Int. J. Financial Stud.2015, 3(2), 102-135; doi:10.3390/ijfs3020102 - published 24 April 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Transaction-cost models in continuous-time markets are considered. Given that investors decide to buy or sell at certain time instants, we study the existence of trading strategies that reach a certain final wealth level in continuous-time markets, under the assumption that transaction costs, built in certain recommended ways, have to be paid. Markets prove to behave in manners that resemble those of complete ones for a wide variety of transaction-cost types. The results are important, but not exclusively, for the pricing of options with transaction costs.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2015, 3(2), 84-101; doi:10.3390/ijfs3020084 - published 24 April 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between financial reforms, financial liberalization and the quality of banking regulation and supervision for financial fragility by applying a dynamic two-step system generalized method of moments GMM panel estimator technique. The finding of this study is that the financial vulnerability of the banking sector could be affected, not only by bank-specific and macro-specific variables; but also by financial liberalization and banking regulations and supervision policies. The empirical results of this study confirm the evidence that financial reforms and financial liberalization significantly enhance the likelihood of financial fragility while strong banking regulations and supervision have an inverse relationship with financial fragility. The results of this study also explain that the lag value of loan growth and unemployment contribute to enhancing financial fragility while equity to assets ratio, natural log of total assets and share of foreign banks reduce financial vulnerability.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2015, 3(2), 75-83; doi:10.3390/ijfs3020075 - published 25 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The NBA’s 1999 Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA) included provisions capping individual player pay in addition to team payrolls. This study examines the effect the NBA’s maximum player salary on player rents by comparing player pay from the 1997–1998 and 2003–2004 seasons while controlling for player productivity and other factors related to player pay. The results indicate a large increase in the pay received by teams’ second highest and, to a lesser extent, third highest paid players. We interpret this result as evidence that the adoption of the maximum player salary shifted rents from stars to complementary players. We also show that the 1999 CBA’s rookie contract provisions reduced salaries of early career players.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2015, 3(1), 56-74; doi:10.3390/ijfs3010056 - published 19 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This study examines the relationship between ownership structure and performance of public firms in Mexico, considering debt and the structure of the board of directors as contextual and institutional factors. This research seeks to explain the mixed results about the relationship of ownership and performance presented by other relevant studies in family and non-family businesses, mainly in emerging countries. The results confirm the positive association between family ownership concentration and performance, calculated by Tobin’s Q, showing how the participation of inside shareholders on the board and a low debt level contribute to higher performance. However, the association of these variables with performance shows a contrasting effect in the case of family as compared to non-family businesses. The particular corporate legal context in Mexico could be highlighted as one of the main reasons for these results.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2015, 3(1), 49-55; doi:10.3390/ijfs3010049 - published 25 February 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This paper compares the “simple-sum” monetary aggregates (M1 and M2) published by the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA) with the new monetary aggregates (D1 and D2)—known as the Divisia monetary indexes. The former aggregates are constructed from a simple accounting identity, whereas the Divisia aggregates are constructed using statistical index number theory and aggregation theory. The findings suggest that both D1 and M1 are identical, given the perfect substitutability of the monetary components within those aggregates. For the broader monetary aggregates where perfect substitutability assumption is not realistic, the two monetary indexes differ substantially. SAMA could benefit by using both monetary indexes simultaneously to better monitor liquidity in the market.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2015, 3(1), 31-48; doi:10.3390/ijfs3010031 - published 13 February 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In many Western countries, local community sport clubs are important providers of leisure, sport, and social programs. These sport clubs are nonprofit organizations, which operate in an increasingly challenging environment. This study considers a club’s direct local environment, i.e., the community the club is located in. The open systems model and the resource dependence represent the theoretical framework. The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of the financial and economic environment in the community on the resource situation of sport clubs (human, infrastructure, and financial resources). The empirical evaluation is undertaken using data from a nationwide survey of non-profit sport clubs in Germany (organizational level; n = 19,345), which are combined with secondary data on community characteristics (community level; n = 3153). Given the hierarchical data structure, multi-level analyses are applied. The results show that volunteer problems are smaller among clubs in communities with high unemployment. Facility and financial problems are greater in large communities. Sport clubs located in communities that could break even were also more likely to break even themselves. The findings show that resource problems are not necessarily due to poor club management, since higher-level (community) factors significantly affect the resource situation of sport clubs too.