Open AccessArticle
Hyponatremia Is Associated with Worse Outcomes from Fall Injuries in the Elderly
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 460; doi:10.3390/ijerph14050460 -
Abstract
Background: Hyponatremia has been proposed as a contributor to falls in the elderly, which have become a major global issue with the aging of the population. This study aimed to assess the clinical presentation and outcomes of elderly patients with hyponatremia admitted
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Background: Hyponatremia has been proposed as a contributor to falls in the elderly, which have become a major global issue with the aging of the population. This study aimed to assess the clinical presentation and outcomes of elderly patients with hyponatremia admitted due to fall injuries in a Level I trauma center. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data obtained from the Trauma Registry System for trauma admissions from January 2009 through December 2014. Hyponatremia was defined as a serum sodium level <135 mEq/L, and only patients who had sustained a fall at ground level (<1 m) were included. We used Chi-square tests, Student t-tests, and Mann-Whitney U tests to compare elderly patients (age ≥65 years) with hyponatremia (n = 492) to those without (n = 2002), and to adult patients (age 20–64 years) with hyponatremia (n = 125). Results: Significantly more elderly patients with hyponatremia presented to the emergency department (ED) due to falls compared to elderly patients without hyponatremia (73.7% vs. 52.6%; OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 2.10–3.02; p < 0.001). Elderly patients with hyponatremia presented with a worse outcome, measured by significantly higher odds of intubation (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.15–4.83; p = 0.025), a longer in-hospital length of stay (LOS) (11 days vs. 9 days; p < 0.001), higher proportion of intensive care unit (ICU) admission (20.9% vs. 16.2%; OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.07–1.76; p = 0.013), and higher mortality (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.53–3.96; p < 0.001), regardless of adjustment by Injury Severity Scores (ISS) (AOR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.42–4.21; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Our results show that hyponatremia is associated with worse outcome from fall-related injuries in the elderly, with an increased ISS, longer LOS, and a higher risk of death. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association of Long-Term Near-Highway Exposure to Ultrafine Particles with Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes and Hypertension
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 461; doi:10.3390/ijerph14050461 -
Abstract
Ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations are elevated near busy roadways, however, their effects on prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and hypertension are not well understood. To investigate these associations, data on demographics, diseases, medication use, and time of activities were collected by in-home surveys
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Ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations are elevated near busy roadways, however, their effects on prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and hypertension are not well understood. To investigate these associations, data on demographics, diseases, medication use, and time of activities were collected by in-home surveys for 704 participants in three pairs of near-highway and urban background neighborhoods in and near Boston (MA, USA). Body mass index (BMI) was measured for a subset of 435 participants. Particle number concentration (PNC, a measure of UFP) was collected by mobile monitoring in each area. Intra-neighborhood spatial-temporal regression models (approximately 20 m resolution) were used to estimate hourly ambient PNC at the residences of participants. We used participant time activity information to adjust annual average residential PNC values and assign individualized time activity adjusted annual average PNC exposures (TAA-PNC). Using multivariate logistic regression models, we found an odds ratio (OR) of 1.35 (95% CI: 0.83, 2.22) of TAA-PNC with stroke and ischemic heart diseases (S/IHD), an OR of 1.14 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.62) with hypertension, and an OR of 0.71 (95% CI: 0.46, 1.10) for diabetes. A subset analysis controlling for BMI produced slightly stronger associations for S/IHD (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 0.88, 2.92) and hypertension (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 0.81, 2.02), and no association with diabetes (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.61, 1.96). Further research is needed with larger sample sizes and longitudinal follow-up. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Land Use on PM2.5 Pollution in a Representative City of Middle China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 462; doi:10.3390/ijerph14050462 -
Abstract
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution has become one of the greatest urban issues in China. Studies have shown that PM2.5 pollution is strongly related to the land use pattern at the micro-scale and optimizing the land use pattern has been
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Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution has become one of the greatest urban issues in China. Studies have shown that PM2.5 pollution is strongly related to the land use pattern at the micro-scale and optimizing the land use pattern has been suggested as an approach to mitigate PM2.5 pollution. However, there are only a few researches analyzing the effect of land use on PM2.5 pollution. This paper employed land use regression (LUR) models and statistical analysis to explore the effect of land use on PM2.5 pollution in urban areas. Nanchang city, China, was taken as the study area. The LUR models were used to simulate the spatial variations of PM2.5 concentrations. Analysis of variance and multiple comparisons were employed to study the PM2.5 concentration variances among five different types of urban functional zones. Multiple linear regression was applied to explore the PM2.5 concentration variances among the same type of urban functional zone. The results indicate that the dominant factor affecting PM2.5 pollution in the Nanchang urban area was the traffic conditions. Significant variances of PM2.5 concentrations among different urban functional zones throughout the year suggest that land use types generated a significant impact on PM2.5 concentrations and the impact did not change as the seasons changed. Land use intensity indexes including the building volume rate, building density, and green coverage rate presented an insignificant or counter-intuitive impact on PM2.5 concentrations when studied at the spatial scale of urban functional zones. Our study demonstrates that land use can greatly affect the PM2.5 levels. Additionally, the urban functional zone was an appropriate spatial scale to investigate the impact of land use type on PM2.5 pollution in urban areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing Diabetes and Factors Associated with Foregoing Medical Care among Persons with Diabetes: Disparities Facing American Indian/Alaska Native, Black, Hispanic, Low Income, and Southern Adults in the U.S. (2011–2015)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 464; doi:10.3390/ijerph14050464 -
Abstract
Objective: Identify individual- and place-based factors associated with diagnosed diabetes and forgone medical care among those diagnosed with diabetes. Background: Diabetes affects millions of individuals globally. In the U.S. alone the prevalence rate of diagnosed diabetes has more than doubled over
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Objective: Identify individual- and place-based factors associated with diagnosed diabetes and forgone medical care among those diagnosed with diabetes. Background: Diabetes affects millions of individuals globally. In the U.S. alone the prevalence rate of diagnosed diabetes has more than doubled over the past 20 years (4.2% in 1994 to 10% in 2014). Methods: The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2011–2015) was used to identify factors associated with self-reported diabetes diagnoses (ever diagnosed) among U.S. adults. Logistic regression modeled: (1) the likelihood of having diabetes; (2) the likelihood of forgone medical care among those with diabetes, given appropriate medical care has been linked to preventing complications associated with diabetes. Results: Rates of diabetes remained relatively stable from 2011 to 2015. The likelihood of diabetes was higher (p < 0.01) among racial and ethnic minority groups, men, those with lower incomes and those with lower education. Place-based disparities indicating a higher likelihood of having a diagnosis of diabetes were found for those living in rural areas (urban versus rural, unadjusted OR = 0.844–0.908; p < 0.01) and those living in the South (North, Midwest, and Western/Pacific regions versus the South, unadjusted OR = 0.794–0.889; p < 0.01). Similar results were found with forgone medical care among those diagnosed with diabetes being more likely in the South (North, Midwest, and Western/Pacific regions versus the South, unadjusted OR = 0.542–0.819). In fully-adjusted analyses, the prevalence of diabetes and forgone medical care among those diagnosed with diabetes was higher for those with lower incomes, from several racial/ethnic minority groups, and in the South versus most other regions. Conclusions: Identifying at-risk groups informs targets for prevention and assists efforts to address chronic disease self-management among those already diagnosed with diabetes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determinants of Work Performance in Workers with Depression and Anxiety: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 466; doi:10.3390/ijerph14050466 -
Abstract
Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent disorders with an impact on existential aspects of person’s life, including employment i.e., work performance (WP). In order to develop appropriate strategies, it is essential to identify determinants of WP. The objective of this study was to
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Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent disorders with an impact on existential aspects of person’s life, including employment i.e., work performance (WP). In order to develop appropriate strategies, it is essential to identify determinants of WP. The objective of this study was to identify the built, social, attitudinal and health system-related environmental determinants of WP in workers with anxiety or depression in total (N = 1211) and regarding the level of disability. Hierarchical binary logistic regression was performed on data obtained from implementation of the WHO Model Disability Survey (MDS) in Chile in 2015. Hindering aspects of means of transportation and workplace, and the use of personal assistance were determinants of WP for all workers with anxiety or depression. Results differed with level of disability. Hindering aspects of means of transportation and workplace, and discrimination were determinants of WP for persons with mild to moderate disability, while hindering aspects of the workplace and dwelling, and the use of personal assistance were determinants of WP for persons with severe disability. Our results emphasize the need for a broader understanding of determinants of WP and the requirement for an integrative approach in developing both universal and specific strategies that go beyond workplace settings. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Designing Fit for Purpose Health and Social Services for Ageing Populations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 457; doi:10.3390/ijerph14050457 -
Abstract
Population ageing is occurring in all countries, regardless of the level of economic development. While the rising burden of chronic diseases and disabilities as a consequence of this demographic transition is well recognized, the increasing prevalence of geriatric syndromes as a public health
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Population ageing is occurring in all countries, regardless of the level of economic development. While the rising burden of chronic diseases and disabilities as a consequence of this demographic transition is well recognized, the increasing prevalence of geriatric syndromes as a public health issue is not as well recognized. Recently the World Health Organization’s World Health and Ageing Report emphasized functional ability as an important outcome for aging populations, highlighting the concept of raising intrinsic capacity throughout the life course. The complementary perspective is the prevention of frailty, which has physical, cognitive, social and psychological dimensions. Therefore, services for older people should encompass medical as well as social components. The need and evolution for a transition in health and social services in Hong Kong, a special administrative region of China which has a population with the world’s highest life expectancy, is presented as an example of how one developed economy attempts to meet the challenges of population ageing. There is a need to shift to integrated care in the community instead of specialty dominated hospital care, and to establish regular activities in the community to adopt and maintain a lifestyle that reduces frailty and disability (or promotes intrinsic capacity). A top down approach with financial incentives, together with public education to help drive policy changes, are key drivers of change. It is expected that there will be much heterogeneity between different countries in terms of barriers and facilitators, such that each country needs to document their needs and design appropriate services. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Taekwondo Training on Peripheral Neuroplasticity-Related Growth Factors, Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity, and Cognitive Functions in Healthy Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 454; doi:10.3390/ijerph14050454 -
Abstract
Although regular Taekwondo (TKD) training has been reported to be effective for improving cognitive function in children, the mechanism underlying this improvement remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to observe changes in neuroplasticity-related growth factors in the blood, assess cerebral
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Although regular Taekwondo (TKD) training has been reported to be effective for improving cognitive function in children, the mechanism underlying this improvement remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to observe changes in neuroplasticity-related growth factors in the blood, assess cerebral blood flow velocity, and verify the resulting changes in children’s cognitive function after TKD training. Thirty healthy elementary school students were randomly assigned to control (n = 15) and TKD (n = 15) groups. The TKD training was conducted for 60 min at a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 11–15, 5 times per week, for 16 weeks. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels were measured by blood sampling before and after the training, and the cerebral blood flow velocities (peak systolic [MCAs], end diastolic [MCAd], mean cerebral blood flow velocities [MCAm], and pulsatility index [PI]) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) were measured using Doppler ultrasonography. For cognitive function assessment, Stroop Color and Word Tests (Word, Color, and Color-Word) were administered along with other measurements. The serum BDNF, VEGF, and IGF-1 levels and the Color-Word test scores among the sub-factors of the Stroop Color and Word Test scores were significantly higher in the TKD group after the intervention (p < 0.05). On the other hand, no statistically significant differences were found in any factors related to cerebral blood flow velocities, or in the Word test and Color test scores (p > 0.05). Thus, 16-week TKD training did not significantly affect cerebral blood flow velocities, but the training may have been effective in increasing children’s cognitive function by inducing an increase in the levels of neuroplasticity-related growth factors. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Exclusive Breastfeeding Practice and Its Association among Mothers of under 5 Children in Kwango District, DR Congo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 455; doi:10.3390/ijerph14050455 -
Abstract
The benefit of the breastfeeding has been well-established. In comparison to partial breast feeding, exclusive breastfeeding has even more benefits. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with breastfeeding exclusivity during the first 6 months of life in order
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The benefit of the breastfeeding has been well-established. In comparison to partial breast feeding, exclusive breastfeeding has even more benefits. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with breastfeeding exclusivity during the first 6 months of life in order to better target public health interventions in this community towards healthier infant nutrition and address child mortality in this population. A cross-sectional survey among 1145 random households was conducted in the Kwango district of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) during 2 November 2015 to 13 November 2015. Women of reproductive age from 15–49 years and having less than 5 years old child were selected for the study. Chi-squared test and bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed using SPSS. A major finding of this study is 49.2% of the mothers are exclusively breastfeeding their children, and marital status, literacy, place of delivery, knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding and access to radio are the key indicators for exclusive breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding rate is almost equivalent to the national prevalence rate for the DRC. Providing adequate knowledge to raise awareness of exclusive breast feeding and increase involvement of health care providers in enhancing knowledge through antenatal care and during delivery and postnatal care will be the best approaches to increase exclusive breastfeeding practice. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Levels and Distribution of Pollutants in the Waters of an Aquatic Ecosystem in Northern Mexico
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 456; doi:10.3390/ijerph14050456 -
Abstract
The availability of good quality water resources is essential to ensure healthy crops and livestock. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of pollution in Bustillos Lagoon in northern Mexico. Physical-chemical parameters like sodium, chloride, sulfate, electrical conductivity, nitrates, and
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The availability of good quality water resources is essential to ensure healthy crops and livestock. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of pollution in Bustillos Lagoon in northern Mexico. Physical-chemical parameters like sodium, chloride, sulfate, electrical conductivity, nitrates, and the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed to determine the water quality available in the lagoon. Although DDT has been banned in several countries, it is still used for agricultural purposes in Mexico and its presence in this area had not been analyzed previously. Bustillos Lagoon was divided into three zones for the evaluation: (1) industrial; (2) communal lands; and (3) agricultural. The highest concentrations of sodium (2360 mg/L) and SAR (41 meq/L) reported in the industrial zone are values exceeding the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) irrigation water quality guidelines. DDT and its metabolites were detected in all of the 21 sites analyzed, in the agricultural zone ∑DDTs = 2804 ng/mL, this level is much higher than those reported for other water bodies in Mexico and around the world where DDT has been used heavily. The water in the communal zone is the least contaminated, but can only be recommended for irrigation of plants with high stress tolerance and not for crops. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Sleep and Body Weight: A Panel Data Model Based on a Retrospective Longitudinal Cohort of Chinese Infants
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 458; doi:10.3390/ijerph14050458 -
Abstract
The focus of this article is on sleep duration and sleep problems in infants and their association with body weight. A retrospective birth cohort of 519 infants was enrolled in a community-based study conducted in Changsha, China. Infant weight and other health-related information
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The focus of this article is on sleep duration and sleep problems in infants and their association with body weight. A retrospective birth cohort of 519 infants was enrolled in a community-based study conducted in Changsha, China. Infant weight and other health-related information were collected during regular standard checkups at the Community Health Service Centers when infants were 1, 3, 6, 8, and 12 months old. The sleep duration and sleep problems of infants were assessed by maternal self-reports. Panel data model was used to evaluate the association of sleep duration and sleep problems with infant body weight. Significant relevance between self-reported sleep duration and weight of infants has been reported in the literature tested by the fixed effects model (p < 0.01). However, this study indicated that sleep problems of infants had no effect on their weight (p = 0.151), after adjusting feeding patterns and socioeconomic factors of their families. This paper argues that, as a potentially modifiable risk factor, infant sleep duration deserves more attention from their parents and families in order to prevent and control overweight or obesity in infants as well as reducing the incidence of obesity in adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Immunization Strategies Targeting Newly Arrived Migrants in Non-EU Countries of the Mediterranean Basin and Black Sea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 459; doi:10.3390/ijerph14050459 -
Abstract
Background: The World Health Organization recommends that host countries ensure appropriate vaccinations to refugees, asylum seekers and migrants. However, information on vaccination strategies targeting migrants in host countries is limited. Methods: In 2015–2016 we carried out a survey among national experts
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Background: The World Health Organization recommends that host countries ensure appropriate vaccinations to refugees, asylum seekers and migrants. However, information on vaccination strategies targeting migrants in host countries is limited. Methods: In 2015–2016 we carried out a survey among national experts from governmental bodies of 15 non-EU countries of the Mediterranean and Black Sea in order to document and share national vaccination strategies targeting newly arrived migrants. Results: Four countries reported having regulations/procedures supporting the immunization of migrants at national level, one at sub-national level and three only targeting specific population groups. Eight countries offer migrant children all the vaccinations included in their national immunization schedule; three provide only selected vaccinations, mainly measles and polio vaccines. Ten and eight countries also offer selected vaccinations to adolescents and adults respectively. Eight countries provide vaccinations at the community level; seven give priority vaccines in holding centres or at entry sites. Data on administered vaccines are recorded in immunization registries in nine countries. Conclusions: Although differing among countries, indications for immunizing migrants are in place in most of them. However, we cannot infer from our findings whether those strategies are currently functioning and whether barriers to their implementation are being faced. Further studies focusing on these aspects are needed to develop concrete and targeted recommendations for action. Since migrants are moving across countries, development of on-line registries and cooperation between countries could allow keeping track of administered vaccines in order to appropriately plan immunization series and avoid unnecessary vaccinations. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Fat Mass Is Positively Associated with Estimated Hip Bone Strength among Chinese Men Aged 50 Years and above with Low Levels of Lean Mass
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 453; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040453 -
Abstract
This study investigated the relationships of fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) with estimated hip bone strength in Chinese men aged 50–80 years (median value: 62.0 years). A cross-sectional study including 889 men was conducted in Guangzhou, China. Body composition and hip
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This study investigated the relationships of fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) with estimated hip bone strength in Chinese men aged 50–80 years (median value: 62.0 years). A cross-sectional study including 889 men was conducted in Guangzhou, China. Body composition and hip bone parameters were generated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The relationships of the LM index (LMI) and the FM index (FMI) with bone phenotypes were detected by generalised additive models and multiple linear regression. The associations between the FMI and the bone variables in LMI tertiles were further analysed. The FMI possessed a linear relationship with greater estimated hip bone strength after adjustment for the potential confounders (p < 0.05). Linear relationships were also observed for the LMI with most bone phenotypes, except for the cross-sectional area (p < 0.05). The contribution of the LMI (4.0%–12.8%) was greater than that of the FMI (2.0%–5.7%). The associations between the FMI and bone phenotypes became weaker after controlling for LMI. Further analyses showed that estimated bone strength ascended with FMI in the lowest LMI tertile (p < 0.05), but not in the subgroups with a higher LMI. This study suggested that LM played a critical role in bone health in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men, and that the maintenance of adequate FM could help to promote bone acquisition in relatively thin men. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Breast Cancer Screening Programmes across the WHO European Region: Differences among Countries Based on National Income Level
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 452; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040452 -
Abstract
Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent tumour affecting women all over the world. In low- and middle-income countries, where its incidence is expected to rise further, BC seems set to become a public health emergency. The aim of the present study is
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Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent tumour affecting women all over the world. In low- and middle-income countries, where its incidence is expected to rise further, BC seems set to become a public health emergency. The aim of the present study is to provide a systematic review of current BC screening programmes in WHO European Region to identify possible patterns. Multiple correspondence analysis was performed to evaluate the association among: measures of occurrence; GNI level; type of BC screening programme; organization of public information and awareness campaigns regarding primary prevention of modifiable risk factors; type of BC screening services; year of screening institution; screening coverage and data quality. A key difference between High Income (HI) and Low and Middle Income (LMI) States, emerging from the present data, is that in the former screening programmes are well organized, with approved screening centres, the presence of mobile units to increase coverage, the offer of screening tests free of charge; the fairly high quality of occurrence data based on high-quality sources, and the adoption of accurate methods to estimate incidence and mortality. In conclusion, the governments of LMI countries should allocate sufficient resources to increase screening participation and they should improve the accuracy of incidence and mortality rates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Job Strain and Casual Blood Pressure Distribution: Looking beyond the Adjusted Mean and Taking Gender, Age, and Use of Antihypertensives into Account. Results from ELSA-Brasil
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 451; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040451 -
Abstract
Methodological issues are pointed to as the main sources of inconsistencies in studies about the association between job strain and blood pressure (BP)/hypertension. Our aim was to analyze the relationship between job strain and the whole BP distribution, as well as potential differences
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Methodological issues are pointed to as the main sources of inconsistencies in studies about the association between job strain and blood pressure (BP)/hypertension. Our aim was to analyze the relationship between job strain and the whole BP distribution, as well as potential differences by gender, age, and use of antihypertensives. Additionally, we addressed issues relating to the operationalization of the exposure and outcome variables that influence the study of their inter-relations. We evaluated the baseline date of 12,038 participants enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) (2008–2010), a multicenter cohort study of 35–74-year-old civil servants. Job strain was assessed by the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. The distribution of casual BP by categories of job strain was compared by a combination of exploratory techniques. Participants were classified into three subgroups (normotensives, medicated hypertensives, and unmedicated hypertensives), and analyses were stratified by gender and age. The relationship between job strain and casual BP varied along the whole outcome distribution. Hypertensive participants had greater differences in casual BP by job strain category, especially medicated hypertensives. Differences in casual BP were also greater for systolic than for diastolic BP and for older participants. No differences were encountered by gender. The exclusion of participants susceptible to misclassification for the exposure and outcome variables increased the differences observed between the categories of low and high job strain. In conclusion, the relationship between job strain and casual BP varied along the whole outcome distribution and by use of antihypertensive drugs, age, and BP parameter evaluated. Misclassification for exposure and outcome variables should be considered in analyses of this topic. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Serum Selenium Concentrations and Levels of Proinflammatory and Profibrotic Cytokines—Interleukin-6 and Growth Differentiation Factor-15, in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 437; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040437 -
Abstract
According to some authors, serum selenium levels are strongly associated with the severity of liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the concentration of selenium and pro-inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines—interleukin-6 (IL-6) and growth differentiation
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According to some authors, serum selenium levels are strongly associated with the severity of liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the concentration of selenium and pro-inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines—interleukin-6 (IL-6) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The parameters studied were determined in the serum of 99 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis divided based on the severity of disease according to the Child-Turcotte-Pugh criteria. In patients with liver cirrhosis, the serum selenium concentration was statistically lower, whereas serum IL-6 and GDF-15 concentrations were higher than those in the control group. Moreover, the concentration of selenium negatively correlated with the levels of GDF-15 and IL-6. The above results may indicate a role of selenium deficiency in the pathogenesis and progression of alcoholic liver disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Smoke-Free Rules in Homes among Socially-Disadvantaged Populations in Poland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 447; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040447 -
Abstract
This study aims to examine the prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in homes among socially-disadvantaged populations in Poland, along with the prevalence and correlates of voluntary implementation of smoke-free home rules. Data concerning 1617 respondents from a cross-sectional study completed
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This study aims to examine the prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in homes among socially-disadvantaged populations in Poland, along with the prevalence and correlates of voluntary implementation of smoke-free home rules. Data concerning 1617 respondents from a cross-sectional study completed in the Piotrkowski District were used, which was part of the “Reducing Social Inequalities in Health” program. Overall, 19.4% of the respondents declared exposure to ETS at home. In the non-smokers group, 15.5%, including 6.6% males and 18.3% females, were exposed to ETS in their place of residence (p < 0.0001). Complete smoke-free rules were adopted by 22.1% of the study participants. Two factors, smoker status and lack of ETS-associated health risk awareness, were found to be significantly associated with no adoption of total smoking bans at home. Socially-disadvantaged non-smokers, especially females from rural areas in Poland, still constitute a large population exposed to ETS in their homes—a challenge from the perspective of public health. Focused efforts are required to address social norms around exposing others to ETS. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Who Is Using Outdoor Fitness Equipment and How? The Case of Xihu Park
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 448; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040448 -
Abstract
Outdoor fitness equipment (OFE) placed in public parks has the potential to encourage physical activity. However, little is known about OFE users and use patterns. This study employed onsite and video observations of OFE usage to describe user characteristics and patterns in Xihu
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Outdoor fitness equipment (OFE) placed in public parks has the potential to encourage physical activity. However, little is known about OFE users and use patterns. This study employed onsite and video observations of OFE usage to describe user characteristics and patterns in Xihu Park. Results indicate that OFE in this park attracted considerable use, particularly in the early morning and late afternoon. During these peak-hour observations, approximately 12 users per hour used the OFE, with the majority being females and seniors. The triple arm stretch and air walker were the most popular stations. However, most OFE users interacted with less than three of the available six OFE stations. Furthermore, users spent an average of less than nine minutes on all OFE stations combined. While OFE equipment was well-used in this urban park, it appears users did not interact with OFE at rates to produce a sufficient bout or level of physical activity during their park visit. Further investigations of OFE are encouraged to determine their health impact. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Associations between Temperature and Hospital Admissions for Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 449; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040449 -
Abstract
The relationship between temperature and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is less studied than that between temperature and myocardial infarction or other cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated the association between daily temperature and risk of SAH by analyzing the hospital admission records of 111,316 SAH
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The relationship between temperature and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is less studied than that between temperature and myocardial infarction or other cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated the association between daily temperature and risk of SAH by analyzing the hospital admission records of 111,316 SAH patients from 2004 to 2012 in Korea. A Poisson regression model was used to examine the association between temperature and daily SAH hospital admissions. To analyze data and identify vulnerable groups, we used the following subgroups: sex, age, insurance type, area (rural or urban), and different climate zones. We confirmed a markedly higher SAH risk only for people of low socioeconomic status in both hot and cold temperatures; the relative risk (RR) in the Medicaid group was significantly increased and ranged from 1.04 to 1.11 for cold temperatures and 1.10 to 1.11 for hot temperatures. For the National Health Insurance group, the RR was increased to 1.02 for the maximum temperature only. The increased risk for SAH was highest in the temperate zone. An increase above the heat threshold temperature and a decrease below the cold threshold temperature were correlated with an increased risk of SAH in susceptible populations and were associated with different lag effects and RRs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A National Study of Social Media, Television, Radio, and Internet Usage of Adults by Sexual Orientation and Smoking Status: Implications for Campaign Design
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 450; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040450 -
Abstract
Background: Smoking rates among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people significantly exceed that of heterosexuals. Media interventions are an important part of tobacco control efforts, but limited information is available on LGB people’s media use. Methods: A nationally representative sample of
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Background: Smoking rates among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people significantly exceed that of heterosexuals. Media interventions are an important part of tobacco control efforts, but limited information is available on LGB people’s media use. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 12,900 U.S. adults completed an online questionnaire assessing media use, smoking status, and demographic information. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess relationships between media use with sexual orientation and smoking status. Results: A total of 590 (4.6%) respondents identified as LGB, of which 29% were smokers. Regardless of sexual orientation and smoking status, the Internet was the most popular media channel used, followed by television and radio. LGB respondents had significantly greater odds of having accounts on social media websites, accessing Facebook daily, and being a frequent Internet user, compared to heterosexual respondents. Similar media use was found between smokers and non-smokers, but smokers had greater odds of being frequent television viewers and frequent Internet users, compared to non-smokers. Conclusions: Compared to heterosexuals, LGB respondents reported greater use of the Internet, especially social media. Media campaigns targeting LGB populations can maximize reach by utilizing social media alongside traditional media channels. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Effects of Airborne Particulate Matter on Bone Marrow-Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BM-MSCs): Cellular, Molecular and Systems Biological Approaches
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 440; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040440 -
Abstract
Particulate matter (PM) contains heavy metals that affect various cellular functions and gene expression associated with a range of acute and chronic diseases in humans. However, the specific effects they exert on the stem cells remain unclear. Here, we report the effects of
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Particulate matter (PM) contains heavy metals that affect various cellular functions and gene expression associated with a range of acute and chronic diseases in humans. However, the specific effects they exert on the stem cells remain unclear. Here, we report the effects of PM collected from the city of Jeddah on proliferation, cell death, related gene expression and systems of biological analysis in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), with the aim of understanding the underlying mechanisms. PM2.5 and PM10 were tested in vitro at various concentrations (15 to 300 µg/mL) and durations (24 to 72 h). PMs induced cellular stress including membrane damage, shrinkage and death. Lower concentrations of PM2.5 increased proliferation of BM-MSCs, while higher concentrations served to decrease it. PM10 decreased BM-MSCs proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. The X-ray fluorescence spectrometric analysis showed that PM contains high levels of heavy metals. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) and hierarchical clustering analyses demonstrated that heavy metals were associated with signaling pathways involving cell stress/death, cancer and chronic diseases. qRT-PCR results showed differential expression of the apoptosis genes (BCL2, BAX); inflammation associated genes (TNF-α and IL-6) and the cell cycle regulation gene (p53). We conclude that PM causes inflammation and cell death, and thereby predisposes to chronic debilitating diseases. Full article
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