Int. J. Mol. Sci.2014, 15(7), 13123-13134; doi:10.3390/ijms150713123 (doi registration under processing) - published online 23 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Cholesteryl group-modified tilapia gelatins (Chol-T-Gltns) with various Chol contents from 3 to 69 mol % per amino group of Gltn were prepared for the assembly of liposomes and cells. Liposomes were physically crosslinked by anchoring Chol groups of Chol-T-Gltns into lipid membranes. The resulting liposome gels were enzymatically degraded by addition of collagenase. Liposome gels prepared using Chol-T-Gltn with high Chol content (69Chol-T-Gltn) showed slower enzymatic degradation when compared with gels prepared using Chol-T-Gltn with low Chol content (3Chol-T-Gltn). The hepatocyte cell line HepG2 showed good assembly properties and no cytotoxic effects after addition of 69Chol-T-Gltns. In addition, the number of HepG2 cells increased with concentration of 69Chol-T-Gltns. Therefore, Chol-T-Gltn, particularly, 69Chol-T-Gltn, can be used as an assembling material for liposomes and various cell types. The resulting organization can be applied to various biomedical fields, such as drug delivery systems, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
Int. J. Mol. Sci.2014, 15(7), 13111-13122; doi:10.3390/ijms150713111 (doi registration under processing) - published online 23 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Genomic DNA is under constant assault by endogenous and exogenous DNA damaging agents. DNA breakage can represent a major threat to genome integrity but can also be necessary for genome function. Here we present approaches to map DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and single-strand breaks (SSBs) at the genome-wide scale by two methods called DSB- and SSB-Seq, respectively. We tested these methods in human colon cancer cells and validated the results using the Topoisomerase II (Top2)-poisoning agent etoposide (ETO). Our results show that the combination of ETO treatment with break-mapping techniques is a powerful method to elaborate the pattern of Top2 enzymatic activity across the genome.
Int. J. Mol. Sci.2014, 15(7), 13091-13110; doi:10.3390/ijms150713091 (doi registration under processing) - published online 23 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Wound healing plays an important role in protecting the human body from external infection. Cell migration and proliferation of keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts are essential for proper wound healing. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that secondary compounds produced in plants could affect skin cells migration and proliferation. In this study, we identified a novel compound DK223 ([1E,2E-1,2-bis(6-methoxy-2H-chromen-3-yl)methylene]hydrazine) that concomitantly induced human keratinocyte migration and dermal fibroblast proliferation. We evaluated the regulation of epithelial and mesenchymal protein markers, such as E-cadherin and Vimentin, in human keratinocytes, as well as extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion and metalloproteinase families in dermal fibroblasts. DK223 upregulated keratinocyte migration and significantly increased the epithelial marker E-cadherin in a time-dependent manner. We also found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased significantly in keratinocytes after 2 h of DK223 exposure, returning to normal levels after 24 h, which indicated that DK223 had an early shock effect on ROS production. DK223 also stimulated fibroblast proliferation, and induced significant secretion of ECM proteins, such as collagen I, III, and fibronectin. In dermal fibroblasts, DK223 treatment induced TGF-β1, which is involved in a signaling pathway that mediates proliferation. In conclusion, DK223 simultaneously induced both keratinocyte migration via ROS production and fibroblast proliferation via TGF-β1 induction.
Int. J. Mol. Sci.2014, 15(7), 13077-13090; doi:10.3390/ijms150713077 (doi registration under processing) - published online 23 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The present study was conducted in order to assess the effect of various doses of acute gamma irradiation (0, 10, 15, and 20 Gy) on the improvement of bioactive compounds and their antioxidant properties of Curcuma alismatifolia var. Sweet pink. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) analysis uncovered that various types of phenolic, flavonoid compounds, and fatty acids gradually altered in response to radiation doses. On the other hand, antioxidant activities determined by 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reduction, antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay showed a higher irradiation level significantly increased the antioxidant properties. This study revealed an efficient effect of varying levels of gamma radiation, based on the pharmaceutical demand to enhance the accumulation and distribution of bioactive compounds such as phenolic and flavonoid compounds, fatty acids, as well as their antioxidant activities in the leaves of C. alismatifolia var. Sweet pink.
Int. J. Mol. Sci.2014, 15(7), 13060-13076; doi:10.3390/ijms150713060 (doi registration under processing) - published online 23 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most frequent renal tumor and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Tumor angiogenesis is known to play a crucial role in the etiopathogenesis of RCC and over the last few years an even deeper knowledge of its contribution in metastatic RCC development has led to the development of numerous molecular targeting agents (such as sunitinib, sorafenib, pazopanib, axitinib, tivozanib, and dovitinib). The above agents are principally directed against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) members and also against c-Kit receptor (c-KitR). The role of c-kitR inhibition on clear cell RCC (ccRCC), the main RCC subtype, is less well established. Whether c-kitR activation through its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF) contributes significantly to the effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) treatment remains to be established. It is important to underscore that the c-KitR is expressed on mast cells (MCs) and cancer cells. After an examination of the c-KitR/SCF pathway, we review here the principal studies that have evaluated c-Kit expression in RCC. Moreover, we summarize some investigations that have observed the distribution of MCs in primary renal cancer and in adjacent normal tissue with appropriate histological immunohistochemical techniques. We also focus on few studies that have evaluated the correlation between RCC proliferation, MC count and microvessel density (MVD), as hallmarks of tumor angiogenesis. Thus, the aim of this review of the literature is to clarify if c-KitR expression, MC count and MVD could have prognostic significance and the possible predictive therapeutic implications in RCC.
Int. J. Mol. Sci.2014, 15(7), 13045-13059; doi:10.3390/ijms150713045 (doi registration under processing) - published online 23 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Unclassified variants (UV) of BRCA1 can affect normal pre-mRNA splicing. Here, we investigate the UV c.693G>A, a “silent” change in BRCA1 exon 11, which we have found induces aberrant splicing in patient carriers and in vitro. Using a minigene assay, we show that the UV c.693G>A has a strong effect on the splicing isoform ratio of BRCA1. Systematic site-directed mutagenesis of the area surrounding the nucleotide position c.693G>A induced variable changes in the level of exon 11 inclusion/exclusion in the mRNA, pointing to the presence of a complex regulatory element with overlapping enhancer and silencer functions. Accordingly, protein binding analysis in the region detected several splicing regulatory factors involved, including SRSF1, SRSF6 and SRSF9, suggesting that this sequence represents a composite regulatory element of splicing (CERES).