Open AccessArticle
The Comprehensive Snack Parenting Questionnaire (CSPQ): Development and Test-Retest Reliability
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 862; doi:10.3390/ijerph15050862 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The narrow focus of existing food parenting instruments led us to develop a food parenting practices instrument measuring the full range of food practices constructs with a focus on snacking behavior. We present the development of the questionnaire and our research on the
[...] Read more.
The narrow focus of existing food parenting instruments led us to develop a food parenting practices instrument measuring the full range of food practices constructs with a focus on snacking behavior. We present the development of the questionnaire and our research on the test-retest reliability. The developed Comprehensive Snack Parenting Questionnaire (CSPQ) covers 21 constructs. Test-retest reliability was assessed by calculating intra class correlation coefficients and percentage agreement after two administrations of the CSPQ among a sample of 66 Dutch parents. Test-retest reliability analysis revealed acceptable intra class correlation coefficients (≥0.41) or agreement scores (≥0.60) for all items. These results, together with earlier work, suggest sufficient psychometric characteristics. The comprehensive, but brief CSPQ opens up chances for highly essential but unstudied research questions to understand and predict children’s snack intake. Example applications include studying the interactional nature of food parenting practices or interactions of food parenting with general parenting or child characteristics. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Associations between Urban Sprawl and Life Expectancy in the United States
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 861; doi:10.3390/ijerph15050861 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In recent years, the United States has had a relatively poor performance with respect to life expectancy compared to the other developed nations. Urban sprawl is one of the potential causes of the high rate of mortality in the United States. This study
[...] Read more.
In recent years, the United States has had a relatively poor performance with respect to life expectancy compared to the other developed nations. Urban sprawl is one of the potential causes of the high rate of mortality in the United States. This study investigated cross-sectional associations between sprawl and life expectancy for metropolitan counties in the United States in 2010. In this study, the measure of life expectancy in 2010 came from a recently released dataset of life expectancies by county. This study modeled average life expectancy with a structural equation model that included five mediators: annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT) per household, average body mass index, crime rate, and air quality index as mediators of sprawl, as well as percentage of smokers as a mediator of socioeconomic status. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, this study found that life expectancy was significantly higher in compact counties than in sprawling counties. Compactness affects mortality directly, but the causal mechanism is unclear. For example, it may be that sprawling areas have higher traffic speeds and longer emergency response times, lower quality and less accessible health care facilities, or less availability of healthy foods. Compactness affects mortality indirectly through vehicle miles traveled, which is a contributor to traffic fatalities, and through body mass index, which is a contributor to many chronic diseases. This study identified significant direct and indirect associations between urban sprawl and life expectancy. These findings support further research and practice aimed at identifying and implementing changes to urban planning designed to support health and healthy behaviors. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommentary
Dynamic Geochemistry of Tetraethyl Lead Dust during the 20th Century: Getting the Lead In, Out, and Translational Beyond
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 860; doi:10.3390/ijerph15050860 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This commentary provides a brief overview of policy decisions that permitted getting tetraethyl lead (TEL) into petrol; global geochemical lead-dust deposition evidence; 1975 catalytic converter requirements; concern about habitability of cities; a personal perspective on legacy lead research that accelerated getting TEL out
[...] Read more.
This commentary provides a brief overview of policy decisions that permitted getting tetraethyl lead (TEL) into petrol; global geochemical lead-dust deposition evidence; 1975 catalytic converter requirements; concern about habitability of cities; a personal perspective on legacy lead research that accelerated getting TEL out of petrol; and translational beyond, including New Orleans pre- vs. post-Hurricane Katrina observations about legacy lead interventions that effectively improve urban children’s health outcomes. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Internet and Smartphone Addictions on Depression and Anxiety Based on Propensity Score Matching Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 859; doi:10.3390/ijerph15050859 -
Abstract
The associations of Internet addiction (IA) and smartphone addiction (SA) with mental health problems have been widely studied. We investigated the effects of IA and SA on depression and anxiety while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. In this study, 4854 participants completed a cross-sectional
[...] Read more.
The associations of Internet addiction (IA) and smartphone addiction (SA) with mental health problems have been widely studied. We investigated the effects of IA and SA on depression and anxiety while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. In this study, 4854 participants completed a cross-sectional web-based survey including socio-demographic items, the Korean Scale for Internet Addiction, the Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale, and the subscales of the Symptom Checklist 90 Items-Revised. The participants were classified into IA, SA, and normal use (NU) groups. To reduce sampling bias, we applied the propensity score matching method based on genetics matching. The IA group showed an increased risk of depression (relative risk 1.207; p < 0.001) and anxiety (relative risk 1.264; p < 0.001) compared to NUs. The SA group also showed an increased risk of depression (relative risk 1.337; p < 0.001) and anxiety (relative risk 1.402; p < 0.001) compared to NCs. These findings show that both, IA and SA, exerted significant effects on depression and anxiety. Moreover, our findings showed that SA has a stronger relationship with depression and anxiety, stronger than IA, and emphasized the need for prevention and management policy of the excessive smartphone use. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Preschool-Aged and School-Aged Children Present Different Odds of Mortality than Adults in Southern Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 858; doi:10.3390/ijerph15050858 -
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to profile the epidemiology of injury among preschool-aged and school-aged children in comparison to those in adults. Methods: According to the Trauma Registry System of a level I trauma center, the medical data were retrieved from 938
[...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to profile the epidemiology of injury among preschool-aged and school-aged children in comparison to those in adults. Methods: According to the Trauma Registry System of a level I trauma center, the medical data were retrieved from 938 preschool-aged children (aged less than seven years), 670 school-aged children (aged 7–12 years), and 16,800 adults (aged 20–64 years) between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2016. Two-sided Pearson’s, chi-squared, and Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare categorical data. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Games-Howell post-hoc test was used to assess the differences in continuous variables among different groups of patients. The mortality outcomes of different subgroups were assessed by a multivariable regression model under the adjustment of sex, injury mechanisms, and injury severity. Results: InFsupppjury mechanisms in preschool-aged and school-aged children were remarkably different from that in adults; in preschool-aged children, burns were the most common cause of injury requiring hospitalization (37.4%), followed by falls (35.1%) and being struck by/against objects (11.6%). In school-aged children, injuries were most commonly sustained from falls (47.8%), followed by bicycle accidents (14%) and being struck by/against objects (12.5%). Compared to adults, there was no significant difference of the adjusted mortality of the preschool-aged children (AOR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.38–2.12; p = 0.792) but there were lower adjusted odds of mortality of the school-aged children (AOR = 0.4; 95% CI 0.10–0.85; p = 0.039). The school-aged children had lower odds of mortality than adults (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.06–0.74; p = 0.012), but such lower odds of risk of mortality were not found in preschool-aged children (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.29–1.81; p = 0.646). Conclusions: This study suggests that specific types of injuries from different injury mechanisms are predominant among preschool-aged and school-aged children. The school-aged children had lower odds of mortality than adults; nonetheless there was no difference in mortality rates of preschool-aged children than adults, with or without controlling for sex, injury mechanisms and ISS. These results highlight the importance of injury prevention, particularly for preschool-aged children in Southern Taiwan. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
PALTEM: What Parameters Should Be Collected in Disaster Settings to Assess the Long-Term Outcomes of Famine?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 857; doi:10.3390/ijerph15050857 -
Abstract
Evidence suggests that nutritional status during fetal development and early life leaves an imprint on the genome, which leads to health outcomes not only on a person as an adult but also on his offspring. The purpose of this study is to bring
[...] Read more.
Evidence suggests that nutritional status during fetal development and early life leaves an imprint on the genome, which leads to health outcomes not only on a person as an adult but also on his offspring. The purpose of this study is to bring forth an overview of the relevant parameters that need to be collected to assess the long-term and transgenerational health outcomes of famine. A literature search was conducted for the most pertinent articles on the epigenetic effects of famine. The results were compiled, synthesized and discussed with an expert in genetics for critical input and validation. Prenatal and early life exposure to famine was associated with metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, neuropsychiatric and oncologic diseases. We propose a set of parameters to be collected in disaster settings to assess the long-term outcomes of famine: PALTEM (parameters to assess long-term effects of malnutrition). Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Impact of the Introduction of the Electronic Health Insurance Card on the Use of Medical Services by Asylum Seekers in Germany
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 856; doi:10.3390/ijerph15050856 -
Abstract
Objectives: Asylum seekers in Germany represent a highly vulnerable group from a health perspective. Furthermore, their access to healthcare is restricted. While the introduction of the Electronic Health Insurance Card (EHIC) for asylum seekers instead of healthcare-vouchers is discussed controversially using politico-economic reasons,
[...] Read more.
Objectives: Asylum seekers in Germany represent a highly vulnerable group from a health perspective. Furthermore, their access to healthcare is restricted. While the introduction of the Electronic Health Insurance Card (EHIC) for asylum seekers instead of healthcare-vouchers is discussed controversially using politico-economic reasons, there is hardly any empirical evidence regarding its actual impact on the use of medical services. The aim of the study is to examine this impact on the use of medical services by asylum seekers as measured by their consultation rate of ambulant physicians (CR). Study Design: For this purpose, a standardized survey was conducted with 260 asylum seekers in different municipalities, some of which have introduced the EHIC for asylum seekers, while others have not. Methods: The period prevalence was compared between the groups “with EHIC” and “without EHIC” using a two-sided t-test. Multivariate analysis was done using a linear OLS regression model. Results: Asylum seekers in possession of the EHIC are significantly more likely to seek ambulant medical care than those receiving healthcare-vouchers. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that having to ask for healthcare-vouchers at the social security office could be a relevant barrier for asylum seekers. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Ecological Vulnerability Assessment Based on Fuzzy Analytical Method and Analytic Hierarchy Process in Yellow River Delta
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 855; doi:10.3390/ijerph15050855 -
Abstract
The Yellow River Delta (YRD), located in Yellow River estuary, is characterized by rich ecological system types, and provides habitats or migration stations for wild birds, all of which makes the delta an ecological barrier or ecotone for inland areas. Nevertheless, the abundant
[...] Read more.
The Yellow River Delta (YRD), located in Yellow River estuary, is characterized by rich ecological system types, and provides habitats or migration stations for wild birds, all of which makes the delta an ecological barrier or ecotone for inland areas. Nevertheless, the abundant natural resources of YRD have brought huge challenges to the area, and frequent human activities and natural disasters have damaged the ecological systems seriously, and certain ecological functions have been threatened. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the status of the ecological environment based on scientific methods, which can provide scientifically robust data for the managers or stakeholders to adopt timely ecological protection measures. The aim of this study was to obtain the spatial distribution of the ecological vulnerability (EV) in YRD based on 21 indicators selected from underwater status, soil condition, land use, landform, vegetation cover, meteorological conditions, ocean influence, and social economy. In addition, the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) method was used to obtain the weights of the selected indicators, and a fuzzy logic model was constructed to obtain the result. The result showed that the spatial distribution of the EV grades was regular, while the fuzzy membership of EV decreased gradually from the coastline to inland area, especially around the river crossing, where it had the lowest EV. Along the coastline, the dikes had an obviously protective effect for the inner area, while the EV was higher in the area where no dikes were built. This result also showed that the soil condition and groundwater status were highly related to the EV spatially, with the correlation coefficients −0.55 and −0.74 respectively, and human activities had exerted considerable pressure on the ecological environment. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Association between Sleep Duration and Overweight/Obesity at Age 7–18 in Shenyang, China in 2010 and 2014
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 854; doi:10.3390/ijerph15050854 -
Abstract
This study was designed to examine the association between sleep duration and being overweight/obese in primary, middle, and high school students. This was a multiple cross-sectional study using data from the 2010 and 2014 National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health (CNSSCH). A
[...] Read more.
This study was designed to examine the association between sleep duration and being overweight/obese in primary, middle, and high school students. This was a multiple cross-sectional study using data from the 2010 and 2014 National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health (CNSSCH). A total of 23,602 students aged 7–18 years were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of being overweight and obese—stratified by age, gender, and sleep duration—in 2010 and 2014 were compared. Sleep duration was categorized as <7 h, ≥7 to 8 h, ≥8 to 9 h, and ≥9 h. Overweight and obesity were defined according to the cut-point criteria in China. Multivariable logistic regression results in 2010 and 2014 revealed that students sleeping <7 h and aged 7–12 years had an increased risk of becoming overweight/obese. In 2010, the adjusted prevalence ratios of overweight for 7–12-year-old students sleeping <9 h was 1.196 (95%CI: 1.004–1.424) and 13–15-year-old students sleeping <8 h was 1.265 (95%CI: 1.023–1.565). In 2014, the adjusted prevalence ratios of overweight and obesity for 7–12-year-old students sleeping <9 h were 1.295 (95%CI: 1.091–1.537) and 1.231 (95%CI: 1.045–1.449); 16–18-year-old students sleeping <7 h were 1.530 (95%CI: 1.239–1.888) and 1.585 (95%CI: 1.270–2.081). Our study revealed that different levels of sleep curtailment increased the risk of becoming overweight/obesity in different age groups of students. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Observance of Sterilization Protocol Guideline Procedures of Critical Instruments for Preventing Iatrogenic Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in Dental Practice in France, 2017
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 853; doi:10.3390/ijerph15050853 -
Abstract
Effective sterilization of reusable instruments contaminated by Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease in dental care is a crucial issue for public health. The present cross-sectional study investigated how the recommended procedures for sterilization were implemented by French dental practices in real-world settings. A sample of dental
[...] Read more.
Effective sterilization of reusable instruments contaminated by Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease in dental care is a crucial issue for public health. The present cross-sectional study investigated how the recommended procedures for sterilization were implemented by French dental practices in real-world settings. A sample of dental practices was selected in the French Rhône-Alpes region. Data were collected by a self-questionnaire in 2016. Sterilization procedures (n = 33) were classified into 4 groups: (1) Pre-sterilization cleaning of reusable instruments; (2) Biological verification of sterilization cycles—Monitoring steam sterilization procedures; (3) Autoclave performance and practitioner knowledge of autoclave use; (4) Monitoring and documentation of sterilization procedures—Tracking and tracing the instrumentation. Answers were provided per procedure, along with the global implementation of procedures within a group (over 80% correctly performed). Then it was verified how adherence to procedure groups varied with the size of the dental practice and the proportion of dental assistants within the team. Among the 179 questionnaires available for the analyses, adherence to the recommended procedures of sterilization noticeably varied between practices, from 20.7% to 82.6%. The median percentages of procedures correctly implemented per practice were 58.1%, 50.9%, 69.2% and 58.2%, in Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively (corresponding percentages for performing over 80% of the procedures in the group: 23.4%, 6.6%, 46.6% and 38.6%). Dental practices ≥ 3 dental units performed significantly better (>80%) procedures of Groups 2 and 4 (p = 0.01 and p = 0.002, respectively), while no other significant associations emerged. As a rule, practices complied poorly with the recommended procedures, despite partially improved results in bigger practices. Specific training regarding sterilization procedures and a better understanding of the reasons leading to their non-compliance are needed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Gender and Body-Fat Status as Predictors of Parental Feeding Styles and Children’s Nutritional Knowledge, Eating Habits and Behaviours
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 852; doi:10.3390/ijerph15050852 -
Abstract
The home food environment is critically important for the development of children’s health-related practices. By managing dietary restrictions, providing nutritional knowledge and demonstrating eating behaviours, parents contribute to children’s food preferences and eating patterns. The present study examined nutritional knowledge, eating habits and
[...] Read more.
The home food environment is critically important for the development of children’s health-related practices. By managing dietary restrictions, providing nutritional knowledge and demonstrating eating behaviours, parents contribute to children’s food preferences and eating patterns. The present study examined nutritional knowledge, eating habits and appetite traits among 387 Polish five-year-old healthy and overfat boys and girls in the context of parental feeding styles and body-fat status. We observed that girls presented healthier eating habits than boys; however, overfat boys had better nutritional knowledge. Children’s body-fat percentage (%BF) was found to be linked with eating behaviours such as low satiety responsiveness and increased food responsiveness in girls as well as low emotional undereating and increased emotional overeating in boys. Our results revealed that overfat mothers, who were more prone to use the encouragement feeding style, rarely had daughters with increased %BF. Parents of overfat girls, however, were less likely to apply encouragement and instrumental feeding styles. Contrary to popular belief and previous studies, overfat women do not necessarily transmit unhealthy eating patterns to their children. Parents’ greater emphasis on managing the weight and eating habits of daughters (rather than sons) probably results from their awareness of standards of female physical attractiveness. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Impact of a Translated Disease Self-Management Program on Employee Health and Productivity: Six-Month Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 851; doi:10.3390/ijerph15050851 -
Abstract
Disease management is gaining importance in workplace health promotion given the aging workforce and rising chronic disease prevalence. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) is an effective intervention widely offered in diverse community settings; however, adoption remains low in workplace settings. As part
[...] Read more.
Disease management is gaining importance in workplace health promotion given the aging workforce and rising chronic disease prevalence. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) is an effective intervention widely offered in diverse community settings; however, adoption remains low in workplace settings. As part of a larger NIH-funded randomized controlled trial, this study examines the effectiveness of a worksite-tailored version of CDSMP (wCDSMP [n = 72]) relative to CDSMP (‘Usual Care’ [n = 109]) to improve health and work performance among employees with one or more chronic conditions. Multiple-group latent-difference score models with sandwich estimators were fitted to identify changes from baseline to 6-month follow-up. Overall, participants were primarily female (87%), non-Hispanic white (62%), and obese (73%). On average, participants were age 48 (range: 23–72) and self-reported 3.25 chronic conditions (range: 1–16). The most commonly reported conditions were high cholesterol (45%), high blood pressure (45%), anxiety/emotional/mental health condition (26%), and diabetes (25%). Among wCDSMP participants, significant improvements were observed for physically unhealthy days (uΔ = −2.07, p = 0.018), fatigue (uΔ = −2.88, p = 0.002), sedentary behavior (uΔ = −4.49, p = 0.018), soda/sugar beverage consumption (uΔ = −0.78, p = 0.028), and fast food intake (uΔ = −0.76, p = 0.009) from baseline to follow-up. Significant improvements in patient–provider communication (uΔ = 0.46, p = 0.031) and mental work limitations (uΔ = −8.89, p = 0.010) were also observed from baseline to follow-up. Relative to Usual Care, wCDSMP participants reported significantly larger improvements in fatigue, physical activity, soda/sugar beverage consumption, and mental work limitations (p < 0.05). The translation of Usual Care (content and format) has potential to improve health among employees with chronic conditions and increase uptake in workplace settings. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
University Students’ Willingness to Assist Fellow Students Who Experience Alcohol-Related Facial Flushing to Reduce Their Drinking
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 850; doi:10.3390/ijerph15050850 -
Abstract
This study explored bystanders’ willingness to help a friend who flushes when drinking to reduce his/her drinking. Alcohol-related facial flushing is an indicator of an inherited variant enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), that impairs alcohol metabolism and increases drinkers’ lifetime risk of certain aerodigestive
[...] Read more.
This study explored bystanders’ willingness to help a friend who flushes when drinking to reduce his/her drinking. Alcohol-related facial flushing is an indicator of an inherited variant enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), that impairs alcohol metabolism and increases drinkers’ lifetime risk of certain aerodigestive cancers. Individuals who flush should reduce their alcohol exposure, but they may continue to drink if social pressures and rules of etiquette make not drinking socially risky. The analysis used data from 2912 undergraduate students from 13 universities in southwestern, central and northeastern China from a survey asking how they respond to someone’s flushing in various scenarios. Latent class analysis grouped students by similar responses to flushing. A multinomial logistic regression explored how class membership was associated with knowledge, drinking status, and reactions to one’s own flushing. Five classes were derived from the latent class analysis, ranging from always intervene to mostly hesitate to help; in between were classes of students who were willing to help in some scenarios and hesitant in other scenarios. Only 11.6% students knew the connection between facial flushing and impaired alcohol metabolism, and knowledgeable students were somewhat more likely to assist when they saw someone flushing. In the absence of knowledge, other factors—such as drinking status, the gender of the bystander, the gender of the person who flushed, and degree of friendship with the person who flushed—determined how willing a person was to help someone reduce or stop drinking. Class membership was predicted by knowledge, gender, drinking status, and reactions to one’s own flushing. Of these 4 factors, knowledge and reactions to one’s own flushing could be influenced through alcohol education programs. It will take some time for alcohol education to catch up to and change social and cultural patterns of drinking. Meanwhile, motivational strategies should be developed to increase the willingness of bystanders to assist friends and to create a social expectation that flushers should stop or reduce their drinking. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Measurement of Pesticide Residues from Chemical Control of the Invasive Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in a Maize Experimental Field in Mokwa, Nigeria
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 849; doi:10.3390/ijerph15050849 -
Abstract
The management of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda in maize field necessitates the use a big quantities of insecticides and sometimes the use of multiple types and formulations of chemicals. The use of insecticides in crops is associated with environmental risks and health
[...] Read more.
The management of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda in maize field necessitates the use a big quantities of insecticides and sometimes the use of multiple types and formulations of chemicals. The use of insecticides in crops is associated with environmental risks and health hazards to both producers and consumers. This study was designed to evaluate the residue of 11 insecticides that were used to control high population of the fall armyworm in maize field in Mokwa, Nigeria. Maize and soil samples were collected from an experimental field to investigate the residue level using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA) analysis techniques. Results revealed the presence of five insecticide compounds (Cypermethrin, Deltamethrin, Lambda-Cyhalothrin, Permethrin, and Chorpyrifos) in soil samples with possible adverse effects on soil born organisms and other non-targeted species. In contrast, no residue was found in maize stems and seeds. From these results, we conclude that the treated maize remains safe for consumption and the producers may not get any serious risk of contamination from the chemical control of the fall armyworm. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Suicidal Ideation and Healthy Immigrant Effect in the Canadian Population: A Cross-Sectional Population Based Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 848; doi:10.3390/ijerph15050848 -
Abstract
Understanding suicidal ideation is crucial for preventing suicide. Although “healthy immigrant effect” is a phenomenon that has been well documented across a multitude of epidemiological and social studies—where immigrants are, on average, healthier than the native-born, little research has examined the presence of
[...] Read more.
Understanding suicidal ideation is crucial for preventing suicide. Although “healthy immigrant effect” is a phenomenon that has been well documented across a multitude of epidemiological and social studies—where immigrants are, on average, healthier than the native-born, little research has examined the presence of such effect on suicidal ideation. The objective of this study is to investigate if there is a differential effect of immigration identity on suicidal ideation and how the effect varies by socio-demographic characteristics in the Canadian population. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey in year 2014 were used. Multivariate logistic regression was employed. Our findings indicated that recent immigrants (lived in Canada for 9 or less years) were significantly less likely to report suicidal ideation compared with non-immigrants. However, for established immigrants (10 years and above of living in Canada), the risk of suicidal ideation converged to Canadian-born population. Moreover, male immigrants were at significantly lower risk of having suicidal ideation than Canadian-born counterparts; whereas, female immigrants did not benefit from the “healthy immigrant effect”. Our findings suggest the need for targeted intervention strategies on suicidal ideation among established immigrants and female immigrants. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Maternal Vaccination as an Essential Component of Life-Course Immunization and Its Contribution to Preventive Neonatology
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 847; doi:10.3390/ijerph15050847 -
Abstract
Maternal immunisation schedules are increasingly coming under the spotlight as part of the development of lifetime immunisation programmes for the role that they play in improving maternal, foetal, and neonatal health. Maternally-acquired antibodies are critical in protecting infants during the first months of
[...] Read more.
Maternal immunisation schedules are increasingly coming under the spotlight as part of the development of lifetime immunisation programmes for the role that they play in improving maternal, foetal, and neonatal health. Maternally-acquired antibodies are critical in protecting infants during the first months of their lives. Maternal immunisation was previously overlooked owing to concerns regarding vaccinations in this untested and high-risk population but is now acknowledged for its potential impact on the outcomes in many domains of foetal and neonatal health, aside from its maternal benefits. This article highlights the role that maternal immunisation may play in reducing infections in preterm and term infants. It explores the barriers to antenatal vaccinations and the optimisation of the immunisation uptake. This review also probes the part that maternal immunisation may hold in the reduction of perinatal antimicrobial resistance and the prevention of non-infectious diseases. Both healthcare providers and expectant mothers should continue to be educated on the importance and safety of the appropriate immunizations during pregnancy. Maternal vaccination merits its deserved priority in a life-course immunization approach and it is perhaps the only immunization whereby two generations benefit directly from a single input. We outline the current recommendations for antenatal vaccinations and highlight the potential advances in the field contributing to “preventive neonatology”. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Lee, Y.-H., et al. Beverage Intake, Smoking Behavior, and Alcohol Consumption in Contemporary China—A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 493
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 846; doi:10.3390/ijerph15050846 -
Open AccessArticle
Influence of Latitude on the Prevalence of Kawasaki Disease: A Retrospective Cohort Study from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database and Review of the Literature
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 845; doi:10.3390/ijerph15050845 -
Abstract
Background: Countries at higher latitudes have higher incidence rates of Kawasaki disease (KD) than do countries at lower latitudes in the Asian and West Pacific area. However, the precise influence of latitude on KD incidence rates requires further clarification. Methods: We searched the
[...] Read more.
Background: Countries at higher latitudes have higher incidence rates of Kawasaki disease (KD) than do countries at lower latitudes in the Asian and West Pacific area. However, the precise influence of latitude on KD incidence rates requires further clarification. Methods: We searched the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 to retrieve patients’ medical records from 1996 to 2009. The patients with KD were categorized as living in northern, middle, and southern Taiwan; the period prevalence of KD for each area was determined. Climate variables, including temperature, sunshine duration, precipitation, and relative humidity, were collected from the Taiwan Central Weather Bureau. The effect of latitude on the period KD prevalence and the correlation between climate variables and KD prevalence were calculated. Results: After patients without complete data excluded, a total of 61,830 children up to 10 years old were retrieved, from which 404 patients with KD were recognized. The period prevalence of KD increased significantly with latitude (p = 0.0004). Climate variables associated with high temperature demonstrated a connection with KD prevalence; however, this correlation was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that higher latitude is associated with a higher KD prevalence in Taiwan. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Integration of a Copper-Containing Biohybrid (CuHARS) with Cellulose for Subsequent Degradation and Biomedical Control
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 844; doi:10.3390/ijerph15050844 -
Abstract
We previously described the novel synthesis of a copper high-aspect ratio structure (CuHARS) biohybrid material using cystine. While extremely stable in water, CuHARS is completely (but slowly) degradable in cellular media. Here, integration of the CuHARS into cellulose matrices was carried out to
[...] Read more.
We previously described the novel synthesis of a copper high-aspect ratio structure (CuHARS) biohybrid material using cystine. While extremely stable in water, CuHARS is completely (but slowly) degradable in cellular media. Here, integration of the CuHARS into cellulose matrices was carried out to provide added control for CuHARS degradation. Synthesized CuHARS was concentrated by centrifugation and then dried. The weighed mass was re-suspended in water. CuHARS was stable in water for months without degradation. In contrast, 25 μg/mL of the CuHARS in complete cell culture media was completely degraded (slowly) in 18 days under physiological conditions. Stable integration of CuHARS into cellulose matrices was achieved through assembly by mixing cellulose micro- and nano-fibers and CuHARS in an aqueous (pulp mixture) phase, followed by drying. Additional materials were integrated to make the hybrids magnetically susceptible. The cellulose-CuHARS composite films could be transferred, weighed, and cut into usable pieces; they maintained their form after rehydration in water for at least 7 days and were compatible with cell culture studies using brain tumor (glioma) cells. These studies demonstrate utility of a CuHARS-cellulose biohybrid for applied applications including: (1) a platform for biomedical tracking and (2) integration into a 2D/3D matrix using natural products (cellulose). Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
General Practitioners’ Perceptions of Heat Health Impacts on the Elderly in the Face of Climate Change—A Qualitative Study in Baden-Württemberg, Germany
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 843; doi:10.3390/ijerph15050843 -
Abstract
Heat health impacts (HHI) on the elderly are a growing concern in the face of climate change and aging populations. General practitioners (GPs) have an important role in health care for the elderly. To inform the development of effective prevention measures, it is
[...] Read more.
Heat health impacts (HHI) on the elderly are a growing concern in the face of climate change and aging populations. General practitioners (GPs) have an important role in health care for the elderly. To inform the development of effective prevention measures, it is important to investigate GPs’ perceptions of HHI. Twenty four qualitative expert interviews were conducted with GPs and analyzed using the framework approach. GPs were generally aware of heat health impacts, focusing on cardiovascular morbidity and volume imbalances. Perceptions of mortality and for instance impacts on respiratory diseases or potentially risky drugs in heat waves partly diverged from findings in literature. GPs judged the current relevance of HHI differently depending on their attitudes towards: (i) sensitivity of the elderly, (ii) status of nursing care and (iii) heat exposure in Baden-Württemberg. Future relevance of HHI was perceived to be increasing by most GPs. The main cause identified for this was population aging, while impacts of climate change were judged as uncertain by many. GPs’ perceptions, partly diverging from literature, show that GPs’ knowledge and awareness on HHI and climate change needs to be strengthened. However, they also emphasize the need for more research on HHI in the ambulant health care setting. Furthermore, GPs perceptions suggest that strong nursing care and social networks for elderly are major elements of a climate resilient health system. Full article