Int. J. Financial Stud.2016, 4(3), 13; doi:10.3390/ijfs4030013 - published 24 June 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Systemic risk events constitute an important issue in current financial systems. A leading course of action used to mitigate such events is identification of systemically important agents in order to implement the prudential policies in a financial system. In this paper, a bi-level cross-shareholding network of the stock market is considered according to direct and integrated ownership structure. Furthermore, different systemic risk indices are applied to identify systemically important companies in an early warning system. Results of application of these indices on cross-shareholding data from Tehran Stock Exchange show that integrated network indices produce more reliable results. Moreover, results of statistical analysis of the networks indicated the existence of scale-free characteristics in the TSE cross-shareholding network.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2016, 4(2), 12; doi:10.3390/ijfs4020012 - published 2 June 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Europe’s elite football clubs are a small group of about 30 clubs mostly originating from the Big Five leagues in England, Italy, Spain, Germany, and France. These clubs top Deloitte’s Football Money League ranking Europe’s top football clubs by revenues. They also win the vast majority of national and European football competitions, and account for the major share of FIFA World Cup appearances. Nevertheless, empirical analyses studying the antecedents of financial success of this peculiar sample are rare. This paper extends previous research by building an empirical model of financial performance and applying it to a unique, high-quality dataset of the top 30 EU football clubs by club revenues analyzed over ten consecutive seasons from 2004 to 2013. Fixed effects models are performed to account for time trends and club fixed effects. The results show that financial success is driven by national and international sporting success, as well as brand value; sporting success is driven by team investments, and team investments tend to be driven by (foreign) private majority investors.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2016, 4(2), 10; doi:10.3390/ijfs4020010 - published 17 May 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This study aims to explore the relationship between market integration, foreign portfolio equity holding and inflation rates on international stock market linkages between Pakistan and India. To measure stock equity interlinkage, we constructed international co-movement index through rolling beta estimation. Market integration variable between these two countries is constructed using the International Capital Asset Pricing Model (ICAPM). To check the impact of market integration, foreign portfolio equity holding and inflation rate on Pakistan-Indian stock market co-movement, we applied autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) estimation. ARDL estimation is applied due to different stationarity levels of the included variables. The level of convergence speed is measured by the introduction of error correction term (ECT) followed by variance decomposition analysis. Results of the study indicated presence of long term relationship among the included variables along with significance variance in bilateral co-movement due to inflation rate differential. The significance of inflation rate differences between these two countries are in accordance with portfolio balance theory stating that investors possess information about the macroeconomic variables thereby readjusting their portfolios for effective diversification.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2016, 4(2), 11; doi:10.3390/ijfs4020011 - published 17 May 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In this study, the performance of the Multifractal Model of Asset Returns (MMAR) was examined for stock index returns of four emerging markets. The MMAR, which takes into account stylized facts of financial time series, such as long memory, fat tails and trading time, was developed as an alternative to the ARCH family models. Empirical analysis of the study consists of two sections. In the first section, we estimated the parameters of GARCH, EGARCH, FIGARCH, MRS-GARCH and MMAR for the stock index returns of Croatia, Greece, Poland and Turkey. In the second section, 1000 paths were obtained for each model using Monte Carlo simulations. We then compared the scaling function values of simulated and original time series for different q orders (1–5). According to the obtained results, the MMAR is mostly superior to other models and presents the best replica of the original time series. Another important finding is the achievement of the MRS-GARCH. We found that for lower levels of persistency (long memory) of return series, the performance of the MRS-GARCH excels, and for H = 0.5, it narrowly outperforms the MMAR.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2016, 4(2), 9; doi:10.3390/ijfs4020009 - published 9 May 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate the factors affecting firm competitiveness in an emerging market—Turkey. In the paper, competitiveness is proxied by a firm’s financial performance. The empirical analysis is based on firms listed on Borsa Istanbul and covers the period between 2005 and 2014. Results from a firm-level panel data model indicate that return on assets is positively related to firm size, international sales, liquidity and growth, and negatively related to leverage and R&D expenditures. On the other hand, gross profit margin is positively related to size and international sales, and negatively related to leverage and R&D expenditures. Finally, results show that Tobin’s Q ratio is higher for firms with higher levels of debt and higher liquidity levels.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2016, 4(2), 8; doi:10.3390/ijfs4020008 - published 15 April 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: By using corporate governance data on 22 publicly traded Turkish companies we estimate the determinants of corporate governance ratings for these companies with a focus on ownership structure. Our results show that company earnings, financial risk and firm size positively influence the corporate governance ratings (CGR) that Turkish firms receive. In the meantime, we find some weak evidence that family ownership has a negative and foreign ownership has a positive impact on CGR scores.