Open AccessArticle
An Improved Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Feed-Forward Neural Network Combined with RFID Sensors to Indoor Localization
Information 2017, 8(1), 9; doi:10.3390/info8010009 -
Abstract
Location-based services (LBS) have long been recognized as a significant component of the emerging information services. However, the localization cost and the performance of algorithm still need to be optimized. In the study, an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm based on a feed-forward
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Location-based services (LBS) have long been recognized as a significant component of the emerging information services. However, the localization cost and the performance of algorithm still need to be optimized. In the study, an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm based on a feed-forward neural network (IMPSO-FNN) combined with RFID sensors is proposed, which can achieve the best indoor positioning location and overcome the problems effectively. In IMPSO-FNN, an improved PSO algorithm (IMPSO) is developed to determine the optimal connecting weights and markedly optimize the network parameters and structural parameters for the FNN, and then an optimal location prediction model is established by the IMPSO-FNN. To avoid the interference of environmental noise for the experimental data, some preprocessing methods are used during the positioning process. The computational results for learning two continuous functions show that the proposed positioning algorithm has a faster convergence rate and higher generalization performance. The model evaluation results also verify that the proposed positioning method really is superior to other algorithms in terms of the learning ability, efficiency, and positioning accuracy. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Information in 2016
Information 2017, 8(1), 10; doi:10.3390/info8010010 -
Abstract The editors of Information would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Citizen Relationship Management System Users’ Contact Channel Choices: Digital Approach or Call Approach?
Information 2017, 8(1), 8; doi:10.3390/info8010008 -
Abstract
Many municipal governments adopted 311 decades ago and have advocated access equality in citizens’ use of 311. However, the role of citizens in the development and usage of 311 remains limited. Channel choices have been discussed in various types of governmental information and
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Many municipal governments adopted 311 decades ago and have advocated access equality in citizens’ use of 311. However, the role of citizens in the development and usage of 311 remains limited. Channel choices have been discussed in various types of governmental information and communication technologies (ICTs), especially when the innovative technology has just been adopted. Much has supported the idea that 311 is viewed as a method of digital civic engagement that many municipal governments adopt to maintain citizen relationship management and the capacity for government service delivery. However, we are still unclear about how citizens use it. This study applies the theory of channel expansion to examine how San Francisco residents use the 311 system, and how citizens’ technology experiences impact their 311 digital contact channel choices rather than the 311 hotline contact channel choice. In addition, we discuss major issues in citizens’ 311 contact choices, so that 311 municipal governments may draw lessons from the San Francisco experience. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Model Based Safety Analysis with smartIflow †
Information 2017, 8(1), 7; doi:10.3390/info8010007 -
Abstract
Verification of safety requirements is one important task during the development of safety critical systems. The increasing complexity of systems makes manual analysis almost impossible. This paper introduces a new methodology for formal verification of technical systems with smartIflow (State Machines for Automation
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Verification of safety requirements is one important task during the development of safety critical systems. The increasing complexity of systems makes manual analysis almost impossible. This paper introduces a new methodology for formal verification of technical systems with smartIflow (State Machines for Automation of Reliability-related Tasks using Information FLOWs). smartIflow is a new modeling language that has been especially designed for the purpose of automating the safety analysis process in early product life cycle stages. It builds up on experience with existing approaches. As is common practice in current approaches, components are modeled as finite state machines. However, new concepts are introduced to describe component interactions. Events play a major role for internal interactions between components as well as for external (user) interactions. Our approach to the verification of formally specified safety requirements is a two-step method. First, an exhaustive simulation creates knowledge about a great variety of possible behaviors of the system, especially including reactions on suddenly occurring (possibly intermittent) faults. In the second step, safety requirements specified in CTL (Computation Tree Logic) are verified using model checking techniques, and counterexamples are generated if these are not satisfied. The practical applicability of this approach is demonstrated based on a Java implementation using a simple Two-Tank-Pump-Consumer system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design of a Quaternary Query Tree ALOHA Protocol Based on Optimal Tag Estimation Method
Information 2017, 8(1), 5; doi:10.3390/info8010005 -
Abstract
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is one of the most promising technologies in the IoT (The Internet of Things) era. Many RFID systems have been used in supermarkets or warehouses. There are two challenges for RFID anti-collision algorithms. The first challenge is accurately
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Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is one of the most promising technologies in the IoT (The Internet of Things) era. Many RFID systems have been used in supermarkets or warehouses. There are two challenges for RFID anti-collision algorithms. The first challenge is accurately estimating the number of tags; the other is improving the efficiency of RFID systems. This paper proposes an optimal tag estimation method in which tags respond to the reader in assigned time slots instead of responding randomly. In order to improve the performance of the RFID system, a 4-ary query tree Additive Link On-line HAwaii (ALOHA) protocol is presented that combines the merits of query tree algorithm and frame slotted ALOHA, and avoids their weaknesses. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has a higher tag identification efficiency compared to other dynamic frame slotted ALOHA algorithms, and it can overcome the tag starvation phenomenon, because it traces each tag until all of them are identified successfully. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Genetic Codes: Mathematical Formulae and an Inverse Symmetry-Information Relationship
Information 2017, 8(1), 6; doi:10.3390/info8010006 -
Abstract
First, mathematical formulae faithfully describing the distributions of amino acids and codons and reproducing the degeneracies in the various known genetic codes, including the standard genetic code, are constructed, by hand. Second, we summarize another mathematical approach relying on the use of q
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First, mathematical formulae faithfully describing the distributions of amino acids and codons and reproducing the degeneracies in the various known genetic codes, including the standard genetic code, are constructed, by hand. Second, we summarize another mathematical approach relying on the use of q-deformations to describe these same genetic codes, and add a new application not considered before. Third, by considering these same genetic codes, we find, qualitatively, that an inverse symmetry-information relationship exists. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Symmetric Approach Elucidates Multisensory Information Integration
Information 2017, 8(1), 4; doi:10.3390/info8010004 -
Abstract
Recent advances in neuronal multisensory integration suggest that the five senses do not exist in isolation of each other. Perception, cognition and action are integrated at very early levels of central processing, in a densely-coupled system equipped with multisensory interactions occurring at all
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Recent advances in neuronal multisensory integration suggest that the five senses do not exist in isolation of each other. Perception, cognition and action are integrated at very early levels of central processing, in a densely-coupled system equipped with multisensory interactions occurring at all temporal and spatial stages. In such a novel framework, a concept from the far-flung branch of topology, namely the Borsuk-Ulam theorem, comes into play. The theorem states that when two opposite points on a sphere are projected onto a circumference, they give rise to a single point containing their matching description. Here we show that the theorem applies also to multisensory integration: two environmental stimuli from different sensory modalities display similar features when mapped into cortical neurons. Topological tools not only shed new light on questions concerning the functional architecture of mind and the nature of mental states, but also provide an empirically assessable methodology. We argue that the Borsuk-Ulam theorem is a general principle underlying nervous multisensory integration, resulting in a framework that has the potential to be operationalized. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Symmetries in Genetic Systems and the Concept of Geno-Logical Coding
Information 2017, 8(1), 2; doi:10.3390/info8010002 -
Abstract
The genetic code of amino acid sequences in proteins does not allow understanding and modeling of inherited processes such as inborn coordinated motions of living bodies, innate principles of sensory information processing, quasi-holographic properties, etc. To be able to model these phenomena, the
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The genetic code of amino acid sequences in proteins does not allow understanding and modeling of inherited processes such as inborn coordinated motions of living bodies, innate principles of sensory information processing, quasi-holographic properties, etc. To be able to model these phenomena, the concept of geno-logical coding, which is connected with logical functions and Boolean algebra, is put forward. The article describes basic pieces of evidence in favor of the existence of the geno-logical code, which exists in p­arallel with the known genetic code of amino acid sequences but which serves for transferring inherited processes along chains of generations. These pieces of evidence have been received due to the analysis of symmetries in structures of molecular-genetic systems. The analysis has revealed a close connection of the genetic system with dyadic groups of binary numbers and with other mathematical objects, which are related with dyadic groups: Walsh functions (which are algebraic characters of dyadic groups), bit-reversal permutations, logical holography, etc. These results provide a new approach for mathematical modeling of genetic structures, which uses known mathematical formalisms from technological fields of noise-immunity coding of information, binary analysis, logical holography, and digital devices of artificial intellect. Some opportunities for a development of algebraic-logical biology are opened. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Next Forwarding Node Selection in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs): Techniques and Challenges
Information 2017, 8(1), 3; doi:10.3390/info8010003 -
Abstract
The underwater wireless sensor network (UWSN) is considered a promising technology for collecting valuable data from underwater areas, particularly for aiding military operations and environmental predictions. UWSNs consist of underwater sensor nodes that have limited energy and use acoustics for communication. Routing in
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The underwater wireless sensor network (UWSN) is considered a promising technology for collecting valuable data from underwater areas, particularly for aiding military operations and environmental predictions. UWSNs consist of underwater sensor nodes that have limited energy and use acoustics for communication. Routing in underwater sensor nodes is one of the challenging issues in UWSNs because of the need to forward data packets with minimal energy consumption and a high packet delivery ratio. Selecting the next forwarding nodes is one of the key components of routing in UWSNs and has a direct effect on energy consumption and the packet delivery ratio. Therefore, this problem has gained much attention from the research community with the intent of enhancing the performance of UWSNs. This paper qualitatively reviews routing protocols for UWSNs, focusing on the next-hop selection method and its strengths and weaknesses. A taxonomy is presented for reviewing routing protocols under different categories of the classification. A summary of the qualitative investigation is presented highlighting aims, the next-hop selection method, metrics, and priority considerations. A comprehensive investigation is carried out focusing on energy, link quality, void awareness, reliability, and shortest path characteristics. Finally, we discuss potential future research directions in UWSNs for forwarding node selection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Energy Efficiency Perspectives of PMR Networks
Information 2017, 8(1), 1; doi:10.3390/info8010001 -
Abstract
Recently, the concern about energy efficiency in wireless communications has been growing rapidly. Manufacturers and researchers have developed innovative solutions, highlighting the benefits in reducing operational expenditures (OPEX) and carbon footprint. Professional Mobile Radio (PMR) systems, like Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA), have been
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Recently, the concern about energy efficiency in wireless communications has been growing rapidly. Manufacturers and researchers have developed innovative solutions, highlighting the benefits in reducing operational expenditures (OPEX) and carbon footprint. Professional Mobile Radio (PMR) systems, like Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA), have been designed to provide voice and data services to professional users. The energy consumption is one of the critical aspects of PMR broadband solutions and a major constraint for PMR services. The future convergence of PMR to the LTE system introduces a new topic in the research discussion about the energy efficiency of wireless systems. This paper focuses on the feasibility of energy efficient solutions for current and potentially future PMR networks, by providing a mathematical formulation of power consumption in TETRA base stations and assessing possible business models and energy saving solutions for enhanced mission-critical operations. The energy efficiency evaluation has been performed by taking into account the traffic load of a deployed TETRA regional network: in the considered network scenario with 150 base stations, significant OPEX savings up to 70 thousand Euros per year of operation are achieved. Moreover, the proposed solutions allow for saving more than 1 ton of CO2 per year. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Symmetries, Information and Monster Groups before and after the Big Bang
Information 2016, 7(4), 73; doi:10.3390/info7040073 -
Abstract
The Monster group, the biggest of the sporadic groups, is equipped with the highest known number of dimensions and symmetries. Taking into account variants of the Borsuk–Ulam theorem and a novel topological approach cast in a physical fashion that has the potential to
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The Monster group, the biggest of the sporadic groups, is equipped with the highest known number of dimensions and symmetries. Taking into account variants of the Borsuk–Ulam theorem and a novel topological approach cast in a physical fashion that has the potential to be operationalized, the universe can be conceived as a lower-dimensional manifold encompassed in the Monster group. Our universe might arise from spontaneous dimension decrease and symmetry breaking that occur inside the very structure of the Monster Module. We elucidate how the energetic loss caused by projection from higher to lower dimensions and by the Monster group’s non-abelian features is correlated with the present-day asymmetry in the thermodynamic arrow. By linking the Monster Module to its theoretical physical counterparts, it is then possible to calculate its enthalpy and Lie group trajectories. Our approach also reveals how a symmetry break might lead to a universe based on multi-dimensional string theories and CFT/AdS (anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory) correspondence. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
PACP: A Position-Independent Activity Recognition Method Using Smartphone Sensors
Information 2016, 7(4), 72; doi:10.3390/info7040072 -
Abstract
Human activity recognition has been a hot topic in recent years. With the advances in sensor technology, there has been a growing interest in using smartphones equipped with a set of built-in sensors to solve tasks of activity recognition. However, in most previous
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Human activity recognition has been a hot topic in recent years. With the advances in sensor technology, there has been a growing interest in using smartphones equipped with a set of built-in sensors to solve tasks of activity recognition. However, in most previous studies, smartphones were used with a fixed position—like trouser pockets—during recognition, which limits the user behavior. In the position-independent cases, the recognition accuracy is not very satisfactory. In this paper, we studied human activity recognition with smartphones in different positions and proposed a new position-independent method called PACP (Parameters Adjustment Corresponding to smartphone Position), which can markedly improve the performance of activity recognition. In PACP, features were extracted from the raw accelerometer and gyroscope data to recognize the position of the smartphone first; then the accelerometer data were adjusted corresponding to the position; finally, the activities were recognized with the SVM (Support Vector Machine) model trained by the adjusted data. To avoid the interference of smartphone orientations, the coordinate system of the accelerometer was transformed to get more useful information during this process. Experimental results show that PACP can achieve an accuracy over 91%, which is more effective than previous methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Credit-Based Congestion-Aware Incentive Scheme for DTNs
Information 2016, 7(4), 71; doi:10.3390/info7040071 -
Abstract
In Delay-Tolerant Networks (DTNs), nodes may be selfish and reluctant to expend their precious resources on forwarding messages for others. Therefore, an incentive scheme is necessary to motivate selfish nodes to cooperatively forward messages. However, the current incentive schemes mainly focus on encouraging
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In Delay-Tolerant Networks (DTNs), nodes may be selfish and reluctant to expend their precious resources on forwarding messages for others. Therefore, an incentive scheme is necessary to motivate selfish nodes to cooperatively forward messages. However, the current incentive schemes mainly focus on encouraging nodes to participate in message forwarding, without considering the node congestion problem. When many messages are forwarded to the nodes with high connection degree, these nodes will become congested and deliberately discard messages, which will seriously degrade the routing performance and reduce the benefits of other nodes. To address this problem, we propose a credit-based congestion-aware incentive scheme (CBCAIS) for DTNs. In CBCAIS, a check and punishment mechanism is proposed to prevent forwarding nodes from deliberately discarding message. In addition, a message acceptance selection mechanism is proposed to allow the nodes to decide whether to accept other messages, according to self congestion degree. The experimental results show that CBCAIS can effectively stimulate selfish nodes to cooperatively forward messages, and achieve a higher message delivery ratio with lower overhead ratio, compared with other schemes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Discriminative Framework for Action Recognition Using f-HOL Features
Information 2016, 7(4), 68; doi:10.3390/info7040068 -
Abstract
Inspired by the overwhelming success of Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) features in many vision tasks, in this paper, we present an innovative compact feature descriptor called fuzzy Histogram of Oriented Lines (f-HOL) for action recognition, which is a distinct variant of the
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Inspired by the overwhelming success of Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) features in many vision tasks, in this paper, we present an innovative compact feature descriptor called fuzzy Histogram of Oriented Lines (f-HOL) for action recognition, which is a distinct variant of the HOG feature descriptor. The intuitive idea of these features is based on the observation that the slide area of the human body skeleton can be viewed as a spatiotemporal 3D surface, when observing a certain action being performed in a video. The f-HOL descriptor possesses an immense competitive advantage, not only of being quite robust to small geometric transformations where the small translation and rotations make no large fluctuations in histogram values, but also of not being very sensitive under varying illumination conditions. The extracted features are then fed into a discriminative conditional model based on Latent-Dynamic Conditional random fields (LDCRFs) to learn to recognize actions from video frames. When tested on the benchmark Weizmann dataset, the proposed framework substantially supersedes most existing state-of-the-art approaches, achieving an overall recognition rate of 98.2%. Furthermore, due to its low computational demands, the framework is properly amenable for integration into real-time applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Joint Modulation Classification and User Number Detection for Multiuser MIMO-STBC Systems
Information 2016, 7(4), 70; doi:10.3390/info7040070 -
Abstract
The research on non-cooperative multiuser multiple-input multiple-output with space-time block code (MIMO-STBC) communication systems is a challenging and important task. However, to our knowledge, there is little report of this topic. Being two key research issues in this area, modulation classification and user
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The research on non-cooperative multiuser multiple-input multiple-output with space-time block code (MIMO-STBC) communication systems is a challenging and important task. However, to our knowledge, there is little report of this topic. Being two key research issues in this area, modulation classification and user number detection are studied in this paper. We consider both problems jointly as a multiple hypothesis testing problem. Based on this idea, we propose a joint modulation classification and user number detection algorithm for the multiuser MIMO-STBC systems. The proposed method does not require prior knowledge of the propagation channel or noise power, and thus might be suitable for the non-cooperative scenario. Simulations validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Digital Citizen Participation within Schools in the United Kingdom and Indonesia: An Actor–Network Theory (ANT) Perspective
Information 2016, 7(4), 69; doi:10.3390/info7040069 -
Abstract
Citizen engagement and participation are a key focus for government and government agencies, and with the advent of Internet technologies questions arise about the role and impact of technology on citizen participation. This paper aims to explore the role of technology in citizen
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Citizen engagement and participation are a key focus for government and government agencies, and with the advent of Internet technologies questions arise about the role and impact of technology on citizen participation. This paper aims to explore the role of technology in citizen participation within schools. This research used in-depth comparative case studies using examples from two different schools and school systems, one in the United Kingdom and one in Indonesia. The wider school systems are complex and dynamic environments with multiple stakeholders, media, and supporting systems, and the schools operate under geopolitical and social influences. This paper provides a framework, based on Actor-Network Theory (ANT), for capturing e-participation in schools, particularly identifying the influence of technology as a conduit for enabling, engaging, and empowering stakeholders. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Travel Mode Detection Based on GPS Raw Data Collected by Smartphones: A Systematic Review of the Existing Methodologies
Information 2016, 7(4), 67; doi:10.3390/info7040067 -
Abstract
Over the past couple of decades, global positioning system (GPS) technology has been utilized to collect large-scale data from travel surveys. As the precise spatiotemporal characteristics of travel could be provided by GPS devices, the issues of traditional travel survey, such as misreporting
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Over the past couple of decades, global positioning system (GPS) technology has been utilized to collect large-scale data from travel surveys. As the precise spatiotemporal characteristics of travel could be provided by GPS devices, the issues of traditional travel survey, such as misreporting and non-response, could be addressed. Considering the defects of dedicated GPS devices (e.g., the need for a large sum of money to buy devices, forgetfulness in the taking of devices to collect data, limiting of the sample size because of the number of devices, etc.), and the fact that the smartphone is becoming one of the necessities of life, there is an opportunity for smartphones to replace dedicated GPS devices. Although several general reviews of GPS travel survey and GPS data-processing methods have been written, a systematic review of smartphone-based GPS data collection and travel mode detection has not be made.. The studies were collected from six databases. The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate the current literature on the existing methodologies of travel mode detection based on GPS raw data collected by smartphones. Meanwhile, according to a systematic comparison of the different methods of data preprocessing for travel mode detection, this paper details the strengths and weaknesses of the existing methods. Furthermore, it is a very important step towards developing methodologies and applications for GPS raw data collected by smartphones. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Who Leads Advocacy through Social Media in Japan? Evidence from the “Tsukuba Civic Activities Cyber-Square” Facebook Page
Information 2016, 7(4), 66; doi:10.3390/info7040066 -
Abstract
Although the importance of advocacy activities by civil society organizations (CSOs) in policy and decision-making procedures has been greatly emphasized in the literature of political science and social policy, we have relatively little understanding of the relevance and impact of the leading actors
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Although the importance of advocacy activities by civil society organizations (CSOs) in policy and decision-making procedures has been greatly emphasized in the literature of political science and social policy, we have relatively little understanding of the relevance and impact of the leading actors who structure the diverse networks and discourses through social media; further recognition is needed in both fields. The purpose of this study is to analyze civil society organizations at the local government level involved in advocacy activities through the use of social media such as Facebook and Twitter. Our study focuses on a specific Japanese Facebook community page—the “Tsukuba Civic Activities Cyber-Square”—aimed at enhancing civil society activities in Japan. This page is operated by the municipal government of Tsukuba, in collaboration with the University of Tsukuba and Intel Corporation. Our findings indicate that social networking services such as Facebook can provide civil society organizations with: (1) more political opportunities to advocate; (2) more chances to connect with the local government; and (3) create opportunities to exert greater presence, despite their limited financial and political resources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A New Prospect Projection Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Method for Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers
Information 2016, 7(4), 64; doi:10.3390/info7040064 -
Abstract
To depict the influence of decision makers’ risk psychology on the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making process, this paper proposes a new method based on prospect theory. Considering the risk attitude of the decision maker, we transform interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers into real
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To depict the influence of decision makers’ risk psychology on the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making process, this paper proposes a new method based on prospect theory. Considering the risk attitude of the decision maker, we transform interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers into real numbers via a prospect value function and consequently derive the prospect decision matrices. Regarding the criteria weights that are incompletely known or completely unknown, a new nonlinear optimization model is developed to determine the criteria weights by considering the subjective and objective factors. Furthermore, we calculate the prospect projection of each alternative for the ideal solution and rank all the alternatives according to the prospect projection values. Finally, an example is provided to illustrate the application of the developed approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reaching Citizens’ Engagement by Services: Swiss Use Case
Information 2016, 7(4), 65; doi:10.3390/info7040065 -
Abstract
Collaboration with citizens and users plays an increasing role in the transformation of public services towards new forms of production and delivery. Thus there is a need to modernize the civil service to accelerate innovation in governments, as civil servants will also have
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Collaboration with citizens and users plays an increasing role in the transformation of public services towards new forms of production and delivery. Thus there is a need to modernize the civil service to accelerate innovation in governments, as civil servants will also have an important role to play. Digital civic engagement platforms can provide a more attractive and accessible means for participation. We believe that neither an exclusive top-down approach nor a bottom-up approach can address the current needs. Instead a hybrid approach should be designed. This paper presents a novel approach to address the issue of current civic disengagement. This approach is illustrated through four different use cases in the Swiss context. Full article
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