Int. J. Financial Stud.2015, 3(3), 393-410; doi:10.3390/ijfs3030393 - published 27 August 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The study aims at examining how fiscal deficits affect the performance of the stock market in India by using annual data from 1988–2012. The study makes use of Ng-Perron unit root tests to check the non-stationarity property of the series; the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds test and a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) for testing both short and long run dynamic relationships. The variance decomposition (VDC) is used to predict the exogenous shocks of the variables. The findings of the bounds test reveal that the estimated equation and the series are co-integrated. The ARDL results suggest a long run negative relationship exists between budget deficit and stock prices and do not show any significant relationship in the short run. The VECM result shows that fiscal deficits influence the stock price only in the short run. The results of the Variance Decomposition show that stock price movement in the long run is mostly explained by shocks of fiscal deficits. The study implies that the government must adopt appropriate macroeconomic policies to reduce budget deficit, which will result in stock market growth and in turn will lead to the financial development of the country.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2015, 3(3), 381-392; doi:10.3390/ijfs3030381 - published 13 August 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The paper provides probability estimates of the state of the GDP growth. A regime-switching model defines the probability of the Greek GDP being in boom or recession. Then probit models extract the predictive information of a set of explanatory (economic and financial) variables regarding the state of the GDP growth. A contemporaneous, as well as a lagged, relationship between the explanatory variables and the state of the GDP growth is conducted. The mean absolute distance (MAD) between the probability of not being in recession and the probability estimated by the probit model is the function that evaluates the performance of the models. The probit model with the industrial production index and the realized volatility as the explanatory variables has the lowest MAD value of 6.43% (7.94%) in the contemporaneous (lagged) relationship.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2015, 3(3), 351-380; doi:10.3390/ijfs3030351 - published 12 August 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Financial disasters to hedge funds, bank trading departments and individual speculative traders and investors seem to always occur because of non-diversification in all possible scenarios, being overbet and being hit by a bad scenario. Black swans are the worst type of bad scenario: unexpected and extreme. The Swiss National Bank decision on 15 January 2015 to abandon the 1.20 peg against the Euro was a tremendous blow for many Swiss exporters, but also Swiss and international investors, hedge funds, global macro funds, banks, as well as the Swiss central bank. In this paper, we discuss the causes for this action, the money losers and the few winners, what it means for Switzerland, Europe and the rest of the world, what kinds of trades were lost and how they have been prevented.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2015, 3(3), 342-350; doi:10.3390/ijfs3030342 - published 30 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This paper applies demand and supply analysis to examine the government bond yield in Spain. The sample ranges from 1999.Q1 to 2014.Q2. The EGARCH model is employed in empirical work. The Spanish government bond yield is positively associated with the government debt/GDP ratio, the short-term Treasury bill rate, the expected inflation rate, the U.S. 10 year government bond yield and a dummy variable representing the debt crisis and negatively affected by the GDP growth rate and the expected nominal effective exchange rate.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2015, 3(3), 319-341; doi:10.3390/ijfs3030319 - published 27 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The Baker and Wurgler (2006) sentiment index purports to measure irrational investor sentiment, while the University of Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index is designed to largely reflect fundamentals. Removing this fundamental component from the Baker and Wurgler index creates an index of investor sentiment that may better capture irrational sentiment. This new index predicts returns better than the original Baker and Wurgler index as well as the alternative Baker and Wurgler sentiment index.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2015, 3(3), 280-318; doi:10.3390/ijfs3030280 - published 27 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The Markov Tree model is a discrete-time option pricing model that accounts for short-term memory of the underlying asset. In this work, we compare the empirical performance of the Markov Tree model against that of the Black-Scholes model and Heston’s stochastic volatility model. Leveraging a total of five years of individual equity and index option data, and using three new methods for fitting the Markov Tree model, we find that the Markov Tree model makes smaller out-of-sample hedging errors than competing models. This comparison includes versions of Markov Tree and Black-Scholes models in which volatilities are strike- and maturity-dependent. Visualizing the errors over time, we find that the Markov Tree model yields more accurate and less risky single instrument hedges than Heston’s stochastic volatility model. A statistical resampling method indicates that the Markov Tree model’s superior hedging performance is due to its robustness with respect to noise in option data.