Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2016, 13(6), 541; doi:10.3390/ijerph13060541 (registering DOI) - published 28 May 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents’ occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p < 0.05). Four risk factors for elevated blood lead levels were found by logistic regression analysis, including younger age, male, shorter distance from the recycling plant, and parents with at least one working in the recycling plant. The rate of excess lead concentration in water was 6.25%, 6.06% in soil and 44.44% in leaf vegetables, which were all higher than the Chinese environment standards. The shorter the distance to the factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2016, 13(6), 542; doi:10.3390/ijerph13060542 (registering DOI) - published 28 May 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Recent economic development in China has resulted in large increases in psychogenic and metabolic diseases. However, few studies have focused on the mental status of rural residents with diabetes. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among patients with diabetes to establish the association between depressive symptoms and socio-demographic and clinical factors. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 1187 patients with diabetes aged ≥35 years from rural Northeast China. Metabolic and anthropometric indicators were measured according to standard methods. Depressive symptoms were defined using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Five hundred and twenty-six residents (44.3%) of the total sample were male and 931 (78.4%) were <65 years old. One hundred and eight residents (8.76%) score ≥10 on the PHQ-9 scale. A statistically significant relationship was found between depressive symptoms and female gender, older age (≥65 years), high school or above education level, moderate physical activity, high family income, multiple additional illnesses, current alcohol consumption, and 7–8 h/d sleep duration. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender [odds ratio (OR) = 1.984, p = 0.028], high family income (OR = 0.483 for 5000–20,000 CNY/year, p = 0.011; OR = 0.356 for >2000 CNY/year, p = 0.003), 7–8 h/d sleep duration (OR = 0.453, p = 0.020), and having multiple additional illness (OR = 3.080, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in our study was high. Female gender and multiple illnesses were risk factors for depression, while long sleep duration and high family income seem to protect against depression among rural residents with diabetes in China.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2016, 13(6), 544; doi:10.3390/ijerph13060544 (registering DOI) - published 28 May 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Recent evidence demonstrating an increased fracture risk among obese individuals suggests that adipose tissue may negatively impact bone health, challenging the traditional paradigm of fat mass playing a protective role towards bone health. White adipose tissue, far from being a mere energy depot, is a dynamic tissue actively implicated in metabolic reactions, and in fact secretes several hormones called adipokines and inflammatory factors that may in turn promote bone resorption. More specifically, Visceral Adipose Tissue (VAT) may potentially prove detrimental. It is widely acknowledged that obesity is positively associated to many chronic disorders such as metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes, conditions that could themselves affect bone health. Although aging is largely known to decrease bone strength, little is yet known on the mechanisms via which obesity and its comorbidities may contribute to such damage. Given the exponentially growing obesity rate in recent years and the increased life expectancy of western countries it appears of utmost importance to timely focus on this topic.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2016, 13(6), 543; doi:10.3390/ijerph13060543 (registering DOI) - published 28 May 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Background: Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstruation due to loss of ovarian follicular activity. A review of the available literature indicates that correlations between the changes that take place in a woman’s body after menopause and different genetic variants are still being sought. Methods: The study was conducted in 252 women who had completed physiological menopause. The women were divided into groups according to the time elapsed since menopause. The total concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone were determined by means of electrochemiluminescence. The apolipoprotein E (APOE) and lepitn (LEP) genotypes were determined by real-time PCR and polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism, respectively. Results: We observed that people with the APOE3/E3 genotype entered menopause insignificantly later compared to other genotypes. Additionally, in the group of patients with the APOE3/E3 genotypes, differences in the E2 concentration were significantly related to the time since their last menstruation. There is no association found in the literature between these polymorphisms of the LEP gene and hormones. Conclusions: To date, attempts to formulate a model describing the association between E2 and FSH concentration with the polymorphisms of various genes of menopause in women have not been successful. This relationship is difficult to study because of the number of nongenetic factors. Environmental factors can explain variation in postmenopausal changes in hormone levels.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2016, 13(6), 527; doi:10.3390/ijerph13060527 (registering DOI) - published 27 May 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Waterborne disease outbreaks attributed to various pathogens and drinking water system characteristics have adversely affected public health worldwide throughout recorded history. Data from drinking water disease outbreak (DWDO) reports of widely varying breadth and depth were synthesized to investigate associations between outbreak attributes and human health impacts. Among 1519 outbreaks described in 475 sources identified during review of the primarily peer-reviewed, English language literature, most occurred in the U.S., the U.K. and Canada (in descending order). The outbreaks are most frequently associated with pathogens of unknown etiology, groundwater and untreated systems, and catchment realm-associated deficiencies (i.e., contamination events). Relative frequencies of outbreaks by various attributes are comparable with those within other DWDO reviews, with water system size and treatment type likely driving most of the (often statistically-significant at p < 0.05) differences in outbreak frequency, case count and attack rate. Temporal analysis suggests that while implementation of surface (drinking) water management policies is associated with decreased disease burden, further strengthening of related policies is needed to address the remaining burden attributed to catchment and distribution realm-associated deficiencies and to groundwater viral and disinfection-only system outbreaks.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2016, 13(6), 537; doi:10.3390/ijerph13060537 (registering DOI) - published 27 May 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is common among pre-school children in Shanghai. This study aimed to identify the risk factors for childhood AD from the perspectives of home environment, demographics and parents-grandparents’ atopic disease. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shanghai in April–June, 2010. Preschool children’s parents or guardians were invited to participate a questionnaire survey in six districts (two urban and four suburban/rural) and 6624 children were finally recruited (51.3% boys). AD diagnosis was based on the U.K. Working Party’s (UKWP) criteria. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by multiple logistic regression. Results: A total of 8.5% of children ever had AD. Around 10.2% of the mothers had lived in newly renovated/decorated homes (NRDH) during the prenatal period (one year before or during pregnancy) and 9.5% got new home furniture (NHF) during the same period. AD was more common in children when mothers had lived in NRDH homes during the prenatal period (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.03–1.93), the current home had indoor mold (2.00, 1.48–2.70), parents-grandparents’ had atopic diseases (3.85, 3.05–4.87), the children had food allergy (3.40, 2.63–4.40) or children lived in urban area (1.52, 1.18–1.96). Associations between AD and NRDH, NHF and indoor molds were only significant in children without parents-grandparents’ atopic diseases. There was an interaction effect between parents-grandparents’ atopic diseases and NRDH (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Home renovation/ redecoration, new furniture and indoor mold, urban residency, heredity disposition and food allergy can be risk factors for childhood AD in Shanghai.