Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Critical Review of the Literature on Firm-Level Theories on Ship Investment
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2018, 6(1), 11; doi:10.3390/ijfs6010011 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The maritime industry is one of those rare industries that are both highly international integrated to international trade and also highly capital intensive dependent on substantial investment amount. In the literature, ship investments have not been widely examined through the firm-level investment theories
[...] Read more.
The maritime industry is one of those rare industries that are both highly international integrated to international trade and also highly capital intensive dependent on substantial investment amount. In the literature, ship investments have not been widely examined through the firm-level investment theories to explore the link between investment level and asset price valuation. The general trend in the literature of ship investments is to analyse the relationship among the shipping markets (newbuilding, second-hand, freight rate and scrap) and their impact on asset price valuation, the timing of investments and market entry and exit conditions. In this paper, we extensively reviewed the literature of firm-level investment theories and ship investments. We showed that the application of firm-level investment theories to the ship investments is confined to the basic investment valuation models, such as Net Present Value and Real Option Analysis. Ship investments need to be examined by firm-level investment theories to define firm/industry value maximization level within the approach of the solid investment theories. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Revisiting M&M with Taxes: An Alternative Equilibrating Process
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2018, 6(1), 10; doi:10.3390/ijfs6010010 -
Abstract
Modigliani and Miller present an equity-quantity shifting equilibrating process to achieve an optimal firm value in the presence of corporate taxes. However, in the era in which they derived their various propositions regarding the relation between a firm’s value and its capital structure,
[...] Read more.
Modigliani and Miller present an equity-quantity shifting equilibrating process to achieve an optimal firm value in the presence of corporate taxes. However, in the era in which they derived their various propositions regarding the relation between a firm’s value and its capital structure, well-capitalized takeover specialists including private equity firms and sovereign funds did not exist, at least by today’s standards. In this paper we develop a simple arbitrage strategy, made viable by the presence of takeover firms, which presents an alternative equilibrating process to achieve the same optimal firm value. This alternative process is markedly different from that of the Modigliani and Miller theorem in terms of its predictions for debt use and restores the prospect of capital structure irrelevancy despite the existence of corporate taxes. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of International Journal of Financial Studies in 2017
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2018, 6(1), 9; doi:10.3390/ijfs6010009 -
Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that International Journal of Financial Studies maintains high quality standards for its published papers[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Financial Crisis and Corporate Social Responsible Mutual Fund Flows
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2018, 6(1), 8; doi:10.3390/ijfs6010008 -
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate investment flows into mutual funds that hold more high corporate social responsible stocks (top CSR funds) vs. mutual funds that hold more low corporate social responsible stocks (bottom CSR funds). Using a large sample of equity mutual funds
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate investment flows into mutual funds that hold more high corporate social responsible stocks (top CSR funds) vs. mutual funds that hold more low corporate social responsible stocks (bottom CSR funds). Using a large sample of equity mutual funds spanning 2003–2012, we find that top CSR funds on average receive about 5% less investment per annum compared to the other funds; whereas bottom CSR funds receive about 5.6% more investments. These relative negative and positive flows into the top and bottom CSR funds respectively were larger during the pre-financial crisis period (2003–2007). This trend, however, reversed during the financial crisis (2008–2009). Top CSR funds attracted about 8.7% more investments during the financial crisis compared to the pre-crisis period; whereas bottom CSR funds received about 9.8% less investment. This higher investment into the top CSR funds during the crisis seems to have disappeared during the post-crisis period (2009–2012). Additional analysis shows that the corporate social ratings of top CSR funds improved through the crisis, whereas it deteriorated for the bottom CSR funds. Our findings are consistent with the “flight to quality” phenomenon observed in financial markets during market crises, indicating that investors perceive top CSR fund investments as relatively safe or of higher quality and hence, invest more in them during financial crises. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Real Estate Risk Analysis: The Case of Caserma Garibaldi in Milan
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2018, 6(1), 7; doi:10.3390/ijfs6010007 -
Abstract
The global economic crisis and deep financialization processes recently suffered by the real estate market have exposed the latter to further and greater risks. Against this, the importance of real estate risk management has noticeably grown within the dynamics of both markets, real
[...] Read more.
The global economic crisis and deep financialization processes recently suffered by the real estate market have exposed the latter to further and greater risks. Against this, the importance of real estate risk management has noticeably grown within the dynamics of both markets, real estate and finance. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to develop a comprehensive tool for the risk rating that will consider both the systematic and idiosyncratic risks possibly incurred during a real estate operation, in order to deliver their actual magnitude. It will be composed of 33 criteria whose weights are determined through the application of an analytic hierarchic process on a panel of market operators. This tool is primarily addressed to investors since it allows making strategic decisions while being supported by an analytical procedure that also ensures transparency of the conduct for the rating. An application of the presented tool within the decision-making procedure of the re-functionalization of a former barracks in Milan’s city center is then described; this case study will also constitute an opportunity to highlight the strong relationship that occurs between the profitability of an operation and the risk incurred. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle
Value Creation in M&A Transactions, Conference Calls, and Shareholder Protection
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2018, 6(1), 5; doi:10.3390/ijfs6010005 -
Abstract
This study investigates whether conference calls accompanying M&A announcements in Europe provide valuable information for capital market participants and hence induce an abnormal stock price revaluation on the bidder’s equity. Based on handpicked data for transactions between 2008 and 2012 we focus on
[...] Read more.
This study investigates whether conference calls accompanying M&A announcements in Europe provide valuable information for capital market participants and hence induce an abnormal stock price revaluation on the bidder’s equity. Based on handpicked data for transactions between 2008 and 2012 we focus on the five most acquisitive country markets in Europe. Overall, our results show that bidders are more likely to conduct conference calls with increasing transaction value, for transactions with public targets and non-diversifying transactions. Further, the decision for voluntary disclosure is positively influenced by increased bidder size and the comparably weaker governance systems for German and Swiss firms. After controlling for self-selection bias and other determinants of stock returns around mergers and acquisitions (M&A) announcement, evidence is in strong support that firms with merger-related conference calls yield a higher abnormal return than firms merely publishing a press release. However, significant favourable investor reaction is only present in the UK and French subsamples and in the subsamples of industries with a focus on research and development (R&D). Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Emerging International Taxation Problems
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2018, 6(1), 6; doi:10.3390/ijfs6010006 -
Abstract
The problems of tax evasion and tax avoidance are as old as taxes themselves. Between 2015 and 2016 alone, many U.S. multinational corporations were involved in tax disputes with the European Commission. From a historical perspective, these disputes are unprecedented as they have
[...] Read more.
The problems of tax evasion and tax avoidance are as old as taxes themselves. Between 2015 and 2016 alone, many U.S. multinational corporations were involved in tax disputes with the European Commission. From a historical perspective, these disputes are unprecedented as they have resulted in tremendous amount of tax penalties. The most notable case was Apple for €13 billion of unpaid tax. This article discusses what tax strategies these corporations used that caused such disputes. It specifically investigates seven corporations: Apple Inc., McDonald’s, Starbucks, Fiat, Amazon, Google, and Ikea, and elaborates on the following tax strategies: high royalties, intercompany transfer pricing, intercompany loans, and source of income in a high-tech industry. This article also discusses the European Commission’s charges of tax evasion and how these corporations defend against them. When multinational corporations are operating abroad, they must observe not only domestic tax law but also international law. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Industry Characteristics and Dynamic Capabilities on Firms’ Profitability
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2018, 6(1), 4; doi:10.3390/ijfs6010004 -
Abstract
The aim of this research was to explore one of the most intriguing dimensions of every firm’s business—its performance. Aside from analysing the influence of industry’s characteristics on the firm’s performance, the authors addressed the characteristics of dynamic capabilities and their role in
[...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to explore one of the most intriguing dimensions of every firm’s business—its performance. Aside from analysing the influence of industry’s characteristics on the firm’s performance, the authors addressed the characteristics of dynamic capabilities and their role in contribution to the firm’s ultimate success. The analysis was conducted on a sample of 118 small Croatian manufacturing companies. The application of the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach revealed a statistically significant influence of both the industry’s characteristics (represented by Porter’s five forces framework) and dynamic capabilities (based on Teece’s theory) on the firm’s performance, where the influence of dynamic capabilities is proven to be larger than that of the industry. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulation of the Heston Model under Stochastic Correlation
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2018, 6(1), 3; doi:10.3390/ijfs6010003 -
Abstract
Stochastic correlation models have become increasingly important in financial markets. In order to be able to price vanilla options in stochastic volatility and correlation models, in this work, we study the extension of the Heston model by imposing stochastic correlations driven by a
[...] Read more.
Stochastic correlation models have become increasingly important in financial markets. In order to be able to price vanilla options in stochastic volatility and correlation models, in this work, we study the extension of the Heston model by imposing stochastic correlations driven by a stochastic differential equation. We discuss the efficient algorithms for the extended Heston model by incorporating stochastic correlations. Our numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithms can efficiently provide highly accurate results for the extended Heston by including stochastic correlations. By investigating the effect of stochastic correlations on the implied volatility, we find that the performance of the Heston model can be proved by including stochastic correlations. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
An Econometric Analysis of ETF and ETF Futures in Financial and Energy Markets Using Generated Regressors
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2018, 6(1), 2; doi:10.3390/ijfs6010002 -
Abstract
It is well known that there is an intrinsic link between the financial and energy sectors, which can be analysed through their spillover effects, which are measures of how the shocks to returns in different assets affect each other’s subsequent volatility in both
[...] Read more.
It is well known that there is an intrinsic link between the financial and energy sectors, which can be analysed through their spillover effects, which are measures of how the shocks to returns in different assets affect each other’s subsequent volatility in both spot and futures markets. Financial derivatives, which are not only highly representative of the underlying indices, but can also be traded on both the spot and futures markets, include Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs), a tradable spot index whose aim is to replicate the return of an underlying benchmark index. When ETF futures are not available to examine spillover effects, “generated regressors” are useful for constructing both financial ETF futures and energy ETF futures. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the co-volatility spillovers within and across the U.S. energy and financial sectors in both spot and futures markets, by using “generated regressors” and a multivariate conditional volatility model, namely diagonal BEKK. The daily data used are from 23 December 1998–22 April 2016. The dataset is analysed in its entirety and is also subdivided into three distinct subsets. The empirical results show there is a significant relationship between the financial ETF and energy ETF in the spot and futures markets. Therefore, financial and energy ETFs are suitable for constructing a financial portfolio from an optimal risk management perspective and also for dynamic hedging purposes. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Microcredit and Survival Microenterprises: The Role of Market Structure
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2018, 6(1), 1; doi:10.3390/ijfs6010001 -
Abstract
Poverty remains a pervasive problem all over the world, but the problem is worst in underdeveloped areas like Africa. While microfinance is supposed to address this problem through the promotion of viable businesses, it has not been very successful in helping survival microenterprises,
[...] Read more.
Poverty remains a pervasive problem all over the world, but the problem is worst in underdeveloped areas like Africa. While microfinance is supposed to address this problem through the promotion of viable businesses, it has not been very successful in helping survival microenterprises, i.e., businesses that the very poor with limited human capital have access to, in sectors with low barriers to entry and selling undifferentiated products. In this paper, I examine the role of market structure in mediating the impact of micro-lending to such survival enterprises. While there have been many evaluations of microfinance institutions (MFIs), there have been very few that look at market conditions as an input into the success of micro-lending. My theoretical analysis suggests that when introducing an extensive program of microcredit in undeveloped and relatively isolated rural areas, it is important to look at how the market structure mediates the impact of the provision of loans on the demand and supply for the end-product or service. I present some empirical evidence, which provides partial confirmation that MFIs are not currently taking these considerations into account. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Role of Social Relations of Outside Directors with CEO in Earnings Management
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(4), 34; doi:10.3390/ijfs5040034 -
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of social relations among the board members on earnings management in Pakistani listed companies. Specifically, we have analyzed the social networks between CEO and outside board members. The modified Jones model has been
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of social relations among the board members on earnings management in Pakistani listed companies. Specifically, we have analyzed the social networks between CEO and outside board members. The modified Jones model has been used in this study to measure earnings management and we have captured social relations through SOCIAL (Social networking index). Our results suggest that firms with more connected boards show a positive relationship between board independence and earnings management. Further, we have shown that firms with CEO duality exhibit a higher association between social connections of the board and earnings management than firms with non-duality. Social relations among the board members undermine monitoring ability of outside directors and the impact becomes more severe in the presence of CEO duality. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Goodness-of-Fit versus Significance: A CAPM Selection with Dynamic Betas Applied to the Brazilian Stock Market
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(4), 33; doi:10.3390/ijfs5040033 -
Abstract
In this work, a Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) with time-varying betas is considered. These betas evolve over time, conditional on financial and non-financial variables. Indeed, the model proposed by Adrian and Franzoni (2009) is adapted to assess the behavior of some selected
[...] Read more.
In this work, a Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) with time-varying betas is considered. These betas evolve over time, conditional on financial and non-financial variables. Indeed, the model proposed by Adrian and Franzoni (2009) is adapted to assess the behavior of some selected Brazilian equities. For each equity, several models are fitted, and the best model is chosen based on goodness-of-fit tests and parameters significance. Finally, using the selected dynamic models, VaR (Value-at-Risk) measures are calculated. We can conclude that CAPM with time-varying betas provide less conservative VaR measures than those based on CAPM with static betas or historical VaR. Full article
Figures

Figure A1

Open AccessArticle
Risk Culture during the Last 2000 Years—From an Aleatory Society to the Illusion of Risk Control
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(4), 31; doi:10.3390/ijfs5040031 -
Abstract
The culture of risk is 2000 years old, although the term “risk” developed much later. The culture of merchants making decisions under uncertainty and taking the individual responsibility for the uncertain future started with the Roman “Aleatory Society”, continued with medieval sea merchants,
[...] Read more.
The culture of risk is 2000 years old, although the term “risk” developed much later. The culture of merchants making decisions under uncertainty and taking the individual responsibility for the uncertain future started with the Roman “Aleatory Society”, continued with medieval sea merchants, who made business “ad risicum et fortunam”, and sustained to the culture of entrepreneurs in times of industrialisation and dynamic economic changes in the 18th and 19th century. For all long-term commercial relationships, the culture of honourable merchants with personal decision-making and individual responsibility worked well. The successful development of sciences, statistics and engineering within the last 100 years led to the conjecture that men can “construct” an economical system with a pre-defined “clockwork” behaviour. Since probability distributions could be calculated ex-post, an illusion to control risk ex-ante became a pattern in business and banking. Based on the recent experiences with the financial crisis, a “risk culture” should understand that human “Strength of Knowledge” is limited and the “unknown unknown” can materialise. As all decisions and all commercial agreements are made under uncertainty, the culture of honourable merchants is key to achieve trust in long-term economic relations with individual responsibility, flexibility to adapt and resilience against the unknown. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle
Impact of Cost Efficiency on Bank Capital and the Cost of Financial Intermediation: Evidence from BRICS Countries
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(4), 32; doi:10.3390/ijfs5040032 -
Abstract
Over last two decades, emerging and developing nations have desperately endeavored for efficient banking sectors. In this study, we argue that bank efficiency generates incentives that can impact banks’ capital holdings and the cost of financial intermediation. Analyzing a panel dataset of 1190
[...] Read more.
Over last two decades, emerging and developing nations have desperately endeavored for efficient banking sectors. In this study, we argue that bank efficiency generates incentives that can impact banks’ capital holdings and the cost of financial intermediation. Analyzing a panel dataset of 1190 banks from BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) countries over the period 2007–2015, we find robust evidence that more efficient banks hold higher capital and charge lower financial intermediation costs. In an extended sample over the period 2000–2015, we observe that cost efficiency had a marginal positive impact on bank capital during the global financial crisis of 2007–2009. We also observe that on average, banks increased the cost of financial intermediation during the crisis, however, greater efficiency helped banks to not charge higher intermediation costs. Our results imply the beneficial impact of bank efficiency for bank stability and real economy. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Value Investing in the Stock Market of Thailand
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(4), 30; doi:10.3390/ijfs5040030 -
Abstract
Value investment and growth investment have attracted a large amount of research in recent decades, but most of this research focuses on the U.S. and Europe. This article covers the Thai stock market which has very different characteristics compared to western markets and
[...] Read more.
Value investment and growth investment have attracted a large amount of research in recent decades, but most of this research focuses on the U.S. and Europe. This article covers the Thai stock market which has very different characteristics compared to western markets and even South East Asian countries such as Indonesia or Malaysia. Among South East Asian countries, Thailand has one of the most dynamic capital markets. In order to see if some well-known trends in other markets exist in Thailand the performance of value and growth stocks in the Thai market were analyzed for a period of 17 years using existing style indexes (MSCI) as well as creating portfolios using individual stocks. For this entire period, when using the indexes, returns are statistically significant superior for value stocks compared to growth stocks. However, when analyzing the performance of the market in any given calendar year from 1999 to 2016, the results are much more mixed with in fact growth stocks outperforming in several of those years. Interestingly, when building portfolios using criteria such as low P/E or low P/B the results are not statistically different. Suggesting perhaps that the classification into value or growth stocks is more complex than it would appear. One of the common assumptions of value investing is that those stocks outperform over long periods of time. It might well be that in the Thai case one year is not a long enough period for value stocks to outperform. While there have been some clear efforts over recent years to modernize the stock market of Thailand, it remains relatively underdeveloped, particularly when compared to markets such as the U.S. Hence, its behavior regarding value versus growth investment might be rather different. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Study of Perfect Hedges
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(4), 28; doi:10.3390/ijfs5040028 -
Abstract
In this study, we attempt to identify the asset which has the best hedging characteristics against inflation. We study stock, bond, commodity, real estate and oil indexes. We also study these indexes tracking exchange traded funds (ETFs) to determine the most beneficial tradable
[...] Read more.
In this study, we attempt to identify the asset which has the best hedging characteristics against inflation. We study stock, bond, commodity, real estate and oil indexes. We also study these indexes tracking exchange traded funds (ETFs) to determine the most beneficial tradable asset in addition to the more theoretical index for inflation hedging. We find that, in our sample, oil is the best hedge against inflation, even though three in total are a good hedge—oil, gold and corn—with corn and oil being complete hedges, while gold is a partial hedge. Two assets have conflicting results depending on whether we examine the index or the ETF: the real estate index is a hedge, whereas real estate ETF is the opposite of a hedge. Similarly, the bond index is not related to inflation, whereas bond ETF is the opposite of a hedge. We find that stocks, soy and beef are not hedges against inflation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Impending Doom: The Loss of Diversification before a Crisis
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(4), 29; doi:10.3390/ijfs5040029 -
Abstract
We present four methods of assessing the diversification potential within a stock market, and two of these are based on principal component analysis. They were applied to the Australian stock exchange for the years 2000 to 2014 and all show a consistent picture.
[...] Read more.
We present four methods of assessing the diversification potential within a stock market, and two of these are based on principal component analysis. They were applied to the Australian stock exchange for the years 2000 to 2014 and all show a consistent picture. The potential for diversification declined almost monotonically in the three years prior to the 2008 financial crisis, leaving investors poorly diversified at the onset of the Global Financial Crisis. On one of the four measures, the diversification potential declined even further in the 2011 European debt crisis and the American credit downgrade. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Investigating the Influence of Green Credit on Operational Efficiency and Financial Performance Based on Hybrid Econometric Models
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(4), 27; doi:10.3390/ijfs5040027 -
Abstract
To understand the role of green credit in maintaining economic sustainability, we develop theoretical hypotheses including expectation, supervision and capital allocation channels to explain the impacts of green credit. Then, we use hybrid econometric models by using Chinese-listed enterprises in the energy-saving and
[...] Read more.
To understand the role of green credit in maintaining economic sustainability, we develop theoretical hypotheses including expectation, supervision and capital allocation channels to explain the impacts of green credit. Then, we use hybrid econometric models by using Chinese-listed enterprises in the energy-saving and environmental sectors from 2007 to 2015 as the research sample to verify the above hypotheses. The empirical results show that: (1) the average value of financial performance and operational efficiency is relatively low, and the endogenous abilities of those enterprises have not yet been established; (2) the issuance of green loans does not improve public expectations of enterprises in the green industry, thus the expectation channel is not supported; (3) the issuance of green loans does not necessarily improve the enterprise’s operational efficiency and financial performance, thus the supervision channel hypotheses are not supported; and (4) green loans lead to an increase in financing costs, management costs, operation costs, and expenditure on R&D, thus, the capital allocation hypothesis is partly supported. Based on the empirical analysis, we also provide some countermeasures to strengthen the roles of green credit to support the development of energy-saving and environmental enterprises. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Size Effects of Fiscal Policy and Business Confidence in the Euro Area
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(4), 26; doi:10.3390/ijfs5040026 -
Abstract
In the aftermath of the European sovereign debt crisis (2009–2014), the management of expectations has risen in importance. However, policy responses have emphasized the management of fiscal spending without examining the impact changes in the business confidence have on the economy. This paper
[...] Read more.
In the aftermath of the European sovereign debt crisis (2009–2014), the management of expectations has risen in importance. However, policy responses have emphasized the management of fiscal spending without examining the impact changes in the business confidence have on the economy. This paper uses a Factor-Augmented Vector Autoregressive specification, which allows for a larger information set covering both domestic and international developments, to measure the responses of five Euro Area economies to a one percent shock in government consumption and business confidence. The evidence suggests that even though the response to a government consumption shock is strong, a shock in expectations has an even greater effect. This points out to the fact that perceptions about the future and trust in the policymaker are much more important than previously considered. Thus, especially in (but not limited to) times of turbulence, or during efforts of stabilization and/or structural reforms, more emphasis should be placed on the overall credibility of the decisions, which could help to mitigate any potential adverse effects from the policies. Full article
Figures

Figure 1