Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2015, 12(4), 3774-3792; doi:10.3390/ijerph120403774 (registering DOI) - published 2 April 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Background:Comprehensive understanding of the determinants of health service use (HSU) by older people with depression is essential for health service planning for an ageing global population. This study aimed to determine the extent to which depressive symptom severity and functioning are associated with HSU by older people with depression in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of the 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based surveys dataset. Participants (n = 4590) were those aged 65 or older, in the clinical range for depressive symptoms (defined as scoring four or more on the EURO-D), living in 13 urban and/or rural catchment areas in nine LMICs. Associations were calculated using Poisson regression and random-effects meta-analysis. Results: After adjustment for confounding variables, (EURO-D) depressive symptom severity was significantly associated with “any community HSU” (Pooled Prevalence Ratios = 1.02; 95% CI = 1.01–1.03) but not hospital admission. Conversely, after adjustment, (WHODAS-II) functioning was significantly associated with hospital admission (Pooled PR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.02–1.26) but not “any community HSU”. Conclusions: Depressive symptom severity does not explain a large proportion of the variance in HSU by older people with depression in LMICs. The association of functioning with this HSU is worthy of further investigation. In LMICs, variables related to accessibility may be more important correlates of HSU than variables directly related to health problems.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2015, 12(4), 3756-3773; doi:10.3390/ijerph120403756 (registering DOI) - published 2 April 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC) concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The mean working-hour TVOC concentrations in three locations studied were 41, 37, and 24 ppm according to photo-ionization detector measurements. The mean working-hour particle number concentration varied between locations from 3000 to 36,000 cm−3. Analysis of temporal and spatial variations of TVOC concentrations revealed that there were at least four substantial VOC sources: spray gluing, mold-release agent spraying, continuous evaporation from various lacquer and paint containers, and either spray painting or lacquering (probably both). The mold-release agent spray was indirectly also a major source of ultrafine particles. The workers’ exposure can be reduced by improving the local exhaust ventilation at the known sources and by increasing the ventilation rate in the area with the continuous source.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2015, 12(4), 3741-3755; doi:10.3390/ijerph120403741 (registering DOI) - published 1 April 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The majority of suicidal adolescents have no contact with mental health services, and reduced help-seeking in this population further lessens the likelihood of accessing treatment. A commonly-reported reason for not seeking help is youths’ perception that they should solve problems on their own. In this study, we explore associations between extreme self-reliance behavior (i.e., solving problems on your own all of the time), help-seeking behavior, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of adolescents. Approximately 2150 adolescents, across six schools, participated in a school-based suicide prevention screening program, and a subset of at-risk youth completed a follow-up interview two years later. Extreme self-reliance was associated with reduced help-seeking, clinically-significant depressive symptoms, and serious suicidal ideation at the baseline screening. Furthermore, in a subset of youth identified as at-risk at the baseline screening, extreme self-reliance predicted level of suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms two years later even after controlling for baseline symptoms. Given these findings, attitudes that reinforce extreme self-reliance behavior may be an important target for youth suicide prevention programs. Reducing extreme self-reliance in youth with suicidality may increase their likelihood of appropriate help-seeking and concomitant reductions in symptoms.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2015, 12(4), 3731-3740; doi:10.3390/ijerph120403731 (registering DOI) - published 1 April 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A study on the acute and chronic effects of the herbicide diuron was carried out. The test, basing on a yeast cell probe, investigated the interference with cellular catabolism and possible self-detoxification capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aerobic respiration was taken as the toxicological end-point. Percentage interference (%r) with cellular respiration was measured in water by increased dissolved O2 concentration (ppm) after exposure to different doses. Interference was calculated through the comparison of respiratory activity of exposed and non-exposed cells. Short-term and long-term (6 and 24 h respectively) exposures were also considered. The test for short-term exposure gave positive %r values except that for 10−6 M (11.11%, 11.76%, 13.33% and 0% for 10−10 M, 10−8 M, 10−7 M and 10−6 M respectively). In the case of long-term exposure the test showed positive %r values, but less effect than short-term exposure until 10−8 M and much higher at 10−6 M (7.41%, 8.82%, 11.76% and 6.06% for 10−10 M, 10−8 M, 10−7 M and 10−6 M respectively). The findings of aerobic respiration as toxicological end-point were in agreement with known mechanisms of toxicity and intracellular detoxification for both the doses and exposure times employed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2015, 12(4), 3707-3730; doi:10.3390/ijerph120403707 (registering DOI) - published 1 April 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Disorders of consciousness are neurological conditions associated with low levels of functioning which pose a serious challenge to public health systems. The current study aimed to examine longitudinal changes in functioning in patients with disorders of consciousness and to identify associated biopsychosocial factors using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. An Italian sample of 248 patients was assessed longitudinally. Differences in relative variability (an index of change that controls for baseline levels) between acute and chronic patients and predictors of relative variability in “Activities & Participation” were examined. Results showed that there were subgroups of patients whose functioning improved over time. The number of problems in “Activities &Participation” decreased in acute patients over time, whereas in chronic patients, an increase was found. The significant difference in relative variability for the environmental factor “support and relationships” reflects the increase in facilitators in acute patients, whereas the number of facilitators in chronic patients remained unchanged over time. Age at event, time from event, and relative variability in “Environmental Factors” were significant predictors of relative variability in “Activities & Participation”. It is of clinical relevance that patients with disorders of consciousness are kept in a supportive and facilitative environment, in order to prevent a decline in their functioning. Moreover, caregivers should receive tailored support in order to enhance and facilitate appropriate care of patients with disorders of consciousness.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2015, 12(4), 3691-3706; doi:10.3390/ijerph120403691 (registering DOI) - published 1 April 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: With continuous measurements of dissolved oxygen, temperature, irradiance, and wind speed, as well as frequent measurements of pH, oxidation-reduction potential, and algal chlorophyll, temporal dynamics and drivers of ecosystem metabolism in a large nutrient-rich shallow lake (Lake Taihu) are tested in this study. The results show that the dissolved oxygen concentrations in the lake fluctuate annually. They increase in autumn and winter with a peak value of 14.19 mg·L−1 in winter, and decrease in spring and summer with a trough value of 6.40 mg·L−1 in summer. Gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (R), and net ecosystem production (NEP) increase in summer, with their peak values in late summer and autumn, and decrease in winter and spring. Mean values of GPP, R and NEP are 1.75 ± 0.06 (Mean ± SE), 1.52 ± 0.05, and 0.23 ± 0.03 g O2 m−3·d−1, respectively. It is also found that water temperature and surface irradiance are the best predictors of GPP and R, while water temperature (wind speed) has a significantly positive (negative) relationship with NEP. The findings in this study suggest that Lake Taihu is a net autotrophic ecosystem, and water temperature and surface irradiance are the two important drivers of lake metabolism.