Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2015, 12(8), 9089-9101; doi:10.3390/ijerph120809089 (registering DOI) - published 3 August 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The fine particulate matter (PM2.5) problem has attracted much scientific and public attention, due to its effects on visibility, human health, and global climate. There are three factors that have important effect on PM2.5 mass concentration: domestic pollutant emission sources, external sources outside of the country, and the meteorological conditions. Nagasaki is a coastal prefecture located at the westernmost part of Japan, which is an ideal location to study pollutants from long range transport and correlation between PM2.5 and meteorological conditions. In this paper, PM2.5 concentration data and meteorological data were obtained during 1 January 2013~31 December 2013. The spatial distribution depicts that the western part of the study area has the most serious PM2.5 pollution. The correlation analysis results between PM2.5 concentration and meteorological data showed that temperature had a negative, and precipitation had a positive, correlation with PM2.5. There was a threshold in the correlations between humidity and wind speed and PM2.5. The correlation was positive or negative depending on the meteorological variable values, if these were lower or higher than the threshold. From the relationship with wind direction, it can be depicted that the west wind might bring the most pollutants to Nagasaki.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2015, 12(8), 9068-9088; doi:10.3390/ijerph120809068 (registering DOI) - published 31 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Background and Purpose: The relationship between stroke and short-term temperature changes remains controversial. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the association between stroke and both high and low temperatures, and health assessment. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang Data up to 14 September 2014. Study selection, quality assessment, and author-contractions were steps before data extraction. We converted all estimates effects into relative risk (RR) per 1 °C increase/decrease in temperature from 75th to 99th or 25th to 1st percentiles, then conducted meta-analyses to combine the ultimate RRs, and assessed health impact among the population. Results: 20 articles were included in the final analysis. The overall analysis showed a positive relationship between 1 °C change and the occurrence of major adverse cerebrovascular events (MACBE), 1.1% (95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.6 to 1.7) and 1.2% (95% CI, 0.8 to 1.6) increase for hot and cold effects separately. The same trends can be found in both effects of mortality and the cold effect for morbidity. Hot temperature acted as a protective factor of hemorrhage stroke (HS), −1.9% (95% CI, −2.8 to −0.9), however, it acted as a risk factor for ischemic stroke (IS), 1.2% (95% CI, 0.7 to 1.8). Conclusion: Short-term changes of both low and high temperature had statistically significant impacts on MACBE.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2015, 12(8), 9054-9067; doi:10.3390/ijerph120809054 (registering DOI) - published 31 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Methylmercury is well known for causing adverse health effects in the brain and nervous system. Estimating the elimination constant derived from the biological half-life of methylmercury in the blood or hair is an important part of calculating guidelines for methylmercury intake. Thus, this study was conducted to estimate the biological half-life of methylmercury in Korean adults. We used a one-compartment model with a direct relationship between methylmercury concentrations in the blood and daily dietary intake of methylmercury. We quantified the between-person variability of the methylmercury half-life in the population, and informative priors were used to estimate the parameters in the model. The population half-life of methylmercury was estimated to be 80.2 ± 8.6 days. The population mean of the methylmercury half-life was 81.6 ± 8.4 days for men and 78.9 ± 8.6 days for women. The standard deviation of the half-life was estimated at 25.0 ± 8.6 days. Using the direct relationship between methylmercury concentrations in blood and methylmercury intake, the biological half-life in this study was estimated to be longer than indicated by the earlier studies that have been used to set guideline values.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2015, 12(8), 9046-9053; doi:10.3390/ijerph120809046 (registering DOI) - published 31 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Introduction: Although electronic cigarette (EC) liquids contain low levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), studies evaluating the levels emitted to the aerosol are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of TSNAs between liquids and generated aerosol. Methods: Three EC liquids were obtained from the market. An additional (spiked) sample was prepared by adding known amounts of standard TSNAs solutions to one of the obtained liquids. N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), N-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) were measured. Three 100-puff sets from each liquid were trapped in filter pads and were subsequently analyzed for the presence of TSNAs. The expected levels of TSNAs (calculated based on the liquid consumption) were compared with the measured levels in the aerosol. Results: Only NAB was found at trace levels in two commercial liquids (1.2 and 2.3 ng/g), while the third contained 1.5 ng/g NAB and 7.7 ng/g NNN. The 100-puff sets resulted in 336–515 mg liquid consumption, with no TSNAs being detected in the aerosol. The spiked sample contained 42.0–53.9 ng/g of each of the TSNAs. All TSNAs were detected in the aerosol with the measured levels being statistically similar to the expected amounts. A significant correlation between expected and measured levels of TSNAs in the aerosol was found (r = 0.83, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The findings of this study show that exposure of EC users to TSNAs can be accurately assessed based on the levels present in the liquid, without the need to analyze the aerosol.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2015, 12(8), 9036-9045; doi:10.3390/ijerph120809036 (registering DOI) - published 31 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency (ID) of a nationally representative sample of the Kuwait population. We also determined if anemia differed by socioeconomic status or by RBC folate and vitamins A and B12 levels. The subjects who were made up of 1830 males and females between the ages of 2 months to 86 years, were divided into the following age groups (0–5, 5–11, 12–14, 15–19, 20–49, ≥50 years). Results showed that the prevalence of anemia was 3% in adult males and 17% in females. The prevalence of ID varied according to age between 4% (≥50 years) and 21% (5–11 years) and 9% (12–14 years) and 23% (15–19 years), respectively, in males and females. The prevalence of anemia and ID was higher in females compared to males. Adults with normal ferritin level, but with low RBC folate and vitamins A and B12 levels had higher prevalence of anemia than those with normal RBC folate and vitamins A and B12 levels. This first nationally representative nutrition and health survey in Kuwait indicated that anemia and ID are prevalent and ID contributes significantly to anemia prevalence.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2015, 12(8), 9025-9035; doi:10.3390/ijerph120809025 (registering DOI) - published 31 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We assessed the risk of lung cancer in people living near the iron foundry located within the city of Trieste, Northeastern Italy. Between 1995 and 2009, all incident cases of lung cancer and corresponding population were considered. A deposition model of the foundry-specific emissions of SO2 defined: “nearby”, “urban”, and “outlying” areas. Rate ratios (RRs) and annual percent changes (APCs) were computed. Among nearby residents, significantly increased risks of lung cancer were noted in men below age 75 years (RR = 1.35 vs. urban area; 95% CI: 1.03–1.77). In women, and in men aged 75 years or older, no significant RRs were observed. Conversely, people living in the outlying area appeared to be at lower risk than residents in the urban area- in all age groups, in men (RR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.78–0.98) and in women (RR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.62–0.88). Negative statistically significant APC was recorded in men living in urban areas (–2.6%), whereas in women APC significantly increased among those living in the urban area (+2.3%). Multiple interpretations for this observation are plausible, since several factors might have modified and/or confounded the risk of lung cancer, including air pollution from other sources and road traffic, occupational and smoking patterns.