ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf.2016, 5(8), 131; doi:10.3390/ijgi5080131 - published 26 July 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This study uses a large-scale mobile phone dataset to estimate potential demand of bicycle trips in a city. By identifying two important anchor points (night-time anchor point and day-time anchor point) from individual cellphone trajectories, this study proposes an anchor-point based trajectory segmentation method to partition cellphone trajectories into trip chain segments. By selecting trip chain segments that can potentially be served by bicycles, two indicators (inflow and outflow) are generated at the cellphone tower level to estimate the potential demand of incoming and outgoing bicycle trips at different places in the city and different times of a day. A maximum coverage location-allocation model is used to suggest locations of bike sharing stations based on the total demand generated at each cellphone tower. Two measures are introduced to further understand characteristics of the suggested bike station locations: (1) accessibility; and (2) dynamic relationships between incoming and outgoing trips. The accessibility measure quantifies how well the stations could serve bicycle users to reach other potential activity destinations. The dynamic relationships reflect the asymmetry of human travel patterns at different times of a day. The study indicates the value of mobile phone data to intelligent spatial decision support in public transportation planning.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf.2016, 5(8), 127; doi:10.3390/ijgi5080127 - published 23 July 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In this paper, an automatic approach for zebra crossing extraction and reconstruction from high-resolution aerial images is proposed. In the extraction procedure, zebra crossings are extracted by the JointBoost classifier based on GLCM (Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix) features and 2D Gabor Features. In the reconstruction procedure, a geometric parameter model based on spatial repeatability relationships is globally fitted to reconstruct the geometric shape of zebra crossings. Additionally, a group of representative experiments is conducted to test the proposed method under interfered conditions, such as zebra crossings covered by pedestrians, shadows and color fading. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed extraction method is compared with the template matching method. Finally, the results show the validation of our proposed method, both in the extraction and reconstruction of zebra crossings.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf.2016, 5(8), 128; doi:10.3390/ijgi5080128 - published 23 July 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Simplification of three-dimensional (3D) buildings is critical to improve the efficiency of visualizing urban environments while ensuring realistic urban scenes. Moreover, it underpins the construction of multi-scale 3D city models (3DCMs) which could be applied to study various urban issues. In this paper, we design a generic yet effective approach for simplifying 3D buildings. Instead of relying on both semantic information and geometric information, our approach is based solely on geometric information as many 3D buildings still do not include semantic information. In addition, it provides an integrated means to treat 3D buildings with either sloped or flat roofs. The two case studies, one exploring simplification of individual 3D buildings at varying levels of complexity while the other, investigating the multi-scale simplification of a cityscape, show the effectiveness of our approach.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf.2016, 5(8), 130; doi:10.3390/ijgi5080130 - published 23 July 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We propose a new segmentation and grouping framework for road map inference from GPS traces. We first present a progressive Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Application with Noise (DBSCAN) algorithm with an orientation constraint to partition the whole point set of the traces into clusters that represent road segments. A new point cluster grouping algorithm, according to the topological relationship and spatial proximity of the point clusters to recover the road network, is then developed. After generating the point clusters, the robust Locally-Weighted Scatterplot Smooth (Lowess) method is used to extract their centerlines. We then propose to build the topological relationship of the centerlines by a Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-based map matching algorithm; and to assess whether the spatial proximity between point clusters by assuming the distances from the points to the centerline comply with a Gaussian distribution. Finally, the point clusters are grouped according to their topological relationship and spatial proximity to form strokes for recovering the road map. Experimental results show that our algorithm is robust to noise and varied sampling rates. The generated road maps show high geometric accuracy.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf.2016, 5(8), 129; doi:10.3390/ijgi5080129 - published 23 July 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: To improve the search ability of biogeography-based optimization (BBO), this work proposed an improved biogeography-based optimization based on Affinity Propagation. We introduced the Memetic framework to the BBO algorithm, and used the simulated annealing algorithm as the local search strategy. MBBO enhanced the exploration with the Affinity Propagation strategy to improve the transfer operation of the BBO algorithm. In this work, the MBBO algorithm was applied to IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC) 2015 benchmarks optimization problems to conduct analytic comparison with the first three winners of the CEC 2015 competition. The results show that the MBBO algorithm enhances the exploration, exploitation, convergence speed and solution accuracy and can emerge as the best solution-providing algorithm among the competing algorithms.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf.2016, 5(7), 125; doi:10.3390/ijgi5070125 - published 19 July 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Zebra crossings provide guidance and warning to pedestrians and drivers, thereby playing an important role in traffic safety management. Most previous studies have focused on detecting zebra stripes but have not provided full information about the areas, which is critical to both driver assistance systems and guide systems for blind individuals. This paper presents a stepwise procedure for recognizing and reconstructing zebra crossings using mobile laser scanning data. First, we propose adaptive thresholding based on road surface partitioning to reduce the impact of intensity unevenness and improve the accuracy of road marking extraction. Then, dispersion degree filtering is used to reduce the noise. Finally, zebra stripes are recognized according to the rectangular feature and fixed size, which is followed by area reconstruction according to arrangement patterns. We test our method on three datasets captured by an Optech Lynx mobile mapping system. The total recognition rate of 90.91% demonstrates the effectiveness of the method.