Abstract: Karst springs of the Makook anticline were investigated to get more insight into the hydrogeologic, hydraulic, and hydrodynamic behavior of this complex karst system. Eight springs were studied in terms of hydrogeochemical constituents as well as δ18O and δ2H during September 2011 to November 2012. For the first time, the local meteoric water line was plotted for the area based on precipitation data from the period November 2011 to April 2012. The regional meteoric line plots between the global and Mediterranean meteoric water lines. The majority of the spring samples plot between the local and Mediterranean meteoric water lines implying influences by Mediterranean air masses, rapid infiltration of rainfall through the karst system and a short residence time (shallow karst aquifers). The correlation of d-excess and saturation index of halite was used to evaluate the evaporation process in karst waters of the area. The temporal variation in isotopic composition of karst springs was observed making it possible to distinguish between different origins for springs and indicate a possible connection between the aquifers and depending on this, the karst system can be classified into three aquifers: Behkme aquifer, Kometan aquifer, and Shiranish aquifer.
Abstract: This study investigates the hydrology of Castle River in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains. Temperature and precipitation data are analyzed regarding a climate trend between 1960 and 2010 and a general warming is identified. Observed streamflow has been declining in reaction to a decreasing snow cover and increasing evapotranspiration. To simulate the hydrological processes in the watershed, the physically based hydrological model WaSiM (Water Balance Simulation Model) is applied. Calibration and validation provide very accurate results and also the observed declining runoff trend can be reproduced with a slightly differing inclination. Besides climate change induced runoff variations, the impact of a vast wildfire in 2003 is analyzed. To determine burned areas a remote sensing method of differenced burn ratios is applied using Landsat data. The results show good agreement compared to observed fire perimeter areas. The impacts of the wildfires are evident in observed runoff data. They also result in a distinct decrease in model efficiency if not considered via an adapted model parameterization, taking into account the modified land cover characteristics for the burned area. Results in this study reveal (i) the necessity to establish specific land cover classes for burned areas; (ii) the relevance of climate and land cover change on the hydrological response of the Castle River watershed; and (iii) the sensitivity of the hydrological model to accurately simulate the hydrological behavior under varying boundary conditions. By these means, the presented methodological approach is considered robust to implement a scenario simulations framework for projecting the impacts of future climate and land cover change in the vulnerable region of Alberta’s Rocky Mountains.
Abstract: The ever-increasing availability of new remote sensing and land surface model datasets opens new opportunities for hydrologists to improve flood forecasting systems. The current study investigates the performance of two operational soil moisture (SM) products provided by the “EUMETSATSatellite Application Facility in Support of Operational Hydrology and Water Management” (H-SAF, http://hsaf.meteoam.it/) within a recently-developed hydrological model called the “simplified continuous rainfall-runoff model” (SCRRM) and the possibility of using such a model at an operational level. The model uses SM datasets derived from external sources (i.e., remote sensing and land surface models) as input for calculating the initial wetness conditions of the catchment prior to the flood event. Hydro-meteorological data from 35 Italian catchments ranging from 800 to 7400 km2 were used for the analysis for a total of 593 flood events. The results show that H-SAF operational products used within SCRRM satisfactorily reproduce the selected flood events, providing a median Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency index equal to 0.64 (SM-OBS-1) and 0.60 (SM-DAS-2), respectively. Given the results obtained along with the parsimony, the simplicity and independence of the model from continuously-recorded rainfall and evapotranspiration data, the study suggests that: (i) SM-OBS-1 and SM-DAS-2 contain useful information for flood modelling, which can be exploited in flood forecasting; and (ii) SCRRM is expected to be beneficial as a component of real-time flood forecasting systems in regions characterized by low data availability, where a continuous modelling approach can be problematic.
Abstract: Water is essential to all forms of life and is regarded as the most important and exploited natural resource in the world. Water moves through and is stored in different compartments of the Earth environment (atmosphere, glaciers, vegetation, soil, shallow and deep subsurface, rivers, lakes and oceans) at different velocities and quantities respectively, strongly controlled by current and past hydrometeorological and geological conditions. Understanding and quantification of the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the typical physical processes like precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, interception, infiltration, runoff, recharge, surface water and groundwater discharge form the fundamental components of the hydrological sciences. Hence, one of the definitions of hydrology is the scientific study of the occurrence, distribution, movement and properties of the waters and their interaction with the environment within each phase of the hydrologic cycle . [...]
Abstract: Hydrological simulation, based on weather inputs and the physical characterization of the watershed, is a suitable approach to predict the corresponding streamflow. This work, carried out on four different watersheds, analyzed the impacts of using three different meteorological data inputs in the same model to compare the model’s accuracy when simulated and observed streamflow are compared. Meteorological data from the Daily Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN-D), National Land Data Assimilation Systems (NLDAS) and the National Operation Hydrological Remote Sensing Center’s Interactive Snow Information (NOHRSC-ISI) were used as an input into the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model and compared as three different scenarios on each watershed. The results showed that meteorological data from an assimilation system like NLDAS achieved better results than simulations performed with ground-based meteorological data, such as GHCN-D. However, further work needs to be done to improve both the datasets and model capabilities, in order to better predict streamflow.