Open AccessReview
The Potential of Targeting Ribosome Biogenesis in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 210; doi:10.3390/ijms18010210 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Overall survival for patients with ovarian cancer (OC) has shown little improvement for decades meaning new therapeutic options are critical. OC comprises multiple histological subtypes, of which the most common and aggressive subtype is high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). HGSOC is characterized by
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Overall survival for patients with ovarian cancer (OC) has shown little improvement for decades meaning new therapeutic options are critical. OC comprises multiple histological subtypes, of which the most common and aggressive subtype is high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). HGSOC is characterized by genomic structural variations with relatively few recurrent somatic mutations or dominantly acting oncogenes that can be targeted for the development of novel therapies. However, deregulation of pathways controlling homologous recombination (HR) and ribosome biogenesis has been observed in a high proportion of HGSOC, raising the possibility that targeting these basic cellular processes may provide improved patient outcomes. The poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor olaparib has been approved to treat women with defects in HR due to germline BRCA mutations. Recent evidence demonstrated the efficacy of targeting ribosome biogenesis with the specific inhibitor of ribosomal RNA synthesis, CX-5461 in v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC)-driven haematological and prostate cancers. CX-5461 has now progressed to a phase I clinical trial in patients with haematological malignancies and phase I/II trial in breast cancer. Here we review the currently available targeted therapies for HGSOC and discuss the potential of targeting ribosome biogenesis as a novel therapeutic approach against HGSOC. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Adipose Tissue in Clinical Applications for Dermatological Indications and Skin Aging
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 208; doi:10.3390/ijms18010208 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Operating at multiple levels of control, mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (ADSCs) communicate with organ systems to adjust immune response, provide signals for differentiation, migration, enzymatic reactions, and to equilibrate the regenerative demands of balanced tissue homeostasis. The identification of the mechanisms
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Operating at multiple levels of control, mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (ADSCs) communicate with organ systems to adjust immune response, provide signals for differentiation, migration, enzymatic reactions, and to equilibrate the regenerative demands of balanced tissue homeostasis. The identification of the mechanisms by which ADSCs accomplish these functions for dermatological rejuvenation and wound healing has great potential to identify novel targets for the treatment of disorders and combat aging. Herein, we review new insights into the role of adipose-derived stem cells in the maintenance of dermal and epidermal homeostasis, and recent advances in clinical applications of ADSCs related to dermatology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modulation of the Unfolded Protein Response by Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid Counteracts Apoptotic Cell Death and Fibrosis in a Mouse Model for Secondary Biliary Liver Fibrosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 214; doi:10.3390/ijms18010214 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The role of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cholestatic liver disease and fibrosis is not fully unraveled. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a hydrophilic bile acid, has been shown to reduce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and counteract apoptosis in different
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The role of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cholestatic liver disease and fibrosis is not fully unraveled. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a hydrophilic bile acid, has been shown to reduce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and counteract apoptosis in different pathologies. We aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of TUDCA in experimental secondary biliary liver fibrosis in mice, induced by common bile duct ligation. The kinetics of the hepatic UPR and apoptosis during the development of biliary fibrosis was studied by measuring markers at six different timepoints post-surgery by qPCR and Western blot. Next, we investigated the therapeutic potential of TUDCA, 10 mg/kg/day in drinking water, on liver damage (AST/ALT levels) and fibrosis (Sirius red-staining), in both a preventive and therapeutic setting. Common bile duct ligation resulted in the increased protein expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) at all timepoints, along with upregulation of pro-apoptotic caspase 3 and 12, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1A (TNFRsf1a) and Fas-Associated protein with Death Domain (FADD) expression. Treatment with TUDCA led to a significant reduction of liver fibrosis, accompanied by a slight reduction of liver damage, decreased hepatic protein expression of CHOP and reduced gene and protein expression of pro-apoptotic markers. These data indicate that TUDCA exerts a beneficial effect on liver fibrosis in a model of cholestatic liver disease, and suggest that this effect might, at least in part, be attributed to decreased hepatic UPR signaling and apoptotic cell death. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Coordinated Actions of Glyoxalase and Antioxidant Defense Systems in Conferring Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 200; doi:10.3390/ijms18010200 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Being sessile organisms, plants are frequently exposed to various environmental stresses that cause several physiological disorders and even death. Oxidative stress is one of the common consequences of abiotic stress in plants, which is caused by excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
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Being sessile organisms, plants are frequently exposed to various environmental stresses that cause several physiological disorders and even death. Oxidative stress is one of the common consequences of abiotic stress in plants, which is caused by excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sometimes ROS production exceeds the capacity of antioxidant defense systems, which leads to oxidative stress. In line with ROS, plants also produce a high amount of methylglyoxal (MG), which is an α-oxoaldehyde compound, highly reactive, cytotoxic, and produced via different enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. This MG can impair cells or cell components and can even destroy DNA or cause mutation. Under stress conditions, MG concentration in plants can be increased 2- to 6-fold compared with normal conditions depending on the plant species. However, plants have a system developed to detoxify this MG consisting of two major enzymes: glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II), and hence known as the glyoxalase system. Recently, a novel glyoxalase enzyme, named glyoxalase III (Gly III), has been detected in plants, providing a shorter pathway for MG detoxification, which is also a signpost in the research of abiotic stress tolerance. Glutathione (GSH) acts as a co-factor for this system. Therefore, this system not only detoxifies MG but also plays a role in maintaining GSH homeostasis and subsequent ROS detoxification. Upregulation of both Gly I and Gly II as well as their overexpression in plant species showed enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses including salinity, drought, metal toxicity, and extreme temperature. In the past few decades, a considerable amount of reports have indicated that both antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems have strong interactions in conferring abiotic stress tolerance in plants through the detoxification of ROS and MG. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of these interactions and the coordinated action of these systems towards stress tolerance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reprogramming Methods Do Not Affect Gene Expression Profile of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 206; doi:10.3390/ijms18010206 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are pluripotent cells derived from adult somatic cells. After the pioneering work by Yamanaka, who first generated iPSCs by retroviral transduction of four reprogramming factors, several alternative methods to obtain iPSCs have been developed in order to increase
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Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are pluripotent cells derived from adult somatic cells. After the pioneering work by Yamanaka, who first generated iPSCs by retroviral transduction of four reprogramming factors, several alternative methods to obtain iPSCs have been developed in order to increase the yield and safety of the process. However, the question remains open on whether the different reprogramming methods can influence the pluripotency features of the derived lines. In this study, three different strategies, based on retroviral vectors, episomal vectors, and Sendai virus vectors, were applied to derive iPSCs from human fibroblasts. The reprogramming efficiency of the methods based on episomal and Sendai virus vectors was higher than that of the retroviral vector-based approach. All human iPSC clones derived with the different methods showed the typical features of pluripotent stem cells, including the expression of alkaline phosphatase and stemness maker genes, and could give rise to the three germ layer derivatives upon embryoid bodies assay. Microarray analysis confirmed the presence of typical stem cell gene expression profiles in all iPSC clones and did not identify any significant difference among reprogramming methods. In conclusion, the use of different reprogramming methods is equivalent and does not affect gene expression profile of the derived human iPSCs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Metabolic Response of Human Osteoarthritic Cartilage to Biochemically Characterized Collagen Hydrolysates
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 207; doi:10.3390/ijms18010207 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The most frequent disease of the locomotor system is osteoarthritis (OA), which, as a chronic joint disease, might benefit more from nutrition than acute illnesses. Collagen hydrolysates (CHs) are peptidic mixtures that are often used as nutraceuticals for OA. Three CHs were characterized
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The most frequent disease of the locomotor system is osteoarthritis (OA), which, as a chronic joint disease, might benefit more from nutrition than acute illnesses. Collagen hydrolysates (CHs) are peptidic mixtures that are often used as nutraceuticals for OA. Three CHs were characterized biochemically and pharmacologically. Our biophysical (MALDI-TOF-MS, NMR, AFM) and fluorescence assays revealed marked differences between CHs of fish (Peptan® F 5000, Peptan® F 2000) and porcine (Mobiforte®) origin with respect to the total number of peptides and common peptides between them. Using a novel dual radiolabeling procedure, no CH modulated collagen biosynthesis in human knee cartilage explants. Peptan® F 2000 enhanced the activities of the aggrecanase ADMATS4 and ADMATS5 in vitro without loss of proteoglycan from cartilage explants; the opposite effect was observed with Mobiforte®. Interleukin (IL)-6, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -3 and -13 levels were elevated in explants that were treated with Mobiforte® and Peptan® F 5000, but not with Peptan® F 2000. In conclusion, the heterogeneous peptide composition and disparate pharmacological effects between CHs suggest that the effect of a CH preparation cannot be extrapolated to other formulations. Thus, the declaration of a CH as a safe and effective nutraceutical requires a thorough examination of its pleiotropic effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
F-Box Protein FBXO22 Mediates Polyubiquitination and Degradation of CD147 to Reverse Cisplatin Resistance of Tumor Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 212; doi:10.3390/ijms18010212 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Drug resistance remains a major clinical obstacle to successful treatment of cancer. As posttranslational modification is becoming widely recognized to affect the function of oncoproteins, targeting specific posttranslational protein modification provides an attractive strategy for anticancer drug development. CD147 is a transmembrane glycoprotein
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Drug resistance remains a major clinical obstacle to successful treatment of cancer. As posttranslational modification is becoming widely recognized to affect the function of oncoproteins, targeting specific posttranslational protein modification provides an attractive strategy for anticancer drug development. CD147 is a transmembrane glycoprotein contributing to chemo-resistance of cancer cells in a variety of human malignancies. Ubiquitination is an important posttranslational modification mediating protein degradation. Degradation of oncoproteins, CD147 included, emerges as an attractive alternative for tumor inhibition. However, the ubiquitination of CD147 remains elusive. Here in this study, we found that deletion of the CD147 intracellular domain (CD147-ICD) prolonged the half-life of CD147 in HEK293T cells, and we identified that CD147-ICD interacts with FBXO22 using mass spectrometry and Western blot. Then, we demonstrated that FBXO22 mediates the polyubiquitination and degradation of CD147 by recognizing CD147-ICD. While knocking down of FBXO22 prolonged the half-life of CD147 in HEK293T cells, we found that FBXO22 regulates CD147 protein turnover in SMMC-7721, Huh-7 and A549 cells. Moreover, we found that the low level of FBXO22 contributes to the accumulation of CD147 and thereafter the cisplatin resistance of A549/DDP cells. To conclude, our study demonstrated that FBXO22 mediated the polyubiquitination and degradation of CD147 by interacting with CD147-ICD, and CD147 polyubiquitination by FBXO22 reversed cisplatin resistance of tumor cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanism Governing Human Kappa-Opioid Receptor Expression under Desferrioxamine-Induced Hypoxic Mimic Condition in Neuronal NMB Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 211; doi:10.3390/ijms18010211 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Cellular adaptation to hypoxia is a protective mechanism for neurons and relevant to cancer. Treatment with desferrioxamine (DFO) to induce hypoxia reduced the viability of human neuronal NMB cells. Surviving/attached cells exhibited profound increases of expression of the human kappa-opioid receptor (hKOR) and
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Cellular adaptation to hypoxia is a protective mechanism for neurons and relevant to cancer. Treatment with desferrioxamine (DFO) to induce hypoxia reduced the viability of human neuronal NMB cells. Surviving/attached cells exhibited profound increases of expression of the human kappa-opioid receptor (hKOR) and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). The functional relationship between hKOR and HIF-1α was investigated using RT-PCR, Western blot, luciferase reporter, mutagenesis, siRNA and receptor-ligand binding assays. In surviving neurons, DFO increased HIF-1α expression and its amount in the nucleus. DFO also dramatically increased hKOR expression. Two (designated as HIFC and D) out of four potential HIF response elements of the hKOR gene (HIFA–D) synergistically mediated the DFO response. Mutation of both elements completely abolished the DFO-induced effect. The CD11 plasmid (containing HIFC and D with an 11 bp spacing) produced greater augmentation than that of the CD17 plasmid (HIFC and D with a 17 bp-spacing), suggesting that a proper topological interaction of these elements synergistically enhanced the promoter activity. HIF-1α siRNA knocked down the increase of endogenous HIF-1α messages and diminished the DFO-induced increase of hKOR expression. Increased hKOR expression resulted in the up-regulation of hKOR protein. In conclusion, the adaptation of neuronal hKOR under hypoxia was governed by HIF-1, revealing a new mechanism of hKOR regulation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Integrated MicroRNA–mRNA Profiling Identifies Oncostatin M as a Marker of Mesenchymal-Like ER-Negative/HER2-Negative Breast Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 194; doi:10.3390/ijms18010194 -
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) simultaneously modulate different oncogenic networks, establishing a dynamic system of gene expression and pathway regulation. In this study, we analyzed global miRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiles of 17 cell lines representing different molecular breast cancer subtypes. Spearman’s rank correlation
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) simultaneously modulate different oncogenic networks, establishing a dynamic system of gene expression and pathway regulation. In this study, we analyzed global miRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiles of 17 cell lines representing different molecular breast cancer subtypes. Spearman’s rank correlation test was used to evaluate the correlation between miRNA and mRNA expression. Hierarchical clustering and pathway analysis were also performed. Publicly available gene expression profiles (n = 699) and tumor tissues (n = 80) were analyzed to assess the relevance of key miRNA-regulated pathways in human breast cancer. We identified 39 significantly deregulated miRNAs, and the integration between miRNA and mRNA data revealed the importance of immune-related pathways, particularly the Oncostatin M (OSM) signaling, associated with mesenchymal-like breast cancer cells. OSM levels correlated with genes involved in the inflammatory response, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling in human estrogen receptor (ER)-negative/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer. Our results suggest that the deregulation of specific miRNAs may cooperatively impair immune and EMT pathways. The identification of the OSM inflammatory pathway as an important mediator of EMT in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) may provide a novel potential opportunity to improve therapeutic strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of the MUC2 Promoter as a Strong Promoter for Intestinal Gene Expression through Generation of Transgenic Quail Expressing GFP in Gut Epithelial Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 196; doi:10.3390/ijms18010196 -
Abstract
Identification of tissue- and stage-specific gene promoters is valuable for delineating the functional roles of specific genes in genetically engineered animals. Here, through the comparison of gene expression in different tissues by analysis of a microarray database, the intestinal specificity of mucin 2
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Identification of tissue- and stage-specific gene promoters is valuable for delineating the functional roles of specific genes in genetically engineered animals. Here, through the comparison of gene expression in different tissues by analysis of a microarray database, the intestinal specificity of mucin 2 (MUC2) expression was identified in mice and humans, and further confirmed in chickens by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) analysis. An analysis of cis-acting elements in avian MUC2 gene promoters revealed conservation of binding sites, within a 2.9 kb proximal promoter region, for transcription factors such as caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2), GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 α (HNF4A), and transcription factor 4 (TCF4) that are important for maintaining intestinal homeostasis and functional integrity. By generating transgenic quail, we demonstrated that the 2.9 kb chicken MUC2 promoter could drive green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter expression exclusively in the small intestine, large intestine, and ceca. Fluorescence image analysis further revealed GFP expression in intestine epithelial cells. The GFP expression was barely detectable in the embryonic intestine, but increased during post-hatch development. The spatiotemporal expression pattern of the reporter gene confirmed that the 2.9 kb MUC2 promoter could retain the regulatory element to drive expression of target genes in intestinal tissues after hatching. This new transgene expression system, using the MUC2 promoter, will provide a new method of overexpressing target genes to study gene function in the avian intestine. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Colorectal Carcinoma: A General Overview and Future Perspectives in Colorectal Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 197; doi:10.3390/ijms18010197 -
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death. Most cases of CRC are detected in Western countries, with its incidence increasing year by year. The probability of suffering from colorectal cancer is about
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death. Most cases of CRC are detected in Western countries, with its incidence increasing year by year. The probability of suffering from colorectal cancer is about 4%–5% and the risk for developing CRC is associated with personal features or habits such as age, chronic disease history and lifestyle. In this context, the gut microbiota has a relevant role, and dysbiosis situations can induce colonic carcinogenesis through a chronic inflammation mechanism. Some of the bacteria responsible for this multiphase process include Fusobacterium spp, Bacteroides fragilis and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. CRC is caused by mutations that target oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes and genes related to DNA repair mechanisms. Depending on the origin of the mutation, colorectal carcinomas can be classified as sporadic (70%); inherited (5%) and familial (25%). The pathogenic mechanisms leading to this situation can be included in three types, namely chromosomal instability (CIN), microsatellite instability (MSI) and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). Within these types of CRC, common mutations, chromosomal changes and translocations have been reported to affect important pathways (WNT, MAPK/PI3K, TGF-β, TP53), and mutations; in particular, genes such as c-MYC, KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, PTEN, SMAD2 and SMAD4 can be used as predictive markers for patient outcome. In addition to gene mutations, alterations in ncRNAs, such as lncRNA or miRNA, can also contribute to different steps of the carcinogenesis process and have a predictive value when used as biomarkers. In consequence, different panels of genes and mRNA are being developed to improve prognosis and treatment selection. The choice of first-line treatment in CRC follows a multimodal approach based on tumour-related characteristics and usually comprises surgical resection followed by chemotherapy combined with monoclonal antibodies or proteins against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth receptor (EGFR). Besides traditional chemotherapy, alternative therapies (such as agarose tumour macrobeads, anti-inflammatory drugs, probiotics, and gold-based drugs) are currently being studied to increase treatment effectiveness and reduce side effects. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Neuroprotective Strategy in Retinal Degeneration: Suppressing ER Stress-Induced Cell Death via Inhibition of the mTOR Signal
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 201; doi:10.3390/ijms18010201 -
Abstract
The retina is a specialized sensory organ, which is essential for light detection and visual formation in the human eye. Inherited retinal degenerations are a heterogeneous group of eye diseases that can eventually cause permanent vision loss. UPR (unfolded protein response) and ER
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The retina is a specialized sensory organ, which is essential for light detection and visual formation in the human eye. Inherited retinal degenerations are a heterogeneous group of eye diseases that can eventually cause permanent vision loss. UPR (unfolded protein response) and ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress plays an important role in the pathological mechanism of retinal degenerative diseases. mTOR (the mammalian target of rapamycin) kinase, as a signaling hub, controls many cellular processes, covering protein synthesis, RNA translation, ER stress, and apoptosis. Here, the hypothesis that inhibition of mTOR signaling suppresses ER stress-induced cell death in retinal degenerative disorders is discussed. This review surveys knowledge of the influence of mTOR signaling on ER stress arising from misfolded proteins and genetic mutations in retinal degenerative diseases and highlights potential neuroprotective strategies for treatment and therapeutic implications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bajijiasu Abrogates Osteoclast Differentiation via the Suppression of RANKL Signaling Pathways through NF-κB and NFAT
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 203; doi:10.3390/ijms18010203 -
Abstract
Pathological osteolysis is commonly associated with osteoporosis, bone tumors, osteonecrosis, and chronic inflammation. It involves excessive resorption of bone matrix by activated osteoclasts. Suppressing receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) signaling pathways has been proposed to be a good target for inhibiting osteoclast
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Pathological osteolysis is commonly associated with osteoporosis, bone tumors, osteonecrosis, and chronic inflammation. It involves excessive resorption of bone matrix by activated osteoclasts. Suppressing receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) signaling pathways has been proposed to be a good target for inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Bajijiasu—a natural compound derived from Morinda officinalis F. C. How—has previously been shown to have anti-oxidative stress property; however, its effect and molecular mechanism of action on osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption remains unclear. In the present study, we found that Bajijiasu dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption from 0.1 mM, and reached half maximal inhibitory effects (IC50) at 0.4 mM without toxicity. Expression of RANKL-induced osteoclast specific marker genes including cathepsin K (Ctsk), nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP), vacuolar-type H+-ATPase V0 subunit D2 (V-ATPase d2), and (matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) was inhibited by Bajijiasu treatment. Luciferase reporter gene studies showed that Bajijiasu could significantly reduce the expression and transcriptional activity of NFAT as well as RANKL-induced NF-κB activation in a dose-dependent manner. Further, Bajijiasu was found to decrease the RANKL-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), inhibitor of κB-α (IκB-α), NFAT, and V-ATPase d2. Taken together, this study revealed Bajijiasu could attenuate osteoclast formation and bone resorption by mediating RANKL signaling pathways, indicative of a potential effect of Bajijiasu on osteolytic bone diseases. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Advances in Monitoring Cell-Based Therapies with Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Future Perspectives
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 198; doi:10.3390/ijms18010198 -
Abstract
Cell-based therapies are currently being developed for applications in both regenerative medicine and in oncology. Preclinical, translational, and clinical research on cell-based therapies will benefit tremendously from novel imaging approaches that enable the effective monitoring of the delivery, survival, migration, biodistribution, and integration
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Cell-based therapies are currently being developed for applications in both regenerative medicine and in oncology. Preclinical, translational, and clinical research on cell-based therapies will benefit tremendously from novel imaging approaches that enable the effective monitoring of the delivery, survival, migration, biodistribution, and integration of transplanted cells. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers several advantages over other imaging modalities for elucidating the fate of transplanted cells both preclinically and clinically. These advantages include the ability to image transplanted cells longitudinally at high spatial resolution without exposure to ionizing radiation, and the possibility to co-register anatomical structures with molecular processes and functional changes. However, since cellular MRI is still in its infancy, it currently faces a number of challenges, which provide avenues for future research and development. In this review, we describe the basic principle of cell-tracking with MRI; explain the different approaches currently used to monitor cell-based therapies; describe currently available MRI contrast generation mechanisms and strategies for monitoring transplanted cells; discuss some of the challenges in tracking transplanted cells; and suggest future research directions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Temperature on Transdermal Penetration Enhancing Mechanism of Borneol: A Multi-Scale Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 195; doi:10.3390/ijms18010195 -
Abstract
The influence of temperature on the transdermal permeation enhancing mechanism of borneol (BO) was investigated using a multi-scale method, containing a coarse-grained molecular dynamic (CG-MD) simulation, an in vitro permeation experiment, and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) study. The results showed that BO
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The influence of temperature on the transdermal permeation enhancing mechanism of borneol (BO) was investigated using a multi-scale method, containing a coarse-grained molecular dynamic (CG-MD) simulation, an in vitro permeation experiment, and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) study. The results showed that BO has the potential to be used as a transdermal penetration enhancer to help osthole (OST) penetrate into the bilayer. With the increasing temperature, the stratum corneum (SC) becomes more flexible, proving to be synergistic with the permeation enhancement of BO, and the lag time (TLag) of BO and OST are shortened. However, when the temperature increased too much, with the effect of BO, the structure of SC was destroyed; for example, a water pore was formed and the micelle reversed. Though there were a number of drugs coming into the SC, the normal bilayer structure was absent. In addition, through comparing the simulation, in vitro experiment, and TEM study, we concluded that the computer simulation provided some visually detailed information, and the method plays an important role in related studies of permeation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Highly Expression of CD11b and CD32 on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Patients with Adult-Onset Still’s Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 202; doi:10.3390/ijms18010202 -
Abstract
Background: We investigated the potential role of several pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs; CD11b, CD11c, CD32, CD206, CD209, and dectin-1) in adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD). Methods: The study included 13 untreated AOSD patients, 19 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients (as a disease control), and 19 healthy
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Background: We investigated the potential role of several pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs; CD11b, CD11c, CD32, CD206, CD209, and dectin-1) in adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD). Methods: The study included 13 untreated AOSD patients, 19 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients (as a disease control), and 19 healthy controls (HCs). The PRRs were quantified in peripheral blood using flow cytometry. The serum levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-18, and IL-23 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Significantly higher mean frequencies of cells presenting CD11b and CD32 from whole blood were observed in patients with AOSD than in patients with RA or HC. The levels of IL-17, IL-18, and IL-23 were elevated in AOSD patients compared to HCs. CD11b frequencies from whole cells correlated with systemic scores, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, aspartate transaminase levels, interleukin-23 (IL-23) levels, and IL-18. Frequencies of CD209 from granulocytes were significantly correlated with systemic scores, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and levels of C-reactive protein, ferritin, LDH, IL-23, and interleukin-18 (IL-18). Conclusions: Elevated frequencies of circulating CD11b-positive cells and positive correlations with disease activity markers suggest that circulating CD11b-positive cells contribute to the pathogenesis of AOSD. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Post-Translational Modifications of the TAK1-TAB Complex
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 205; doi:10.3390/ijms18010205 -
Abstract
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) family that is activated by growth factors and cytokines such as TGF-β, IL-1β, and TNF-α, and mediates a wide range of biological processes through activation
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Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) family that is activated by growth factors and cytokines such as TGF-β, IL-1β, and TNF-α, and mediates a wide range of biological processes through activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways. It is well established that activation status of TAK1 is tightly regulated by forming a complex with its binding partners, TAK1-binding proteins (TAB1, TAB2, and TAB3). Interestingly, recent evidence indicates the importance of post-translational modifications (PTMs) of TAK1 and TABs in the regulation of TAK1 activation. To date, a number of PTMs of TAK1 and TABs have been revealed, and these PTMs appear to fine-tune and coordinate TAK1 activities depending on the cellular context. This review therefore focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the PTMs of the TAK1-TAB complex. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Competition between Methanogens and Acetogens in Biocathodes: A Comparison between Potentiostatic and Galvanostatic Control
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 204; doi:10.3390/ijms18010204 -
Abstract
Microbial electrosynthesis is a useful form of technology for the renewable production of organic commodities from biologically catalyzed reduction of CO2. However, for the technology to become applicable, process selectivity, stability and efficiency need strong improvement. Here we report on the
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Microbial electrosynthesis is a useful form of technology for the renewable production of organic commodities from biologically catalyzed reduction of CO2. However, for the technology to become applicable, process selectivity, stability and efficiency need strong improvement. Here we report on the effect of different electrochemical control modes (potentiostatic/galvanostatic) on both the start-up characteristics and steady-state performance of biocathodes using a non-enriched mixed-culture inoculum. Based on our results, it seems that kinetic differences exist between the two dominant functional microbial groups (i.e., homoacetogens and methanogens) and that by applying different current densities, these differences may be exploited to steer product selectivity and reactor performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tumor-Derived Tissue Factor Aberrantly Activates Complement and Facilitates Lung Tumor Progression via Recruitment of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 22; doi:10.3390/ijms18010022 -
Abstract
The initiator of extrinsic coagulation, tissue factor (TF), and its non-coagulant isoform alternatively spliced TF (asTF) are closely associated with tumor development. In the tumor microenvironment, the role of TF-induced coagulation in tumor progression remains to be fully elucidated. Using TF-knockdown lung tumor
[...] Read more.
The initiator of extrinsic coagulation, tissue factor (TF), and its non-coagulant isoform alternatively spliced TF (asTF) are closely associated with tumor development. In the tumor microenvironment, the role of TF-induced coagulation in tumor progression remains to be fully elucidated. Using TF-knockdown lung tumor cells, we showed that TF is the dominant component of procoagulant activity but is dispensable in the cellular biology of tumor cells. In a xenograft model, using immunohistochemical analysis and flow cytometry analysis of the tumor microenvironment, we demonstrated that TF-induced fibrin deposition, which is correlated with complement activation and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) recruitment, is positively associated with tumor progression. C5aR antagonism blunted the effect of TF on tumor progression and decreased MDSC recruitment. In conclusion, our data suggested that in tumor microenvironment, TF-induced coagulation activated the complement system and subsequently recruited myeloid-derived suppressor cells to promote tumor growth, which brings new insights into the coagulation-induced complement activation within the tumor microenvironment during tumor progression. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lipid and Glycolipid Isomer Analyses Using Ultra-High Resolution Ion Mobility Spectrometry Separations
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 183; doi:10.3390/ijms18010183 -
Abstract
Understanding the biological roles and mechanisms of lipids and glycolipids is challenging due to the vast number of possible isomers that may exist. Mass spectrometry (MS) measurements are currently the dominant approach for studying and providing detailed information on lipid and glycolipid presence
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Understanding the biological roles and mechanisms of lipids and glycolipids is challenging due to the vast number of possible isomers that may exist. Mass spectrometry (MS) measurements are currently the dominant approach for studying and providing detailed information on lipid and glycolipid presence and changes. However, difficulties in distinguishing the many structural isomers, due to the distinct lipid acyl chain positions, double bond locations or specific glycan types, inhibit the delineation and assignment of their biological roles. Here we utilized ultra-high resolution ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) separations by applying traveling waves in a serpentine multi-pass Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM) platform to enhance the separation of selected lipid and glycolipid isomers. The multi-pass arrangement allowed the investigation of paths ranging from ~16 m (one pass) to ~60 m (four passes) for the distinction of lipids and glycolipids with extremely small structural differences. These ultra-high resolution SLIM IMS-MS analyses provide a foundation for exploring and better understanding isomer-specific biological activities and disease processes. Full article
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