Int. J. Financial Stud.2014, 2(3), 280-314; doi:10.3390/ijfs2030280 - published online 23 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This review article displays several attempts to define family businesses as well as a systematization approach to get new insights about the relationship between family business definitions and their application under different conditions such as legal framework, culture or regional understanding of family. Potential explanations for the ambiguity of what is meant by family firms are revealed by reviewing 267 journal articles. A consensus about the object of investigation would result in a deeper understanding of family firms’ uniqueness, might lead to more reliable comparative studies as well as interdisciplinary work (e.g., finance and family firms) and enables a quicker consolidation of family business research, especially in contrast to research on small and medium-sized enterprises and entrepreneurship. Therefore, the present review contributes to the development of family business research by providing an initial attempt to comprehensively systematized existing family firm definitions which could be used by researchers in family business research.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2014, 2(3), 266-279; doi:10.3390/ijfs2030266 - published online 22 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In this article, we test the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE) by measuring the performance of two portfolios composed of construction firms: family-controlled and nonfamily controlled. These portfolios were selected from the WIG-Construction (WIG—Warszawski Indeks Giełdowy—Warsaw Stock Exchange Index). The performance of both portfolios was measured in the period from 2006 to 2012 with respect to three sub-periods: (1) pre-crisis period: 2006–2007; (2) crisis period: 2008–2009; and (3) post-crisis period: 2010–2012. This division was constructed in this way to find out how family firms performed in crisis times in relation to nonfamily firms. In addition, the construction portfolio was chosen due to its sensitivity to recessions. When an economy faces a downturn, construction firms are among the first to be exposed to risk. The performance was measured by using the capital asset pricing model with statistical inference. We find that public family firms significantly outperformed non-family peers in the crisis times.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2014, 2(3), 240-265; doi:10.3390/ijfs2030240 - published online 9 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This study analyzes the links between listed family businesses and social responsibility. On the theoretical level, it establishes a relationship between socioemotional wealth, proactive stakeholder engagement, and the social responsibility of family businesses. On a practical level, our results (obtained from a sample of 363 companies) show that family businesses do not differ from non-family businesses in many dimensions of social responsibility. Moreover, family businesses have statistically significant lower ratings for four sub-dimensions of “corporate governance”, namely “balance of power and effectiveness of the Board”, “audit and control mechanisms”, “engagement with shareholders and shareholder structure”, and “executive compensation”.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2014, 2(3), 220-239; doi:10.3390/ijfs2030220 - published online 2 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Our study uses the Socio Emotional Wealth Perspective (SEW) to test our contention that Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) founders are more inclined to satisfy first their non-economic goals rather than satisfying the economic goals of REIT shareholders. We test our hypotheses with an unbalanced panel dataset that includes an average of 66 publicly-traded equity REITs from 1999–2012 that produced 921 REIT-year observations. Our exploratory results provide evidence of SEW preservation as REITs led by founders’ successors tend to underperform; however, the family identification with the REIT affects performance positively. This is one of the first studies that merge the REIT and the family business streams of research. Future directions are suggested.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2014, 2(2), 203-219; doi:10.3390/ijfs2020203 - published online 12 May 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In this study, we investigate the effect of minimum trade unit (MTU) reductions on the Korea Exchange (KRX) on price efficiency. The KRX switched its MTU from 10 shares to one share for high-price stocks twice, once in December 2004 and once in July 2006. The MTU changes were intended to attract small individual investors to the markets for high-price stocks. The MTU reductions on the KRX are different from previous cases of MTU reductions in other markets in that the KRX MTU reductions are not chosen by firms but are mandated by the exchange. Using these rare events, we examine whether the reductions in MTU and ensuing small investor participation enhance or deteriorate price efficiency. We examine three variables as indicators of price efficiency: return volatility, residual volatility, and the half-life of return volatility shock estimated from a generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model. We find evidence of improved price efficiency from the 2004 event. For the 2004 sample, both return variance and residual return variance declined significantly after the MTU reduction. We also find evidence of reduction, albeit weak, in the half-life of volatility shock for the same sample. Meanwhile, for the 2006 sample, we do not find any changes in return variance or residual variance, nor do we find any evidence of change in the half-life of volatility shock. The difference in the patterns of changes in variables between the 2004 and 2006 events appears to be attributable to differences in the price levels of the stocks that were affected by the MTU changes and, consequently, a difference in reactions by small investors.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2014, 2(2), 193-202; doi:10.3390/ijfs2020193 - published online 24 April 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The betting market for the Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA) is a thin financial market, which does not attract much interest from sports bettors. Given these characteristics, it is possible that profitable wagering strategies could exist for informed bettors of the WNBA. Using betting data on the WNBA from 2007–2012, we find that simple betting strategies do not earn statistically significant returns. WNBA bettors are like NBA bettors; however, in that they strongly prefer the best teams, particularly when they are on the road. Despite this clear bias, betting against the most popular public wagers is not found to earn statistically significant profits.