials and compare it to the experience of the phase III study. Survival analysis revealed that FOLFIRINOX was associated with an Overall Survival of 10–11 months both in the trials and in off-trial settings, with response rates also similar in both settings. The adverse effect profile was consistent between the pooled phase II and off-trial experience and the FOLFIRINOX regimen arm observed in the randomized phase III trial. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Experimental Models of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and the Role of the Enteric Neurotransmission
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(1), 4; doi:10.3390/jcm7010004 -
Abstract
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases in humans. It is characterized by visceral pain and/or discomfort, hypersensitivity and abnormal motor responses along with change in gut habits. Although the etio-pathogenesis of IBS is only partially understood, a
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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases in humans. It is characterized by visceral pain and/or discomfort, hypersensitivity and abnormal motor responses along with change in gut habits. Although the etio-pathogenesis of IBS is only partially understood, a main role has been attributed to psychosocial stress of different origin. Animal models such as neonatal maternal separation, water avoidance stress and wrap restraint stress have been developed as psychosocial stressors in the attempt to reproduce the IBS symptomatology and identify the cellular mechanisms responsible for the disease. The study of these models has led to the production of drugs potentially useful for IBS treatment. This review intends to give an overview on the results obtained with the animal models; to emphasize the role of the enteric nervous system in IBS appearance and evolution and as a possible target of drug therapies. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Gut-Brain Axis and the Microbiome: Clues to Pathophysiology and Opportunities for Novel Management Strategies in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(1), 6; doi:10.3390/jcm7010006 -
Abstract
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common of all medical disorders worldwide and, while for some it represents no more than a nuisance, for others it imposes significant negative impacts on daily life and activities. IBS is a heterogeneous disorder
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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common of all medical disorders worldwide and, while for some it represents no more than a nuisance, for others it imposes significant negative impacts on daily life and activities. IBS is a heterogeneous disorder and may well have a number of causes which may lie anywhere from the external environment to the contents of the gut lumen and from the enteric neuromuscular apparatus and the gut immune system to the central nervous system. Consequently, the paradigm of the gut-brain axis, which includes the participation of these various factors, has proven a useful model to assist clinicians and patients alike in understanding the genesis of symptoms in IBS. Now, given the widespread interest in the gut microbiome in health and disease, in general, reports of disordered enteric bacterial communities in IBS, and experimental data to indicate that components of the gut microbiota can influence brain morphology and function, as well as behavior and cognition, this concept has been extended to encompass the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The implications of this novel concept to the assessment and management of IBS will be explored in this review. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Patient-Provider Interaction and Patient Education
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(1), 3; doi:10.3390/jcm7010003 -
Abstract
The Patient-Provider (P-P) relationship is the foundation of medical practice. The quality of this relationship is essential, particularly for the management of chronic illness such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), since it correlates with disease improvement. A significant aspect of fostering the P-P
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The Patient-Provider (P-P) relationship is the foundation of medical practice. The quality of this relationship is essential, particularly for the management of chronic illness such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), since it correlates with disease improvement. A significant aspect of fostering the P-P relationship is providing effective patient-centered education about IBS. An effective education empowers the patients to achieve the main therapeutic goals: to reduce symptoms and improve quality of life. Method: A literature search of PubMed was conducted using the terms “Irritable Bowel syndrome”, “Patient Physician Relationship”, “Patient Provider Relationship”, and “Patient Physician interaction”. Preference was given to articles with a clearly defined methodology and those with control groups if applicable/appropriate. This article provides a review of the literature on Patient-Provider interaction and patient education as it relates to IBS and provides practical recommendations on how to optimize this important relationship. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Association of Maternal Factors with Perinatal Complications in Pregnancies Complicated with Diabetes: A Single-Center Retrospective Analysis
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(1), 5; doi:10.3390/jcm7010005 -
Abstract
Objective: The aim of this study was to clarify the association of maternal factors with perinatal complications in pregnancies complicated with type 1 (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review and enrolled 26 Japanese pregnant women with
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Objective: The aim of this study was to clarify the association of maternal factors with perinatal complications in pregnancies complicated with type 1 (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review and enrolled 26 Japanese pregnant women with diabetes who received perinatal care at our hospital between 2008 and 2015. Perinatal complications were defined as one or more of the following: miscarriage, fetal death, fetal dysfunction, fetal structural anomaly, small-for-gestational age, large-for-gestational age (LGA), premature birth, neonatal hypoglycemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), deterioration of maternal kidney function, and urgent Caesarean section (CS). The associations between perinatal complications and maternal factors were examined. Results: Approximately 70% and 50% of women with T1D and T2D experienced perinatal complications, respectively. LGA, neonatal hypoglycemia, and urgent CS were major perinatal complications in women with T1D, while PIH and urgent CS were major complications in those with T2D. In women with T1D, pre-gestational HbA1c was significantly higher in women with perinatal complications than in those without. In women with T2D, pre-gestational body mass index was significantly higher in women with perinatal complications than in those without. Conclusions: These findings suggest that while pre-gestational glycemic control remains the most important issue in women with T1D, pre-gestational weight control in addition to glycemic control should be greater emphasized in women with T2D to reduce the risk of perinatal complications. Full article
Open AccessCase Report
Prevalence of Idiopathic Cyclic Edema in Women with Lower Limb Lymphedema
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(1), 2; doi:10.3390/jcm7010002 -
Abstract
Cyclic edema is a clinical condition in women that leads to fluid retention in the orthostatic position. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of idiopathic cyclic edema in women with lower limb lymphedema. The prevalence of idiopathic cyclic
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Cyclic edema is a clinical condition in women that leads to fluid retention in the orthostatic position. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of idiopathic cyclic edema in women with lower limb lymphedema. The prevalence of idiopathic cyclic edema was evaluated in a retrospective study of 100 consecutive female patients submitted to leg lymphedema treatment at the Clínica Godoy. The diagnosis of lymphedema was clinical, based on patient history and a physical examination. Patients with clinical stage II lymphedema were included in the study with those in stages I and III being excluded. The diagnosis of idiopathic cyclic edema was based on the patient’s history and fluid retention of more than one kilogram between 7:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. Clinical signs of this disease include difficulty removing rings in the morning that becomes easier during the course of the day, waking up with a swollen face, and abdominal discomfort during the day. After diagnosing cyclic edema, a therapeutic test was performed using aminaphtone or calcium dobesilate with which fluid retention was reduced to less than 300 g during the same period. The patients were instructed to drink liquids only when they were thirsty. Full article
Open AccessReview
Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in Embryonic Development, Tissue Repair and Cancer: A Comprehensive Overview
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(1), 1; doi:10.3390/jcm7010001 -
Abstract
The epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a central role in both normal physiological events (e.g., embryonic development) and abnormal pathological events (e.g., tumor formation and metastasis). The processes that occur in embryonic development are often reactivated under pathological conditions such as oncogenesis. Therefore,
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The epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a central role in both normal physiological events (e.g., embryonic development) and abnormal pathological events (e.g., tumor formation and metastasis). The processes that occur in embryonic development are often reactivated under pathological conditions such as oncogenesis. Therefore, defining the regulatory networks (both gene and protein levels) involved in the EMT during embryonic development will be fundamental in understanding the regulatory networks involved in tumor development, as well as metastasis. There are many molecules, factors, mediators and signaling pathways that are involved in the EMT process. Although the EMT is a very old topic with numerous publications, recent new technologies and discoveries give this research area some new perspective and direction. It is now clear that these important processes are controlled by a network of transcriptional and translational regulators in addition to post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications that amplify the initial signals. In this review article, we will discuss some key concepts, historical findings, as well as some recent progresses in the EMT research field. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy—Past, Present and Future
J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(12), 118; doi:10.3390/jcm6120118 -
Abstract
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common genetic cardiomyopathy with a prevalence of 1 in 500 in the general population. Since the first pathological case series at post mortem in 1957, we have come a long way in its understanding, diagnosis and management.
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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common genetic cardiomyopathy with a prevalence of 1 in 500 in the general population. Since the first pathological case series at post mortem in 1957, we have come a long way in its understanding, diagnosis and management. Here, we will describe the history of our understanding of HCM including the initial disease findings, diagnostic methods and treatment options. We will review the current guidelines for the diagnosis and management of HCM, current gaps in the evidence base and discuss the new and promising developments in this field. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Acute Encephalitis in an Adult with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma with Secondary Involvement of the Central Nervous System: Infectious or Non-Infectious Etiology?
J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(12), 117; doi:10.3390/jcm6120117 -
Abstract
Both infectious and non-infectious etiologies of acute encephalitis have been described, as well as their specific presentations, diagnostic tests, and therapies. Classic findings of acute encephalitis include altered mental status, fever, and new lesions on neuroimaging or electroencephalogram (EEG). We report an interesting
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Both infectious and non-infectious etiologies of acute encephalitis have been described, as well as their specific presentations, diagnostic tests, and therapies. Classic findings of acute encephalitis include altered mental status, fever, and new lesions on neuroimaging or electroencephalogram (EEG). We report an interesting case of a 61-year-old male with a history of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with secondary involvement of the central nervous system (SCNS-DLBCL). He presented with acute encephalitis: altered mental status, fever, leukocytosis, neuropsychiatric symptoms, multiple unchanged brain lesions on computed tomography scan of the head, and EEG showed mild to moderate diffuse slowing with low-moderate polymorphic delta and theta activity. With such a wide range of symptoms, the differential diagnosis included paraneoplastic and autoimmune encephalitis. Infectious and autoimmune/paraneoplastic encephalitis in patients with SCNS-DLBCL are not well documented in the literature, hence diagnosis and therapy becomes challenging. This case report describes the patient’s unique presentation of acute encephalitis. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Imaging Characteristics of Malignant Sinonasal Tumors
J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(12), 116; doi:10.3390/jcm6120116 -
Abstract
Malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses account for 1% of all malignancies and 3% of malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract. In the sinonasal tract, nearly half of all malignancies arise in the nasal cavity, whereas most of the remaining malignancies
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Malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses account for 1% of all malignancies and 3% of malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract. In the sinonasal tract, nearly half of all malignancies arise in the nasal cavity, whereas most of the remaining malignancies arise in the maxillary or ethmoid sinus. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histological subtype of malignant tumors occurring in this area, followed by other epithelial carcinomas, lymphomas, and malignant soft tissue tumors. Although many of these tumors present with nonspecific symptoms, each tumor exhibits characteristic imaging features. Although complex anatomy and various normal variants of the sinonasal tract cause difficulty in identifying the origin and extension of large sinonasal tumors, the invasion of vital structures such as the brain, optic nerves, and internal carotid artery affects patients’ prognosis. Thus, diagnostic imaging plays a key role in predicting the histological subtype and in evaluating a tumor extension into adjacent structures. This article describes the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings for malignant sinonasal tumors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adipose Derived Stem Cells for Corneal Wound Healing after Laser Induced Corneal Lesions in Mice
J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(12), 115; doi:10.3390/jcm6120115 -
Abstract
The aim of our study was to assess the clinical effectiveness of topical adipose derived stem cell (ADSC) treatment in laser induced corneal wounds in mice by comparing epithelial repair, inflammation, and histological analysis between treatment arms. Corneal lesions were performed on both
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The aim of our study was to assess the clinical effectiveness of topical adipose derived stem cell (ADSC) treatment in laser induced corneal wounds in mice by comparing epithelial repair, inflammation, and histological analysis between treatment arms. Corneal lesions were performed on both eyes of 40 mice by laser induced photorefractive keratectomy. All eyes were treated with topical azythromycin bid for three days. Mice were divided in three treatment groups (n = 20), which included: control, stem cells and basic serum; which received topical treatment three times daily for five consecutive days. Biomicroscope assessments and digital imaging were performed by two masked graders at 30, 54, 78, 100, and 172 h to analyze extent of fluorescein positive epithelial defect, corneal inflammation, etc. Immunohistochemical techniques were used in fixed eyes to assess corneal repair markers Ki67, α Smooth Muscle Actin (α-SMA) and E-Cadherin. The fluorescein positive corneal lesion areas were significantly smaller in the stem cells group on days 1 (p < 0.05), 2 (p < 0.02) and 3. The stem cell treated group had slightly better and faster re-epithelization than the serum treated group in the initial phases. Comparative histological data showed signs of earlier and better corneal repair in epithelium and stromal layers in stem cell treated eyes, which showed more epithelial layers and enhanced wound healing performance of Ki67, E-Cadherin, and α-SMA. Our study shows the potential clinical and histological advantages in the topical ADSC treatment for corneal lesions in mice. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperPerspective
Ethnic Similarities and Differences in the Relationship between Beta Cell Mass and Diabetes
J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(12), 113; doi:10.3390/jcm6120113 -
Abstract
Recent evidence has revealed that a change of functional beta cell mass is an essential factor of the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Since beta cell dysfunction is not only present in T2DM but also progressively worsens with disease duration, to preserve
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Recent evidence has revealed that a change of functional beta cell mass is an essential factor of the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Since beta cell dysfunction is not only present in T2DM but also progressively worsens with disease duration, to preserve or recover functional beta cell mass is important in both prevention of the development of T2DM and therapeutic strategies for T2DM. Furthermore, ethnic difference in functional beta cell mass may also need to be taken into account. Recent evidences suggest that Asians have less beta cell functional capacity compared with Caucasians. Preservation or recovery of functional beta cell mass seems to be further emphasized for Asians because of the limited capacity of beta cell. This review summarizes the current knowledge on beta cell dysfunction in T2DM and discusses the similarities and differences in functional beta cell mass between ethnicities in the face of obesity and T2DM. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Neurological and Sleep Disturbances in Bronchiectasis
J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(12), 114; doi:10.3390/jcm6120114 -
Abstract
Bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis is a chronic lung disease that is increasingly recognised worldwide. While other common chronic lung conditions such as chronic obstructive lung disease have been associated with cardiovascular disease, there is a paucity of data on the relationship between
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Bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis is a chronic lung disease that is increasingly recognised worldwide. While other common chronic lung conditions such as chronic obstructive lung disease have been associated with cardiovascular disease, there is a paucity of data on the relationship between bronchiectasis and cardiovascular risks such as stroke and sleep disturbance. Furthermore, it is unclear whether other neuropsychological aspects are affected, such as cognition, cerebral infection, anxiety and depression. In this review, we aim to highlight neurological and sleep issues in relation to bronchiectasis and their importance to patient care. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Implementing a Psychotherapy Service for Medically Unexplained Symptoms in a Primary Care Setting
J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(12), 109; doi:10.3390/jcm6120109 -
Abstract
Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) are known to be costly, complex to manage and inadequately addressed in primary care settings. In many cases, there are unresolved psychological and emotional processes underlying these symptoms, leaving traditional medical approaches insufficient. This paper details the implementation of
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Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) are known to be costly, complex to manage and inadequately addressed in primary care settings. In many cases, there are unresolved psychological and emotional processes underlying these symptoms, leaving traditional medical approaches insufficient. This paper details the implementation of an evidence-based, emotion-focused psychotherapy service for MUS across two family medicine clinics. The theory and evidence-base for using Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP) with MUS is presented along with the key service components of assessment, treatment, education and research. Preliminary outcome indicators showed diverse benefits. Patients reported significantly decreased somatic symptoms in the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (d = 0.4). A statistically significant (23%) decrease in family physicians’ visits was found in the 6 months after attending the MUS service compared to the 6 months prior. Both patients and primary care clinicians reported a high degree of satisfaction with the service. Whilst further research is needed, these findings suggest that a direct psychology service maintained within the family practice clinic may assist patient and clinician function while reducing healthcare utilization. Challenges and further service developments are discussed, including the potential benefits of re-branding the service to become a ‘Primary Care Psychological Consultation and Treatment Service’. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Viral Oncology: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis
J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(12), 111; doi:10.3390/jcm6120111 -
Abstract
Oncoviruses are implicated in approximately 12% of all human cancers. A large number of the world’s population harbors at least one of these oncoviruses, but only a small proportion of these individuals go on to develop cancer. The interplay between host and viral
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Oncoviruses are implicated in approximately 12% of all human cancers. A large number of the world’s population harbors at least one of these oncoviruses, but only a small proportion of these individuals go on to develop cancer. The interplay between host and viral factors is a complex process that works together to create a microenvironment conducive to oncogenesis. In this review, the molecular biology and oncogenic pathways of established human oncoviruses will be discussed. Currently, there are seven recognized human oncoviruses, which include Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), Human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1), Human Herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), and Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV). Available and emerging therapies for these oncoviruses will be mentioned. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Airway Mucus and Asthma: The Role of MUC5AC and MUC5B
J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(12), 112; doi:10.3390/jcm6120112 -
Abstract
Asthma is characterized by mucus abnormalities. Airway epithelial hyperplasia and metaplasia result in changes in stored and secreted mucin and the production of a pathologic mucus gel. Mucus transport is impaired, culminating in mucus plugging and airway obstruction—a major cause of morbidity in
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Asthma is characterized by mucus abnormalities. Airway epithelial hyperplasia and metaplasia result in changes in stored and secreted mucin and the production of a pathologic mucus gel. Mucus transport is impaired, culminating in mucus plugging and airway obstruction—a major cause of morbidity in asthma. The polymeric mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B are integral components of airway mucus. MUC5AC and MUC5B gene expression is altered in asthma, and recent work sheds light on their contribution to asthma pathogenesis. Herein, we review our current understanding of the role of MUC5AC and MUC5B in mucus dysfunction in asthma. Full article
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Open AccessReview
MUC1: The First Respiratory Mucin with an Anti-Inflammatory Function
J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(12), 110; doi:10.3390/jcm6120110 -
Abstract
MUC1 is a membrane-bound mucin expressed on the apical surfaces of most mucosal epithelial cells. In normal lung epithelia, MUC1 is a binding site for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic human pathogen of great clinical importance. It has now been established that MUC1
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MUC1 is a membrane-bound mucin expressed on the apical surfaces of most mucosal epithelial cells. In normal lung epithelia, MUC1 is a binding site for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic human pathogen of great clinical importance. It has now been established that MUC1 also serves an anti-inflammatory role in the airways that is initiated late in the course of a bacterial infection and is mediated through inhibition of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. MUC1 expression was initially shown to interfere with TLR5 signaling in response to P. aeruginosa flagellin, but has since been extended to other TLRs. These new findings point to an immunomodulatory role for MUC1 during P. aeruginosa lung infection, particularly during the resolution phase of inflammation. This review briefly summarizes the recent characterization of MUC1’s anti-inflammatory properties in both the respiratory tract and extrapulmonary tissues. Full article
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