Open AccessReview
Redox-Induced Aromatic C–H Bond Functionalization in Metal Complex Catalysis from the Electrochemical Point of View
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 70; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040070 -
Abstract
This review generalizes and specifies the oxidizing ability of a number of oxidants used in palladium (Pd)-catalyzed aromatic C–H functionalizations. The redox potentials have been analyzed as the measure of oxidant strength and applied to the reasoning of the efficiency of known reactions
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This review generalizes and specifies the oxidizing ability of a number of oxidants used in palladium (Pd)-catalyzed aromatic C–H functionalizations. The redox potentials have been analyzed as the measure of oxidant strength and applied to the reasoning of the efficiency of known reactions where catalytic cycles include cyclometalated palladium complexes (and other organopalladium key intermediates). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Surface Ceria and Ceria–Zirconia Solid Solution Films Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition on Al2O3
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 69; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040069 -
Abstract
The properties of 20 wt % CeO2 and 21 wt % Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 films, deposited onto a γ-Al2O3 by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), were compared to bulk Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 and γ-Al
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The properties of 20 wt % CeO2 and 21 wt % Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 films, deposited onto a γ-Al2O3 by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), were compared to bulk Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 and γ-Al2O3-supported samples on which 20 wt % CeO2 or 21 wt % CeO2–ZrO2 were deposited by impregnation. Following calcination to 1073 K, the ALD-prepared catalysts showed much lower XRD peak intensities, implying that these samples existed as thin films, rather than larger crystallites. Following the addition of 1 wt % Pd to each of the supports, the ALD-prepared samples exhibited much higher rates for CO oxidation due to better interfacial contact between the Pd and ceria-containing phases. The redox properties of the ALD samples and bulk Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 were measured by determining the oxidation state of the ceria as a function of the H2:H2O ratio using flow titration and coulometric titration. The 20 wt % CeO2 ALD film exhibited similar thermodynamics to that measured previously for a sample prepared by impregnation. However, the sample with 21 wt % Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 on γ-Al2O3 reduced at a much higher PO2 and showed evidence for transition between the Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 and Ce0.5Zr0.5O1.75 phases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Decomposition Products of Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) with Metals Dissolved in Liquid Ammonia
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 68; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040068 -
Abstract
Sulfur hexafluoride is a highly chemically inert gas with several important industrial applications. It is stable against fused alkali, oxygen and ammonia, even at several hundred degrees Celsius. In this work, the reactions between metals (Li–Cs, Sr, Ba, Eu, Yb) dissolved in liquid
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Sulfur hexafluoride is a highly chemically inert gas with several important industrial applications. It is stable against fused alkali, oxygen and ammonia, even at several hundred degrees Celsius. In this work, the reactions between metals (Li–Cs, Sr, Ba, Eu, Yb) dissolved in liquid ammonia and SF6 are reported, leading to mono- or bivalent fluorides and sulfides. To this end, SF6 was passed into a cooled solution of the respective metal in liquid ammonia. The identity of the products was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The reactions could lead to a cheap and effective disposal method of the present amounts of stored SF6, for possible generation of H2S and HF. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Electrochemical Performance of LiFePO4/C by Indium Doping and High Temperature Annealing
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 67; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040067 -
Abstract
We have prepared nano-structured In-doped (1 mol %) LiFePO4/C samples by sol–gel method followed by a selective high temperature (600 and 700 °C) annealing in a reducing environment of flowing Ar/H2 atmosphere. The crystal structure, particle size, morphology, and magnetic
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We have prepared nano-structured In-doped (1 mol %) LiFePO4/C samples by sol–gel method followed by a selective high temperature (600 and 700 °C) annealing in a reducing environment of flowing Ar/H2 atmosphere. The crystal structure, particle size, morphology, and magnetic properties of nano-composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microsopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns of the nano-composites were indexed to the olivine crystal structure of LiFePO4 with space group Pnma, showing minor impurities of Fe2P and Li3PO4 due to decomposition of LiFePO4. We found that the doping of In in LiFePO4/C nanocomposites affects the amount of decomposed products, when compared to the un-doped ones treated under similar conditions. An optimum amount of Fe2P present in the In-doped samples enhances the electronic conductivity to achieve a much improved electrochemical performance. The galvanostatic charge/discharge curves show a significant improvement in the electrochemical performance of 700 °C annealed In-doped-LiFePO4/C sample with a discharge capacity of 142 mAh·g−1 at 1 C rate, better rate capability (~128 mAh·g−1 at 10 C rate, ~75% of the theoretical capacity) and excellent cyclic stability (96% retention after 250 cycles) compared to other samples. This enhancement in electrochemical performance is consistent with the results of our electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showing decreased charge-transfer resistance and high exchange current density. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation and Molecular Structure of a Cyclopentyl-Substituted Cage Hexasilsesquioxane T6 (T = cyclopentyl-SiO1.5) Starting from the Corresponding Silanetriol
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 66; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040066 -
Abstract
Cyclopentyl substituted silanetriol can be prepared and isolated. Its condensation yields the corresponding disiloxanetetrol as a primary condensation product. Further condensation leads to the hexameric polyhedral silsesquioxane cage T6. The latter has been mentioned in the literature before however, lacking structural data. All
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Cyclopentyl substituted silanetriol can be prepared and isolated. Its condensation yields the corresponding disiloxanetetrol as a primary condensation product. Further condensation leads to the hexameric polyhedral silsesquioxane cage T6. The latter has been mentioned in the literature before however, lacking structural data. All compounds have been characterized with multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and, in addition, the molecular structures have been determined in the case of the disiloxanetetrol and the hexasilsesquioxane via single crystal X-ray diffraction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stabilization of ZrO2 Powders via ALD of CeO2 and ZrO2
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 65; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040065 -
Abstract
ZrO2 powders were modified by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with CeO2 and ZrO2, using Ce(TMHD)4 and Zr(TMHD)4 as the precursors, in order to determine the effect of ALD films on the structure, surface area, and catalytic properties
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ZrO2 powders were modified by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with CeO2 and ZrO2, using Ce(TMHD)4 and Zr(TMHD)4 as the precursors, in order to determine the effect of ALD films on the structure, surface area, and catalytic properties of the ZrO2. Growth rates were measured gravimetrically and found to be 0.017 nm/cycle for CeO2 and 0.031 nm/cycle for ZrO2. The addition of 20 ALD cycles of either CeO2 or ZrO2 was found to stabilize the surface area of the ZrO2 powder following calcination to 1073 K and to suppress the tetragonal-to-monoclinic transition. Shrinkage of ZrO2 wafers was also suppressed by the ALD films. When used as a support for Pd in CO oxidation, the CeO2-modified materials significantly enhanced rates due to interactions between the Pd and the CeO2. Potential applications for modifying catalyst supports using ALD are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improved Cluster Structure Optimization: Hybridizing Evolutionary Algorithms with Local Heat Pulses
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 64; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040064 -
Abstract
Cluster structure optimization (CSO) refers to finding the globally minimal cluster structure with respect to a specific model and quality criterion, and is a computationally extraordinarily hard problem. Here we report a successful hybridization of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) with local heat pulses (LHPs).
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Cluster structure optimization (CSO) refers to finding the globally minimal cluster structure with respect to a specific model and quality criterion, and is a computationally extraordinarily hard problem. Here we report a successful hybridization of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) with local heat pulses (LHPs). We describe the algorithm’s implementation and assess its performance with hard benchmark CSO cases. EA-LHP showed superior performance compared to regular EAs. Additionally, the EA-LHP hybrid is an unbiased, general CSO algorithm requiring no system-specific solution knowledge. These are compelling arguments for a wider future use of EA-LHP in CSO. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Metal Substitution Effect on a Three-Dimensional Cyanido-Bridged Fe Spin-Crossover Network
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 63; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040063 -
Abstract
We report the CoII-substitution effect on a cyanido-bridged three-dimensional FeII spin-crossover network, Fe2[Nb(CN)8](4-pyridinealdoxime)8·2H2O. A series of iron–cobalt octacyanidoniobate, (FexCo1−x)2[Nb(CN)8](4-pyridinealdoxime)8·zH
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We report the CoII-substitution effect on a cyanido-bridged three-dimensional FeII spin-crossover network, Fe2[Nb(CN)8](4-pyridinealdoxime)8·2H2O. A series of iron–cobalt octacyanidoniobate, (FexCo1−x)2[Nb(CN)8](4-pyridinealdoxime)8·zH2O, was prepared. In this series, the behavior of FeII spin-crossover changes with the CoII concentration. As the CoII concentration increases, the transition of the spin-crossover becomes gradual and the transition temperature of the spin-crossover shifts towards a lower temperature. Additionally, this series shows magnetic phase transition at a low temperature. In particular, (Fe0.21Co0.79)2[Nb(CN)8](4-pyridinealdoxime)8·zH2O exhibits a Curie temperature of 12 K and a large coercive field of 3100 Oe. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of the Spin Crossover Properties of Three Dinulear Fe(II) Triple Helicates by Variation of the Steric Nature of the Ligand Type
Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 62; doi:10.3390/inorganics5040062 -
Abstract
The investigation of new spin-crossover (SCO) compounds plays an important role in understanding the key design factors involved, informing the synthesis of materials for future applications in electronic and sensing devices. In this report, three bis-bidentate ligands were synthesized by Schiff base condensation
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The investigation of new spin-crossover (SCO) compounds plays an important role in understanding the key design factors involved, informing the synthesis of materials for future applications in electronic and sensing devices. In this report, three bis-bidentate ligands were synthesized by Schiff base condensation of imidazole-4-carbaldehyde with 4,4-diaminodiphenylmethane (L1), 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl sulfide (L2) and 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl ether (L3) respectively. Their dinuclear Fe(II) triple helicates were obtained by complexation with Fe(BF4)2·6H2O in acetonitrile. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the steric nature of the ligand central atom (–X–, where X = CH2, S or O) on the spin-crossover profile of the compound. The magnetic behaviours of these compounds were investigated and subsequently correlated to the structural information from single-crystal X-ray crystallographic experiments. All compounds [Fe2(L1)3](BF4)2 (1), [Fe2(L2)3](BF4)2 (2) and [Fe2(L3)3](BF4)2 (3), demonstrated approximately half-spin transitions, with T1/2 values of 155, 115 and 150 K respectively, corresponding to one high-spin (HS) and one low-spin (LS) Fe(II) centre in a [LS–HS] state at 50 K. This was also confirmed by crystallographic studies, for example, bond lengths and the octahedral distortion parameter (∑) at 100 K. The three-dimensional arrangement of the HS and LS Fe(II) centres throughout the crystal lattice was different for the three compounds, and differing extents of intermolecular interactions between BF4 counter ions and imidazole N–H were present. The three compounds displayed similar spin-transition profiles, with 2 (–S–) possessing the steepest nature. The shape of the spin transition can be altered in this manner, and this is likely due to the subtle effects that the steric nature of the central atom has on the crystal packing (and thus inter-helical Fe–Fe separation), intermolecular interactions and Fe–Fe intra-helical separations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Structure and Spin State of Iron(II) Assembled Complexes Using 9,10-Bis(4-pyridyl)anthracene as Bridging Ligand
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 61; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030061 -
Abstract
Assembled complexes, [Fe(NCX)2(bpanth)2]n (X = S, Se, BH3; bpanth = 9,10-bis(4-pyridyl)anthracene), were synthesized. The iron for the three complexes was in temperature-independent high spin state by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurement. X-ray structural
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Assembled complexes, [Fe(NCX)2(bpanth)2]n (X = S, Se, BH3; bpanth = 9,10-bis(4-pyridyl)anthracene), were synthesized. The iron for the three complexes was in temperature-independent high spin state by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurement. X-ray structural analysis revealed the interpenetrated structure of [Fe(NCS)2(bpanth)2]n. In the local structure around the iron atom, the coordinated pyridine planes were shown to be a parallel type, which is in accordance with the results investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculation. This complex (X = S) has CH–π interactions between the H atom of coordinated pyridine and the neighboring anthracene of the other 2D grid. It was suggested that the interpenetrated structure was supported by the stabilization of CH–π interaction, and this intermolecular interaction forced the relatively unstable parallel structure. That is, the unstable local structure is compensated by the stabilization due to intermolecular interaction, which controlled the spin state as high spin state. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Structural Dynamics of Spin Crossover in Iron(II) Complexes with Extended-Tripod Ligands
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 60; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030060 -
Abstract
Selective manipulation of spin states in iron(II) complexes by thermal or photonic energy is a desirable goal in the context of developing molecular functional materials. As dynamic spin-state equilibration in isolated iron(II) complexes typically limits the lifetime of a given spin state to
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Selective manipulation of spin states in iron(II) complexes by thermal or photonic energy is a desirable goal in the context of developing molecular functional materials. As dynamic spin-state equilibration in isolated iron(II) complexes typically limits the lifetime of a given spin state to nanoseconds, synthetic strategies need to be developed that aim at inhibited relaxation. Herein we show that modulation of the reaction coordinate through careful selection of the ligand can indeed massively slow down dynamic exchange. Detailed structural analysis of [FeL]2+ and [ZnL]2+ (L: tris(1-methyl-2-{[pyridin-2-yl]-methylene}hydrazinyl)phosphane sulfide) with crystallographic and computational methods clearly reveals a unique trigonal-directing effect of the extended-tripod ligand L during spin crossover, which superimposes the ubiquitous [FeN6] breathing with trigonal torsion, akin to the archetypal Bailar twist. As a consequence of the diverging reaction coordinates in [FeL]2+ and in the tren-derived complex [Fe(tren)py3]2+, their thermal barriers differ massively, although the spin crossover energies are close to identical. As is shown by time-resolved transient spectroscopy and dynamic 1H-NMR line broadening, reference systems deriving from tren (tris-(2-aminoethyl)amine), which greatly lack such trigonal torsion, harbor very rapid spin-state exchange. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assembly of Mn(III) Schiff Base Complexes with Heptacyanorhenate (IV)
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 59; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030059 -
Abstract
A pioneering research on a self-assembly of the magneto-anisotropic module [Re(CN)7]3− with the Mn(III) complexes involving Salen type (N,N′-ethylenebis(salicylideneiminate)) Schiff base (SB) ligands was performed using the known [Mn(3MeOSalen)(H2O)2]2
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A pioneering research on a self-assembly of the magneto-anisotropic module [Re(CN)7]3− with the Mn(III) complexes involving Salen type (N,N′-ethylenebis(salicylideneiminate)) Schiff base (SB) ligands was performed using the known [Mn(3MeOSalen)(H2O)2]2(ClO4)2·H2O (1) and the firstly synthesized [Mn2(5MeSalen)2OAc]PF6 (2). In the case of 1, a slow diffusion of the component solutions led to the ionic compound Ph4P[Mn(3MeOSalen)(H2O)2]2[Re(CN)7]·6H2O (3). The direct mixing of the same solutions has resulted in the microcrystalline nearly insoluble solid [Mn(3MeOSalen)(H2O))4Re(CN)7]ClO4·1.5MeCN·6.5H2O, which is likely to comprise the pentanuclear clusters [(MnIII(SB)(H2O))4Re(CN)7]+. The use of 2 resulted in a 2D-network assembly of octanuclear clusters, [{(Mn(5MeSalen))6(H2O)2Re(CN)7}2Re(CN)7]Cl2(PF6)·H2O (4), incorporating one Re-center in a pentagonal bipyramid coordination environment, while another has strongly distorted capped trigonal prism as a coordination polyhedron. The latter was observed for the first time for Re(IV) complexes. A synthetic challenge to obtain the 0D assemblies with Re:Mn ≥ 3 has yielded a hexanuclear complex [Mn(5MeSalen)H2O(i-PrOH)][(Mn(5MeSalen))5H2O(i-PrOH)2Re(CN)7](PF6)2(OAc)·2i-PrOH (5) being 1D chain via a bridging phenoxyl group. Owing to a low solubility of the final product, an addition of a bulk anion Ph4B to the MeCN/MeOH solution of [Re(CN)7]3−and 1 in ratio 1:6 resulted in rhenium-free matter [Mn(3MeOSalen)(H2O)2][Mn(3MeOSalen)(H2O)MeCN](Ph4B)2·5MeCN (6). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
N-Heterocyclic Carbene Coinage Metal Complexes Containing Naphthalimide Chromophore: Design, Structure, and Photophysical Properties
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 58; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030058 -
Abstract
A series of novel N-heterocyclic carbene coinage metal complexes containing a naphthalimide (NI) chromophore has been prepared and fully characterized. Two types of molecules are described those where the NI unit is directly attached to the carbene unit with the general formulae
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A series of novel N-heterocyclic carbene coinage metal complexes containing a naphthalimide (NI) chromophore has been prepared and fully characterized. Two types of molecules are described those where the NI unit is directly attached to the carbene unit with the general formulae [(L1)–M–X], M = Cu, X = Cl (1a); M = Ag, X = I (1b) and M = Au, X = Cl, (1c). While in the second family, a π-extended carbene ligand precursor L2–H+I (3) was prepared where the NI unit is distant from the imidazole unit via a phenyl-alkyne bridge. Only two N-heterocyclic carbene metal complexes were prepared [(L2)–M–Cl], M = Cu (2a) and M = Au (2c). The related silver carbene compound could not be isolated. The molecular structure of the carbene complex 1c was determined and confirmed the formation of the target compound. Interestingly, the structure shows the presence of an aurophilic interaction Au···Au at 3.407 Å between two individual molecules. The photophysical properties of the compounds were investigated in solution at room temperature. Preliminary results suggested that all compounds are luminescent and act as blue emitters (420–451 nm). These transition emissions can be attributed to the intraligand origin of the NI chromphore. Moreover, the carbene complexes featuring L2 ligand with π-extended system were found to be more luminescent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrogen Storage Stability of Nanoconfined MgH2 upon Cycling
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 57; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030057 -
Abstract
It is of utmost importance to optimise and stabilise hydrogen storage capacity during multiple cycles of hydrogen release and uptake to realise a hydrogen-based energy system. Here, the direct solvent-based synthesis of magnesium hydride, MgH2, from dibutyl magnesium, MgBu2,
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It is of utmost importance to optimise and stabilise hydrogen storage capacity during multiple cycles of hydrogen release and uptake to realise a hydrogen-based energy system. Here, the direct solvent-based synthesis of magnesium hydride, MgH2, from dibutyl magnesium, MgBu2, in four different carbon aerogels with different porosities, i.e., pore sizes, 15 < Davg < 26 nm, surface area 800 < SBET < 2100 m2/g, and total pore volume, 1.3 < Vtot < 2.5 cm3/g, is investigated. Three independent infiltrations of MgBu2, each with three individual hydrogenations, are conducted for each scaffold. The volumetric and gravimetric loading of MgH2 is in the range 17 to 20 vol % and 24 to 40 wt %, which is only slightly larger as compared to the first infiltration assigned to the large difference in molar volume of MgH2 and MgBu2. Despite the rigorous infiltration and sample preparation techniques, particular issues are highlighted relating to the presence of unwanted gaseous by-products, Mg/MgH2 containment within the scaffold, and the purity of the carbon aerogel scaffold. The results presented provide a research path for future researchers to improve the nanoconfinement process for hydrogen storage applications. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Control of Spin-Crossover Phenomena in One-Dimensional Triazole-Coordinated Iron(II) Complexes by Means of Functional Counter Ions
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 50; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030050 -
Abstract
The spin-crossover (SCO) phenomenon between a high-spin and a low-spin state has attracted much attention in the field of materials science. Among the various kinds of SCO complexes, the triazole-bridged iron(II) polymeric chain system, [Fe(II)(R-trz)3]X2·xH2O
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The spin-crossover (SCO) phenomenon between a high-spin and a low-spin state has attracted much attention in the field of materials science. Among the various kinds of SCO complexes, the triazole-bridged iron(II) polymeric chain system, [Fe(II)(R-trz)3]X2·xH2O (where trz is triazole and X is the anion), exhibiting the SCO phenomenon with thermal hysteresis around room temperature, has been extensively studied from the viewpoint of molecular memory and molecular devices. In connection with this system, we have controlled the SCO phenomenon according to the characteristic properties of counter ions. In the case of X being CnH2n+1SO3, the spin transition temperature (T1/2) increases with increasing the length (n) of the alkyl chain of the counter ion and saturates above n = 5, which is attributed to the increase in the intermolecular interaction of the alkyl chains of CnH2n+1SO3, called the fastener effect. The hysteresis width of T1/2 decreases with increasing n, showing the even-odd, also known as parity, effect. In the cases where X is toluenesulfonate (tos: CH3C6H4SO3) and aminobenzenesulfonate (abs: NH2C6H4SO3), T1/2 and its hysteresis width vary drastically with the structural isomerism (ortho-, metha-, and para-substitution) of counter ions, which implies the possibility of photoinduced spin transition by means of the photoisomerization of counter ions. From this strategy, we have synthesized [Fe(II)(NH2-trz)3](SP150)2·2H2O (SP150 = N-alkylsulfonated spiropyran) and investigated the SCO phenomenon. Moreover, we have developed [Fe(II)(R-trz)3]@Nafion films exhibiting spin transition around room temperature, where the Nafion membrane behaves as a counter anion as well as a transparent substrate, and investigated the photogenerated high-spin state below 35 K. The lifetime of the photogenerated high-spin state strongly depends on the intensity of irradiated light. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
(18-Crown-6)potassium(I) Trichlorido[28-acetyl-3-(tris-(hydroxylmethyl)amino-ethane)betulinic ester-κN]platinum(II): Synthesis and In Vitro Antitumor Activity
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 56; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030056 -
Abstract
Synthesis of platinum(II) conjugate with acetylated betulinic acid tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane ester (BATRIS) is presented (BATRISPt). HR-ESI-MS and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, as well as elemental analysis were used for characterization of BATRISPt. Cytotoxicity (3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), crystal violet (CV), and sulforhodamine B (SRB) assays) of
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Synthesis of platinum(II) conjugate with acetylated betulinic acid tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane ester (BATRIS) is presented (BATRISPt). HR-ESI-MS and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, as well as elemental analysis were used for characterization of BATRISPt. Cytotoxicity (3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), crystal violet (CV), and sulforhodamine B (SRB) assays) of BA, BATRIS, BATRISPt, and cisplatin were assessed on seven different tumor cell lines: melanoma B16, colon HCT116 and DLD-1, adenocarcinoma HeLa, breast MCF-7, and anaplastic thyroid tumor 8505C and SW1736; as well as normal MRC-5 fibroblasts. Furthermore, the effect of the mentioned compounds on the apoptosis (Annexin V/PI assay) and autophagy induction (acridine orange (AO) assay) as well as caspase 3, 8, and 9 activation were investigated on the selected B16 melanoma cell line. BATRISPt showed lower activity than BA, BATRIS, or cisplatin. All tested compounds triggered apoptosis in B16 cells. Induction of autophagy was observed in B16 cells exposed only to BATRIS. On the other hand, new conjugate activates caspases 8 and 9 in B16 cells with higher impact than BATRIS or cisplatin alone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spin-Singlet Transition in the Magnetic Hybrid Compound from a Spin-Crossover Fe(III) Cation and π-Radical Anion
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 54; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030054 -
Abstract
To develop a new spin-crossover functional material, a magnetic hybrid compound [Fe(qsal)2][Ni(mnt)2] was designed and synthesized (Hqsal = N-(8-quinolyl)salicylaldimine, mnt = maleonitriledithiolate). The temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility suggested the coexistence of the high-spin (HS) Fe(III) cation and
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To develop a new spin-crossover functional material, a magnetic hybrid compound [Fe(qsal)2][Ni(mnt)2] was designed and synthesized (Hqsal = N-(8-quinolyl)salicylaldimine, mnt = maleonitriledithiolate). The temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility suggested the coexistence of the high-spin (HS) Fe(III) cation and π-radical anion at room temperature and a magnetic transition below 100 K. The thermal variation of crystal structures revealed that strong π-stacking interaction between the π-ligand in the [Fe(qsal)2] cation and [Ni(mnt)2] anion induced the distortion of an Fe(III) coordination structure and the suppression of a dimerization of the [Ni(mnt)2] anion. Transfer integral calculations indicated that the magnetic transition below 100 K originated from a spin-singlet formation transformation in the [Ni(mnt)2] dimer. The magnetic relaxation of Mössbauer spectra and large thermal variation of a g-value in electron paramagnetic resonance spectra below the magnetic transition temperature implied the existence of a magnetic correlation between d-spin and π-spin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modification of Cooperativity and Critical Temperatures on a Hofmann-Like Template Structure by Modular Substituent
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 55; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030055 -
Abstract
In a series of Hofmann-like spin crossover complexes, two new compounds, {Fe(3-F-4-Methyl-py)2[Au(CN)2]2} (1) and {Fe(3-Methyl-py)2[Au(CN)2]2} (2) (py = pyridine) are described. The series maintains a uniform 2-dimentional
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In a series of Hofmann-like spin crossover complexes, two new compounds, {Fe(3-F-4-Methyl-py)2[Au(CN)2]2} (1) and {Fe(3-Methyl-py)2[Au(CN)2]2} (2) (py = pyridine) are described. The series maintains a uniform 2-dimentional (2-D) layer structure of {Fe[Au(CN)2]2}. The layers are combined with another layer by strong aurophilic interactions, which results in a bilayer structure. Both coordination compounds 1 and 2 at 293 K crystallize in the centrosymmetric space groups P21/c. The asymmetric unit contains two pyridine derivative ligands, one type of Fe2+, and two types of crystallographically distinct [Au(CN)2] units. Compound 1 undergoes a complete two-step spin transition. On the other hand, 2 maintains the characteristic of the high-spin state. The present compounds and other closely related bilayer compounds are compared and discussed in terms of the cooperativity and critical temperature. The bilayer structure is able to be further linked by substituent-substituent contact resulting in 3-dimentional (3-D) network cooperativity. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Halogen Substituent Effect on the Spin-Transition Temperature in Spin-Crossover Fe(III) Compounds Bearing Salicylaldehyde 2-Pyridyl Hydrazone-Type Ligands and Dicarboxylic Acids
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 53; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030053 -
Abstract
Four Fe(III) spin-crossover (SCO) compounds, [Fe(HL1)2](HCl4TPA) (1-Cl), [Fe(HL1)2](HBr4TPA) (1-Br), [Fe(HL2)2](HCl4TPA) (2-Cl), and [Fe(HL2)2](HBr4TPA) (2-Br) (HL1 = 4-chloro-2-nitro-6-(1-(2-(pyridine-2-yl)hydrazono)ethyl)phenolate; HL2 =
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Four Fe(III) spin-crossover (SCO) compounds, [Fe(HL1)2](HCl4TPA) (1-Cl), [Fe(HL1)2](HBr4TPA) (1-Br), [Fe(HL2)2](HCl4TPA) (2-Cl), and [Fe(HL2)2](HBr4TPA) (2-Br) (HL1 = 4-chloro-2-nitro-6-(1-(2-(pyridine-2-yl)hydrazono)ethyl)phenolate; HL2 = 4-bromo-2-nitro-6-(1-(2-(pyridine-2-yl)hydrazono)ethyl)phenolate; HCl4TPA = 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-4-carboxybenzoate; and HBr4TPA = 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-4-carboxybenzoate), were synthesized to investigate the halogen substituent change effect in salicylaldehyde 2-pyridyl hydrazone-type ligands and dicarboxylic acids in SCO complexes to the spin-transition temperature. Crystal structure analyses showed that these compounds were isostructural. In addition, a one-dimensional hydrogen–bonded column was formed by the dicarboxylic acid anion and weak hydrogen bonds between the Fe(III) complexes. From Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic property measurements, these compounds were confirmed to exhibit gradual SCO. The spin-transition temperature can be shifted by changing the halogen substituent in the salicylaldehyde 2-pyridyl hydrazone-type ligands and dicarboxylic acids without changing the molecular arrangement in the crystal packing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pybox-Iron(II) Spin-Crossover Complexes with Substituent Effects from the 4-Position of the Pyridine Ring (Pybox = 2,6-Bis(oxazolin-2-yl)pyridine)
Inorganics 2017, 5(3), 52; doi:10.3390/inorganics5030052 -
Abstract
Spin-crossover (SCO) behavior of a series of [Fe(X-pybox)2](ClO4)2 was investigated, where X-pybox stands for 4-X-substituted 2,6-bis(oxazolin-2-yl)pyridine with X = H, Cl, Ph, CH3O, and CH3S. We confirmed that the mother compound [Fe(H-pybox)2](ClO
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Spin-crossover (SCO) behavior of a series of [Fe(X-pybox)2](ClO4)2 was investigated, where X-pybox stands for 4-X-substituted 2,6-bis(oxazolin-2-yl)pyridine with X = H, Cl, Ph, CH3O, and CH3S. We confirmed that the mother compound [Fe(H-pybox)2](ClO4)2 underwent SCO above room temperature. After X was introduced, the SCO temperatures (T1/2) were modulated as 310, 230, and 330 K for X = Cl, Ph, and CH3S, respectively. The CH3O derivative possessed the high-spin state down to 2 K. Crystallographic analysis for X = H, Cl, CH3O, and CH3S was successful, being consistent with the results of the magnetic study. Distorted coordination structures stabilize the HS (high-spin) state, and the highest degree of the coordination structure distortion is found in the CH3O derivative. A plot of T1/2 against the Hammett substituent constant σp showed a positive relation. Solution susceptometry was also performed to remove intermolecular interaction and rigid crystal lattice effects, and the T1/2’s were determined as 260, 270, 240, 170, and 210 K for X = H, Cl, Ph, CH3O, and CH3S, respectively, in acetone. The substituent effect on T1/2 became very distinct, and it is clarified that electron-donating groups stabilize the HS state. Full article
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