Open AccessArticle
The Potential Impact of Satellite-Retrieved Cloud Parameters on Ground-Level PM2.5 Mass and Composition
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1244; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101244 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Satellite-retrieved aerosol optical properties have been extensively used to estimate ground-level fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in support of air pollution health effects research and air quality assessment at the urban to global scales. However, a large proportion, ~70%, of satellite
[...] Read more.
Satellite-retrieved aerosol optical properties have been extensively used to estimate ground-level fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in support of air pollution health effects research and air quality assessment at the urban to global scales. However, a large proportion, ~70%, of satellite observations of aerosols are missing as a result of cloud-cover, surface brightness, and snow-cover. The resulting PM2.5 estimates could therefore be biased due to this non-random data missingness. Cloud-cover in particular has the potential to impact ground-level PM2.5 concentrations through complex chemical and physical processes. We developed a series of statistical models using the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) aerosol product at 1 km resolution with information from the MODIS cloud product and meteorological information to investigate the extent to which cloud parameters and associated meteorological conditions impact ground-level aerosols at two urban sites in the US: Atlanta and San Francisco. We find that changes in temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, planetary boundary layer height, convective available potential energy, precipitation, cloud effective radius, cloud optical depth, and cloud emissivity are associated with changes in PM2.5 concentration and composition, and the changes differ by overpass time and cloud phase as well as between the San Francisco and Atlanta sites. A case-study at the San Francisco site confirmed that accounting for cloud-cover and associated meteorological conditions could substantially alter the spatial distribution of monthly ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Variations of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Survival in Purple Soils
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1246; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101246 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a well-recognized cause of human illness. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in five purple soils from Sichuan Province was investigated. The dynamics of E. coli O157:H7 survival in purple soils were described by the Weibull model. Results showed that
[...] Read more.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a well-recognized cause of human illness. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in five purple soils from Sichuan Province was investigated. The dynamics of E. coli O157:H7 survival in purple soils were described by the Weibull model. Results showed that this model is suitable to fit survival curves of E. coli O157:H7 in purple soils, with the calculated td value (survival time needed to reach the detection limit of 100 CFU·g−1) ranging from 2.99 days to 26.36 days. The longest survival time of E. coli O157:H7 was observed in neutral purple soils (24.49 days), followed by alkalescent purple soil (18.62 days) and acid purple soil (3.48 days). The redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that td values were significantly enhanced by soil nutrition (total organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), available potassium (AK) and the ratio of humic acid to fulvic acid (Ha/Fa)), but were significantly suppressed by iron and aluminum oxide. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Food and Beverage Availability in Small Food Stores Located in Healthy Food Financing Initiative Eligible Communities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1242; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101242 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Food deserts are a major public health concern. This study aimed to assess food and beverage availability in four underserved communities eligible to receive funding from the Healthy Food Financing Initiative (HFFI). Data analyzed are part of a quasi-experimental study evaluating the impact
[...] Read more.
Food deserts are a major public health concern. This study aimed to assess food and beverage availability in four underserved communities eligible to receive funding from the Healthy Food Financing Initiative (HFFI). Data analyzed are part of a quasi-experimental study evaluating the impact of the HFFI on the retail food environment in selected Illinois communities. In 2015, 127 small grocery and limited service stores located in the four selected communities were audited. All communities had a large percentage of low-income and African-American residents. Differences in food and beverage item availability (e.g., produce, milk, bread, snack foods) were examined by store type and community location. Food stores had, on average, 1.8 fresh fruit and 2.9 fresh vegetable options. About 12% of stores sold low-fat milk while 86% sold whole milk. Only 12% of stores offered 100% whole wheat bread compared to 84% of stores offering white bread. Almost all (97%) stores offered soda and/or fruit juice. In summary, we found limited availability of healthier food and beverage items in the communities identified for HFFI support. Follow up findings will address how the introduction of new HFFI-supported supermarkets will affect food and beverage availability in these communities over time. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Patient Aggression and the Wellbeing of Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study in Psychiatric and Non-Psychiatric Settings
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1245; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101245 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Wellbeing of nurses is associated with patient aggression. Little is known about the differences in these associations between nurses working in different specialties. We aimed to estimate and compare the prevalence of patient aggression and the associations between patient aggression and the wellbeing
[...] Read more.
Wellbeing of nurses is associated with patient aggression. Little is known about the differences in these associations between nurses working in different specialties. We aimed to estimate and compare the prevalence of patient aggression and the associations between patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses in psychiatric and non-psychiatric specialties (medical and surgical, and emergency medicine). A sample of 5288 nurses (923 psychiatric nurses, 4070 medical and surgical nurses, 295 emergency nurses) participated in the study. Subjective measures were used to assess both the occurrence of patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses (self-rated health, sleep disturbances, psychological distress and perceived work ability). Binary logistic regression with interaction terms was used to compare the associations between patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses. Psychiatric nurses reported all types of patient aggression more frequently than medical and surgical nurses, whereas nurses working in emergency settings reported physical violence and verbal aggression more frequently than psychiatric nurses. Psychiatric nurses reported poor self-rated health and reduced work ability more frequently than both of the non-psychiatric nursing groups, whereas medical and surgical nurses reported psychological distress and sleep disturbances more often. Psychiatric nurses who had experienced at least one type of patient aggression or mental abuse in the previous year, were less likely to suffer from psychological distress and sleep disturbances compared to medical and surgical nurses. Psychiatric nurses who had experienced physical assaults and armed threats were less likely to suffer from sleep disturbances compared to nurses working in emergency settings. Compared to medical and surgical nurses, psychiatric nurses face patient aggression more often, but certain types of aggression are more common in emergency settings. Psychiatric nurses have worse subjective health and work ability than both of the non-psychiatric nursing groups, while their psychiatric wellbeing is better and they have less sleep problems compared to medical and surgical nurses. Psychiatric nurses maintain better psychiatric wellbeing and experience fewer sleep problems than non-psychiatric nurses after events of exposure to patient aggression. This suggest that more attention should be given to non-psychiatric settings for maintaining the wellbeing of nurses after exposure to patient aggression. Full article
Open AccessData Descriptor
Trends and Weekly Cycles in a Large Swiss Emergency Centre: A 10 Year Period at the University Hospital of Bern
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1239; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101239 -
Abstract
Popular demand for high quality care has increased in recent years. This is also the case for medical services and support at all times of the day and night is nowadays required. During the last ten years, there has been a marked increase
[...] Read more.
Popular demand for high quality care has increased in recent years. This is also the case for medical services and support at all times of the day and night is nowadays required. During the last ten years, there has been a marked increase in the demands on hospital emergency hospitals, particularly in the Western industrialized countries. The present retrospective study investigates how the demands on a large Swiss university centre have changed over a period of 10 years. Patient numbers are differentiated by age, gender, nationality, weekday and mode of referral. A retrospective analysis was performed of the data of the patients admitted to the Emergency Centre of Bern University Medical Hospital (Inselspital) during the ten-year period from 2004 up to and including 2013 and who were treated as emergencies. A total of 264,272 patients were included in the study. It was shown that there was an uninterrupted annual increase from 23,555 patients in 2004 to 34,918 patients in 2013 (+48%). Most patients came to the Emergency Centre on Mondays, followed by Fridays. Because of the marked increase in life expectancy and the resulting demographic changes, there has been a marked increase in the number of older patients coming to the Emergency Centre for acute medical care. It was found that there were disproportionately high numbers of patients aged 20 to 49 years who were not Swiss citizens. In contrast, most patients over 60 were Swiss. In the coming years, emergency centres will have to adapt to the continued increase in patient numbers. This trend will continue, so that it is essential to consider the sociodemographic structure of a region when planning the availability of emergency medical care. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
“Their Packaging Has Always Been Like a Power”: A Qualitative Study of U.S. Smokers’ Perceptions of Cigarette Pack Visual Design Features to Inform Product Regulation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1234; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101234 -
Abstract
Cigarette packaging matters to consumer behavior. However, it is less clear which changes to packaging design would be salient for adult smokers. Such information is critically important to regulators in the United States who are charged with reviewing new tobacco products for their
[...] Read more.
Cigarette packaging matters to consumer behavior. However, it is less clear which changes to packaging design would be salient for adult smokers. Such information is critically important to regulators in the United States who are charged with reviewing new tobacco products for their impact on population health. In this qualitative study, U.S. adult smokers (n = 33) participated in six telephone-based focus groups in March 2017. Separate groups were comprised of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) participants; participants with less than four years of post-secondary education; a mix of LGB and straight participants; and, the general population. All groups were purposely selected for diversity. Open thematic coding identified salient design elements used on cigarette packaging. Smokers articulated design elements’ use, meaning, and links with consumer behaviors. Three themes were identified: (1) the power of color, (2) supporting color with other design elements (e.g., logos/images, typography, the pack itself), and (3) the combined product brand experience of multiple design elements. Participants linked design elements to product characteristics and to consumer behavior (e.g., purchase). As the Food and Drug Administration is charged with regulating tobacco products, these findings suggest the importance of considering the cigarette pack part of the characteristics of a product. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Transnational Dynamics Amid Poor Regulations: Taiwan’s Asbestos Ban Actions and Experiences
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1240; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101240 -
Abstract
This article describes the history of the asbestos use regulation process in Taiwan and the associated factors leading to its total ban in 2018. Despite the long history of asbestos mining and manufacturing since the Japanese colonial period, attempts to understand the impact
[...] Read more.
This article describes the history of the asbestos use regulation process in Taiwan and the associated factors leading to its total ban in 2018. Despite the long history of asbestos mining and manufacturing since the Japanese colonial period, attempts to understand the impact of asbestos on the health of the population and to control its use did not emerge until the early 1980s. We attempted to investigate the driving forces and obstructions involved in asbestos regulations by reviewing available public sources and scientific journal articles and conducting interviews with key propagators of the asbestos regulation and ban. Correlation between asbestos exposure and asbestos-related diseases has already been established; however, authorities have been unable to effectively regulate the extensive application of asbestos in various light industries that support economic growth since the 1960s. More stringent regulations on asbestos use in industries and an eventual ban were caused indirectly by appeals made by visionary scholars and healthcare professionals but also due to the subsidence of asbestos-related industries. With the elucidation of factors that affect asbestos regulation and ban, a thorough long-term healthcare plan for the neglected victims of asbestos-related diseases and upstream measures for policy change must be developed. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Physiological and Perceptual Responses to Nordic Walking in a Natural Mountain Environment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1235; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101235 -
Abstract
Background: Interest around Nordic Walking (NW) has increased in recent years. However, direct comparisons of NW with normal walking (W), particularly in ecologically valid environments is lacking. The aim of our study was to compare NW and W, over long distances in a
[...] Read more.
Background: Interest around Nordic Walking (NW) has increased in recent years. However, direct comparisons of NW with normal walking (W), particularly in ecologically valid environments is lacking. The aim of our study was to compare NW and W, over long distances in a natural mountain environment. Methods: Twenty one subjects (13 male/8 female, aged 41 ± 12 years, body mass index BMI 24.1 ± 3.7), walked three distinct uphill paths (length 2.2/3.4/7 km) with (NW) or without (W) walking poles over two separate days. Heart rate (HR), energy expenditure (EE), step length (SL), walking speed (WS), total steps number (SN) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored. Results: HR (+18%) and EE (+20%) were higher in NW than in W whilst RPE was similar. SN (−12%) was lower and SL (+15%) longer in NW. WS was higher (1.64 vs. 1.53 m s−1) in NW. Conclusions: Our data confirm that, similarly to previous laboratory studies, differences in a range of walking variables are present between NW and W when performed in a natural environment. NW appears to increase EE compared to W, despite a similar RPE. Thus, NW could be a useful as aerobic training modality for weight control and cardiorespiratory fitness. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Two Sources of Clinical Audit Data to Assess the Delivery of Diabetes Care in Aboriginal Communities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1236; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101236 -
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the concordance between data extracted from two Clinical Decision Support Systems regarding diabetes testing and monitoring at Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services in Australia. De-identified PenCAT and Communicare Systems data were extracted from the services
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the concordance between data extracted from two Clinical Decision Support Systems regarding diabetes testing and monitoring at Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services in Australia. De-identified PenCAT and Communicare Systems data were extracted from the services allocated to the intervention arm of a diabetes care trial, and intra-class correlations for each extracted item were derived at a service level. Strong to very strong correlations between the two data sources were found regarding the total number of patients with diabetes per service (Intra-class correlation [ICC] = 0.99), as well as the number (ICC = 0.98–0.99) and proportion (ICC = 0.96) of patients with diabetes by gender. The correlation was moderate for the number and proportion of Type 2 diabetes patients per service in the group aged 18–34 years (ICC = 0.65 and 0.8–0.82 respectively). Strong to very strong correlations were found for numbers and proportions of patients being tested for diabetes, and for appropriate monitoring of patients known to have diabetes (ICC = 0.998–1.00). This indicated a generally high degree of concordance between whole-service data extracted by the two Clinical Decision Support Systems. Therefore, the less expensive or less complex option (depending on the individual circumstances of the service) may be appropriate for monitoring diabetes testing and care. However, the extraction of data about subgroups of patients may not be interchangeable. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Housing and Health of Kiribati Migrants Living in New Zealand
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1237; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101237 -
Abstract
Settlement is a complex process of adjustment for migrants and refugees. Drawing on recent research on the settlement experiences of Kiribati migrants and their families living in New Zealand, this article examines the role of housing as an influencer of the settlement and
[...] Read more.
Settlement is a complex process of adjustment for migrants and refugees. Drawing on recent research on the settlement experiences of Kiribati migrants and their families living in New Zealand, this article examines the role of housing as an influencer of the settlement and health of Kiribati migrants. Using qualitative methodology, in-depth interviews were conducted with fourteen Kiribati migrants (eight women and six men) representing 91 family members about the key issues and events that shaped their settlement in New Zealand. The stories told by participants affirm the association between housing and health. The study serves as an important reminder that children bear a great cost from living in poorly insulated and damp housing, and adults bear the mental costs, including social isolation resulting from inadequate rental housing. Detailed information about how this migrant group entered the private rental housing market, by taking over the rental leases of other Kiribati migrants vacating their rental properties, indicated some of the unintended consequences related to a lack of incentives for landlords to make improvements. With the most vulnerable families most at risk from inadequate housing, this research concludes that there is a need for minimum housing standards to protect tenants. Full article
Open AccessArticle
China’s Insurance Regulatory Reform, Corporate Governance Behavior and Insurers’ Governance Effectiveness
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1238; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101238 -
Abstract
External regulation is an important mechanism to improve corporate behavior in emerging markets. China’s insurance governance regulation, which began to supervise and guide insurance corporate governance behavior in 2006, has experienced a complex process of reform. This study tested our hypotheses with a
[...] Read more.
External regulation is an important mechanism to improve corporate behavior in emerging markets. China’s insurance governance regulation, which began to supervise and guide insurance corporate governance behavior in 2006, has experienced a complex process of reform. This study tested our hypotheses with a sample of 85 firms during 2010–2011, which was obtained by providing a questionnaire to all of China’s shareholding insurance companies. The empirical study results generally show that China’s insurance governance effectiveness has significantly improved through strict regulation. Insurance corporate governance can improve business acumen and risk-control ability, but no significant evidence was found to prove its influence on profitability, as a result of focusing less attention on governance than on management. State ownership is associated with higher corporate governance effectiveness than non-state ownership. Listed companies tend to outperform non-listed firms, and life insurance corporate governance is more effective than that of property insurers. This study not only contributes to the comprehensive understanding of corporate governance effectiveness but also to the literature by highlighting the effect of corporate governance regulation in China’s insurance industry and other emerging economies of the financial sector. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Dampness and Moisture Problems in Norwegian Homes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1241; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101241 -
Abstract
The occurrence of dampness and mold in the indoor environment is associated with respiratory-related disease outcomes. Thus, it is pertinent to know the magnitude of such indoor environment problems to be able to estimate the potential health impact in the population. In the
[...] Read more.
The occurrence of dampness and mold in the indoor environment is associated with respiratory-related disease outcomes. Thus, it is pertinent to know the magnitude of such indoor environment problems to be able to estimate the potential health impact in the population. In the present study, the moisture damage in 10,112 Norwegian dwellings was recorded based on building inspection reports. The levels of moisture damage were graded based on a condition class (CC), where CC0 is immaculate and CC1 acceptable (actions not required), while CC2 and CC3 indicate increased levels of damage that requires action. Of the 10,112 dwellings investigated, 3125 had verified moisture or mold damage. This amounts to 31% of the surveyed dwellings. Of these, 27% had CC2 as the worst grade, whereas 4% had CC3 as the worst grade level. The room types and building structures most prone to moisture damage were (in rank order) crawl spaces, basements, un-insulated attics, cooling rooms, and bathrooms. The high proportion of homes with moisture damage indicate a possible risk for respiratory diseases in a relatively large number of individuals, even if only the more extensive moisture damages and those located in rooms where occupants spend the majority of their time would have a significant influence on adverse health effects. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Design of Research on Performance of a New Iridium Coordination Compound for the Detection of Hg2+
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1232; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101232 -
Abstract
Heavy metal pollution has become one of the most significant pollution problems encountered by our country in terms of environment protection. In addition to the significant effects of heavy metals on the human body and other organisms through water, food chain enrichment and
[...] Read more.
Heavy metal pollution has become one of the most significant pollution problems encountered by our country in terms of environment protection. In addition to the significant effects of heavy metals on the human body and other organisms through water, food chain enrichment and other routes, heavy metals involved in daily necessities beyond the level limit could also affect people’s lives, so the detection of heavy metals is extremely important. Ir (III) coordination compound, considered to be one of the best phosphorescent sensing materials, is characterized by high luminous efficiency, easy modification of the ligand and so on, and it has potential applications in the field of heavy metal detection. This project aims to product a new Ir (III) functional coordination compound by designing a new auxiliary ligand and a main ligand with a sulfur identification unit, in order to systematically investigate the application of iridium coordination compound in the detection of the heavy metal Hg2+. With the introduction of the sulfur identification unit, selective sensing of Hg2+ could be achieved. Additionally, a new auxiliary ligand is also introduced to produce a functional iridium coordination compound with high quantum efficiency, and to diversify the application of iridium coordination compound in this field. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommentary
Breaking Up Sitting with Light-Intensity Physical Activity: Implications for Shift-Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1233; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101233 -
Abstract
Prolonged sitting, restricted sleep, and circadian disruption are all independent risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Previous research has demonstrated that breaking up sitting with light-intensity physical activity has clear benefits for the health of day workers, but these findings may not apply in
[...] Read more.
Prolonged sitting, restricted sleep, and circadian disruption are all independent risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Previous research has demonstrated that breaking up sitting with light-intensity physical activity has clear benefits for the health of day workers, but these findings may not apply in the presence of sleep restriction and/or circadian disruption—both of which are commonly experienced by shift-workers. Specifically, sleep restriction, and circadian disruption result in acute physiological changes that may offset the benefits of breaking up sitting. This commentary will explore the potential benefits of breaking up sitting for health, work performance, and subsequent sleep in shift-workers. Future areas of research designed to understand the mechanisms by which prolonged sitting and shift work impact worker health and safety and to support the design of effective occupational health and safety interventions are proposed. Full article
Open AccessReview
Non-Traditional Risk Factors of Albuminuria in the Pediatric Population: A Scoping Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1231; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101231 -
Abstract
The presence of albumin in urine has been used for more than four decades as a marker of renal and cardiovascular damage. Most of the information on this marker is related to adults. The prevalence of albuminuria in the pediatric population has been
[...] Read more.
The presence of albumin in urine has been used for more than four decades as a marker of renal and cardiovascular damage. Most of the information on this marker is related to adults. The prevalence of albuminuria in the pediatric population has been reported as being 2.2–12.8% in some countries. Most research in this field is related to albuminuria and diseases, such as diabetes and hypertension. Using the methodology described by Arksey and O’Malley in 2005, a scoping review was carried out to show that the presence of albumin in urine in the pediatric population might be associated with environmental, demographic, congenital, infectious, and non-infectious factors. The information collected is supported by 74 references present in PubMed. The results reveal the multiple causes associated with albuminuria in the pediatric population. This information can be very useful for clinical practice by adding knowledge about albuminuria behavior in children. Full article
Open AccessReview
Systematic Review: Land Cover, Meteorological, and Socioeconomic Determinants of Aedes Mosquito Habitat for Risk Mapping
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1230; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101230 -
Abstract
Asian tiger and yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti) are global nuisances and are competent vectors for viruses such as Chikungunya (CHIKV), Dengue (DV), and Zika (ZIKV). This review aims to analyze available spatiotemporal distribution models of Aedes mosquitoes
[...] Read more.
Asian tiger and yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti) are global nuisances and are competent vectors for viruses such as Chikungunya (CHIKV), Dengue (DV), and Zika (ZIKV). This review aims to analyze available spatiotemporal distribution models of Aedes mosquitoes and their influential factors. A combination of five sets of 3–5 keywords were used to retrieve all relevant published models. Five electronic search databases were used: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and Google Scholar through 17 May 2017. We generated a hierarchical decision tree for article selection. We identified 21 relevant published studies that highlight different combinations of methodologies, models and influential factors. Only a few studies adopted a comprehensive approach highlighting the interaction between environmental, socioeconomic, meteorological and topographic systems. The selected articles showed inconsistent findings in terms of number and type of influential factors affecting the distribution of Aedes vectors, which is most likely attributed to: (i) limited availability of high-resolution data for physical variables, (ii) variation in sampling methods; Aedes feeding and oviposition behavior; (iii) data collinearity and statistical distribution of observed data. This review highlights the need and sets the stage for a rigorous multi-system modeling approach to improve our knowledge about Aedes presence/abundance within their flight range in response to the interaction between environmental, socioeconomic, and meteorological systems. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
School Leadership and Cyberbullying—A Multilevel Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1226; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101226 -
Abstract
Cyberbullying is a relatively new form of bullying, with both similarities and differences to traditional bullying. While earlier research has examined associations between school-contextual characteristics and traditional bullying, fewer studies have focused on the links to students’ involvement in cyberbullying behavior. The aim
[...] Read more.
Cyberbullying is a relatively new form of bullying, with both similarities and differences to traditional bullying. While earlier research has examined associations between school-contextual characteristics and traditional bullying, fewer studies have focused on the links to students’ involvement in cyberbullying behavior. The aim of the present study is to assess whether school-contextual conditions in terms of teachers’ ratings of the school leadership are associated with the occurrence of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration among students. The data are derived from two separate data collections performed in 2016: The Stockholm School Survey conducted among students in the second grade of upper secondary school (ages 17–18 years) in Stockholm municipality, and the Stockholm Teacher Survey which was carried out among teachers in the same schools. The data include information from 6067 students distributed across 58 schools, linked with school-contextual information based on reports from 1251 teachers. Cyberbullying victimization and perpetration are measured by students’ self-reports. Teachers’ ratings of the school leadership are captured by an index based on 10 items; the mean value of this index was aggregated to the school level. Results from binary logistic multilevel regression models show that high teacher ratings of the school leadership are associated with less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. We conclude that a strong school leadership potentially prevents cyberbullying behavior among students. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Identification of Genetic Interaction with Risk Factors Using a Time-To-Event Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1228; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101228 -
Abstract
Background: Certain diseases can occur with and without a trigger. We use Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) as our example to identify genetic interaction with pregnancy in women with VTE during pre- or postpartum. Pregnancy is one of the major risk factors for VTE as
[...] Read more.
Background: Certain diseases can occur with and without a trigger. We use Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) as our example to identify genetic interaction with pregnancy in women with VTE during pre- or postpartum. Pregnancy is one of the major risk factors for VTE as it accounts for 10% of maternal deaths. Methods: We performed a whole genome association analysis using the Cox Proportional Hazard (CoxPH) model adjusted for covariates to identify genetic variants associated with the time-to-event of VTE related to pre- or postpartum during the childbearing age of 18–45 years using a case-only design in a cohort of women with VTE. Women with a VTE event after 45 years of age were censored and contributed only follow-up time. Results: We identified two intragenic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at genome-wide significance in the PURB gene located on chromosome 7, and two additional intragenic SNPs, one in the LINGO2 gene on chromosome 9 and one in RDXP2 on chromosome X. Conclusions: We showed that the time-to-event model is a useful approach for identifying potential hazard-modification of the genetic variants when the event of interest (VTE) occurs due to a risk factor (pre- or post-partum). Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Barriers and Facilitators for Health Behavior Change among Adults from Multi-Problem Households: A Qualitative Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1229; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101229 -
Abstract
Multi-problem households are households with problems on more than one of the following core problem areas: socio-economic problems, psycho-social problems, and problems related to child care. The aim of this study was to examine barriers and facilitators for health behavior change among adults
[...] Read more.
Multi-problem households are households with problems on more than one of the following core problem areas: socio-economic problems, psycho-social problems, and problems related to child care. The aim of this study was to examine barriers and facilitators for health behavior change among adults from multi-problem households, as well as to identify ideas for a health promotion program. A qualitative study involving 25 semi-structured interviews was conducted among Dutch adults who received intensive family home care for multi-problem households. Results were discussed with eight social workers in a focus group interview. Data were analyzed using the Framework Method. The results revealed that the main reason for not engaging in sports were the costs. Physical activity was facilitated by physically active (transport to) work and by dog ownership. Respondents who received a food bank package reported this as a barrier for healthy eating. Those with medical conditions such as diabetes indicated that this motivated them to eat healthily. Smokers and former smokers reported that stress was a major barrier for quitting smoking but that medical conditions could motivate them to quit smoking. A reported reason for not using alcohol was having difficult past experiences such as violence and abuse by alcoholics. Mentioned intervention ideas were: something social, an outdoor sports event, cooking classes, a walking group, and children’s activities in nature. Free or cheap activities that include social interaction and reduce stress are in line with the identified barriers and facilitators. Besides these activities, it may be important to influence the target group’s environment by educating social workers and ensuring healthier food bank packages. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Behaviors Related to Mosquito-Borne Diseases among Different Ethnic Minority Groups along the China-Laos Border Areas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1227; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101227 -
Abstract
Background: In China, mosquito-borne diseases are most common in the sub-tropical area of Yunnan province. The objective of this study was to examine behaviors related to mosquito-borne diseases in different ethnic minority groups and different socioeconomic groups of people living in this
[...] Read more.
Background: In China, mosquito-borne diseases are most common in the sub-tropical area of Yunnan province. The objective of this study was to examine behaviors related to mosquito-borne diseases in different ethnic minority groups and different socioeconomic groups of people living in this region. Methods: A stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique with probability proportional to size was used in Mengla County, Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan. Twelve villages were used to recruit adult (≥18 years old) and eight schools were used for children (<18 years old). A questionnaire on behaviors and environment variables related to mosquito-borne diseases was devised. Results: Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) grouped 20 behaviors into three domains, namely, environmental condition, bed net use behaviors, and repellent use behaviors, respectively. The Han ethnicity had the lowest odds of rearing pigs, their odds being significantly lower than those of Yi and Yao. For bed net use, Dai and other ethnic minority groups were less likely to use bed nets compared to Yi and Yao. The odds of repellent use in the Han ethnicity was lower than in Yi, but higher than in Dai. The Dai group was the most likely ethnicity to use repellents. Farmers were at a higher risk for pig rearing and not using repellents. Education of less than primary school held the lowest odds of pig rearing. Those with low income were at a higher risk for not using bed nets and repellent except in pig rearing. Those with a small family size were at a lower risk for pig rearing. Conclusion: Different ethnic and socioeconomic groups in the study areas require different specific emphases for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases. Full article
Figures

Figure 1