Abstract: In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), efficient energy conservation is required to prolong the lifetime of the network. In this work, we have given emphasis on balanced energy consumption and energy holes avoidance. This paper proposes a multi-gateway-based approach to reduce the transmission distance between the sender and the sink node. The area to be monitored is divided into regions and gateway nodes are deployed at optimal positions. We have designed a transmission scheme, in which sensors in the sink region communicate directly to the sink, sensors in the gateway region communicate directly to the gateway, and sensors in the cluster region transmit their data directly to their respective cluster head which transmits data to the gateway in its region. If the distance between a cluster head and the sink is less than the distance between the cluster head and the gateway node, the cluster head transmits data to the sink instead of the gateway node. We have compared the proposed protocol with Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH), Gateway Based Energy Aware Multi-Hop Routing (M-GEAR), and Gateway Based Stable Election Protocol (GSEP) protocols. The protocol performs better than other protocols in terms of throughput, stability period, lifetime, residual energy, and the packet transmitted to the sink.
Abstract: The aim of the study is to analyze the oil spill pattern from various types of incidents and contaminants to determine the extent that incident data can be used as a baseline to prevent hazardous material releases and improve response activities at a state level. This study addresses the importance of collecting and sharing oil spill incidents as well as analytics using the data. Temporal, spatial and spatiotemporal analysis techniques are employed for the oil-spill related environmental incidents observed in the state of North Dakota, United States of America, from 2000 to 2014, as a result of the oil boom. Specifically, spatiotemporal methods are used to examine how the patterns of environmental incidents in North Dakota, which vary with the time of day, the day, the month, and the season. Results indicate that there were critical spatial and time variations in the distribution of environmental incidents. Application of spatiotemporal interaction visualization techniques, called comap has the potential to help planners and decision makers formulate policy to mitigate the risks associated with environmental incidents, improve safety, and allocate resources.
Abstract: In many situations, placing a physical sensor in the ideal position in or on the human body to acquire sensing data is incredibly difficult. Virtual sensors, in contrast to physical sensors, can provide indirect measurements by making use of other available sensor data. In this paper, we demonstrate a virtual sensing application developed as a service on top of a cloud-based health sensor data management platform called Wiki-Health. The proposed application “implants” virtual sensors in the human body by integrating environmental, geographic and personal sensor data with physiological models to compute temperature estimations of various parts of the body. The feasibility of the proposed virtual sensing service is supported by a case study. The ability to share computational models relevant to do calculations on measured data on the go is also discussed.
Abstract: In this paper, we examine the role of representational artefacts in sensemaking. Embodied within representational media, such as maps, charts and lists, are a number of affordances, which can furnish sensemakers with the ability to perform tasks that may be difficult to do inside the head. Presented here is a study of sensemaking in action. We conducted a study of military intelligence analysts carrying out a training exercise, the analysis of which focuses on the use of external task-specific representations. We present a discussion of the findings of our study in the form of a model of distributed sensemaking. Our model concentrates on the interaction of information and various representational artefacts, leading to the generation of insights and a situation picture. We also introduce a number of levels of description for examining the properties and affordances offered by representational artefacts and their role in the sensemaking process.
Abstract: Automated formalization of legal text is a time- and effort-consuming task, but human-based validation consumes even more of both. The exchange of healthcare data in compliance with the medical privacy law requires experts with deep familiarity of its intricate provisions for verification. The article presents a medical relational model (MRM) for the extraction of logical rules from medical law, required to design a medical decision support system (MDSS) that facilitates the process of exchanging data electronically with minimum human intervention. The division of medical law into small concept classes makes it easier to formalize the legal text of medical law into logical rules. These logical rules are then used to make a precise decision in compliance with the law, after evaluating requests from different entities for different purposes in MDSS. Our methodology is to analyze the legal text and release records in compliance with the medical law. For developing countries where medical laws are not as mature as HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) in the USA, the proposed methodology can be adapted to build their MDSS based on MRM.
Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to examine the nature of chemical concepts, and the ways in which they are applied in chemoinformatics systems. An account of concepts in philosophy and in the information sciences leads to an analysis of chemical concepts, and their representation. The way in which concepts are applied in systems for information retrieval and for structure–property correlation are reviewed, and some issues noted. Attention is focused on the basic concepts or substance, reaction and property, on the organising concepts of chemical structure, structural similarity, periodicity, and on more specific concepts, including two- and three-dimensional structural patterns, reaction types, and property concepts. It is concluded that chemical concepts, despite (or perhaps because of) their vague and mutable nature, have considerable and continuing value in chemoinformatics, and that an increased formal treatment of concepts may have value in the future.