Open AccessArticle
Lewis Base Complexes of Magnesium Borohydride: Enhanced Kinetics and Product Selectivity upon Hydrogen Release
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 89; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040089 -
Abstract
Tetrahydofuran (THF) complexed to magnesium borohydride has been found to have a positive effect on both the reactivity and selectivity, enabling release of H2 at <200 °C and forms Mg(B10H10) with high selectivity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Molecular Structures of Enantiomerically-Pure (S)-2-(Triphenylsilyl)- and (S)-2-(Methyldiphenylsilyl)pyrrolidinium Salts
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 88; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040088 -
Abstract
Silyl-substituted pyrrolidines have gained increased interest for the design of new catalyst scaffolds. The molecular structures of four enantiomerically-pure 2-silylpyrrolidinium salts are reported. The perchlorate salts of (S)-2-(triphenylsilyl)pyrrolidine [(S)-1·HClO4] and (S)-2-(methyldiphenylsilyl)pyrrolidine [(S
[...] Read more.
Silyl-substituted pyrrolidines have gained increased interest for the design of new catalyst scaffolds. The molecular structures of four enantiomerically-pure 2-silylpyrrolidinium salts are reported. The perchlorate salts of (S)-2-(triphenylsilyl)pyrrolidine [(S)-1·HClO4] and (S)-2-(methyldiphenylsilyl)pyrrolidine [(S)-2·HClO4], the trifluoroacetate (S)-2·TFA, and the methanol-including hydrochloride (S)-1·HCl·MeOH were elucidated by X-ray crystallography and discussed in terms of hydrogen-bond interactions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Mechanism of Rh-Catalyzed Transformation of Fatty Acids to Linear Alpha olefins
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 87; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040087 -
Abstract
Linear alpha olefins (LAOs) are key commodity chemicals and petrochemical intermediates that are currently produced from fossil resources. Fatty acids are the obvious renewable starting material for LAOs, which can be obtained via transition-metal-catalyzed decarbonylative dehydration. However, even the best catalysts that have
[...] Read more.
Linear alpha olefins (LAOs) are key commodity chemicals and petrochemical intermediates that are currently produced from fossil resources. Fatty acids are the obvious renewable starting material for LAOs, which can be obtained via transition-metal-catalyzed decarbonylative dehydration. However, even the best catalysts that have been obtained to date, which are based on palladium, are not active and stable enough for industrial use. To provide insight for design of better catalysts, we here present the first computationally derived mechanism for another attractive transition-metal for this reaction, rhodium. By comparing the calculated mechanisms and free energy profiles for the two metals, Pd and Rh, we single out important factors for a facile, low-barrier reaction and for a stable catalyst. While the olefin formation is rate limiting for both of the metals, the rate-determining intermediate for Rh is, in contrast to Pd, the starting complex, (PPh3)2Rh(CO)Cl. This complex largely draws its stability from the strength of the Rh(I)–CO bond. CO is a much less suitable ligand for the high-oxidation state Rh(III). However, for steric reasons, rhodium dissociates a bulkier triphenylphosphine and keeps the carbonyl during the oxidative addition, which is less favorable than for Pd. When compared to Pd, which dissociates two phosphine ligands at the start of the reaction, the catalytic activity of Rh also appears to be hampered by its preference for high coordination numbers. The remaining ancillary ligands leave less space for the metal to mediate the reaction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructure and Hydrogen Storage Properties of Ti1V0.9Cr1.1 Alloy with Addition of x wt % Zr (x = 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12)
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 86; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040086 -
Abstract
The effect of adding Zr on microstructure and hydrogen storage properties of BCC Ti1V0.9Cr1.1 synthesized by arc melting was studied. The microstructures of samples with Zr were multiphase with a main BCC phase and secondary Laves phases C15
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The effect of adding Zr on microstructure and hydrogen storage properties of BCC Ti1V0.9Cr1.1 synthesized by arc melting was studied. The microstructures of samples with Zr were multiphase with a main BCC phase and secondary Laves phases C15 and C14. The abundance of secondary phases increased with increasing amount of zirconium. We found that addition of Zr greatly enhanced the first hydrogenation kinetics. The addition of 4 wt % of Zr produced fast kinetics and high hydrogen storage capacity. Addition of higher amount of Zr had for effect of decreasing the hydrogen capacity. The reduction in hydrogen capacity might be due to the increased secondary phase abundance. The effect of air exposure was also studied. It was found that, for the sample with 12 wt % of Zr, exposure to the air resulted in appearance of an incubation time in the first hydrogenation and a slight reduction of hydrogen capacity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reactivity of Zinc Halide Complexes Containing Camphor-Derived Guanidine Ligands with Technical rac-Lactide
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 85; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040085 -
Abstract
Three new zinc complexes with monoamine–guanidine hybridligands have been prepared, characterized by X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy, and tested in the solvent-free ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactide. Initially the ligands were synthesized from camphoric acid to obtain TMGca and DMEGca and then reacted
[...] Read more.
Three new zinc complexes with monoamine–guanidine hybridligands have been prepared, characterized by X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy, and tested in the solvent-free ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactide. Initially the ligands were synthesized from camphoric acid to obtain TMGca and DMEGca and then reacted with zinc(II) halides to form zinc complexes. All complexes have a distorted tetrahedral coordination. They were utilized as catalysts in the solvent-free polymerization of technical rac-lactide at 150 °C. Colorless polylactide (PLA) can be produced and after 2 h conversion up to 60% was reached. Furthermore, one zinc chlorido complex was tested with different qualities of lactide (technical and recrystallized) and with/without the addition of benzyl alcohol as a co-initiator. The kinetics were monitored by in situ FT-IR or 1H NMR spectroscopy. All kinetic measurements show first-order behavior with respect to lactide. The influence of the chiral complexes on the stereocontrol of PLA was examined. Moreover, with MALDI-ToF measurements the end-group of the obtained polymer was determined. DFT and NBO calculations give further insight into the coordination properties. All in all, these systems are robust against impurities and water in the lactide monomer and show great catalytic activity in the ROP of lactide. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Construction of a Planar Tetrapalladium Cluster by the Reaction of Palladium(0) Bis(isocyanide) with Cyclic Tetrasilane
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 84; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040084 -
Abstract
The planar tetrapalladium cluster Pd4{Si(iPr)2}3(CNtBu)4 (4) was synthesised in 86% isolated yield by the reaction of palladium(0) bis(isocyanide) Pd(CNtBu)2 with octaisopropylcyclotetrasilane (3). In the course
[...] Read more.
The planar tetrapalladium cluster Pd4{Si(iPr)2}3(CNtBu)4 (4) was synthesised in 86% isolated yield by the reaction of palladium(0) bis(isocyanide) Pd(CNtBu)2 with octaisopropylcyclotetrasilane (3). In the course of this reaction, the palladium atoms are clustered via insertion into the Si–Si bonds of 3, followed by extrusion of one SiiPr2 moiety and reorganisation to afford 4 with a 54-electron configuration. The CNtBu ligand in 4 was found to be easily replaced by N-heterocyclic carbene (iPr2IMMe) to afford the more coordinatively unsaturated cluster Pd4{Si(iPr)2}3(iPr2IMMe)3 (5) having the planar Pd4Si3 core. On the other hand, the replacement of CNtBu with a sterically compact ligand trimethylolpropane phosphite {P(OCH2)3CEt} led to a planar tripalladium cluster Pd3{Si(iPr)2}3{P(OCH2)3CEt}3 (6) and Pd{P(OCH2)3CEt}4 in 1:1 molar ratio as products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of the Reversible Lithiation of an Oxide Free Aluminum Anode by a LiBH4 Solid State Electrolyte
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 83; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040083 -
Abstract
In this study, we analyze and compare the physical and electrochemical properties of an all solid-state cell utilizing LiBH4 as the electrolyte and aluminum as the active anode material. The system was characterized by galvanostatic lithiation/delithiation, cyclic voltammetry (CV), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy
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In this study, we analyze and compare the physical and electrochemical properties of an all solid-state cell utilizing LiBH4 as the electrolyte and aluminum as the active anode material. The system was characterized by galvanostatic lithiation/delithiation, cyclic voltammetry (CV), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Constant current cycling demonstrated that the aluminum anode can be reversibly lithiated over multiple cycles utilizing a solid-state electrolyte. An initial capacity of 895 mAh/g was observed and is close to the theoretical capacity of aluminum. Cyclic voltammetry of the cell was consistent with the constant current cycling data and showed that the reversible lithiation/delithiation of aluminum occurs at 0.32 V and 0.38 V (vs. Li+/Li) respectively. XRD of the aluminum anode in the initial and lithiated state clearly showed the formation of a LiAl (1:1) alloy. SEM-EDS was utilized to examine the morphological changes that occur within the electrode during cycling. This work is the first example of reversible lithiation of aluminum in a solid-state cell and further emphasizes the robust nature of the LiBH4 electrolyte. This demonstrates the possibility of utilizing other high capacity anode materials with a LiBH4 based solid electrolyte in all-solid-state batteries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dehydrogenation of Surface-Oxidized Mixtures of 2LiBH4 + Al/Additives (TiF3 or CeO2)
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 82; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040082 -
Abstract
Research for suitable hydrogen storage materials is an important ongoing subject. LiBH4–Al mixtures could be attractive; however, several issues must be solved. Here, the dehydrogenation reactions of surface-oxidized 2LiBH4 + Al mixtures plus an additive (TiF3 or CeO2
[...] Read more.
Research for suitable hydrogen storage materials is an important ongoing subject. LiBH4–Al mixtures could be attractive; however, several issues must be solved. Here, the dehydrogenation reactions of surface-oxidized 2LiBH4 + Al mixtures plus an additive (TiF3 or CeO2) at two different pressures are presented. The mixtures were produced by mechanical milling and handled under welding-grade argon. The dehydrogenation reactions were studied by means of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) at 400 °C and at 3 or 5 bar initial hydrogen pressure. The milled and dehydrogenated materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) The additives and the surface oxidation, promoted by the impurities in the welding-grade argon, induced a reduction in the dehydrogenation temperature and an increase in the reaction kinetics, as compared to pure (reported) LiBH4. The dehydrogenation reactions were observed to take place in two main steps, with onsets at 100 °C and 200–300 °C. The maximum released hydrogen was 9.3 wt % in the 2LiBH4 + Al/TiF3 material, and 7.9 wt % in the 2LiBH4 + Al/CeO2 material. Formation of CeB6 after dehydrogenation of 2LiBH4 + Al/CeO2 was confirmed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ruthenium-Catalyzed Dimerization of 1,1-Diphenylpropargyl Alcohol to a Hydroxybenzocyclobutene and Related Reactions
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 80; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040080 -
Abstract
Propargyl alcohol is a useful synthon in synthetic organic chemistry. We found that the ruthenium(II) complex [Cp*RuCl(diene)] (Cp* = η5-C5Me5; diene = isoprene or 1,5-cyclooctadiene (cod)) catalyzes dimerization of 1,1-diphenylprop-2-yn-1-ol (1,1-diphenylpropargyl alcohol, 1a) at room temperature
[...] Read more.
Propargyl alcohol is a useful synthon in synthetic organic chemistry. We found that the ruthenium(II) complex [Cp*RuCl(diene)] (Cp* = η5-C5Me5; diene = isoprene or 1,5-cyclooctadiene (cod)) catalyzes dimerization of 1,1-diphenylprop-2-yn-1-ol (1,1-diphenylpropargyl alcohol, 1a) at room temperature to afford an alkylidenebenzocyclobutenyl alcohol 2a quantitatively. Meanwhile, a stoichiometric reaction of the related hydrido complex [Cp*RuH(cod)] with 1a at 50 °C led to isolation of a ruthenocene derivative 4 bearing a cyclopentadienyl ring generated by dehydrogenative trimerization of 1a. Detailed structures of 2a and 4 were determined by X-ray crystallography. The reaction mechanisms for the formation of 2a and 4 were proposed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Thermodynamic Properties and Reversible Hydrogenation of LiBH4–Mg2FeH6 Composite Materials
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 81; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040081 -
Abstract
In previous studies, complex hydrides LiBH4 and Mg2FeH6 have been reported to undergo simultaneous dehydrogenation when ball-milled as composite materials (1 − x)LiBH4 + xMg2FeH6. The simultaneous hydrogen release led to a
[...] Read more.
In previous studies, complex hydrides LiBH4 and Mg2FeH6 have been reported to undergo simultaneous dehydrogenation when ball-milled as composite materials (1 − x)LiBH4 + xMg2FeH6. The simultaneous hydrogen release led to a decrease of the dehydrogenation temperature by as much as 150 K when compared to that of LiBH4. It also led to the modified dehydrogenation properties of Mg2FeH6. The simultaneous dehydrogenation behavior between stoichiometric ratios of LiBH4 and Mg2FeH6 is not yet understood. Therefore, in the present work, we used the molar ratio x = 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75, and studied the isothermal dehydrogenation processes via pressure–composition–isothermal (PCT) measurements. The results indicated that the same stoichiometric reaction occurred in all of these composite materials, and x = 0.5 was the molar ratio between LiBH4 and Mg2FeH6 in the reaction. Due to the optimal composition ratio, the composite material exhibited enhanced rehydrogenation and reversibility properties: the temperature and pressure of 673 K and 20 MPa of H2, respectively, for the full rehydrogenation of x = 0.5 composite, were much lower than those required for the partial rehydrogenation of LiBH4. Moreover, the x = 0.5 composite could be reversibly hydrogenated for more than four cycles without degradation of its H2 capacity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of a Dichlorodigermasilane: Double Si–Cl Activation by a Ge=Ge Unit
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 79; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040079 -
Abstract
Halogenated oligosilanes and oligogermanes are interesting compounds in oligosilane chemistry from the viewpoint of silicon-based-materials. Herein, it was demonstrated that a 1,2-digermacyclobutadiene derivative could work as a bis-germylene building block towards double Si–Cl activation to give a halogenated oligometallane, a bis(chlorogermyl)dichlorosilane derivative. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanistic Implications for the Ni(I)-Catalyzed Kumada Cross-Coupling Reaction
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 78; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040078 -
Abstract
Herein we report on the cross-coupling reaction of phenylmagnesium bromide with aryl halides using the well-defined tetrahedral Ni(I) complex, [(Triphos)NiICl] (Triphos = 1,1,1-tris(diphenylphosphinomethyl)ethane). In the presence of 0.5 mol % [(Triphos)NiICl], good to excellent yields (75–97%) of the respective
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Herein we report on the cross-coupling reaction of phenylmagnesium bromide with aryl halides using the well-defined tetrahedral Ni(I) complex, [(Triphos)NiICl] (Triphos = 1,1,1-tris(diphenylphosphinomethyl)ethane). In the presence of 0.5 mol % [(Triphos)NiICl], good to excellent yields (75–97%) of the respective coupling products within a reaction time of only 2.5 h at room temperature were achieved. Likewise, the tripodal Ni(II)complexes [(κ2-Triphos)NiIICl2] and [(κ3-Triphos)NiIICl](X) (X = ClO4, BF4) were tested as potential pre-catalysts for the Kumada cross-coupling reaction. While the Ni(II) complexes also afford the coupling products in comparable yields, mechanistic investigations by UV/Vis and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy indicate a Ni(I) intermediate as the catalytically active species in the Kumada cross-coupling reaction. Based on experimental findings and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, a plausible Ni(I)-catalyzed reaction mechanism for the Kumada cross-coupling reaction is presented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biodegradation of Cosmetics Products: A Computational Study of Cytochrome P450 Metabolism of Phthalates
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 77; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040077 -
Abstract
Cytochrome P450s are a broad class of enzymes in the human body with important functions for human health, which include the metabolism and detoxification of compounds in the liver. Thus, in their catalytic cycle, the P450s form a high-valent iron(IV)-oxo heme cation radical
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Cytochrome P450s are a broad class of enzymes in the human body with important functions for human health, which include the metabolism and detoxification of compounds in the liver. Thus, in their catalytic cycle, the P450s form a high-valent iron(IV)-oxo heme cation radical as the active species (called Compound I) that reacts with substrates through oxygen atom transfer. This work discusses the possible degradation mechanisms of phthalates by cytochrome P450s in the liver, through computational modelling, using 2-ethylhexyl-phthalate as a model substrate. Phthalates are a type of compound commonly found in the environment from cosmetics usage, but their biodegradation in the liver may lead to toxic metabolites. Experimental studies revealed a multitude of products and varying product distributions among P450 isozymes. To understand the regio- and chemoselectivity of phthalate activation by P450 isozymes, we focus here on the mechanisms of phthalate activation by Compound I leading to O-dealkylation, aliphatic hydroxylation and aromatic hydroxylation processes. We set up model complexes of Compound I with the substrate and investigated the reaction mechanisms for products using the density functional theory on models and did a molecular mechanics study on enzymatic structures. The work shows that several reaction barriers in the gas-phase are close in energy, leading to a mixture of products. However, when we tried to dock the substrate into a P450 isozyme, some of the channels were inaccessible due to unfavorable substrate positions. Product distributions are discussed under various reaction conditions and rationalized with valence bond and thermodynamic models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ceria: Recent Results on Dopant-Induced Surface Phenomena
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 76; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040076 -
Abstract
Redox studies on dense zirconia-doped ceria pellets were carried out by thermogravimetric investigations and dilatometry. Up to 1600 K reduction parameters determined by both methods correspond to each other. At higher temperatures, however, thermogravimetry overestimates the degree of reduction since mass loss is
[...] Read more.
Redox studies on dense zirconia-doped ceria pellets were carried out by thermogravimetric investigations and dilatometry. Up to 1600 K reduction parameters determined by both methods correspond to each other. At higher temperatures, however, thermogravimetry overestimates the degree of reduction since mass loss is not only due to oxygen exsolution but also to selective evaporation of CeO2 whose vapour pressure is considerably higher than that of ZrO2. As a consequence surface segregation of zirconia occurs in (Ce,Zr)O2−δ pellets leading to a porous surface zone of Ce2Zr2O7 pyrochlore which gradually grows in thickness. Surface enrichment of zirconia is detrimental for splitting CO2 or H2O since re-oxidation temperatures of (Ce,Zr)O2−δ are known to be shifted towards lower temperatures with increasing ZrO2 content. Thus, very harsh reduction conditions should be avoided for the (Ce,Zr)O2−δ redox system. The kinetics investigations comprised the high temperature reduction step (T ≅ 1600 K) and the “low” temperature oxidation reaction with a carbon dioxide atmosphere (T ≅ 1000 K). The reduction kinetics (at around 1600 K and an oxygen activity of 7 × 10−4 in the gas phase) directly yield the (reduction) equilibrium exchange rate of oxygen in the order of 10−7 mol·O/(cm3·s) as the kinetics are surface controlled. The oxidation step at around 1000 K, however, occurs in the mixed control or in the diffusion control regime, respectively. From oxygen isotope exchange in combination with SIMS depth profiling oxygen exchange coefficients, K, and oxygen diffusivities, D, were determined for so-called equilibrium experiments as well as for non-equilibrium measurements. From the obtained values for K and D the (oxidation) equilibrium exchange rates for differently doped ceria samples were determined. Their dependency on the oxygen activity and the nature and the concentrations of a tetravalent dopant (Zr) and trivalent dopants (La, Y, Sm) could be semi-quantitatively rationalised on the basis of a master equation for the equilibrium surface exchange rate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of 1,3-Diols from Isobutene and HCHO via Prins Condensation-Hydrolysis Using CeO2 Catalysts: Effects of Crystal Plane and Oxygen Vacancy
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 75; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040075 -
Abstract
We herein report the synthesis of 3-methyl-1,3-butanediol from isobutene and HCHO in water via a Prins condensation-hydrolysis reaction over CeO2, which is a water-tolerant Lewis acid catalyst. The CeO2 exhibits significant catalytic activity for the reaction, giving 95% HCHO conversion
[...] Read more.
We herein report the synthesis of 3-methyl-1,3-butanediol from isobutene and HCHO in water via a Prins condensation-hydrolysis reaction over CeO2, which is a water-tolerant Lewis acid catalyst. The CeO2 exhibits significant catalytic activity for the reaction, giving 95% HCHO conversion and 84% 3-methyl-1,3-butanediol selectivity at 150 °C for 4 h. The crystal planes of CeO2 have a significant effect on the catalytic activity for the Prins reaction. The (110) plane shows the highest catalytic activity among the crystal planes investigated (the (100), (110), and (111) planes), due to its higher concentration of Lewis acid sites, which is in line with the concentration of oxygen vacancies. Detailed characterizations, including NH3-TPD, pyridine-adsorbed FT-IR spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, revealed that the concentration of Lewis acid sites is proportional to the concentration of oxygen vacancies. This study indicates that the Lewis acidity induced by oxygen vacancy can be modulated by selective synthesis of CeO2 with different morphologies, and that the Lewis acidity and oxygen vacancy play an important role in Prins condensation and hydrolysis reaction. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Tetrahydroborates: Development and Potential as Hydrogen Storage Medium
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 74; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040074 -
Abstract
The use of fossil fuels as an energy supply becomes increasingly problematic from the point of view of both environmental emissions and energy sustainability. As an alternative, hydrogen is widely regarded as a key element for a potential energy solution. However, different from
[...] Read more.
The use of fossil fuels as an energy supply becomes increasingly problematic from the point of view of both environmental emissions and energy sustainability. As an alternative, hydrogen is widely regarded as a key element for a potential energy solution. However, different from fossil fuels such as oil, gas, and coal, the production of hydrogen requires energy. Alternative and intermittent renewable sources such as solar power, wind power, etc., present multiple advantages for the production of hydrogen. On one hand, the renewable sources contribute to a remarkable reduction of pollutants released to the air. On the other hand, they significantly enhance the sustainability of energy supply. In addition, the storage of energy in form of hydrogen has a huge potential to balance an effective and synergetic utilization of the renewable energy sources. In this regard, hydrogen storage technology presents a key roadblock towards the practical application of hydrogen as “energy carrier”. Among the methods available to store hydrogen, solid-state storage is the most attractive alternative both from the safety and the volumetric energy density points of view. Because of their appealing hydrogen content, complex hydrides and complex hydride-based systems have attracted considerable attention as potential energy vectors for mobile and stationary applications. In this review, the progresses made over the last century on the development in the synthesis and research on the decomposition reactions of homoleptic tetrahydroborates is summarized. Furthermore, theoretical and experimental investigations on the thermodynamic and kinetic tuning of tetrahydroborates for hydrogen storage purposes are herein reviewed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
3-Methylindole-Based Tripodal Tetraphosphine Ruthenium Complexes in N2 Coordination and Reduction and Formic Acid Dehydrogenation
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 73; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040073 -
Abstract
The ruthenium(II) complexes RuCl2L1H, RuCl2L1CF3, RuCl2L1OMe and RuCl2L2H were synthesized from [Ru(η6-benzene)Cl(μ-Cl)]2 and the corresponding tripodal tris-3-methylindolephosphine-based ligands L1H, L1CF3, L1OMe
[...] Read more.
The ruthenium(II) complexes RuCl2L1H, RuCl2L1CF3, RuCl2L1OMe and RuCl2L2H were synthesized from [Ru(η6-benzene)Cl(μ-Cl)]2 and the corresponding tripodal tris-3-methylindolephosphine-based ligands L1H, L1CF3, L1OMe, and L2H. Stoichiometric reduction of these complexes with KC8 yielded the corresponding ruthenium(0) dinitrogen complexes. The latter complexes were studied in the N2 reduction with chlorosilanes and KC8, yielding stoichiometric amounts of the silylamines. The synthesized ruthenium(II) complexes are also active catalysts for the formic acid dehydrogenation reaction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Si–H Bond Activation of a Primary Silane with a Pt(0) Complex: Synthesis and Structures of Mononuclear (Hydrido)(dihydrosilyl) Platinum(II) Complexes
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 72; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040072 -
Abstract
A hydrido platinum(II) complex with a dihydrosilyl ligand, [cis-PtH(SiH2Trip)(PPh3)2] (2) was prepared by oxidative addition of an overcrowded primary silane, TripSiH3 (1, Trip = 9-triptycyl) with [Pt(η2-C2
[...] Read more.
A hydrido platinum(II) complex with a dihydrosilyl ligand, [cis-PtH(SiH2Trip)(PPh3)2] (2) was prepared by oxidative addition of an overcrowded primary silane, TripSiH3 (1, Trip = 9-triptycyl) with [Pt(η2-C2H4)(PPh3)2] in toluene. The ligand-exchange reactions of complex 2 with free phosphine ligands resulted in the formation of a series of (hydrido)(dihydrosilyl) complexes (35). Thus, the replacement of two PPh3 ligands in 2 with a bidentate bis(phosphine) ligand such as DPPF [1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene] or DCPE [1,2-bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)ethane] gave the corresponding complexes [PtH(SiH2Trip)(L-L)] (3: L-L = dppf, 4: L-L = dcpe). In contrast, the ligand-exchange reaction of 2 with an excess amount of PMe3 in toluene quantitatively produced [PtH(SiH2Trip)(PMe3)(PPh3)] (5), where the PMe3 ligand is adopting trans to the hydrido ligand. The structures of complexes 25 were fully determined on the basis of their NMR and IR spectra, and elemental analyses. Moreover, the low-temperature X-ray crystallography of 2, 3, and 5 revealed that the platinum center has a distorted square planar environment, which is probably due to the steric requirement of the cis-coordinated phosphine ligands and the bulky 9-triptycyl group on the silicon atom. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Unique Hydrogen Desorption Properties of LiAlH4/h-BN Composites
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 71; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040071 -
Abstract
Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is known as an effective additive to improve the hydrogen de/absorption properties of hydrogen storage materials consisting of light elements. Herein, we report the unique hydrogen desorption properties of LiAlH4/h-BN composites, which were prepared by ball-milling. The
[...] Read more.
Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is known as an effective additive to improve the hydrogen de/absorption properties of hydrogen storage materials consisting of light elements. Herein, we report the unique hydrogen desorption properties of LiAlH4/h-BN composites, which were prepared by ball-milling. The desorption profiles of the composite indicated the decrease of melting temperature of LiAlH4, the delay of desorption kinetics in the first step, and the enhancement of the kinetics in the second step, compared with milled LiAlH4. Li3AlH6 was also formed in the composite after desorption in the first step, suggesting h-BN would have a catalytic effect on the desorption kinetics of Li3AlH6. Finally, the role of h-BN on the desorption process of LiAlH4 was discussed by comparison with the desorption properties of LiAlH4/X (X = graphite, LiCl and LiI) composites, suggesting the enhancement of Li ion mobility in the LiAlH4/h-BN composite. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Redox-Induced Aromatic C–H Bond Functionalization in Metal Complex Catalysis from the Electrochemical Point of View
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 70; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040070 -
Abstract
This review generalizes and specifies the oxidizing ability of a number of oxidants used in palladium (Pd)-catalyzed aromatic C–H functionalizations. The redox potentials have been analyzed as the measure of oxidant strength and applied to the reasoning of the efficiency of known reactions
[...] Read more.
This review generalizes and specifies the oxidizing ability of a number of oxidants used in palladium (Pd)-catalyzed aromatic C–H functionalizations. The redox potentials have been analyzed as the measure of oxidant strength and applied to the reasoning of the efficiency of known reactions where catalytic cycles include cyclometalated palladium complexes (and other organopalladium key intermediates). Full article
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