Open AccessArticle
On the Implementation of a Cloud-Based Computing Test Bench Environment for Prolog Systems
Information 2017, 8(4), 129; doi:10.3390/info8040129 -
Abstract
Software testing and benchmarking are key components of the software development process. Nowadays, a good practice in large software projects is the continuous integration (CI) software development technique. The key idea of CI is to let developers integrate their work as they produce
[...] Read more.
Software testing and benchmarking are key components of the software development process. Nowadays, a good practice in large software projects is the continuous integration (CI) software development technique. The key idea of CI is to let developers integrate their work as they produce it, instead of performing the integration at the end of each software module. In this paper, we extend a previous work on a benchmark suite for the YAP Prolog system, and we propose a fully automated test bench environment for Prolog systems, named Yet Another Prolog Test Bench Environment (YAPTBE), aimed to assist developers in the development and CI of Prolog systems. YAPTBE is based on a cloud computing architecture and relies on the Jenkins framework as well as a new Jenkins plugin to manage the underlying infrastructure. We present the key design and implementation aspects of YAPTBE and show its most important features, such as its graphical user interface (GUI) and the automated process that builds and runs Prolog systems and benchmarks. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
The Current Role of Image Compression Standards in Medical Imaging
Information 2017, 8(4), 131; doi:10.3390/info8040131 -
Abstract
With the increasing utilization of medical imaging in clinical practice and the growing dimensions of data volumes generated by various medical imaging modalities, the distribution, storage, and management of digital medical image data sets requires data compression. Over the past few decades, several
[...] Read more.
With the increasing utilization of medical imaging in clinical practice and the growing dimensions of data volumes generated by various medical imaging modalities, the distribution, storage, and management of digital medical image data sets requires data compression. Over the past few decades, several image compression standards have been proposed by international standardization organizations. This paper discusses the current status of these image compression standards in medical imaging applications together with some of the legal and regulatory issues surrounding the use of compression in medical settings. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Neutrosophic Commutative N -Ideals in BCK-Algebras
Information 2017, 8(4), 130; doi:10.3390/info8040130 -
Abstract
The notion of a neutrosophic commutative N -ideal in BCK-algebras is introduced, and several properties are investigated. Relations between a neutrosophic N-ideal and a neutrosophic commutative N-ideal are discussed. Characterizations of a neutrosophic commutative N-ideal are considered. Full article
Open AccessArticle
TODIM Method for Single-Valued Neutrosophic Multiple Attribute Decision Making
Information 2017, 8(4), 125; doi:10.3390/info8040125 -
Abstract
Recently, the TODIM has been used to solve multiple attribute decision making (MADM) problems. The single-valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) are useful tools to depict the uncertainty of the MADM. In this paper, we will extend the TODIM method to the MADM with the
[...] Read more.
Recently, the TODIM has been used to solve multiple attribute decision making (MADM) problems. The single-valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) are useful tools to depict the uncertainty of the MADM. In this paper, we will extend the TODIM method to the MADM with the single-valued neutrosophic numbers (SVNNs). Firstly, the definition, comparison, and distance of SVNNs are briefly presented, and the steps of the classical TODIM method for MADM problems are introduced. Then, the extended classical TODIM method is proposed to deal with MADM problems with the SVNNs, and its significant characteristic is that it can fully consider the decision makers’ bounded rationality which is a real action in decision making. Furthermore, we extend the proposed model to interval neutrosophic sets (INSs). Finally, a numerical example is proposed. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Neutrosophic N-Structures Applied to BCK/BCI-Algebras
Information 2017, 8(4), 128; doi:10.3390/info8040128 -
Abstract
Neutrosophic N-structures with applications in BCK/BCI-algebras is discussed. The notions of a neutrosophic N-subalgebra and a (closed) neutrosophic N-ideal in a BCK/BCI-algebra are introduced, and several
[...] Read more.
Neutrosophic N-structures with applications in BCK/BCI-algebras is discussed. The notions of a neutrosophic N-subalgebra and a (closed) neutrosophic N-ideal in a BCK/BCI-algebra are introduced, and several related properties are investigated. Characterizations of a neutrosophic N-subalgebra and a neutrosophic N-ideal are considered, and relations between a neutrosophic N-subalgebra and a neutrosophic N-ideal are stated. Conditions for a neutrosophic N-ideal to be a closed neutrosophic N-ideal are provided. Full article
Open AccessReview
Car-to-Pedestrian Communication Safety System Based on the Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network Environment: A Systematic Review
Information 2017, 8(4), 127; doi:10.3390/info8040127 -
Abstract
With the unparalleled growth of motor vehicles, traffic accident between pedestrians and vehicles is one of the most serious issues in the word-wild. Plenty of injuries and fatalities are caused by the traffic accidents and crashes. The connected vehicular ad hoc network as
[...] Read more.
With the unparalleled growth of motor vehicles, traffic accident between pedestrians and vehicles is one of the most serious issues in the word-wild. Plenty of injuries and fatalities are caused by the traffic accidents and crashes. The connected vehicular ad hoc network as an emerging approach which has the potential to reduce and even avoid accidents have been focused on by many researchers. A large number of car-to-pedestrian communication safety systems based on the vehicular ad hoc network are researching and developing. However, to our limited knowledge, a systematic review about the car-to-pedestrian communication safety system based on the vehicular ad-hoc network has not be written. The purpose and goal of this review is to systematically evaluate and access the reliability of car-to-pedestrian communication safety system based on the vehicular ad-hoc network environment and provide some recommendations for the future works according to throwing some light on the previous literatures. A quality evaluation was developed through established items and instruments tailored to this review. Future works are needed to focus on developing a valid as well as effective communication safety system based on the vehicular ad hoc network to protect the vulnerable road users. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Novel Grey Prediction Model Combining Markov Chain with Functional-Link Net and Its Application to Foreign Tourist Forecasting
Information 2017, 8(4), 126; doi:10.3390/info8040126 -
Abstract
Grey prediction models for time series have been widely applied to demand forecasting because only limited data are required for them to build a time series model without any statistical assumptions. Previous studies have demonstrated that the combination of grey prediction with neural
[...] Read more.
Grey prediction models for time series have been widely applied to demand forecasting because only limited data are required for them to build a time series model without any statistical assumptions. Previous studies have demonstrated that the combination of grey prediction with neural networks helps grey prediction perform better. Some methods have been presented to improve the prediction accuracy of the popular GM(1,1) model by using the Markov chain to estimate the residual needed to modify a predicted value. Compared to the previous Grey-Markov models, this study contributes to apply the functional-link net to estimate the degree to which a predicted value obtained from the GM(1,1) model can be adjusted. Furthermore, the troublesome number of states and their bounds that are not easily specified in Markov chain have been determined by a genetic algorithm. To verify prediction performance, the proposed grey prediction model was applied to an important grey system problem—foreign tourist forecasting. Experimental results show that the proposed model provides satisfactory results compared to the other Grey-Markov models considered. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Offset Free Tracking Predictive Control Based on Dynamic PLS Framework
Information 2017, 8(4), 121; doi:10.3390/info8040121 -
Abstract
This paper develops an offset free tracking model predictive control based on a dynamic partial least square (PLS) framework. First, state space model is used as the inner model of PLS to describe the dynamic system, where subspace identification method is used to
[...] Read more.
This paper develops an offset free tracking model predictive control based on a dynamic partial least square (PLS) framework. First, state space model is used as the inner model of PLS to describe the dynamic system, where subspace identification method is used to identify the inner model. Based on the obtained model, multiple independent model predictive control (MPC) controllers are designed. Due to the decoupling character of PLS, these controllers are running separately, which is suitable for distributed control framework. In addition, the increment of inner model output is considered in the cost function of MPC, which involves integral action in the controller. Hence, the offset free tracking performance is guaranteed. The results of an industry background simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed method. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Multi-Path Data Distribution Mechanism Based on RPL for Energy Consumption and Time Delay
Information 2017, 8(4), 124; doi:10.3390/info8040124 -
Abstract
The RPL (Routing Protocol for LLN) protocol is a routing protocol for low power and lossy networks. In such a network, energy is a very scarce resource, so many studies are focused on minimizing global energy consumption. End-to-end latency is another important performance
[...] Read more.
The RPL (Routing Protocol for LLN) protocol is a routing protocol for low power and lossy networks. In such a network, energy is a very scarce resource, so many studies are focused on minimizing global energy consumption. End-to-end latency is another important performance indicator of the network, but existing research tends to focus more on energy consumption and ignore the end-to-end delay of data transmission. In this paper, we propose a kind of energy equalization routing protocol to maximize the surviving time of the restricted nodes so that the energy consumed by each node is close to each other. At the same time, a multi-path forwarding route is proposed based on the cache utilization. The data is sent to the sink node through different parent nodes at a certain probability, not only by selecting the preferred parent node, thus avoiding buffer overflow and reducing end-to-end delay. Finally, the two algorithms are combined to accommodate different application scenarios. The experimental results show that the proposed three improved schemes improve the reliability of the routing, extend the lifetime of the network, reduce the end-to-end delay, and reduce the number of DAG reconfigurations. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Efficient Data Collection by Mobile Sink to Detect Phenomena in Internet of Things
Information 2017, 8(4), 123; doi:10.3390/info8040123 -
Abstract
With the rapid development of Internet of Things (IoT), more and more static and mobile sensors are being deployed for sensing and tracking environmental phenomena, such as fire, oil spills and air pollution. As these sensors are usually battery-powered, energy-efficient algorithms
[...] Read more.
With the rapid development of Internet of Things (IoT), more and more static and mobile sensors are being deployed for sensing and tracking environmental phenomena, such as fire, oil spills and air pollution. As these sensors are usually battery-powered, energy-efficient algorithms are required to extend the sensors’ lifetime. Moreover, forwarding sensed data towards a static sink causes quick battery depletion of the sinks’ nearby sensors. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a distributed energy-efficient algorithm, called the Hilbert-order Collection Strategy (HCS), which uses a mobile sink (e.g., drone) to collect data from a mobile wireless sensor network (mWSN) and detect environmental phenomena. The mWSN consists of mobile sensors that sense environmental data. These mobile sensors self-organize themselves into groups. The sensors of each group elect a group head (GH), which collects data from the mobile sensors in its group. Periodically, a mobile sink passes by the locations of the GHs (data collection path) to collect their data. The collected data are aggregated to discover a global phenomenon. To shorten the data collection path, which results in reducing the energy cost, the mobile sink establishes the path based on the order of Hilbert values of the GHs’ locations. Furthermore, the paper proposes two optimization techniques for data collection to further reduce the energy cost of mWSN and reduce the data loss. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Neutrosophic Similarity Score Based Weighted Histogram for Robust Mean-Shift Tracking
Information 2017, 8(4), 122; doi:10.3390/info8040122 -
Abstract
Visual object tracking is a critical task in computer vision. Challenging things always exist when an object needs to be tracked. For instance, background clutter is one of the most challenging problems. The mean-shift tracker is quite popular because of its efficiency and
[...] Read more.
Visual object tracking is a critical task in computer vision. Challenging things always exist when an object needs to be tracked. For instance, background clutter is one of the most challenging problems. The mean-shift tracker is quite popular because of its efficiency and performance in a range of conditions. However, the challenge of background clutter also disturbs its performance. In this article, we propose a novel weighted histogram based on neutrosophic similarity score to help the mean-shift tracker discriminate the target from the background. Neutrosophic set (NS) is a new branch of philosophy for dealing with incomplete, indeterminate, and inconsistent information. In this paper, we utilize the single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS), which is a subclass of NS to improve the mean-shift tracker. First, two kinds of criteria are considered as the object feature similarity and the background feature similarity, and each bin of the weight histogram is represented in the SVNS domain via three membership functions T(Truth), I(indeterminacy), and F(Falsity). Second, the neutrosophic similarity score function is introduced to fuse those two criteria and to build the final weight histogram. Finally, a novel neutrosophic weighted mean-shift tracker is proposed. The proposed tracker is compared with several mean-shift based trackers on a dataset of 61 public sequences. The results revealed that our method outperforms other trackers, especially when confronting background clutter. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
A Survey on Information Diffusion in Online Social Networks: Models and Methods
Information 2017, 8(4), 118; doi:10.3390/info8040118 -
Abstract
By now, personal life has been invaded by online social networks (OSNs) everywhere. They intend to move more and more offline lives to online social networks. Therefore, online social networks can reflect the structure of offline human society. A piece of information can
[...] Read more.
By now, personal life has been invaded by online social networks (OSNs) everywhere. They intend to move more and more offline lives to online social networks. Therefore, online social networks can reflect the structure of offline human society. A piece of information can be exchanged or diffused between individuals in social networks. From this diffusion process, lots of latent information can be mined. It can be used for market predicting, rumor controlling, and opinion monitoring among other things. However, the research of these applications depends on the diffusion models and methods. For this reason, we survey various information diffusion models from recent decades. From a research process view, we divide the diffusion models into two categories—explanatory models and predictive models—in which the former includes epidemics and influence models and the latter includes independent cascade, linear threshold, and game theory models. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the research methods and techniques, and compare them according to the above categories. The whole research structure of the information diffusion models based on our view is given. There is a discussion at the end of each section, detailing related models that are mentioned in the literature. We conclude that these two models are not independent, they always complement each other. Finally, the issues of the social networks research are discussed and summarized, and directions for future study are proposed. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Novel Hybrid BND-FOA-LSSVM Model for Electricity Price Forecasting
Information 2017, 8(4), 120; doi:10.3390/info8040120 -
Abstract
Accurate electricity price forecasting plays an important role in the profits of electricity market participants and the healthy development of electricity market. However, the electricity price time series hold the characteristics of volatility and randomness, which make it quite hard to forecast electricity
[...] Read more.
Accurate electricity price forecasting plays an important role in the profits of electricity market participants and the healthy development of electricity market. However, the electricity price time series hold the characteristics of volatility and randomness, which make it quite hard to forecast electricity price accurately. In this paper, a novel hybrid model for electricity price forecasting was proposed combining Beveridge-Nelson decomposition (BND) method, fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA), and least square support vector machine (LSSVM) model, namely BND-FOA-LSSVM model. Firstly, the original electricity price time series were decomposed into deterministic term, periodic term, and stochastic term by using BND model. Then, these three decomposed terms were forecasted by employing LSSVM model, respectively. Meanwhile, to improve the forecasting performance, a new swarm intelligence optimization algorithm FOA was used to automatically determine the optimal parameters of LSSVM model for deterministic term forecasting, periodic term forecasting, and stochastic term forecasting. Finally, the forecasting result of electricity price can be obtained by multiplying the forecasting values of these three terms. The results show the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) of the proposed BND-FOA-LSSVM model are respectively 3.48%, 11.18 Yuan/MWh and 9.95 Yuan/MWh, which are much smaller than that of LSSVM, BND-LSSVM, FOA-LSSVM, auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), and empirical mode decomposition (EMD)-FOA-LSSVM models. The proposed BND-FOA-LSSVM model is effective and practical for electricity price forecasting, which can improve the electricity price forecasting accuracy. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Dynamic Spectrum Allocation Algorithm for a Maritime Cognitive Radio Communication System Based on a Queuing Model
Information 2017, 8(4), 119; doi:10.3390/info8040119 -
Abstract
With the rapid development of maritime digital communication, the demand for spectrum resources is increasing, and building a maritime cognitive radio communication system is an effective solution. In this paper, the problem of how to effectively allocate the spectrum for secondary users (SUs)
[...] Read more.
With the rapid development of maritime digital communication, the demand for spectrum resources is increasing, and building a maritime cognitive radio communication system is an effective solution. In this paper, the problem of how to effectively allocate the spectrum for secondary users (SUs) with different priorities in a maritime cognitive radio communication system is studied. According to the characteristics of a maritime cognitive radio and existing research about cognitive radio systems, this paper establishes a centralized maritime cognitive radio communication model and creates a simplified queuing model with two queues for the communication model. In the view of the behaviors of SUs and primary users (PUs), we propose a dynamic spectrum allocation (DSA) algorithm based on the system status, and analyze it with a two-dimensional Markov chain. Simulation results show that, when different types of SUs have similar arrival rates, the algorithm can vary the priority factor according to the change of users’ status in the system, so as to adjust the channel allocation, decreasing system congestion. The improvement of the algorithm is about 7–26%, and the specific improvement is negatively correlated with the SU arrival rate. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Cosine Measures of Linguistic Neutrosophic Numbers and Their Application in Multiple Attribute Group Decision-Making
Information 2017, 8(4), 117; doi:10.3390/info8040117 -
Abstract
The linguistic neutrosophic numbers (LNNs) can express the truth, indeterminacy, and falsity degrees independently by three linguistic variables. Hence, they are an effective tool for describing indeterminate linguistic information under linguistic decision-making environments. Similarity measures are usual tools in decision-making problems. However, existing
[...] Read more.
The linguistic neutrosophic numbers (LNNs) can express the truth, indeterminacy, and falsity degrees independently by three linguistic variables. Hence, they are an effective tool for describing indeterminate linguistic information under linguistic decision-making environments. Similarity measures are usual tools in decision-making problems. However, existing cosine similarity measures have been applied in decision-making problems, but they cannot deal with linguistic information under linguistic decision-making environments. To deal with the issue, we propose two cosine similarity measures based on distance and the included angle cosine of two vectors between LNNs. Then, we establish a multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) method based on the cosine similarity measures under an LNN environment. Finally, a practical example about the decision-making problems of investment alternatives is presented to demonstrate the effective applications of the proposed MAGDM method under an LNN environment. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Model Based on Inverse Controller Design for the Outlet Temperature Control System of Ethylene Cracking Furnace
Information 2017, 8(4), 116; doi:10.3390/info8040116 -
Abstract
Multivariable coupling, nonlinear and large time delays exist in the coil outlet temperature (COT) control system of the ethylene cracking furnace, which make it hard to achieve accurate control over the COT of the furnace in actual production. To solve these problems, an
[...] Read more.
Multivariable coupling, nonlinear and large time delays exist in the coil outlet temperature (COT) control system of the ethylene cracking furnace, which make it hard to achieve accurate control over the COT of the furnace in actual production. To solve these problems, an inverse controller based on an interval type-2 fuzzy model control strategy is introduced. In this paper, the proposed control scheme is divided into two parts: one is the approach structure part of the interval type-2 fuzzy model (IT2-FM), which is utilized to approach the process output. The other is the interval type-2 fuzzy model inverse controller (IT2-FMIC) part, which is utilized to control the output process to achieve the target value. In addition, on the cyber-physical system platform, the actual industrial data are used to test and obtain the mathematical model of the COT control system of the ethylene cracking furnace. Finally, the proposed inverse controller based on the IT2-FM control scheme has been implemented on the COT control system of the ethylene cracking furnace, and the simulation results show that the proposed method is feasible. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Leak Location of Pipeline with Multibranch Based on a Cyber-Physical System
Information 2017, 8(4), 113; doi:10.3390/info8040113 -
Abstract
Data cannot be shared and leakage cannot be located simultaneously among multiple pipeline leak detection systems. Based on cyber-physical system (CPS) architecture, the method for locating leakage for pipelines with multibranch is proposed. The singular point of pressure signals at the ends of
[...] Read more.
Data cannot be shared and leakage cannot be located simultaneously among multiple pipeline leak detection systems. Based on cyber-physical system (CPS) architecture, the method for locating leakage for pipelines with multibranch is proposed. The singular point of pressure signals at the ends of pipeline with multibranch is analyzed by wavelet packet analysis, so that the time feature samples could be established. Then, the Fischer-Burmeister function is introduced into the learning process of the twin support vector machine (TWSVM) in order to avoid the matrix inversion calculation, and the samples are input into the improved twin support vector machine (ITWSVM) to distinguish the pipeline leak location. The simulation results show that the proposed method is more effective than the back propagation (BP) neural networks, the radial basis function (RBF) neural networks, and the Lagrange twin support vector machine. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Predicting DNA Motifs by Using Multi-Objective Hybrid Adaptive Biogeography-Based Optimization
Information 2017, 8(4), 115; doi:10.3390/info8040115 -
Abstract
The computational discovery of DNA motifs is one of the most important problems in molecular biology and computational biology, and it has not yet been resolved in an efficient manner. With previous research, we have solved the single-objective motif discovery problem (MDP) based
[...] Read more.
The computational discovery of DNA motifs is one of the most important problems in molecular biology and computational biology, and it has not yet been resolved in an efficient manner. With previous research, we have solved the single-objective motif discovery problem (MDP) based on biogeography-based optimization (BBO) and gained excellent results. In this study, we apply multi-objective biogeography-based optimization algorithm to the multi-objective motif discovery problem, which refers to discovery of novel transcription factor binding sites in DNA sequences. For this, we propose an improved multi-objective hybridization of adaptive Biogeography-Based Optimization with differential evolution (DE) approach, namely MHABBO, to predict motifs from DNA sequences. In the MHABBO algorithm, the fitness function based on distribution information among the habitat individuals and the Pareto dominance relation are redefined. Based on the relationship between the cost of fitness function and average cost in each generation, the MHABBO algorithm adaptively changes the migration probability and mutation probability. Additionally, the mutation procedure that combines with the DE algorithm is modified. And the migration operators based on the number of iterations are improved to meet motif discovery requirements. Furthermore, the immigration and emigration rates based on a cosine curve are modified. It can therefore generate promising candidate solutions. Statistical comparisons with DEPT and MOGAMOD approaches on three commonly used datasets are provided, which demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the MHABBO algorithm. Compared with some typical existing approaches, the MHABBO algorithm performs better in terms of the quality of the final solutions. Full article
Figures

Figure 1a

Open AccessArticle
Comparison of T-Norms and S-Norms for Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Numbers in Weight Adjustment for Neural Networks
Information 2017, 8(3), 114; doi:10.3390/info8030114 -
Abstract
A comparison of different T-norms and S-norms for interval type-2 fuzzy number weights is proposed in this work. The interval type-2 fuzzy number weights are used in a neural network with an interval backpropagation learning enhanced method for weight adjustment. Results of experiments
[...] Read more.
A comparison of different T-norms and S-norms for interval type-2 fuzzy number weights is proposed in this work. The interval type-2 fuzzy number weights are used in a neural network with an interval backpropagation learning enhanced method for weight adjustment. Results of experiments and a comparative research between traditional neural networks and the neural network with interval type-2 fuzzy number weights with different T-norms and S-norms are presented to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed approach. In this research, the definitions of the lower and upper interval type-2 fuzzy numbers with random initial values are presented; this interval represents the footprint of uncertainty (FOU). The proposed work is based on recent works that have considered the adaptation of weights using type-2 fuzzy numbers. To confirm the efficiency of the proposed method, a case of data prediction is applied, in particular for the Mackey-Glass time series (for τ = 17). Noise of Gaussian type was applied to the testing data of the Mackey-Glass time series to demonstrate that the neural network using a interval type-2 fuzzy numbers method achieves a lower susceptibility to noise than other methods. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Volume Shocks around Announcements in the Chinese Stock Market: An Ex-Post Earnings-Information-Based Study of Speculative Behavior
Information 2017, 8(3), 112; doi:10.3390/info8030112 -
Abstract
The Second Board Market is typical stock market for high tech companies in China. This paper discusses the relationship between trading volume and price changes in the case of high-tech listed companies in the Chinese Second-Board Stock Market. By using the basic concepts
[...] Read more.
The Second Board Market is typical stock market for high tech companies in China. This paper discusses the relationship between trading volume and price changes in the case of high-tech listed companies in the Chinese Second-Board Stock Market. By using the basic concepts proposed by Kim and Verrecchia, and Kandel and Pearson, and contrasting them with ex-post information from earnings releases, the paper provides findings on the speculative behavior of informed traders with a volume shock premium. The paper suggests that these methods may be further applied to investigating investors’ behavior in speculation, especially for the high-tech-company-based Second-Board Stock Market during announcement periods. Full article
Figures

Figure 1