Open AccessArticle
Physical Layer Security and Optimal Multi-Time-Slot Power Allocation of SWIPT System Powered by Hybrid Energy
Information 2017, 8(3), 100; doi:10.3390/info8030100 -
Abstract
In this paper, a new approach is proposed to solve the constrained optimization problem of saving grid energy and increasing safety in a simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) system. The traditional grid energy is combined with the renewable energy to form
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a new approach is proposed to solve the constrained optimization problem of saving grid energy and increasing safety in a simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) system. The traditional grid energy is combined with the renewable energy to form a hybrid energy, which provides power for the system to achieve green wireless transmission. The transfer process of SWIPT system is divided into multiple time slots. The renewable energy is harvested and stored in battery at each time slot. A multi-time-slot artificial noise-assisted transmission strategy is proposed to reduce the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of eavesdropping link. A power allocation algorithm based on multi-time-slot golden section is given, which performs one-dimensional search on the power ratio of artificial noise to determine the transmit power of source node. And then the allocation algorithm is utilized to dynamically configure the harvested renewable energy for each time slot. When the battery capacity is constant, the maximum renewable energy is being used to reduce the grid power consumption. Finally, the performances of proposed schemes are evaluated by simulations in terms of various tradeoffs. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue on Mobile Systems, Mobile Networks, and Mobile Cloud: Security, Privacy, and Digital Forensics
Information 2017, 8(3), 99; doi:10.3390/info8030099 -
Abstract
The use of smartphones and mobile devices has become an indispensable part of everyone’s daily life and work [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Generalized Triangular Intuitionistic Fuzzy Geometric Averaging Operator for Decision-Making in Engineering and Management
Information 2017, 8(3), 78; doi:10.3390/info8030078 -
Abstract
Triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number (TIFN) is a more generalized platform for expressing imprecise, incomplete, and inconsistent information when solving multi-criteria decision-making problems, as well as for expressing and reflecting the evaluation information in several dimensions. In this paper, the TIFN has been applied
[...] Read more.
Triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number (TIFN) is a more generalized platform for expressing imprecise, incomplete, and inconsistent information when solving multi-criteria decision-making problems, as well as for expressing and reflecting the evaluation information in several dimensions. In this paper, the TIFN has been applied for solving multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problems, first, by defining some existing triangular intuitionistic fuzzy geometric aggregation operators, and then developing a new triangular intuitionistic fuzzy geometric aggregation operator, which is the generalized triangular intuitionistic fuzzy ordered weighted geometric averaging (GTIFOWGA) operator. Based on these operators, a new approach for solving multicriteria decision-making problems when the weight information is fixed is proposed. Finally, a numerical example is provided to show the applicability and rationality of the presented method, followed by a comparative analysis using similar existing computational approaches. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Information Theory Calculator for Understanding Information and Library Science Applications
Information 2017, 8(3), 98; doi:10.3390/info8030098 -
Abstract
The study of information as proposed in information theory provides a useful tool for studying many aspects of information systems, libraries, and archives. How does a calculator that computes information-theoretic functions contribute to students learning database ideas such as the relationships between various
[...] Read more.
The study of information as proposed in information theory provides a useful tool for studying many aspects of information systems, libraries, and archives. How does a calculator that computes information-theoretic functions contribute to students learning database ideas such as the relationships between various attributes, or columns in a relational database? Understanding the relationships between variables in a professional discipline can be viewed as the core of the discipline, and these information measures are very important to the study of the organization of information. A web-based information-theoretic calculator is examined that enables students to easily and completely process various information-theoretic calculations that are useful in studying database relationships. Students were questioned after using the calculator on a homework assignment. The students’ evaluations of this form of calculator were then examined, and lastly, recommendations about using information-theoretic calculators are suggested. Recommendations are made about the use of this form of calculator in a range of academic disciplines, from computer science and business, to library and information sciences. These recommendations apply to both the academy and professional practice applications in informational domains. Full article
Open AccessReview
Review of Recent Type-2 Fuzzy Image Processing Applications
Information 2017, 8(3), 97; doi:10.3390/info8030097 -
Abstract
This paper presents a literature review of applications using type-2 fuzzy systems in the area of image processing. Over the last years, there has been a significant increase in research on higher-order forms of fuzzy logic; in particular, the use of interval type-2
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a literature review of applications using type-2 fuzzy systems in the area of image processing. Over the last years, there has been a significant increase in research on higher-order forms of fuzzy logic; in particular, the use of interval type-2 fuzzy sets and general type-2 fuzzy sets. The idea of making use of higher orders, or types, of fuzzy logic is to capture and represent uncertainty that is more complex. This paper is focused on image processing systems, which includes image segmentation, image filtering, image classification and edge detection. Various applications are presented where general type-2 fuzzy sets, interval type-2 fuzzy sets, and interval-value fuzzy sets are used; some are compared with the traditional type-1 fuzzy sets and others methodologies that exist in the literature for these areas in image processing. In all accounts, it is shown that type-2 fuzzy sets outperform both traditional image processing techniques as well as techniques using type-1 fuzzy sets, and provide the ability to handle uncertainty when the image is corrupted by noise. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Content-Based Image Retrieval Scheme Using an Encrypted Difference Histogram in Cloud Computing
Information 2017, 8(3), 96; doi:10.3390/info8030096 -
Abstract
Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) has been widely used in many applications. Large storage and computation overheads have made the outsourcing of CBIR services attractive. However, the privacy issues brought by outsourcing have become a big problem. In this paper, a secure CBIR scheme
[...] Read more.
Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) has been widely used in many applications. Large storage and computation overheads have made the outsourcing of CBIR services attractive. However, the privacy issues brought by outsourcing have become a big problem. In this paper, a secure CBIR scheme based on an encrypted difference histogram (EDH-CBIR) is proposed. Firstly, the image owner calculates the order or disorder difference matrices of RGB components and encrypts them by value replacement and position scrambling. The encrypted images are then uploaded to the cloud server who extracts encrypted difference histograms as image feature vectors. To search similar images, the query image is encrypted by the image users as the image owner does, and the query feature vector is extracted by the cloud server. The Euclidean distance between query feature vector and image feature vector is calculated to measure the similarity. The security analysis and experiments demonstrate the usability of the proposed scheme. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Decentralized State-Observer-Based Traffic Density Estimation of Large-Scale Urban Freeway Network by Dynamic Model
Information 2017, 8(3), 95; doi:10.3390/info8030095 -
Abstract
In order to estimate traffic densities in a large-scale urban freeway network in an accurate and timely fashion when traffic sensors do not cover the freeway network completely and thus only local measurement data can be utilized, this paper proposes a decentralized state
[...] Read more.
In order to estimate traffic densities in a large-scale urban freeway network in an accurate and timely fashion when traffic sensors do not cover the freeway network completely and thus only local measurement data can be utilized, this paper proposes a decentralized state observer approach based on a macroscopic traffic flow model. Firstly, by using the well-known cell transmission model (CTM), the urban freeway network is modeled in the way of distributed systems. Secondly, based on the model, a decentralized observer is designed. With the help of the Lyapunov function and S-procedure theory, the observer gains are computed by using linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique. So, the traffic densities of the whole road network can be estimated by the designed observer. Finally, this method is applied to the outer ring of the Beijing’s second ring road and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Planning of Vehicle Routing with Backup Provisioning Using Wireless Sensor Technologies
Information 2017, 8(3), 94; doi:10.3390/info8030094 -
Abstract
Wireless sensor technologies can be used by intelligent transportation systems to provide innovative services that lead to improvements in road safety and congestion, increasing end-user satisfaction. In this article, we address vehicle routing with backup provisioning, where the possibility of reacting to overloading/overcrowding
[...] Read more.
Wireless sensor technologies can be used by intelligent transportation systems to provide innovative services that lead to improvements in road safety and congestion, increasing end-user satisfaction. In this article, we address vehicle routing with backup provisioning, where the possibility of reacting to overloading/overcrowding of vehicles at certain stops is considered. This is based on the availability of vehicle load information, which can be captured using wireless sensor technologies. After discussing the infrastructure and monitoring tool, the problem is mathematically formalized, and a heuristic algorithm using local search procedures is proposed. Results show that planning routes with backup provisioning can allow fast response to overcrowding while reducing costs. Therefore, sustainable urban mobility, with efficient use of resources, can be provided while increasing the quality of service perceived by users. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Convolution-LSTM-Based Deep Neural Network for Cross-Domain MOOC Forum Post Classification
Information 2017, 8(3), 92; doi:10.3390/info8030092 -
Abstract
Learners in a massive open online course often express feelings, exchange ideas and seek help by posting questions in discussion forums. Due to the very high learner-to-instructor ratios, it is unrealistic to expect instructors to adequately track the forums, find all of the
[...] Read more.
Learners in a massive open online course often express feelings, exchange ideas and seek help by posting questions in discussion forums. Due to the very high learner-to-instructor ratios, it is unrealistic to expect instructors to adequately track the forums, find all of the issues that need resolution and understand their urgency and sentiment. In this paper, considering the biases among different courses, we propose a transfer learning framework based on a convolutional neural network and a long short-term memory model, called ConvL, to automatically identify whether a post expresses confusion, determine the urgency and classify the polarity of the sentiment. First, we learn the feature representation for each word by considering the local contextual feature via the convolution operation. Second, we learn the post representation from the features extracted through the convolution operation via the LSTM model, which considers the long-term temporal semantic relationships of features. Third, we investigate the possibility of transferring parameters from a model trained on one course to another course and the subsequent fine-tuning. Experiments on three real-world MOOC courses confirm the effectiveness of our framework. This work suggests that our model can potentially significantly increase the effectiveness of monitoring MOOC forums in real time. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Practical Point Cloud Based Road Curb Detection Method for Autonomous Vehicle
Information 2017, 8(3), 93; doi:10.3390/info8030093 -
Abstract
Robust and quick road curb detection under various situations is critical in developing intelligent vehicles. However, the road curb detection is easily affected by the obstacles in the road area when Lidar based method is applied. A practical road curb detection method using
[...] Read more.
Robust and quick road curb detection under various situations is critical in developing intelligent vehicles. However, the road curb detection is easily affected by the obstacles in the road area when Lidar based method is applied. A practical road curb detection method using point cloud from a three-dimensional Lidar for autonomous vehicle is reported in this paper. First, a multi-feature, loose-threshold, varied-scope ground segmentation method is presented to increase the robustness of ground segmentation with which obstacles above the ground can be detected. Second, the road curb is detected by applying the global road trend and an extraction-update mechanism. Experiments show the robustness and efficiency of the road curb detection under various environments. The road curb detection method is 10 times the speed of traditional method and the accuracy is much higher than existing methods. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Deep Transfer Learning for Modality Classification of Medical Images
Information 2017, 8(3), 91; doi:10.3390/info8030091 -
Abstract
Medical images are valuable for clinical diagnosis and decision making. Image modality is an important primary step, as it is capable of aiding clinicians to access required medical image in retrieval systems. Traditional methods of modality classification are dependent on the choice of
[...] Read more.
Medical images are valuable for clinical diagnosis and decision making. Image modality is an important primary step, as it is capable of aiding clinicians to access required medical image in retrieval systems. Traditional methods of modality classification are dependent on the choice of hand-crafted features and demand a clear awareness of prior domain knowledge. The feature learning approach may detect efficiently visual characteristics of different modalities, but it is limited to the number of training datasets. To overcome the absence of labeled data, on the one hand, we take deep convolutional neural networks (VGGNet, ResNet) with different depths pre-trained on ImageNet, fix most of the earlier layers to reserve generic features of natural images, and only train their higher-level portion on ImageCLEF to learn domain-specific features of medical figures. Then, we train from scratch deep CNNs with only six weight layers to capture more domain-specific features. On the other hand, we employ two data augmentation methods to help CNNs to give the full scope to their potential characterizing image modality features. The final prediction is given by our voting system based on the outputs of three CNNs. After evaluating our proposed model on the subfigure classification task in ImageCLEF2015 and ImageCLEF2016, we obtain new, state-of-the-art results—76.87% in ImageCLEF2015 and 87.37% in ImageCLEF2016—which imply that CNNs, based on our proposed transfer learning methods and data augmentation skills, can identify more efficiently modalities of medical images. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Fuzzy Color Clustering for Melanoma Diagnosis in Dermoscopy Images
Information 2017, 8(3), 89; doi:10.3390/info8030089 -
Abstract
A fuzzy logic-based color histogram analysis technique is presented for discriminating benign skin lesions from malignant melanomas in dermoscopy images. The approach extends previous research for utilizing a fuzzy set for skin lesion color for a specified class of skin lesions, using alpha-cut
[...] Read more.
A fuzzy logic-based color histogram analysis technique is presented for discriminating benign skin lesions from malignant melanomas in dermoscopy images. The approach extends previous research for utilizing a fuzzy set for skin lesion color for a specified class of skin lesions, using alpha-cut and support set cardinality for quantifying a fuzzy ratio skin lesion color feature. Skin lesion discrimination results are reported for the fuzzy clustering ratio over different regions of the lesion over a data set of 517 dermoscopy images consisting of 175 invasive melanomas and 342 benign lesions. Experimental results show that the fuzzy clustering ratio applied over an eight-connected neighborhood on the outer 25% of the skin lesion with an alpha-cut of 0.08 can recognize 92.6% of melanomas with approximately 13.5% false positive lesions. These results show the critical importance of colors in the lesion periphery. Our fuzzy logic-based description of lesion colors offers relevance to clinical descriptions of malignant melanoma. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Stabilization of Discrete-Time Markovian Jump Systems by a Partially Mode-Unmatched Fault-Tolerant Controller
Information 2017, 8(3), 90; doi:10.3390/info8030090 -
Abstract
In this paper, a kind of fault-tolerant controller is proposed to study the stabilization problem of discrete-time Markovian jump systems, whose operation modes are not only partially-available but also unmatched. Here, such general properties of controller are modeled to be a controller having
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a kind of fault-tolerant controller is proposed to study the stabilization problem of discrete-time Markovian jump systems, whose operation modes are not only partially-available but also unmatched. Here, such general properties of controller are modeled to be a controller having polytopic forms and uncertainties simultaneously. Based on the proposed model, concise conditions for the existence of such a controller are proposed with linear matrix inequality (LMI) forms, which are extended to consider observer design problem too. Compared with the traditional methods, not only is the designed controller more general but also the established results are fault free and could be solved directly. Finally, numerical examples are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of VoIP QoS Performance in Wireless Mesh Networks
Information 2017, 8(3), 88; doi:10.3390/info8030088 -
Abstract
The main focus of this research article is the evaluation of selected voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) solutions in wireless mesh network (WMN) scenarios. While WMNs have self-healing, self-forming, and dynamic topology features, they still pose challenges for the implementation of multimedia applications
[...] Read more.
The main focus of this research article is the evaluation of selected voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) solutions in wireless mesh network (WMN) scenarios. While WMNs have self-healing, self-forming, and dynamic topology features, they still pose challenges for the implementation of multimedia applications such as voice in various scenarios. Therefore, various solutions to make WMN more suitable for VoIP application have been proposed in the scientific literature. In this work, we have extensively explored a set of applicable scenarios by conducting experiments by means of a network simulator. The following scenarios were selected as the most representatives for performance evaluation: first responders, flooded village, remote village, and platoon deployment. Each selected scenario has been studied under six sub-scenarios corresponding to various combinations of the IEEE 802.11g, 802.11n, 802.11s, and 802.11e standards; the G.711 and G.729 codecs; and the ad hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) and hybrid wireless mesh protocol (HWMP) routing protocols. The results in terms of quality of service (measured with the mean opinion score rating scale), supported by the analysis of delay, jitter and packet loss, show that 802.11g integration with both VoIP codecs and AODV routing protocol results in better VoIP performance as compared to most other scenarios. In case of 802.11g integration with 802.11s, VoIP performance decreases as compared to the other sub-scenarios without 802.11s. The results also show that 802.11n integration with 802.11e decreases VoIP performance in larger deployments. We conclude the paper with some recommendations in terms of combinations of those standards and protocols with a view to achieve a higher quality of service for the given scenarios. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Efficient Listening and Sleeping Scheduling Mechanism Based on Self-Similarity for Duty Cycle Opportunistic Mobile Networks
Information 2017, 8(3), 87; doi:10.3390/info8030087 -
Abstract
In opportunistic mobile networks (OppNets), nodes should be in listening state to discover the neighbors for opportunistic message forwarding. While in OppNets, contacts between nodes are sparse, most of the node’s energy is consumed in idle listening state, which highlights the need for
[...] Read more.
In opportunistic mobile networks (OppNets), nodes should be in listening state to discover the neighbors for opportunistic message forwarding. While in OppNets, contacts between nodes are sparse, most of the node’s energy is consumed in idle listening state, which highlights the need for energy saving in contact probing. Duty cycle operation can be applied to address this problem. However, it may cause the degradation of network connectivity when the state of node is turned to be sleeping. In this paper, we propose an adaptive scheduling mechanism based on self-similarity, in which LMMSE predictor is used to predict the future contact information. The state of a node will be set as listening or sleeping adaptively according to the predicted result of future contacts with other nodes. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism by conducting a large amount of trace-driven simulations, which show that the proposed mechanism outperforms the random working mechanism and periodical working mechanism in terms of the number of effective contacts, delivery ratio, transmission delay and cost. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Analytical Framework for Preliminary Planning of Very High-Speed Digital Subscriber Line Access Networks
Information 2017, 8(3), 86; doi:10.3390/info8030086 -
Abstract
In this paper, we introduce an analytical framework for the performance evaluation of the VDSL2-based access systems. It allows for the obtaining of approximations of the achievable bit rate per user, taking into account several factors, such as the bit-loading limitation per sub-carrier;
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we introduce an analytical framework for the performance evaluation of the VDSL2-based access systems. It allows for the obtaining of approximations of the achievable bit rate per user, taking into account several factors, such as the bit-loading limitation per sub-carrier; interference scenario, including the number and positions of the active interferers along the cable; crosstalk statistics; and vectoring. A closed-form expression for the maximum sub-carrier frequency that can be loaded with the maximum number of allowed bits is also presented. Formulas are obtained assuming log-normal statistics for the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) per sub-carrier. The validity of the proposed formulas has been assessed by computer calculations. A very good agreement between the exact and the approximated bit rates has been obtained. The framework can be used for preliminary design of VDSL2 systems in terms of the bit rate coverage, as well as to analyze performance of other access technologies such as ADSL and G.fast. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Lightweight RFID Grouping-Proof Protocol Based on Parallel Mode and DHCP Mechanism
Information 2017, 8(3), 85; doi:10.3390/info8030085 -
Abstract
A Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) grouping-proof protocol is to generate an evidence of the simultaneous existence of a group of tags and it has been applied to many different fields. For current grouping-proof protocols, there still exist some flaws such as low grouping-proof
[...] Read more.
A Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) grouping-proof protocol is to generate an evidence of the simultaneous existence of a group of tags and it has been applied to many different fields. For current grouping-proof protocols, there still exist some flaws such as low grouping-proof efficiency, being vulnerable to trace attack and information leakage. To improve the secure performance and efficiency, we propose a lightweight RFID grouping-proof protocol based on parallel mode and DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) mechanism. Our protocol involves multiple readers and multiple tag groups. During the grouping-proof period, one reader and one tag group are chosen by the verifier by means of DHCP mechanism. When only a part of the tags of the chosen group exist, the protocol can also give the evidence of their co-existence. Our protocol utilizes parallel communication mode between reader and tags so as to ensure its grouping-proof efficiency. It only uses Hash function to complete the mutual authentication among verifier, readers and tags. It can preserve the privacy of the RFID system and resist the attacks such as eavesdropping, replay, trace and impersonation. Therefore the protocol is secure, flexible and efficient. It only uses some lightweight operations such as Hash function and a pseudorandom number generator. Therefore it is very suitable to some low-cost RFID systems. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Single-Valued Neutrosophic Hybrid Arithmetic and Geometric Aggregation Operators and Their Decision-Making Method
Information 2017, 8(3), 84; doi:10.3390/info8030084 -
Abstract
Single-valued neutrosophic numbers (SVNNs) can express incomplete, indeterminate, and inconsistent information in the real world. Then, the common weighted aggregation operators of SVNNs may result in unreasonably aggregated results in some situations. Based on the hybrid weighted arithmetic and geometric aggregation and hybrid
[...] Read more.
Single-valued neutrosophic numbers (SVNNs) can express incomplete, indeterminate, and inconsistent information in the real world. Then, the common weighted aggregation operators of SVNNs may result in unreasonably aggregated results in some situations. Based on the hybrid weighted arithmetic and geometric aggregation and hybrid ordered weighted arithmetic and geometric aggregation ideas, this paper proposes SVNN hybrid weighted arithmetic and geometric aggregation (SVNNHWAGA) and SVNN hybrid ordered weighted arithmetic and geometric aggregation (SVNNHOWAGA) operators and investigates their rationality and effectiveness by numerical examples. Then, we establish a multiple-attribute decision-making method based on the SVNNHWAGA or SVNNHOWAGA operator under a SVNN environment. Finally, the multiple-attribute decision-making problem about the design schemes of punching machine is presented as a case to show the application and rationality of the proposed decision-making method. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Hybridizing Adaptive Biogeography-Based Optimization with Differential Evolution for Multi-Objective Optimization Problems
Information 2017, 8(3), 83; doi:10.3390/info8030083 -
Abstract
In order to improve the performance of optimization, we apply a hybridization of adaptive biogeography-based optimization (BBO) algorithm and differential evolution (DE) to multi-objective optimization problems (MOPs). A model of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) is established, in which the habitat suitability index (HSI)
[...] Read more.
In order to improve the performance of optimization, we apply a hybridization of adaptive biogeography-based optimization (BBO) algorithm and differential evolution (DE) to multi-objective optimization problems (MOPs). A model of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) is established, in which the habitat suitability index (HSI) is redefined, based on the Pareto dominance relation, and density information among the habitat individuals. Then, we design a new algorithm, in which the modification probability and mutation probability are changed, according to the relation between the cost of fitness function of randomly selected habitats of last generation, and average cost of fitness function of all habitats of last generation. The mutation operators based on DE algorithm, are modified, and the migration operators based on number of iterations, are improved to achieve better convergence performance. Numerical experiments on different ZDT and DTLZ benchmark functions are performed, and the results demonstrate that the proposed MABBO algorithm has better performance on the convergence and the distribution properties comparing to the other MOEAs, and can solve more complex multi-objective optimization problems efficiently. Full article
Figures

Figure 1a

Open AccessArticle
Vector-Circulant Matrices and Vector-Circulant Based Additive Codes over Finite Fields
Information 2017, 8(3), 82; doi:10.3390/info8030082 -
Abstract
Circulant matrices have attracted interest due to their rich algebraic structures and various applications. In this paper, the concept of vector-circulant matrices over finite fields is studied as a generalization of circulant matrices. The algebraic characterization for such matrices has been discussed. As
[...] Read more.
Circulant matrices have attracted interest due to their rich algebraic structures and various applications. In this paper, the concept of vector-circulant matrices over finite fields is studied as a generalization of circulant matrices. The algebraic characterization for such matrices has been discussed. As applications, constructions of vector-circulant based additive codes over finite fields have been given together with some examples of optimal additive codes over F4. Full article