Information2016, 7(3), 50; doi:10.3390/info7030050 - published 8 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: (1) Background: The aim of this paper is to show that e-health tools like smart homes allow the personalization of the surveillance and preventive education of chronic patients, such as obese persons, in order to maintain a comfortable and preventive lifestyle at home. (2) Technologies and methods: Several types of sensors allow coaching the patient at home, e.g., the sensors recording the activity and monitoring the physiology of the person. All of this information serves to personalize serious games dedicated to preventive education, for example in nutrition and vision. (3) Results: We built a system of personalized preventive education at home based on serious games, derived from the feedback information they provide through a monitoring system. Therefore, it is possible to define (after clustering and personalized calibration) from the at home surveillance of chronic patients different comfort zones where their behavior can be estimated as normal or abnormal and, then, to adapt both alarm levels for surveillance and education programs for prevention, the chosen example of application being obesity.
Information2016, 7(3), 49; doi:10.3390/info7030049 - published 2 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This paper deals with the problem of securing the configuration phase of an Internet of Things (IoT) system. The main drawbacks of current approaches are the focus on specific techniques and methods, and the lack of a cross layer vision of the problem. In a smart environment, each IoT device has limited resources and is often battery operated with limited capabilities (e.g., no keyboard). As a consequence, network security must be carefully analyzed in order to prevent security and privacy issues. In this paper, we will analyze the IoT threats, we will propose a security framework for the device initialization and we will show how physical layer security can effectively boost the security of IoT systems.
Abstract: Is it possible to quantify the information content of accounting reports? If possible, then how? This study examines accounting as a classical communication system with the purpose of providing a framework with which to approach these fundamentally important questions. Information theory was established in the early-mid 20th century to describe the properties of classical communication systems. Applying concepts from this theory to an accounting context provides insight into the questions asked above. Specifically, a measure of the information content of financial statement numbers is developed from these information theory concepts. The measure is also applied to several large companies’ earnings numbers and aids in predicting their price movements.
Abstract: Recent security breaches show the need to secure large, distributed, complex systems. A fundamental, but little discussed aspect of security is how to evaluate when a complete system is secure. Purely formal methods cannot handle this level of complexity. Code checking does not consider the interaction of separate modules working together and is hard to scale. Model-based approaches, such as patterns and problem frames, can be effective for handling large systems. Their use in evaluating security appears promising. A few works in this direction exist, but there is a need for more ideas. This Special Issue focuses on global, model-based, architectural, and systems-oriented evaluation methods.
Abstract: The assessment of mobility and functional impairments in the elderly is important for early detection and prevention of fall conditions. Falls create serious threats to health by causing disabling fractures that reduce independence in the elderly. Moreover, they exert heavy economic burdens on society due to high treatment costs. Modern smartphones enable the development of innovative mobile health (mHealth) applications by integrating a growing number of inertial and environmental sensors along with the ever-increasing data processing and communication capabilities. Mobility assessment is one of the promising mHealth application domains. In this paper, we introduce a suite of smartphone applications for assessing mobility in the elderly population. The suite currently includes smartphone applications that automate and quantify the following standardized medical tests for assessing mobility: Timed Up and Go (TUG), 30-Second Chair Stand Test (30SCS), and 4-Stage Balance Test (4SBT). For each application, we describe its functionality and a list of parameters extracted by processing signals from smartphone’s inertial sensors. The paper shows the results from studies conducted on geriatric patients for TUG tests and from experiments conducted in the laboratory on healthy subjects for 30SCS and 4SBT tests.
Abstract: Image sizes have increased exponentially in recent years. The resulting high-resolution images are often viewed via remote image browsing. Zooming and panning are desirable features in this context, which result in disparate spatial regions of an image being displayed at a variety of (spatial) resolutions. When an image is displayed at a reduced resolution, the quantization step sizes needed for visually lossless quality generally increase. This paper investigates the quantization step sizes needed for visually lossless display as a function of resolution, and proposes a method that effectively incorporates the resulting (multiple) quantization step sizes into a single JPEG 2000 codestream. This codestream is JPEG 2000 Part 1 compliant and allows for visually lossless decoding at all resolutions natively supported by the wavelet transform as well as arbitrary intermediate resolutions, using only a fraction of the full-resolution codestream. When images are browsed remotely using the JPEG 2000 Interactive Protocol (JPIP), the required bandwidth is significantly reduced, as demonstrated by extensive experimental results.