Int. J. Financial Stud.2015, 3(3), 342-350; doi:10.3390/ijfs3030342 (registering DOI) - published 30 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This paper applies demand and supply analysis to examine the government bond yield in Spain. The sample ranges from 1999.Q1 to 2014.Q2. The EGARCH model is employed in empirical work. The Spanish government bond yield is positively associated with the government debt/GDP ratio, the short-term Treasury bill rate, the expected inflation rate, the U.S. 10 year government bond yield and a dummy variable representing the debt crisis and negatively affected by the GDP growth rate and the expected nominal effective exchange rate.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2015, 3(3), 319-341; doi:10.3390/ijfs3030319 - published 27 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The Baker and Wurgler (2006) sentiment index purports to measure irrational investor sentiment, while the University of Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index is designed to largely reflect fundamentals. Removing this fundamental component from the Baker and Wurgler index creates an index of investor sentiment that may better capture irrational sentiment. This new index predicts returns better than the original Baker and Wurgler index as well as the alternative Baker and Wurgler sentiment index.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2015, 3(3), 280-318; doi:10.3390/ijfs3030280 - published 27 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The Markov Tree model is a discrete-time option pricing model that accounts for short-term memory of the underlying asset. In this work, we compare the empirical performance of the Markov Tree model against that of the Black-Scholes model and Heston’s stochastic volatility model. Leveraging a total of five years of individual equity and index option data, and using three new methods for fitting the Markov Tree model, we find that the Markov Tree model makes smaller out-of-sample hedging errors than competing models. This comparison includes versions of Markov Tree and Black-Scholes models in which volatilities are strike- and maturity-dependent. Visualizing the errors over time, we find that the Markov Tree model yields more accurate and less risky single instrument hedges than Heston’s stochastic volatility model. A statistical resampling method indicates that the Markov Tree model’s superior hedging performance is due to its robustness with respect to noise in option data.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2015, 3(3), 244-279; doi:10.3390/ijfs3030244 - published 23 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This paper draws on network theory to investigate European banks’ sovereign debt exposures. Banks’ holdings of sovereign debt build a network of financial linkages with European countries that exhibits a long-tail distribution of node degrees. A highly connected network core of 15 banks is identified. These banks accounted for the majority of sovereign debt investments between December 2010 and December 2013 but exhibited only average and sometimes even below average capitalizations. Consequently, they constituted a potential source and transmission channel of systemic risk, especially due to their proneness to portfolio contagion. In a complementary regression analysis, the effect of counterparty risk on Credit Default Swap (CDS) spreads of 15 EU sovereigns is investigated. Among the banks exposed to the debt of a particular issuer, the biggest institutions in terms of their own asset sizes are identified and some of their balance sheet characteristics included into the regression. The analysis finds that the banks’ implied volatilities had a significant and increasing effect on CDS spreads during the recent crisis years, providing evidence of the presence of counterparty risk and its effect on EU sovereign debt pricing. Furthermore, the role of the domestic financial sectors is assessed and found to have affected the CDS spreads.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2015, 3(3), 230-243; doi:10.3390/ijfs3030230 - published 22 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Many companies in recent years are seeking new ways to manage their debt liabilities. Companies with outstanding debt securities can engage in a variety of transactions with bond holders. Choices will depend to some extent on whether or not the company has access to cash and is able to purchase in the open market or through cash tender offer, or if without cash, by making an exchange offer of new securities for existing securities. Often in either case, there is a bond indenture consent solicitation needed to waive or amend existing bond terms, the announcement of which signals management’s intent to the market. Given the increasing prevalence of this practice as a debt management tool, this study seeks to determine whether it is truly perceived to be value enhancing by stockholders. Using an event study of 50 companies announcing bond indenture consent solicitations, we find that shareholders do benefit, and companies appear well served by this practice.
Int. J. Financial Stud.2015, 3(3), 194-229; doi:10.3390/ijfs3030194 - published 17 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This study examines the moderation effects of corporate governance provisions on the link between family involvement (i.e., family ownership and family management) in publicly-traded firms and firm performance by drawing upon agency theory, with a focus on principal-principal agency issues, and the extant family governance literature. We develop and test the hypotheses on 386 of the S&P 500 firms longitudinally. Findings support the hypotheses suggesting the moderation effects of the use of provisions (a) protecting controlling owners in terms of their sustainability of controlling status, and (b) protecting management legally on the inverted U-shaped relationship between family ownership and firm performance. We also found support for the moderation effects of provisions (c) protecting controlling owners in terms of their voting rights, (d) protecting noncontrolling owners, and (e) protecting management monetarily on the inverted U-shaped relationship between family management and firm performance. By this, our study provides empirical support for the principal-principal agency perspective on the corporate governance in publicly-traded family firms. As such, it suggests new avenues of research for both the corporate governance literature, as well as for the theory of the family firm. Our study also offers insights to policy directed toward monitoring the actions of large shareholders such as family and enhancing the overall shareholder value in publicly-traded family firms.