Open AccessArticle
Effect of Disproportional Voting Rights on Firm’s Market Performance: Evidence from Chinese Firms Cross-Listed on U.S. Exchanges
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(3), 19; doi:10.3390/ijfs5030019 -
Abstract
Dual-class firms face great criticism as it is believed that firms choose this structure to expropriate minority shareholders’ wealth. We compare market performance of Chinese dual-class firms with their single-class counterparts by constructing a list of Chinese firms cross-listed on U.S. exchanges. We
[...] Read more.
Dual-class firms face great criticism as it is believed that firms choose this structure to expropriate minority shareholders’ wealth. We compare market performance of Chinese dual-class firms with their single-class counterparts by constructing a list of Chinese firms cross-listed on U.S. exchanges. We find, contrary to the literature, that Chinese dual-class firms are outperforming in terms of market performance measured by Tobin’s Q, P/E ratio, and abnormal return in both subsequent years after the initial public offering (IPO). The reason for contrary results is that Chinese dual-class firms bond themselves to high U.S. standards from low local Chinese standards, and it is evident from the literature that when a firm bonds itself to high standards it shows a credible commitment towards minority shareholders’ rights, as well as focus on upright performance rather than investing in value-destroying projects and competes to survive in the market that imposes the high standards. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Does Corporate Diversity Really Matter in the Plantation Sector? Empirical Evidence from a World Islamic Leading Country and Market Reaction
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(3), 17; doi:10.3390/ijfs5030017 -
Abstract
The paper examines demographic and cognitive diversity at top-level management and its impact on the performance of Malaysian-listed companies (Plantation and Energy Sectors). Although many organisations aspire to be socially diverse, diversity’s consequences for organisational performance remain unclear. Do profitable firms tend to
[...] Read more.
The paper examines demographic and cognitive diversity at top-level management and its impact on the performance of Malaysian-listed companies (Plantation and Energy Sectors). Although many organisations aspire to be socially diverse, diversity’s consequences for organisational performance remain unclear. Do profitable firms tend to enhance board diversity or other attributes of the firm that contribute towards the firm’s financial performance? This study specifies the whole distinct mechanism and measures it independently; bridging as the demographic and cognitive diversity among the board of directors (BODs) and bonding as the firm’s financial performance. To maintain the homogeneity factor, empirical analysis is confined to two fully-fledged sectors and 125 Malaysian listed firms out of 798 firms selected on the basis of judgmental sampling during the period of 2009 to 2013. The paper applies econometrics methodology on panel data analysis and the correlation matrix to justify this phenomenon. The paper attempts to fill the gap in the existing literature, discuss the empirically diverse corporate boards with the interaction approach and its impact on firm performance (a) gender diversity and foreign participation (b) gender diversity and ethnic diversity. The empirical findings suggest that both demographic and cognitive diversity are significant predictors of a firm’s financial performance. Hence, the companies specifically belonging to plantation and energy sectors are more responsible for promoting diversity among top-level management. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Does Gold Act as a Hedge and a Safe Haven for China’s Stock Market?
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(3), 18; doi:10.3390/ijfs5030018 -
Abstract
This paper examines the dynamic relationships between gold and stock markets in China. Using daily gold and stock indexes data, we estimated the DCC-GARCH model for the five bear markets since 31 October 2002, and simultaneously used different segments of China’s stock markets
[...] Read more.
This paper examines the dynamic relationships between gold and stock markets in China. Using daily gold and stock indexes data, we estimated the DCC-GARCH model for the five bear markets since 31 October 2002, and simultaneously used different segments of China’s stock markets for analysis. Our main objective was to examine the time-varying correlations between gold and stock and to check the effectiveness of gold as a hedge or a safe haven for stocks. Results showed that: (1) the dynamic conditional correlations switched between positive and negative values over the periods under study; (2) due to the increasing investment demand of gold, the hedging effect of gold on China’s stock market has strengthened remarkably. Gold acts as a safe haven for only the latest two of the five bear markets analyzed (12 June 2015–26 August 2015 and 22 December 2015–29 February 2016); and (3) for non-bear markets, gold does not offer good risk hedging. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Editorial for Special Issue “New Challenges in Asian Capital Markets”
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(3), 16; doi:10.3390/ijfs5030016 -
Abstract
We are pleased to announce the Special Issue on the New Challenges in Asian Capital Markets in the International Journal of Financial Studies. The focus of papers in this Special Issue is on the future challenges and/or future developments Asian Finance. In addition,
[...] Read more.
We are pleased to announce the Special Issue on the New Challenges in Asian Capital Markets in the International Journal of Financial Studies. The focus of papers in this Special Issue is on the future challenges and/or future developments Asian Finance. In addition, one article provides a review of the literature on certain issues in relevance to the banking and capital markets in Asia. This Guest Editor’s note synthesizes the contributing authors’ propositions and findings regarding these challenges and developments and hopes that opens new venues for future research directions. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Financial Insights from the Last Few Components of a Stock Market PCA
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(3), 15; doi:10.3390/ijfs5030015 -
Abstract
We show that the last few components in the principal component analysis of the correlation matrix of a group of stocks may contain useful financial insights by identifying highly correlated pairs or larger groups of stocks. The results of this type of analysis
[...] Read more.
We show that the last few components in the principal component analysis of the correlation matrix of a group of stocks may contain useful financial insights by identifying highly correlated pairs or larger groups of stocks. The results of this type of analysis can easily be included in the information an investor uses to manage an investment portfolio. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
The European Insurance Industry: A PEST Analysis
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(2), 14; doi:10.3390/ijfs5020014 -
Abstract
The insurance industry plays an important role for European economic stability and the threats and opportunities it faces should be carefully determined. In this paper we highlight the main challenges by using a Political, Economic, Social and Technological (PEST) analysis. This work applies
[...] Read more.
The insurance industry plays an important role for European economic stability and the threats and opportunities it faces should be carefully determined. In this paper we highlight the main challenges by using a Political, Economic, Social and Technological (PEST) analysis. This work applies conventional actuarial thought on this area by focusing strictly on the European sector. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Impacts of Capital Structure on Performance of Banks in a Developing Economy: Evidence from Bangladesh
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(2), 13; doi:10.3390/ijfs5020013 -
Abstract
The capital structure decision plays an important role in the performance of a firm. Therefore, there have been many studies inspecting the rapport of capital structure with the performance of firms, although the findings of these studies are inconclusive. In addition, there is
[...] Read more.
The capital structure decision plays an important role in the performance of a firm. Therefore, there have been many studies inspecting the rapport of capital structure with the performance of firms, although the findings of these studies are inconclusive. In addition, there is a relative deficiency of empirical studies examining the link between capital structure and the performance of banks in Bangladesh. This study attempts to fill this gap. Using the panel data of 22 banks for the period of 2005–2014, this study empirically examined the impacts of capital structure on the performance of Bangladeshi banks assessed by return on equity, return on assets and earnings per share. The results of the pooled ordinary least square analysis showed that capital structure inversely affects bank performance. The findings of this empirical study are of greater significance for the developing countries like Bangladesh because it calls for the concentration of the bank management and the policy makers to pursue the policies that reduce reliance on debt to achieve the optimal level of capital structure. The results of this study are also analysed in the light of earlier studies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The ECB’s Fight against Low Inflation: On the Effects of Ultra-Low Interest Rates
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(2), 12; doi:10.3390/ijfs5020012 -
Abstract
Starting in June 2014, the European Central Bank (ECB) stepped up its monetary accommodation in order to counter a too prolonged period of low inflation in the euro area. This article offers a narrative of the monetary policy measures taken up to December
[...] Read more.
Starting in June 2014, the European Central Bank (ECB) stepped up its monetary accommodation in order to counter a too prolonged period of low inflation in the euro area. This article offers a narrative of the monetary policy measures taken up to December 2016 and a review of the effects of ultra-low interest rates. The exceptional monetary stimulus transmitted to the economy broadly as intended. Moreover, it enhanced the financial capacity of economic agents to bear risks. At the same time, the ECB and the European micro- and macro-prudential authorities remained watchful of the unintended side-effects of an extended period of very low or negative interest rates for financial intermediation, financial stability and market discipline and took preventive or corrective measures as appropriate. A joint plan of action carried out by the 19 member countries with the aim to speed up balance sheet repair, accelerate the economic recovery and achieve higher productivity growth could have contributed to a more effective euro area macroeconomic and financial policy mix. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Relationship between Ethanol Spot and Futures Prices in Brazil
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(2), 11; doi:10.3390/ijfs5020011 -
Abstract
In this work, an investigation and analysis are carried out in order to observe the relationship between ethanol spot and futures prices in Brazil. We adopted the Engle and Granger co-integration approach. Also, we consider the information share method proposed by Hasbrouck in
[...] Read more.
In this work, an investigation and analysis are carried out in order to observe the relationship between ethanol spot and futures prices in Brazil. We adopted the Engle and Granger co-integration approach. Also, we consider the information share method proposed by Hasbrouck in order to examine the market efficiency in price discovery and information transmission. Results show that although the futures market is efficient in price discovery and information transmission, the cash market leads the long-run price discovery process. This suggests that the underlying cause of the dominance of the available market over the futures market can be attributed to the market’s relative concentration in wholesale ethanol distribution due to the formation of marketing pools by the ethanol mills, as well as the small number of distributors that control a significant portion of the market share. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
What Should You Pay to Cap your ARM?—A Note on Capped Adjustable Rate Mortgages
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(1), 10; doi:10.3390/ijfs5010010 -
Abstract
In this paper, an Adjustable Rate Mortgage (ARM) and a Fixed Rate Mortgage (FRM) are formalized and studied in a simple continuous-time setting under the assumption of a simple one-factor Affine Term Structure (ATS). Through an application of existing results from ATS theory,
[...] Read more.
In this paper, an Adjustable Rate Mortgage (ARM) and a Fixed Rate Mortgage (FRM) are formalized and studied in a simple continuous-time setting under the assumption of a simple one-factor Affine Term Structure (ATS). Through an application of existing results from ATS theory, it is shown that when the short rate reaches a certain pre-determined boundary, the constant payment stream on a new FRM equals the payments on an existing ARM. Hereby, this paper provides a theoretical build-in cap on the formalized ARM. The finite boundary for the short-rate suggests that certain caps on ARMs should (in theory) be offered free of charge. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Causality between Stock Prices and Exchange Rates in Turkey: Empirical Evidence from the ARDL Bounds Test and a Combined Cointegration Approach
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(1), 8; doi:10.3390/ijfs5010008 -
Abstract
This paper investigates the interaction between stock prices and real exchange rates by applying monthly data from Turkey for the period between January 2001 and September 2016. This study uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model and the Error Correction Model (ECM) in
[...] Read more.
This paper investigates the interaction between stock prices and real exchange rates by applying monthly data from Turkey for the period between January 2001 and September 2016. This study uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model and the Error Correction Model (ECM) in order to investigate the existence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between the variables. The evidence reveals that there is a strong long-run cointegration. The robustness of the ARDL bounds test cointegration was confirmed using the newly-developed combined cointegration, which also provided the same evidence for a strong long-run relationship. The Granger causality test results indicate a long-run bidirectional causality between stock prices and real exchange rates, and also a unidirectional causality from the real exchange rates to the stock prices in the short-run. In order to analyze the validity and reliability of the test results, diagnostic tests were applied in both the short-run and long-run models. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Japanese Mutual Funds before and after the Crisis Outburst: A Style- and Performance-Analysis
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(1), 9; doi:10.3390/ijfs5010009 -
Abstract
This paper investigates how mutual funds performed in Japan before and after the 2008 outburst of the global financial crisis, that is during the extension of an extraordinary unconventional monetary policy by the Bank of Japan. Style and performance analyses are employed in
[...] Read more.
This paper investigates how mutual funds performed in Japan before and after the 2008 outburst of the global financial crisis, that is during the extension of an extraordinary unconventional monetary policy by the Bank of Japan. Style and performance analyses are employed in order to investigate whether active or passive management has been affected by unconventional times and to what extent. Evidence indicates that in four out of eight funds, asset selection presents a significant contribution to returns. The Selection Sharpe Ratios for sectoral and style analyses exhibit positive values added per unit of risk due to active management for the majority of our funds in the pre-Lehman default period. Nevertheless, none of them presents statistical significance according to the t-statistic. Moreover, over the post-Lehman default, only two out of eight funds achieved lower volatility levels and higher returns due to active management. A style drift to big capitalization stocks with low values of book to market ratio is to be held responsible for the outperformance. Overall, our findings imply that active management in a monetary easing environment does not add significant value to the mutual fund performance. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Efficiency Analysis of Islamic Banks in the Middle East and North Africa Region: A Bootstrap DEA Approach
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(1), 7; doi:10.3390/ijfs5010007 -
Abstract
This paper measures and analyzes the technical efficiency of Islamic banks in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region during the period 2007–2012. To do this, the bootstrap Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach was employed in order to provide a robust estimation
[...] Read more.
This paper measures and analyzes the technical efficiency of Islamic banks in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region during the period 2007–2012. To do this, the bootstrap Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach was employed in order to provide a robust estimation of the overall technical efficiency and its components: pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency in the case of MENA Islamic banks. The main results show that over the period of study, pure technical inefficiency was the main source of overall technical inefficiency instead of scale inefficiency. This finding was confirmed for all MENA Islamic banks as well as for the two subsamples: Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and non-GCC Islamic banks. Furthermore, our results show that GCC Islamic banks had stable efficiency scores during the global financial crisis (2007–2008) and in the early post-crisis period (2009–2010). However, a decline in overall technical efficiency of all panels of MENA Islamic banks was recorded in the last two years of the study period (2011–2012). Thus, we recommend that MENA Islamic bank managers focus more on improving their management practices rather than increasing their sizes. We also recommend that financial authorities in MENA countries implement several regulatory and financial measures in order to ensure the development of MENA Islamic banking. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
FDI Inflows, Price and Exchange Rate Volatility: New Empirical Evidence from Latin America
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(1), 6; doi:10.3390/ijfs5010006 -
Abstract
This paper investigates the impact of price and real exchange rate volatility on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows in a panel of 10 Latin American and Caribbean countries, observed between 1990 and 2012. Both price and exchange rate volatility series are estimated through
[...] Read more.
This paper investigates the impact of price and real exchange rate volatility on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows in a panel of 10 Latin American and Caribbean countries, observed between 1990 and 2012. Both price and exchange rate volatility series are estimated through the Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity model (GARCH). Our results obtained, employing the Fixed Effects estimator, confirm the theory of hysteresis and option value, in so far as a statistically significant negative effect of exchange rate volatility on FDI is found. Price volatility, instead, turns out to be positive but insignificant. Moreover, we show that human capital and trade openness are key for attracting foreign capital. From the policy perspective, our analysis suggests the importance of stabilization policies as well as the policy of government credibility in promoting trade openness and human capital formation. Full article
Open AccessReview
Capital Markets, Infrastructure Investment and Growth in the Asia Pacific Region
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(1), 5; doi:10.3390/ijfs5010005 -
Abstract
This paper examines the relationship between infrastructure investment activity, capital market development, the role of public institutions and economic development in the Asia Pacific. It adopts a review approach drawing on empirical evidence over recent decades. Infrastructure is shown to be an important
[...] Read more.
This paper examines the relationship between infrastructure investment activity, capital market development, the role of public institutions and economic development in the Asia Pacific. It adopts a review approach drawing on empirical evidence over recent decades. Infrastructure is shown to be an important asset class playing a central role in a nation’s output, growth, productivity and microeconomic performance. Infrastructure investment also requires investment and predictions of a widening gap in the future supply of infrastructure in the Asia Pacific will require new forms of capital from both traditional and new sources including wider use of private participation, institutional investment, asset recycling and revenue bonds. Capital market development is also necessary to raise long-term local currency finance and evidence suggests that progress with regional capital market integration is slow and a continuing reform agenda is required. The dividend for regional countries is the prospect of higher levels of economic growth with infrastructure investment, capital market development, and foreign direct investment shown to have a strong and positive association with growth. A crucial link in this association identified in the review is the part played by national and regional institutions in improving the efficiency with which infrastructure is managed and providing promising ground for further research where the importance of these links can be researched in greater depth. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Policy Impact on the Chinese Stock Market: From the 1994 Bailout Policies to the 2015 Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(1), 4; doi:10.3390/ijfs5010004 -
Abstract
From the 1994 bailout policies to the 2015 Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect, the policy impact on the Chinese stock market has changed over time. By May 2015, global investors can directly invest in a more legalized and normalized Chinese stock market, whereas they
[...] Read more.
From the 1994 bailout policies to the 2015 Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect, the policy impact on the Chinese stock market has changed over time. By May 2015, global investors can directly invest in a more legalized and normalized Chinese stock market, whereas they are still concerned about the policy-oriented market and its attendant risks. In this study, we employ the family of GARCH models to investigate the structural changes in risks with the implementation of a series of policies. Our results show that although many policies improve or stabilize the stock market, certain policies lead to substantial volatility. Among them, macro-control policies and transaction cost adjustments are a double-edged sword, which should be used with caution. Furthermore, with opening-up policies being launched recently, the Chinese stock market has entered a new stage in which it affects international capital markets. However, the increased risks, which may result in a sharp turnaround, cause worry. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of the International Journal of Financial Studies in 2016
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(1), 3; doi:10.3390/ijfs5010003 -
Abstract
The editors of the International Journal of Financial Studies would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effectiveness of Weather Derivatives as a Risk Management Tool in Food Retail: The Case of Croatia
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(1), 2; doi:10.3390/ijfs5010002 -
Abstract
Non-catastrophic weather risk is gaining importance as climate change becomes more pronounced and economic crisis forces companies to strengthen their cost control. Recent literature proposes weather derivatives as flexible weather risk mitigating tools. Only a handful of studies analysed the feasibility of weather
[...] Read more.
Non-catastrophic weather risk is gaining importance as climate change becomes more pronounced and economic crisis forces companies to strengthen their cost control. Recent literature proposes weather derivatives as flexible weather risk mitigating tools. Only a handful of studies analysed the feasibility of weather derivatives in industries other than agriculture and energy. The purpose of this paper is to review available weather risk management solutions in retail, present weather derivatives as non-catastrophic weather risk management tools, empirically demonstrate the process of designing weather derivatives and assess their effectiveness as risk mitigating tools in retail. Empirical analysis is performed on beverage sales in 60 large food stores in Croatia, and performance of monthly temperature put options during the summer season is examined. For weather sensitivity analysis of sales, the method of panel regression was used. Results show that weather has a statistically significant effect on beverage sales and that weather derivatives prove to be effective in beverage sales uncertainty reduction. Their effectiveness differs between covered periods and cities. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
New Insight into the Finance-Energy Nexus: Disaggregated Evidence from Turkish Sectors
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2017, 5(1), 1; doi:10.3390/ijfs5010001 -
Abstract
Seeing that reshaped energy economics literature has adopted some new variables in energy demand function, the number of papers looking into the relationship between financial development and energy consumption at the aggregate level has been increasing over the last few years. This paper,
[...] Read more.
Seeing that reshaped energy economics literature has adopted some new variables in energy demand function, the number of papers looking into the relationship between financial development and energy consumption at the aggregate level has been increasing over the last few years. This paper, however, proposes a new framework using disaggregated data and investigates the nexus between financial development and sectoral energy consumption in Turkey. To this end, panel time series regression and causality techniques are adopted over the period 1989–2011. Empirical results confirm that financial development does have a significant impact on energy consumption, even with disaggregated data. It is also proved that the magnitude of financial development is larger in energy-intensive industries than in less energy-intensive ones. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Sectoral Differences in the Choice of the Time Horizon during Estimation of the Unconditional Stock Beta
Int. J. Financial Stud. 2016, 4(4), 25; doi:10.3390/ijfs4040025 -
Abstract
The stock beta coefficient literature extensively discusses the proper methods for the estimation of beta as well as its use in asset valuation. However, there are fewer references with respect to the appropriate time horizon that investors should utilize when evaluating the risk-return
[...] Read more.
The stock beta coefficient literature extensively discusses the proper methods for the estimation of beta as well as its use in asset valuation. However, there are fewer references with respect to the appropriate time horizon that investors should utilize when evaluating the risk-return relationship of a stock. We examine the appropriate time horizon for beta estimation, differentiating our results by sector according to the Industry Classification Benchmark. We employ data from the NYSE and estimate varying lengths of beta employing data from 30 to 250 trading days. The constructed beta series is then examined for the presence of breaks using the endogenous structural break literature. Results show evidence against the use of betas that employ more than 90 trading days of data provisional to the sector under study. Full article