ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf.2015, 4(1), 124-149; doi:10.3390/ijgi4010124 - published 20 January 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Transport accessibility is an important driver of urban growth and key to the sustainable development of cities. This paper presents a simple GIS-based tool developed to allow the rapid analysis of accessibility by different transport modes. Designed to be flexible and use publicly-available data, this tool (built in ArcGIS) uses generalized cost to measure transport costs across networks including monetary and distance components. The utility of the tool is demonstrated on London, UK, showing the differing patterns of accessibility across the city by different modes. It is shown that these patterns can be examined spatially, by accessibility to particular destinations (e.g., employment locations), or as a global measure across a whole city system. A number of future infrastructure scenarios are tested, examining the potential for increasing the use of low-carbon forms of transport. It is shown that private car journeys are still the least cost mode choice in London, but that infrastructure investments can play a part in reducing the cost of more sustainable transport options.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf.2015, 4(1), 105-123; doi:10.3390/ijgi4010105 - published 15 January 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Lyme borreliosis, caused by the bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, is an emerging vector-borne infectious disease in Canada. According to the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC), by the year 2020, 80% of Canadians will live in Lyme endemic areas. An understanding of the association of Ixodes scapularis, the main vector of Lyme disease, with it hosts is a fundamental component in assessing changes in the spatial distribution of human risk for Lyme disease. Through the application of Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping methods and spatial analysis techniques, this study examines the population dynamics of the black-legged Lyme tick and its primary host, the white-tailed deer, in eastern Ontario, Canada. By developing a habitat suitability model through a GIS-based multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) analysis, the relationship of the deer habitat suitability map was generated and the results were compared with deer harvest data. Tick submission data collected from two public health units between 2006 and 2012 were used to explore the relationship between endemic ticks and deer habitat suitability in eastern Ontario. The positive correlation demonstrated between the deer habitat suitability model and deer harvest data allows us to further analyze the association between deer habitat and black-legged ticks in our study area. Our results revealed that the high tick submission number corresponds with the high suitability. These results are useful for developing management strategies that aim to prevent Lyme from becoming a threat to public health in Canada. Further studies are required to investigate how tick survival, behaviour and seasonal activity may change with projected climate change.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf.2015, 4(1), 87-104; doi:10.3390/ijgi4010087 - published 13 January 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Increasing volumes of spatial data about urban areas are captured and made available via volunteered geographic information (VGI) sources, such as OpenStreetMap (OSM). Hence, new opportunities arise for regional exploration that can lead to improvements in the lives of citizens through spatial decision support. We believe that the VGI data of the urban environment could be used to present a constructive overview of the regional infrastructure with the advent of web technologies. Current location-based services provide general map-based information for the end users with conventional local search functionality, and hence, the presentation of the rich urban information is limited. In this work, we analyze the OSM data to classify the geo entities into consequential categories with facilities, landscape and land use distribution. We employ a visual overlay of heat map and interactive visualizations to present the regional characterization on OSM data classification. In the proposed interface, users are allowed to express a variety of spatial queries to exemplify their geographic interests. They can compare the characterization of urban areas with respect to multiple spatial dimensions of interest and can search for the most suitable region. The search experience is further enhanced via efficient optimization and interaction methods to support the decision making of end users. We report the end user acceptability and efficiency of the proposed system via usability studies and performance analysis comparison.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf.2015, 4(1), 62-86; doi:10.3390/ijgi4010062 - published 9 January 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Economic geography has begun to explore the options involved in micro-data. New databases have become available and new techniques and an increase in computer power allow their treatment. However, two major issues impede the use of these datasets: the lack of geocoded spatial location and lack of exhaustivity in coverage. In this article, I explore the possibilities of using large micro-scale firm databases for economic geography in Europe. I show that current evolution in European official spatial data dissemination alows for geocoding of such databases using means that are accessible for researchers with minimal programming knowledge. For the specific case of the Amadeus database of the Bureau Van Dijk, I show that its limitations in terms of coverage have to be taken into acount, but do not hinder its use for analysis. Resulting maps show how the data allows to go further than classic databases such as the Eurostat Structural Business Statistics.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf.2015, 4(1), 47-58; doi:10.3390/ijgi4010047 - published 31 December 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Bangladesh is a malaria endemic country. There are 13 districts in the country bordering India and Myanmar that are at risk of malaria. The majority of malaria morbidity and mortality cases are in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, the mountainous southeastern region of Bangladesh. In recent years, malaria burden has declined in the country. In this study, we reviewed and summarized published data (through 2014) on the use of geospatial technologies on malaria epidemiology in Bangladesh and outlined potential contributions of geospatial technologies for eliminating malaria in the country. We completed a literature review using “malaria, Bangladesh” search terms and found 218 articles published in peer-reviewed journals listed in PubMed. After a detailed review, 201 articles were excluded because they did not meet our inclusion criteria, 17 articles were selected for final evaluation. Published studies indicated geospatial technologies tools (Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and Remote Sensing) were used to determine vector-breeding sites, land cover classification, accessibility to health facility, treatment seeking behaviors, and risk mapping at the household, regional, and national levels in Bangladesh. To achieve the goal of malaria elimination in Bangladesh, we concluded that further research using geospatial technologies should be integrated into the country’s ongoing surveillance system to identify and better assess progress towards malaria elimination.