Information2013, 4(4), 398-410; doi:10.3390/info4040398 - published online 28 October 2013 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The patent cooperation network which enterprises join is a very important network platform for enterprises’ open innovation. However, very limited work has been done to empirically investigate the dynamic change process of the network in China. To address this issue, this paper analyzes dynamic change process of cooperation network of enterprises and the small-world effect of the biggest subgroup according to the data of 36731 items of cooperative patents between enterprises from 1985 to 2010 published by the State Intellectual Property Office of China. A conclusion can be drawn from the analysis results that the biggest subgroup has the characteristics of small-world effect, but the overall network structure also has some defects, which limit the development of open innovation. For the first time, suggestions on open innovation strategies are put forward to provide theoretical reference for both the government and enterprises.
Information2013, 4(4), 367-397; doi:10.3390/info4040367 - published online 16 October 2013 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A novel, alternative and deeper view to the “selfish gene” paradigm is presented, describable as the “selfish code” frame. Introducing it, we put forth a quantum mechanical algorithm as a new description of the intracellular protein synthetizing machinery. The successive steps of the algorithm are, tentatively, semiotic constraints of the well-known quantum mechanical molecular “internal measurement” type. It is proposed that this molecular algorithm mediates a quantum mechanical time reversed dynamics with a primordial special version of this latter molecular measurement type (“mixed measurement”) as its origin. It is furthermore suggested that this intracellular regressive algorithmical dynamics is a component of biological “motion”, the other, strongly coupled component being the macroscopic phenotypic motion. The biological “invariant of motion” of this hierarchically coupled overall generalized dynamics is suggested to be the evolutionally converged invariant genetic code vocabulary. It forms, possibly, the underlying internal “driving force” of evolution, as being “struggle for life”.
Information2013, 4(4), 351-366; doi:10.3390/info4040351 - published online 9 October 2013 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In this paper, we analyze Web of Science data records of articles published from 1991 to 2010 in library and information science (LIS) journals. We focus on addresses of these articles’ authors and create citation and collaboration networks of departments which we define as the first suborganization of an institution. We present various rankings of departments (e.g., by citations, times cited, PageRank, publications, etc.) and highlight the most influential of them. The correlations between the individual departments are also shown. Furthermore, we visualize the most intense citation and collaboration relationships between “LIS” departments (many of which are not genuine LIS departments but merely affiliations of authors publishing in journals covered by the specific Web of Science category) and give examples of two basic research performance distributions across departments of the leading universities in the field.
Information2013, 4(3), 342-350; doi:10.3390/info4030342 - published online 20 August 2013 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Passivity-based control is widely used in electronic circuit systems because it can utilize their internal structures to facilitate the controller design. In this paper, we first propose a dissipative Hamiltonian realization of power systems and discuss the disadvantages of the traditional passivity-based excitation controller. Then, a novel excitation controller is put forward to reassign the interconnection and dissipative matrix, and the corresponding Hamiltonian function. Simulation results verify that the proposed controller can effectively improve the transient stability of the power system.
Information2013, 4(3), 283-341; doi:10.3390/info4030283 - published online 6 August 2013 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This article is an overview of the SP theory of intelligence, which aims to simplify and integrate concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. It is conceived of as a brain-like system that receives "New" information and stores some or all of it in compressed form as "Old" information; and it is realised in the form of a computer model, a first version of the SP machine. The matching and unification of patterns and the concept of multiple alignment are central ideas. Using heuristic techniques, the system builds multiple alignments that are "good" in terms of information compression. For each multiple alignment, probabilities may be calculated for associated inferences. Unsupervised learning is done by deriving new structures from partial matches between patterns and via heuristic search for sets of structures that are "good" in terms of information compression. These are normally ones that people judge to be "natural", in accordance with the "DONSVIC" principle—the discovery of natural structures via information compression. The SP theory provides an interpretation for concepts and phenomena in several other areas, including "computing", aspects of mathematics and logic, the representation of knowledge, natural language processing, pattern recognition, several kinds of reasoning, information storage and retrieval, planning and problem solving, information compression, neuroscience and human perception and cognition. Examples include the parsing and production of language with discontinuous dependencies in syntax, pattern recognition at multiple levels of abstraction and its integration with part-whole relations, nonmonotonic reasoning and reasoning with default values, reasoning in Bayesian networks, including "explaining away", causal diagnosis, and the solving of a geometric analogy problem.
Information2013, 4(3), 262-282; doi:10.3390/info4030262 - published online 5 July 2013 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Proofs of Retrievability (PoR) is one of the basic functions of electronic evidence preservation center in cloud. This paper proposes two PoR schemes to execute the workflow of evidence preservation center, which are named Finer Grained Proofs of Retrievability (FG-PoR) and More Lightweight Proofs of Retrievability (ML-PoR). The two PoR schemes do not use multi-replication technology or erasure code technology, but employ the verification tags and signatures to implement provable data possession and data recovery dual functions. When some data blocks have been lost in Archive Storage Area (ASA), FG-PoR can recover each data block of evidence matrix, but ML-PoR can only recover a column of evidence matrix. The analysis results show our two PoR schemes do not only provide the integrity verification guarantee but also have robust recovery guarantee to electronic evidence in cloud. The two schemes can allow for lower computation and storage costs than other similar schemes; moreover, ML-PoR can provide lower costs than FG-PoR.