Open AccessArticle
Opening up the Black Box of Sensor Processing Algorithms through New Visualizations
Informatics 2016, 3(3), 16; doi:10.3390/informatics3030016 -
Abstract
Vehicles and platforms with multiple sensors connect people in multiple roles with different responsibilities to scenes of interest. For many of these human–sensor systems there are a variety of algorithms that transform, select, and filter the sensor data prior to human intervention. [...] Read more.
Vehicles and platforms with multiple sensors connect people in multiple roles with different responsibilities to scenes of interest. For many of these human–sensor systems there are a variety of algorithms that transform, select, and filter the sensor data prior to human intervention. Emergency response, precision agriculture, and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) are examples of these human–computation–sensor systems. The authors examined a case of the latter to understand how people in various roles utilize the algorithms output to identify meaningful properties in data streams given uncertainty. The investigations revealed: (a) that increasingly complex interactions occur across agents in the human–computation–sensor system; and (b) analysts struggling to interpret the output of “black box” algorithms given uncertainty and change in the scenes of interest. The paper presents a new interactive visualization concept designed to “open up the black box” of sensor processing algorithms to support human analysts as they look for meaning in feeds from sensors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Older People Using e-Health Services—Exploring Frequency of Use and Associations with Perceived Benefits for Spouse Caregivers
Informatics 2016, 3(3), 15; doi:10.3390/informatics3030015 -
Abstract
ICT, information- and communication technologies, and e-health services are essential for meeting future care demands. Greater knowledge regarding the implementation of e-health services in long-term care for older people is needed. The purpose of the study was to explore older people’s use [...] Read more.
ICT, information- and communication technologies, and e-health services are essential for meeting future care demands. Greater knowledge regarding the implementation of e-health services in long-term care for older people is needed. The purpose of the study was to explore older people’s use of e-health services and associations between frequency of use and perceived benefits. In the longitudinal comparative intervention study (n = 65), intervention group participants (n = 42) used an e-health service for 1.5 years. A control group (n = 23) used similar services provided in a traditional manner. Data was collected through questionnaires and analyzed using linear and logistic regressions. Although general use of the Internet was similar in both groups, the e-health group perceived significantly higher benefits. The component information- and education programs, developed specifically for the e-health service, had the highest association with benefits. Conclusion: e-health services targeted at supporting older people who care for a spouse at home can provide benefits which most likely will not be obtained without participation in an organized e-service. Care professionals play an essential role in encouraging spouse caregivers to become e-service users. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Advancing the Direction of Health Information Management in Greek Public Hospitals: Theoretical Directions and Methodological Implications for Sharing Information in order to Obtain Decision-Making
Informatics 2016, 3(3), 14; doi:10.3390/informatics3030014 -
Abstract
Although consultants have long placed the use of research information at the centre of their activity, the extent that physicians use this information tends to vary widely. Despite this study and its recommendations, there is still a gap between the functions of [...] Read more.
Although consultants have long placed the use of research information at the centre of their activity, the extent that physicians use this information tends to vary widely. Despite this study and its recommendations, there is still a gap between the functions of a manager and the use of the associated information, while the decision-making procedures vary according to the organization in which they work. The cost of IT remains the largest barrier, while some current IT solutions are not user friendly and out-of-date, particularly for public hospitals in Greece. The knowledge management is concerned not only with the facts and figures of production, but also with the know-how of staff. The information needs protocol should not be referred only to those who comply with formal computer-based information systems, but also to those who take into account other informal information and its flow within the organization. In a field such as medicine, where out-of-date information may be positively dangerous, doctors make heavy use of journals and several texts from the web. The decision-making process is a complex approach, particularly in human diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Therefore, it is very important to set priorities in the sector of health information management and promote education and training on information and communication technology (ICT). Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Socio-Economic Evaluation of a European Project: The DIYLab Case
Informatics 2016, 3(3), 13; doi:10.3390/informatics3030013 -
Abstract
This paper builds on the results of a 3-year long European project, the main aim of which was to deeply and sustainably transform teaching and learning practice in primary and secondary schools and higher education, by introducing Do it Yourself (DIY) philosophy [...] Read more.
This paper builds on the results of a 3-year long European project, the main aim of which was to deeply and sustainably transform teaching and learning practice in primary and secondary schools and higher education, by introducing Do it Yourself (DIY) philosophy in order to expand digital competence and foster students’ agency and collaborative learning. Three universities and three primary and secondary schools have been involved in a Collaborative Action Research (CAR) process in order to analyse their current institutional context and perceive needs, strengths and weaknesses; to undertake professional development activities and the design of DIYLabs; implement DIYLabs in the selected courses; and reflect upon ways of improving the institution’s performance. This paper offers a global vision of the research and implementation processes and the results achieved, from the perspective of the socio-economic dimensions involved in a project aiming to make a difference in teaching and learning to meet the challenges of a society highly permeated by digital technology (DT). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
When Wiki Technology Meets Corporate Knowledge Management Routines: A Sociomateriality Perspective
Informatics 2016, 3(3), 12; doi:10.3390/informatics3030012 -
Abstract
There seems to be an inherent tension between wiki affordances—open boundaries, unconstrained editing, and transparency—and traditional knowledge management (KM) routines used in firms. The objective of this study is to investigate how users respond to these tensions during adoption of wiki technology [...] Read more.
There seems to be an inherent tension between wiki affordances—open boundaries, unconstrained editing, and transparency—and traditional knowledge management (KM) routines used in firms. The objective of this study is to investigate how users respond to these tensions during adoption of wiki technology at the workplace. The theoretical lens of sociomateriality highlights the manner in which routines and materiality (namely, technology) relate to one another, providing a useful conceptualization for our investigation. In particular, we adopt Leonardi’s theory of human and material imbrication, which stresses the importance of a worker’s past experiences with technology in determining his future adoption decisions. Extending Leonardi’s conceptualization, we suggest that out-of-work experiences are also influential. Namely, we argue that attitudes towards Wikipedia influence one’s response to wiki deployment in the workplace. Using an online survey containing four open-ended questions, we assessed the perceptions of employees towards wiki deployment. Results from our qualitative analysis of 1032 responses reveal five approaches users take in responding to the tensions between wiki affordances and existing KM routines, highlighting the effect of users’ dispositions towards Wikipedia. Our findings inform the sociomateriality literature and shed light on the challenges faced by organizations trying to adopt social media tools. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Social Media Systems in the Workplace: Toward Understanding Employee Knowledge Creation via Microblogging within Shared Knowledge Domains
Informatics 2016, 3(3), 11; doi:10.3390/informatics3030011 -
Abstract
Adoption of social media systems (SMS), proprietary microblogging platforms in particular, for the purposes of information sharing has been increasingly on the rise among corporations. While Twitter is the preferred microblogging tool by the general public, there is scant research to address [...] Read more.
Adoption of social media systems (SMS), proprietary microblogging platforms in particular, for the purposes of information sharing has been increasingly on the rise among corporations. While Twitter is the preferred microblogging tool by the general public, there is scant research to address its viability as a conduit to facilitate knowledge creation among corporate users. As a result, this conceptual paper explores seven crucial Twitter features and derives to seven propositions that demonstrate how microblogging can enable knowledge creation among employees within shared knowledge domain. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tagging Users’ Social Circles via Multiple Linear Regression
Informatics 2016, 3(3), 10; doi:10.3390/informatics3030010 -
Abstract
A social circle is a category of strong social relationships, such as families, classmates and good friends and so on. The information diffusion among members of online social circles is frequent and credible. The research of users’ online social circles has become [...] Read more.
A social circle is a category of strong social relationships, such as families, classmates and good friends and so on. The information diffusion among members of online social circles is frequent and credible. The research of users’ online social circles has become popular in recent years. Many scholars propose methods for detecting users’ online social circles. On the other hand, the social meanings and the tags of a social circle are also important for the analysis of a social circle. However, little work involves the tags discovery of social circles. This paper proposes an algorithm for social circle tag detection by multiple linear regression. The model solves the data sparse problem of tags in social circles and successfully combines different categories of features in social circles. We also redmap the concept of the social circle into "reference circles" of an academic paper. We evaluate our method in datasets of both Facebook and Microsoft Academic Search, and prove that it is more effective than other relevant methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Back-Off Time Calculation Algorithms in WSN
Informatics 2016, 3(2), 9; doi:10.3390/informatics3020009 -
Abstract
In a Mobile Wireless Sensor Mesh Network (MWSMN), based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, low power consumption is vitally important since the network devices are mostly battery driven. This is especially true for devices dependent on small form factors, such as those [...] Read more.
In a Mobile Wireless Sensor Mesh Network (MWSMN), based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, low power consumption is vitally important since the network devices are mostly battery driven. This is especially true for devices dependent on small form factors, such as those used in wireless sensor network. This paper proposes four new approaches to reduce the Back-Off Time in ZigBee standard in order to minimize the collisions caused by transmission between neighbouring nodes within the mesh network. The four alternate algorithms for the Back-Off Time calculation are compared to the ZigBee standard Back-Off Time algorithm regarding their energy needs using the simulation suite OPNET Modeler. To study the behaviour of the parameters of all algorithms in all scenarios, the statistical Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) has been used and it shows that the null hypotheses are rejected except for one case. The results show that the two passive algorithms Tabu Search and Simulated Annealing search techniques are suitable for battery-driven, energy-sensible networks. The Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) approaches increase throughput and reduce the packet loss but cost more in terms of energy due to the implementation of additional control packets. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first approach for MWSMN that uses the Swarm Intelligence technique and the search solution algorithm for the Back-Off Time optimization. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Choosing a Model for eConsult Specialist Remuneration: Factors to Consider
Informatics 2016, 3(2), 8; doi:10.3390/informatics3020008 -
Abstract
Electronic consultation (eConsult) is an innovative solution that allows specialists and primary care providers to communicate electronically, improving access to specialist care. Understanding the cost implications of different remuneration models available to pay specialists is of critical importance as adoption of these [...] Read more.
Electronic consultation (eConsult) is an innovative solution that allows specialists and primary care providers to communicate electronically, improving access to specialist care. Understanding the cost implications of different remuneration models available to pay specialists is of critical importance as adoption of these services continues to increase. We used data collected through the Champlain BASE (Building Access to Specialists through eConsultation) eConsult service to simulate the cost implications of different remuneration models in Canada. The prorated hourly rate model averaged $45.72 CAD (Canadian Dollar) per eConsult while the prorated hourly rate with incentive averaged $51.90 CAD per eConsult, and the fee for service cost $60.50 CAD per eConsult. Paying all specialty groups to block three hours per week for eConsults averaged $337.44 CAD per eConsult and paying for 1-h blocks averaged $133.41 CAD per eConsult. As the remuneration of specialists is the largest cost driver of an established eConsult service, our findings can inform policymakers considering the implementation of eConsult or wishing to further develop an existing service. Full article
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Open AccessConcept Paper
Developing and Improving Student Non-Technical Skills in IT Education: A Literature Review and Model
Informatics 2016, 3(2), 7; doi:10.3390/informatics3020007 -
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to identify portions of the literature in the areas of Information Technology (IT) management, skills development, and curriculum development that support the design of a holistic conceptual framework for instruction in non-technical skills within the IT [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to identify portions of the literature in the areas of Information Technology (IT) management, skills development, and curriculum development that support the design of a holistic conceptual framework for instruction in non-technical skills within the IT higher education context. This article review provides a framework for understanding how the critical success factors related to IT and Information Systems (IS) professional success is impacted by developing students’ non-technical skills. The article culminates in a holistic conceptual framework for developing non-technical skills within the IT higher education context. Implications for theory and research are provided. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Designing a Situational Awareness Information Display: Adopting an Affordance-Based Framework to Amplify User Experience in Environmental Interaction Design
Informatics 2016, 3(2), 6; doi:10.3390/informatics3020006 -
Abstract
User experience remains a crucial consideration when assessing the successfulness of information visualization systems. The theory of affordances provides a robust framework for user experience design. In this article, we demonstrate a design case that employs an affordance-based framework and evaluate the [...] Read more.
User experience remains a crucial consideration when assessing the successfulness of information visualization systems. The theory of affordances provides a robust framework for user experience design. In this article, we demonstrate a design case that employs an affordance-based framework and evaluate the information visualization display design. SolarWheels is an interactive information visualization designed for large display walls in computer network control rooms to help cybersecurity analysts become aware of network status and emerging issues. Given the critical nature of this context, the status and performance of a computer network must be precisely monitored and remedied in real time. In this study, we consider various aspects of affordances in order to amplify the user experience via visualization and interaction design. SolarWheels visualizes the multilayer multidimensional computer network issues with a series of integrated circular visualizations inspired by the metaphor of the solar system. To amplify user interaction and experience, the system provides a three-zone physical interaction that allows multiple users to interact with the system. Users can read details at different levels depending on their distance from the display. An expert evaluation study, based on a four-layer affordance framework, was conducted to assess and improve the interactive visualization design. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Gateway-Based Energy Holes Avoidance Routing Protocol for WSN
Informatics 2016, 3(2), 5; doi:10.3390/informatics3020005 -
Abstract
In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), efficient energy conservation is required to prolong the lifetime of the network. In this work, we have given emphasis on balanced energy consumption and energy holes avoidance. This paper proposes a multi-gateway-based approach to reduce the transmission [...] Read more.
In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), efficient energy conservation is required to prolong the lifetime of the network. In this work, we have given emphasis on balanced energy consumption and energy holes avoidance. This paper proposes a multi-gateway-based approach to reduce the transmission distance between the sender and the sink node. The area to be monitored is divided into regions and gateway nodes are deployed at optimal positions. We have designed a transmission scheme, in which sensors in the sink region communicate directly to the sink, sensors in the gateway region communicate directly to the gateway, and sensors in the cluster region transmit their data directly to their respective cluster head which transmits data to the gateway in its region. If the distance between a cluster head and the sink is less than the distance between the cluster head and the gateway node, the cluster head transmits data to the sink instead of the gateway node. We have compared the proposed protocol with Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH), Gateway Based Energy Aware Multi-Hop Routing (M-GEAR), and Gateway Based Stable Election Protocol (GSEP) protocols. The protocol performs better than other protocols in terms of throughput, stability period, lifetime, residual energy, and the packet transmitted to the sink. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Interactive Spatiotemporal Analysis of Oil Spills Using Comap in North Dakota
Informatics 2016, 3(2), 4; doi:10.3390/informatics3020004 -
Abstract
The aim of the study is to analyze the oil spill pattern from various types of incidents and contaminants to determine the extent that incident data can be used as a baseline to prevent hazardous material releases and improve response activities at [...] Read more.
The aim of the study is to analyze the oil spill pattern from various types of incidents and contaminants to determine the extent that incident data can be used as a baseline to prevent hazardous material releases and improve response activities at a state level. This study addresses the importance of collecting and sharing oil spill incidents as well as analytics using the data. Temporal, spatial and spatiotemporal analysis techniques are employed for the oil-spill related environmental incidents observed in the state of North Dakota, United States of America, from 2000 to 2014, as a result of the oil boom. Specifically, spatiotemporal methods are used to examine how the patterns of environmental incidents in North Dakota, which vary with the time of day, the day, the month, and the season. Results indicate that there were critical spatial and time variations in the distribution of environmental incidents. Application of spatiotemporal interaction visualization techniques, called comap has the potential to help planners and decision makers formulate policy to mitigate the risks associated with environmental incidents, improve safety, and allocate resources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Enabling Virtual Sensing as a Service
Informatics 2016, 3(2), 3; doi:10.3390/informatics3020003 -
Abstract
In many situations, placing a physical sensor in the ideal position in or on the human body to acquire sensing data is incredibly difficult. Virtual sensors, in contrast to physical sensors, can provide indirect measurements by making use of other available sensor [...] Read more.
In many situations, placing a physical sensor in the ideal position in or on the human body to acquire sensing data is incredibly difficult. Virtual sensors, in contrast to physical sensors, can provide indirect measurements by making use of other available sensor data. In this paper, we demonstrate a virtual sensing application developed as a service on top of a cloud-based health sensor data management platform called Wiki-Health. The proposed application “implants” virtual sensors in the human body by integrating environmental, geographic and personal sensor data with physiological models to compute temperature estimations of various parts of the body. The feasibility of the proposed virtual sensing service is supported by a case study. The ability to share computational models relevant to do calculations on measured data on the go is also discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Developing a Model of Distributed Sensemaking: A Case Study of Military Analysis
Informatics 2016, 3(1), 1; doi:10.3390/informatics3010001 -
Abstract
In this paper, we examine the role of representational artefacts in sensemaking. Embodied within representational media, such as maps, charts and lists, are a number of affordances, which can furnish sensemakers with the ability to perform tasks that may be difficult to [...] Read more.
In this paper, we examine the role of representational artefacts in sensemaking. Embodied within representational media, such as maps, charts and lists, are a number of affordances, which can furnish sensemakers with the ability to perform tasks that may be difficult to do inside the head. Presented here is a study of sensemaking in action. We conducted a study of military intelligence analysts carrying out a training exercise, the analysis of which focuses on the use of external task-specific representations. We present a discussion of the findings of our study in the form of a model of distributed sensemaking. Our model concentrates on the interaction of information and various representational artefacts, leading to the generation of insights and a situation picture. We also introduce a number of levels of description for examining the properties and affordances offered by representational artefacts and their role in the sensemaking process. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Conversion of Legal Text to a Logical Rules Set from Medical Law Using the Medical Relational Model and the World Rule Model for a Medical Decision Support System
Informatics 2016, 3(1), 2; doi:10.3390/informatics3010002 -
Abstract
Automated formalization of legal text is a time- and effort-consuming task, but human-based validation consumes even more of both. The exchange of healthcare data in compliance with the medical privacy law requires experts with deep familiarity of its intricate provisions for verification. [...] Read more.
Automated formalization of legal text is a time- and effort-consuming task, but human-based validation consumes even more of both. The exchange of healthcare data in compliance with the medical privacy law requires experts with deep familiarity of its intricate provisions for verification. The article presents a medical relational model (MRM) for the extraction of logical rules from medical law, required to design a medical decision support system (MDSS) that facilitates the process of exchanging data electronically with minimum human intervention. The division of medical law into small concept classes makes it easier to formalize the legal text of medical law into logical rules. These logical rules are then used to make a precise decision in compliance with the law, after evaluating requests from different entities for different purposes in MDSS. Our methodology is to analyze the legal text and release records in compliance with the medical law. For developing countries where medical laws are not as mature as HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) in the USA, the proposed methodology can be adapted to build their MDSS based on MRM. Full article
Open AccessReview
Storing the Wisdom: Chemical Concepts and Chemoinformatics
Informatics 2015, 2(4), 50-67; doi:10.3390/informatics2040050 -
Abstract
The purpose of the paper is to examine the nature of chemical concepts, and the ways in which they are applied in chemoinformatics systems. An account of concepts in philosophy and in the information sciences leads to an analysis of chemical concepts, [...] Read more.
The purpose of the paper is to examine the nature of chemical concepts, and the ways in which they are applied in chemoinformatics systems. An account of concepts in philosophy and in the information sciences leads to an analysis of chemical concepts, and their representation. The way in which concepts are applied in systems for information retrieval and for structure–property correlation are reviewed, and some issues noted. Attention is focused on the basic concepts or substance, reaction and property, on the organising concepts of chemical structure, structural similarity, periodicity, and on more specific concepts, including two- and three-dimensional structural patterns, reaction types, and property concepts. It is concluded that chemical concepts, despite (or perhaps because of) their vague and mutable nature, have considerable and continuing value in chemoinformatics, and that an increased formal treatment of concepts may have value in the future. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Skills and Vacancy Analysis with Data Mining Techniques
Informatics 2015, 2(4), 31-49; doi:10.3390/informatics2040031 -
Abstract
Through recognizing the importance of a qualified workforce, skills research has become one of the focal points in economics, sociology, and education. Great effort is dedicated to analyzing labor demand and supply, and actions are taken at many levels to match one [...] Read more.
Through recognizing the importance of a qualified workforce, skills research has become one of the focal points in economics, sociology, and education. Great effort is dedicated to analyzing labor demand and supply, and actions are taken at many levels to match one with the other. In this work we concentrate on skills needs, a dynamic variable dependent on many aspects such as geography, time, or the type of industry. Historically, skills in demand were easy to evaluate since transitions in that area were fairly slow, gradual, and easy to adjust to. In contrast, current changes are occurring rapidly and might take an unexpected turn. Therefore, we introduce a relatively simple yet effective method of monitoring skills needs straight from the source—as expressed by potential employers in their job advertisements. We employ open source tools such as RapidMiner and R as well as easily accessible online vacancy data. We demonstrate selected techniques, namely classification with k-NN and information extraction from a textual dataset, to determine effective ways of discovering knowledge from a given collection of vacancies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
MaPSeq, A Service-Oriented Architecture for Genomics Research within an Academic Biomedical Research Institution
Informatics 2015, 2(3), 20-30; doi:10.3390/informatics2030020 -
Abstract
Genomics research presents technical, computational, and analytical challenges that are well recognized. Less recognized are the complex sociological, psychological, cultural, and political challenges that arise when genomics research takes place within a large, decentralized academic institution. In this paper, we describe a [...] Read more.
Genomics research presents technical, computational, and analytical challenges that are well recognized. Less recognized are the complex sociological, psychological, cultural, and political challenges that arise when genomics research takes place within a large, decentralized academic institution. In this paper, we describe a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)—MaPSeq—that was conceptualized and designed to meet the diverse and evolving computational workflow needs of genomics researchers at our large, hospital-affiliated, academic research institution. We present the institutional challenges that motivated the design of MaPSeq before describing the architecture and functionality of MaPSeq. We then discuss SOA solutions and conclude that approaches such as MaPSeq enable efficient and effective computational workflow execution for genomics research and for any type of academic biomedical research that requires complex, computationally-intense workflows. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Human–Information Interaction with Complex Information for Decision-Making
Informatics 2015, 2(2), 4-19; doi:10.3390/informatics2020004 -
Abstract
Human–information interaction (HII) for simple information and for complex information is different because people’s goals and information needs differ between the two cases. With complex information, comprehension comes from understanding the relationships and interactions within the information and factors outside of a [...] Read more.
Human–information interaction (HII) for simple information and for complex information is different because people’s goals and information needs differ between the two cases. With complex information, comprehension comes from understanding the relationships and interactions within the information and factors outside of a design team’s control. Yet, a design team must consider all these within an HII design in order to maximize the communication potential. This paper considers how simple and complex information requires different design strategies and how those strategies differ. Full article