Open AccessArticle
Managing Risk Aversion for Low-Carbon Supply Chains with Emission Abatement Outsourcing
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 367; doi:10.3390/ijerph15020367 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Reducing carbon emissions, including emission abatement outsourcing at the supply-chain level, is becoming a significant but challenging problem in practice. Confronting this challenge, we therefore break down the practice to focus on a low-carbon supply chain consisting of one supplier, one manufacturer and
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Reducing carbon emissions, including emission abatement outsourcing at the supply-chain level, is becoming a significant but challenging problem in practice. Confronting this challenge, we therefore break down the practice to focus on a low-carbon supply chain consisting of one supplier, one manufacturer and one third-party emission-reducing contractor. The contractor offers a carbon reduction service to the manufacturer. In view of the increasing proportion of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions and absence of carbon reduction policies in developing countries, we adopt the prospect of consumers’ low-carbon preferences to capture the demand sensitivity on carbon emission. By exploiting the Mean-Variance (MV) model, we develop a supply chain game model considering risk aversion. Comparing the supply chain performances of the cases under risk neutrality and risk aversion, we investigate the impact of the risk aversion of the supplier and the manufacturer on the low-carbon supply chain performances, respectively. We show that the risk aversion of chain members will not influence the relationship underlain by the profit-sharing contract between the manufacturer and contractor, whereas they may extend the supplier’s concerning range. Although the manufacturer’s risk aversion has a positive impact on the wholesale price, interestingly, the supplier’s impact on the wholesale price is negative. Furthermore, we propose a contract to coordinate the risk-averse low-carbon supply chain by tuning the aversion levels of the supplier and the manufacturer, respectively. Through numerical study, we draw on managerial insights for industrial practitioners to adopt a low carbon strategy potentially by managing the risk attitudes along the supply chain channel. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Brain Breaks Classroom-Based Physical Activities on Attitudes toward Physical Activity in Polish School Children in Third to Fifth Grade
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 368; doi:10.3390/ijerph15020368 -
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the Brain Breaks® Physical Activity Solutions in changing attitudes toward physical activity of school children in a community in Poland. In 2015, a sample of 326 pupils aged 9–11 years old from
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the Brain Breaks® Physical Activity Solutions in changing attitudes toward physical activity of school children in a community in Poland. In 2015, a sample of 326 pupils aged 9–11 years old from 19 classes at three selected primary schools were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups within the study. During the classes, children in the experimental group performed physical activities two times per day in three to five minutes using Brain Breaks® videos for four months, while the control group did not use the videos during the test period. Students’ attitudes toward physical activities were assessed before and after the intervention using the “Attitudes toward Physical Activity Scale”. Repeated measures of ANOVA were used to examine the change from pre- to post-intervention. Overall, a repeated measures ANOVA indicated time-by-group interaction effects in ‘Self-efficacy on learning with video exercises’, F(1.32) = 75.28, p = 0.00, η2 = 0.19. Although the changes are minor, there were benefits of the intervention. It may be concluded that HOPSports Brain Breaks® Physical Activity Program contributes to better self-efficacy on learning while using video exercise of primary school children. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Different Risk Factors for Very Low Birth Weight, Term-Small-for-Gestational-Age, or Preterm Birth in Japan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 369; doi:10.3390/ijerph15020369 -
Abstract
From 1985 to 2013, the mean birth weight of infants in Japan decreased from 3120 g to 3000 g, and the low-birth-weight rate among live births increased from 6.3% to 9.6%. No prospective study has elucidated the risk factors for poor fetal growth
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From 1985 to 2013, the mean birth weight of infants in Japan decreased from 3120 g to 3000 g, and the low-birth-weight rate among live births increased from 6.3% to 9.6%. No prospective study has elucidated the risk factors for poor fetal growth and preterm birth in recent Japanese parents, such as increased parental age, maternal body figure, assisted reproductive technology (ART), and socioeconomic status. Participants were mother–infant pairs (n = 18,059) enrolled in a prospective birth cohort in Hokkaido, Japan from 2002 to 2013. Parental characteristics were obtained via self-reported questionnaires during pregnancy. Medical records helped identify very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; <1500g), term-small-for-gestational-age (term-SGA), and preterm-birth (PTB; <37 weeks) infants. We calculated relative risks (RRs) for PTB, VLBW, and term-SGA birth based on parental characteristics. The prevalence of PTB, VLBW, and term-SGA was 4.5%, 0.4%, and 6.5%, respectively. Aged parents and ART were risk factors for PTB and VLBW. Maternal alcohol drinking during pregnancy increased the risk; a parental educational level of ≥16 years reduced risk of term-SGA. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI of <18.5 kg/m2 increased the risk of PTB and term-SGA. The RR for low BMI was highest among mothers who have low educational level. Among various factors, appropriate nutritional education to maintain normal BMI is important to prevent PTB and term-SGA in Japan. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Use of Manual Vacuum Aspiration in the Treatment of Incomplete Abortions: A Descriptive Study from Three Public Hospitals in Malawi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 370; doi:10.3390/ijerph15020370 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Malawi has a high maternal mortality rate, of which unsafe abortion is a major cause. About 140,000 induced abortions are estimated every year, despite there being a restrictive abortion law in place. This leads to complications, such as incomplete abortions, which need to
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Malawi has a high maternal mortality rate, of which unsafe abortion is a major cause. About 140,000 induced abortions are estimated every year, despite there being a restrictive abortion law in place. This leads to complications, such as incomplete abortions, which need to be treated to avoid further harm. Although manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is a safe and cheap method of evacuating the uterus, the most commonly used method in Malawi is curettage. Medical treatment is used sparingly in the country, and the Ministry of Health has been trying to increase the use of MVA. The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment of incomplete abortions in three public hospitals in Southern Malawi during a three-year period. All medical files from the female/gynecological wards from 2013 to 2015 were reviewed. In total, information on obstetric history, demographics, and treatment were collected from 7270 women who had been treated for incomplete abortions. The overall use of MVA at the three hospitals during the study period was 11.4% (95% CI, 10.7–12.1). However, there was a major increase in MVA application at one District Hospital. Why there was only one successful hospital in this study is unclear, but may be due to more training and dedicated leadership at this particular hospital. Either way, the use of MVA in the treatment of incomplete abortions continues to be low in Malawi, despite recommendations from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Malawi Ministry of Health. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Interrelationship between Family Violence, Adolescent Violence, and Adolescent Violent Victimization: An Application and Extension of the Cultural Spillover Theory in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 371; doi:10.3390/ijerph15020371 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The current study is the first study to emphasize family systems, violent norms, and violent peer association as three domains of the social environment that influence both adolescent violent offending and victimization among Chinese adolescents using a longitudinal sample. Under the framework of
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The current study is the first study to emphasize family systems, violent norms, and violent peer association as three domains of the social environment that influence both adolescent violent offending and victimization among Chinese adolescents using a longitudinal sample. Under the framework of cultural spillover theory, the purpose of the current study was to explore how these three factors influenced adolescent violent offending and victimization. A total of 1192 middle and high school students were randomly selected from one of the largest cities in Southwest China. Structural equation model analysis was applied to investigate the direct and indirect effect of violence in the family system on violent offending and victimization. The results indicated that violent offending and victimization overlapped among Chinese adolescents. Violent peer association and acceptance of the violence norm fully mediated the effect of violence in the family system on violent offending, and partially mediated the effect of violence in the family system on violent victimization. In conclusion, adolescents who had experienced violence in their family system were more likely to be exposed to violent peer influences and to accept violent norms, which increased the likelihood of violence perpetration and victimization later in their life. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bullying as a Stressor in Mid-Adolescent Girls and Boys–Associations with Perceived Stress, Recurrent Pain, and Salivary Cortisol
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 364; doi:10.3390/ijerph15020364 -
Abstract
Bullying involves repeated exposure to negative actions while also invoking a power asymmetry between the involved parties. From a stress perspective, being bullied can be seen as a severe and chronic stressor, and an everyday social-evaluative threat, coupled with a shortage of effective
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Bullying involves repeated exposure to negative actions while also invoking a power asymmetry between the involved parties. From a stress perspective, being bullied can be seen as a severe and chronic stressor, and an everyday social-evaluative threat, coupled with a shortage of effective social resources for dealing with this particular stressor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to bullying among mid-adolescent girls and boys is associated with subjective and objective stress-related outcomes in terms of perceived stress, recurrent pain, and salivary cortisol. The data came from the School Stress and Support Study (TriSSS) including students in grades 8–9 in two schools in Stockholm, Sweden, in 2010 (study sample n = 392; cortisol subsample n = 198). Bullying was self-reported and measured by multiple items. The statistical analyses included binary logistic and linear (OLS) regression. Being bullied was associated with greater perceived stress and an increased risk of recurrent pain, among both boys and girls. Also, bullied students had lower cortisol output (AUCG) and lower cortisol awakening response (CARG) as compared to those who were not bullied. Gender-stratified analyses demonstrated that these associations were statistically significant for boys but not for girls. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that being bullied was related to both subjective and objective stress markers among mid-adolescent girls and boys, pointing to the necessity of continuously working against bullying. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Heavy Metals in Notifications of Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 365; doi:10.3390/ijerph15020365 -
Abstract
Heavy metals represent the fourth most often notified hazard category in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) from 1980–2016. The goal of the study was to examine the similarities in notifications of particular heavy metals within the RASFF year, product
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Heavy metals represent the fourth most often notified hazard category in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) from 1980–2016. The goal of the study was to examine the similarities in notifications of particular heavy metals within the RASFF year, product category, notifying country, country of origin, notification basis, notification type, distribution status, risk decision, and action taken, taking into account the particular product type, such as food, food contact material, and feed. The data originated from the RASFF database. Cluster analysis on pivot tables was applied using joining and two-way joining methods. Most notifications concerned food, in which the highest number were related to mercury, cadmium, chromium, lead, arsenic, and nickel. Notifications were mainly related to fish and food contact materials, in addition to fruits and vegetables, seafood, and dietetic food. The number of notifications decreased in 2015 and 2016. The majority of products were notified by Italy, Spain, Germany, and France. The notified products originated mainly from China and Spain. The notification was usually based on official controls on the market, as well as border controls. The notification types were mainly information, alert, and border rejections. Products were not frequently distributed due to distribution restriction to the notifying country or the possibility of distribution to the market. A risk decision was not usually made. The taken actions included re-dispatch of products, withdrawal from the market, or destruction. The data on heavy metals from the RASFF database can help European and national authorities in shaping public health. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Parental Education and Pre-School Children’s Objectively Measured Sedentary Time: The Role of Co-Participation in Physical Activity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 366; doi:10.3390/ijerph15020366 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Parental co-participation in physical activity (PA) may be a beneficial parenting practice for diminishing children’s sedentary time (ST). Less information is available, however, on the explanatory role of co-participation in PA regarding parental educational differences in children's ST. Preschool-aged children (N = 864,
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Parental co-participation in physical activity (PA) may be a beneficial parenting practice for diminishing children’s sedentary time (ST). Less information is available, however, on the explanatory role of co-participation in PA regarding parental educational differences in children's ST. Preschool-aged children (N = 864, mean age 4.8, 52% boys) with their parents participated in a cross-sectional DAGIS (Increased Health and Wellbeing in Pre-schools) study between years 2015 and 2016. Children (N = 821) wore an accelerometer for one week. Parents were informed of their educational background, and the frequency of visits with their child in nature, to parks or playgrounds, their own yard, and indoor sport facilities (N = 808). Testing the associations required multiple regression analyses. Parents with a low educational background reported more frequent visits with their child to their own yard, and these visits were associated with children’s lower ST. More highly educated parents co-visited indoor sport facilities more frequently, although this did not have a significant association with children’s ST. More frequent visits in nature were associated with a lower ST at weekdays, regardless of educational background. Future health promotion strategies should inform parents that frequent co-participation in PA, for example, in one’s own yard, is beneficial for lowering children’s ST. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Associations between Ambient Particulate Matter and Nitrogen Dioxide and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases in Adults and Effect Modification by Demographic and Lifestyle Factors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 363; doi:10.3390/ijerph15020363 -
Abstract
This study was undertaken to investigate the associations between chronic exposure to particulate matter of medium aerodynamic diameter ≤10 or ≤2.5 µm (PM10 or PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels and lung function and to examine a possible
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This study was undertaken to investigate the associations between chronic exposure to particulate matter of medium aerodynamic diameter ≤10 or ≤2.5 µm (PM10 or PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels and lung function and to examine a possible change in these relationships by demographic and lifestyle factors. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was defined using the Global Initiative for COPD criteria (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) of <70%). Associations of lung function and COPD with PM10 or PM2.5 or NO2 were examined using linear and logistic regression analyses among 1264 Korean adults. The highest tertiles of PM2.5 (≥37.1 μg/m3) and NO2 (≥53.8 μg/m3) exposure were significantly associated with COPD (highest versus lowest tertile of PM2.5: adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.02–3.13; highest versus lowest tertile of NO2: adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.04–3.21). A 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 concentration was associated with a 1.85 L (95% CI –3.65 to –0.05) decrease in FEV1 and a 1.73 L (95% CI –3.35 to –0.12) decrease in FVC, with the strongest negative association among older people and those with less education. Reduced lung function was associated with PM2.5 exposure in subjects with no physical activity. This study provides evidence that exposure to ambient air pollution has adverse effects on lung function in adults. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Health Differences between Roma and Non-Roma in the Slovak Dialyzed Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 360; doi:10.3390/ijerph15020360 -
Abstract
Background: Roma health has not been studied systematically. Thus far, it has been shown that Roma compared to non-Roma have a significantly higher likelihood of getting end-stage renal disease and that their chances for survival on dialysis are lower. Evidence is lacking regarding
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Background: Roma health has not been studied systematically. Thus far, it has been shown that Roma compared to non-Roma have a significantly higher likelihood of getting end-stage renal disease and that their chances for survival on dialysis are lower. Evidence is lacking regarding morbidity between Roma and non-Roma. The aim was to compare the health status of dialyzed Roma and non-Roma using the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). All Slovak dialysis centers for adults were asked to fill in a questionaire with demographic and clinical data, including comorbidity. Cross-sectional analysis of 2082 patients with an average age of 63.8 ± 13.8 years was performed. Comorbidity was expressed as the CCI, and ethnic differences were calculated. Linear regression was performed to adjust for differences in gender and age in both ethnic groups. Roma represented 13.0% of the whole dialyzed population (n = 270). Comorbidity expressed as CCI was significantly lower in the Roma population (p < 0.001). After adjusting for gender and age, ethnicity failed to be associated with the CCI in the linear regression analysis (p = 0.965, variance of the model—adjusted R2 38.6%). The health status of dialyzed Slovak Roma does not differ cross-sectionally when adjusted for age and gender from the health status of dialyzed non-Roma. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Dynamics of Bacterial and Fungal Communities during the Outbreak and Decline of an Algal Bloom in a Drinking Water Reservoir
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 361; doi:10.3390/ijerph15020361 -
Abstract
The microbial communities associated with algal blooms play a pivotal role in organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in freshwater ecosystems. However, there have been few studies focused on unveiling the dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities during the outbreak and decline of
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The microbial communities associated with algal blooms play a pivotal role in organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in freshwater ecosystems. However, there have been few studies focused on unveiling the dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities during the outbreak and decline of algal blooms in drinking water reservoirs. To address this issue, the compositions of bacterial and fungal communities were assessed in the Zhoucun drinking water reservoir using 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene Illumina MiSeq sequencing techniques. The results showed the algal bloom was dominated by Synechococcus, Microcystis, and Prochlorothrix. The bloom was characterized by a steady decrease of total phosphorus (TP) from the outbreak to the decline period (p < 0.05) while Fe concentration increased sharply during the decline period (p < 0.05). The highest algal biomass and cell concentrations observed during the bloom were 51.7 mg/L and 1.9×108 cell/L, respectively. The cell concentration was positively correlated with CODMn (r = 0.89, p = 0.02). Illumina Miseq sequencing showed that algal bloom altered the water bacterial and fungal community structure. During the bloom, the dominant bacterial genus were Acinetobacter sp., Limnobacter sp., Synechococcus sp., and Roseomonas sp. The relative size of the fungal community also changed with algal bloom and its composition mainly contained Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Heat map profiling indicated that algal bloom had a more consistent effect upon fungal communities at genus level. Redundancy analysis (RDA) also demonstrated that the structure of water bacterial communities was significantly correlated to conductivity and ammonia nitrogen. Meanwhile, water temperature, Fe and ammonia nitrogen drive the dynamics of water fungal communities. The results from this work suggested that water bacterial and fungal communities changed significantly during the outbreak and decline of algal bloom in Zhoucun drinking water reservoir. Our study highlights the potential role of microbial diversity as a driving force for the algal bloom and biogeochemical cycling of reservoir ecology. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Disaster Reintegration Model: A Qualitative Analysis on Developing Korean Disaster Mental Health Support Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 362; doi:10.3390/ijerph15020362 -
Abstract
This study sought to describe the mental health problems experienced by Korean disaster survivors, using a qualitative research method to provide empirical resources for effective disaster mental health support in Korea. Participants were 16 adults or elderly adults who experienced one or more
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This study sought to describe the mental health problems experienced by Korean disaster survivors, using a qualitative research method to provide empirical resources for effective disaster mental health support in Korea. Participants were 16 adults or elderly adults who experienced one or more disasters at least 12 months ago recruited via theoretical sampling. Participants underwent in-depth individual interviews on their disaster experiences, which were recorded and transcribed for qualitative analysis, which followed Strauss and Corbin’s (1998) Grounded theory. After open coding, participants’ experiences were categorized into 130 codes, 43 sub-categories and 17 categories. The categories were further analyzed in a paradigm model, conditional model and the Disaster Reintegration Model, which proposed potentially effective mental health recovery strategies for disaster survivors, health providers and administrators. To provide effective assistance for mental health recovery of disaster survivors, both personal and public resilience should be promoted while considering both cultural and spiritual elements. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Theoretical and Empirical Linkage between Road Accidents and Binge Eating Behaviors in Adolescence
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 355; doi:10.3390/ijerph15020355 -
Abstract
This study aimed at identifying specific clusters of maladaptive emotional–behavioral symptoms in adolescent victims of motorbike collisions considering their scores on alexithymia and impulsivity in addition to examining the prevalence of clinical binge eating behaviors (respectively through the Youth Self-Report (YSR), Toronto Alexithymia
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This study aimed at identifying specific clusters of maladaptive emotional–behavioral symptoms in adolescent victims of motorbike collisions considering their scores on alexithymia and impulsivity in addition to examining the prevalence of clinical binge eating behaviors (respectively through the Youth Self-Report (YSR), Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), and Binge Eating Scale (BES)). Emotional–behavioral profiles, difficulties in identifying and describing feelings, impulsivity, and binge eating behaviors have been assessed in 159 adolescents addressing emergency departments following motorbike collisions. Our results showed a cluster of adolescents with clinical binge eating behaviors, high rates of motorbike accidents, and high levels of internalizing and externalizing problems, alexithymia, and impulsivity (23.3% of the sample); a second cluster of adolescents with clinical binge eating behaviors, a moderate number of collisions, and moderate levels of emotional and behavioral problems on the above four dimensions (25.8% of the sample); and a third cluster of youth without clinical binge eating behaviors, with a moderate number of accidents, and with low scores on the four dimensions (50.9% of the sample). Adolescents of Cluster 1 showed a higher likelihood to be involved in motorbike collisions than the youth in Clusters 2 and 3 (p < 0.0001). We suggest that adolescents’ motor collisions could be associated with their difficulties in emotion regulation and with their impaired psychological profiles, which could also underpin their disordered eating. The identification of specific clusters of psychopathological symptoms among this population could be useful for the construction of prevention and intervention programs aimed at reducing motor collision recidivism and alleviating co-occurring psychopathologies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
I Can Stand Learning: A Controlled Pilot Intervention Study on the Effects of Increased Standing Time on Cognitive Function in Primary School Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 356; doi:10.3390/ijerph15020356 -
Abstract
Sedentarism is considered an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of employing standing desks in classrooms on cognitive function. The intervention class (IG; n =19) was supplied with standing desks and balance pads for 11 weeks. The
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Sedentarism is considered an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of employing standing desks in classrooms on cognitive function. The intervention class (IG; n =19) was supplied with standing desks and balance pads for 11 weeks. The control class (CG; n =19) received lessons as usual. Standing time was assessed objectively (accelerometers) and subjectively (self-report sheets, external classroom observers). The impact of standing on the digit span task and Eriksen flanker task was analysed. The standing time of the IG was higher during the school day in comparison to the CG (lesson: p = 0.004; break: p = 0.003). The intra-class correlation coefficient between self-reports and external observation was high (ICC = 0.94). The IG improved slightly on the Digit Span Task compared to CG. Employing standing desks for at least 1 h per school day serves as a feasible and effective opportunity to improve cognitive function. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Mechanisms of Phosphorus Removal by Recycled Crushed Concrete
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 357; doi:10.3390/ijerph15020357 -
Abstract
Due to urbanisation, there are large amounts of waste concrete, particularly in rapidly industrialising countries. Currently, demolished concrete is mainly recycled as aggregate for reconstruction. This study has shown that larger sizes (2–5 mm) of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) removed more than 90%
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Due to urbanisation, there are large amounts of waste concrete, particularly in rapidly industrialising countries. Currently, demolished concrete is mainly recycled as aggregate for reconstruction. This study has shown that larger sizes (2–5 mm) of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) removed more than 90% of P from effluent when at pH 5. Analysis of the data, using equilibrium models, indicated a best fit with the Langmuir which predicated an adsorption capacity of 6.88 mg/g. Kinetic analysis indicated the equilibrium adsorption time was 12 h, with pseudo second-order as the best fit. The thermal dynamic tests showed that the adsorption was spontaneous and, together with the evidence from the sequential extraction and desorption experiments, indicated the initial mechanism was physical attraction to the surface followed by chemical reactions which prevented re-release. These results suggested that RCA could be used for both wastewater treatment and P recovery. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Exploration of Rice Husk Compost as an Alternate Organic Manure to Enhance the Productivity of Blackgram in Typic Haplustalf and Typic Rhodustalf
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 358; doi:10.3390/ijerph15020358 -
Abstract
The present study was aimed at using cellulolytic bacterium Enhydrobacter and fungi Aspergillus sp. for preparing compost from rice husk (RH). Further, the prepared compost was tested for their effect on blackgram growth promotion along with different levels of recommended dose of fertilizer
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The present study was aimed at using cellulolytic bacterium Enhydrobacter and fungi Aspergillus sp. for preparing compost from rice husk (RH). Further, the prepared compost was tested for their effect on blackgram growth promotion along with different levels of recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) in black soil (typic Haplustalf) and red soil (typic Rhodustalf) soil. The results revealed that, inoculation with lignocellulolytic fungus (LCF) Aspergillus sp. @ 2% was considered as the most efficient method of composting within a short period. Characterization of composted rice husk (CRH) was examined through scanning electron microscope (SEM) for identifying significant structural changes. At the end of composting, N, P and K content increased with decrease in CO2 evolution, C:N and C:P ratios. In comparison to inorganic fertilization, an increase in grain yield of 16% in typic Haplustalf and 17% in typic Rhodustalf soil over 100% RDF was obtained from the integrated application of CRH@ 5 t ha−1 with 50% RDF and biofertilizers. The crude protein content was maximum with the combined application of CRH, 50% RDF and biofertilizers of 20% and 21% in typic Haplustalf and typic Rhodustalf soils, respectively. Nutrient rich CRH has proved its efficiency on crop growth and soil fertility. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Improving Behavioral Support for Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy: What Are the Barriers to Stopping and Which Behavior Change Techniques Can Influence These? Application of Theoretical Domains Framework
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 359; doi:10.3390/ijerph15020359 -
Abstract
Behavioral support interventions are used to help pregnant smokers stop; however, of those tested, few are proven effective. Systematic research developing effective pregnancy-specific behavior change techniques (BCTs) is ongoing. This paper reports contributory work identifying potentially-effective BCTs relative to known important barriers and
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Behavioral support interventions are used to help pregnant smokers stop; however, of those tested, few are proven effective. Systematic research developing effective pregnancy-specific behavior change techniques (BCTs) is ongoing. This paper reports contributory work identifying potentially-effective BCTs relative to known important barriers and facilitators (B&Fs) to smoking cessation in pregnancy; to detect priority areas for BCTs development. A Nominal Group Technique with cessation experts (n = 12) elicited an expert consensus on B&Fs most influencing women’s smoking cessation and those most modifiable through behavioral support. Effective cessation interventions in randomized trials from a recent Cochrane review were coded into component BCTs using existing taxonomies. B&Fs were categorized using Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) domains. Matrices, mapping BCT taxonomies against TDF domains, were consulted to investigate the extent to which BCTs in existing interventions target key B&Fs. Experts ranked “smoking a social norm” and “quitting not a priority” as most important barriers and “desire to protect baby” an important facilitator to quitting. From 14 trials, 23 potentially-effective BCTs were identified (e.g., information about consequences). Most B&Fs fell into “Social Influences”, “Knowledge”, “Emotions” and “Intentions” TDF domains; few potentially-effective BCTs mapped onto every TDF domain. B&Fs identified by experts as important to cessation, are not sufficiently targeted by BCT’s currently within interventions for smoking cessation in pregnancy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
“I Wouldn’t Be Friends with Someone If They Were Liking Too Much Rubbish”: A Qualitative Study of Alcohol Brands, Youth Identity and Social Media
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 349; doi:10.3390/ijerph15020349 -
Abstract
The consumption of alcohol by young people remains a major public health concern at both the national and international level. Levels of drinking among 15-yearolds in the United Kingdom (UK) remain significantly higher than the European average. This study explored how alcohol brands
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The consumption of alcohol by young people remains a major public health concern at both the national and international level. Levels of drinking among 15-yearolds in the United Kingdom (UK) remain significantly higher than the European average. This study explored how alcohol brands are used by young people to develop their desired identities and how these acts of consumption extend to young people’s profiles on social media. It also deepens understanding of how alcohol brands are connected to young peoples’ concerns about image and peer group dynamics. This involved qualitative focus groups with young people aged 14–17 in Central Scotland. Certain alcohol brands were approved and viewed as socially acceptable by young people, while others were rejected. Children as young as 14 were selecting products to portray a drinking identity that was appropriately aligned to their gender and sexuality. Participants displayed a desire to associate themselves with the mature drinking culture personified by some brands, whilst simultaneously distancing themselves from immature drinking practices associated with others. Publicly associating with alcohol brands on social media carried with it potential risks to peer group acceptance. Understanding how young people perceive alcohol brands, the importance of social media in communicating that identity to their peers and the role that alcohol brands play in adolescent identity formation is an important first step to reforming alcohol marketing regulations. Full article
Open AccessReview
Diversity of Concerns in Recovery after a Nuclear Accident: A Perspective from Fukushima
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 350; doi:10.3390/ijerph15020350 -
Abstract
Since the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident, tremendous resources have been devoted to recovery, and the Japanese Government is gradually lifting evacuation orders. However, public concerns remain prevalent, affecting some people’s return to a normal life and threatening their well-being. This study reviews government
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Since the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident, tremendous resources have been devoted to recovery, and the Japanese Government is gradually lifting evacuation orders. However, public concerns remain prevalent, affecting some people’s return to a normal life and threatening their well-being. This study reviews government reports, academic papers, newspaper articles and conference presentations with the aim of obtaining a better understanding of issues which relate to radiation concerns in the recovery process in the aftermath of the accident. It looks extensively at: (1) the current status of the post-accident operations and existing radiation issues in Fukushima, and (2) approaches taken to engage the public during recovery from five previous comparable nuclear and radiological events: Three Mile Island, Buenos Aires (RA-2 facility), Chernobyl, Goiânia and Tokai-mura. The findings indicate that the limitations and emerging challenges of the current recovery operations cause concerns about radiation exposure in various aspects of day-to-day life. Past experiences suggest that long-term management that take a holistic and cohesive approach is critical for restoration of sustainable livelihoods and for social re-integration. Not only actual risks but also public perceptions of risks should be carefully assessed and addressed in the process of environmental remediation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Working towards More Effective Implementation, Dissemination and Scale-Up of Lower-Limb Injury-Prevention Programs: Insights from Community Australian Football Coaches
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 351; doi:10.3390/ijerph15020351 -
Abstract
Disseminating lower-limb injury-prevention exercise programs (LL-IPEPs) with strategies that effectively reach coaches across sporting environments is a way of preventing lower-limb injuries (LLIs) and ensuring safe and sustainable sport participation. The aim of this study was to explore community-Australian Football (community-AF) coaches’ perspectives
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Disseminating lower-limb injury-prevention exercise programs (LL-IPEPs) with strategies that effectively reach coaches across sporting environments is a way of preventing lower-limb injuries (LLIs) and ensuring safe and sustainable sport participation. The aim of this study was to explore community-Australian Football (community-AF) coaches’ perspectives on the strategies they believed would enhance the dissemination and scale-up of LL-IPEPs. Using a qualitative multiple case study design, semi-structured interviews with community-AF coaches in Victoria, Australia, were conducted. Overall, coaches believed a range of strategies were important including: coach education, policy drivers, overcoming potential problem areas, a ‘try before you buy approach’, presenting empirical evidence and guidelines for injury-prevention exercise programs (IPEPs), forming strategic collaboration and working in partnership, communication and social marketing, public meetings, development of a coach hotline, and targeted multi-focused approaches. A shift to a culture whereby evidence-based IPEP practices in community-AF will take time, and persistent commitment by all involved in the sport is important. This will support the creation of strategies that will enhance the dissemination and scale-up of LL-IPEPs across community sport environments. The focus of research needs to continue to identify effective, holistic and multi-level interventions to support coaches in preventing LLIs. This could lead to the determination of successful strategies such as behavioural regulation strategies and emotional coping resources to implement LL-IPEPs into didactic curricula and practice. Producing changes in practice will require attention to which strategies are a priority and the most effective. Full article