Open AccessReview
The New Old (and Old New) Medical Model: Four Decades Navigating the Biomedical and Psychosocial Understandings of Health and Illness
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 88; doi:10.3390/healthcare5040088 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The importance of how disease and illness are conceptualised lies in the fact that such definition is paramount to understand the boundaries and scope of responsibility associated with medical work. In this paper, we aim to provide an overview of the interplay of
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The importance of how disease and illness are conceptualised lies in the fact that such definition is paramount to understand the boundaries and scope of responsibility associated with medical work. In this paper, we aim to provide an overview of the interplay of these understandings in shaping the nature of medical work, philosophically, and in practice. We first discuss the emergence of the biopsychosocial model as an attempt to both challenge and broaden the traditional biomedical model. Then, we outline the main criticisms associated with the biopsychosocial model and note a range of contributions addressing the shortcomings of the model as initially formulated. Despite recurrent criticisms and uneven uptake, the biopsychosocial model has gone on to influence core aspects of medical practice, education, and research across many areas of medicine. One of these areas is adolescent medicine, which provides a particularly good exemplar to examine the contemporary challenges associated with the practical application of the biopsychosocial model. We conclude that a more optimal use of existing bodies of evidence, bringing together evidence-based methodological advances of the biopsychosocial model and existing evidence on the psychosocial needs associated with specific conditions/populations, can help to bridge the gap between philosophy and practice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
“To Work Just Like Anyone Else”—A Narrative from a Man Aging with Spinal Cord Injury
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 87; doi:10.3390/healthcare5040087 -
Abstract
People aging with spinal cord injury (SCI) develop medical problems commonly associated with the aging process at a younger age than the general population. However, research about how the life story changes and how meaning will be experienced in occupations is lacking. The
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People aging with spinal cord injury (SCI) develop medical problems commonly associated with the aging process at a younger age than the general population. However, research about how the life story changes and how meaning will be experienced in occupations is lacking. The aim was to describe and offer an explanation of how a man experienced meaning in everyday occupations while aging with an SCI. Four narrative interviews were performed over a four-year period, with a man in his fifties, who lived with SCI for 39 years. The narrative analysis generated an overall plot, named “To Work Just Like Anyone Else,” and gives a picture of his experiences, thoughts, and reflections about meaning in occupations, from when he became injured to the present, and in relation to his future. His life story is characterized by secondary health complications, and his experiences of negotiating with the aging body and making choices to continue working. Further, how occupational risk factors, e.g., imbalance, alienation, and deprivation, occur as a result of lack of rehabilitation and support from social systems is addressed. Future research should explore how rehabilitation and social systems can support people aging with SCI to experience meaning in everyday occupations and to have balance in everyday life. Full article
Open AccessReview
Prescribing Physical Activity for the Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis in Older Adults
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 85; doi:10.3390/healthcare5040085 -
Abstract
Osteoporosis is an age-related disease, characterised by low bone mineral density (BMD) and compromised bone geometry and microarchitecture, leading to reduced bone strength. Physical activity (PA) has potential as a therapy for osteoporosis, yet different modalities of PA have varying influences on bone
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Osteoporosis is an age-related disease, characterised by low bone mineral density (BMD) and compromised bone geometry and microarchitecture, leading to reduced bone strength. Physical activity (PA) has potential as a therapy for osteoporosis, yet different modalities of PA have varying influences on bone health. This review explores current evidence for the benefits of PA, and targeted exercise regimes for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in older adults. In particular, the outcomes of interventions involving resistance training, low- and high-impact weight bearing activities, and whole-body vibration therapy are discussed. Finally, we present recommendations for future research that may maximise the potential of exercise in primary and secondary prevention of osteoporosis in the ageing population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multimodal Counseling Interventions: Effect on Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination Acceptance
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 86; doi:10.3390/healthcare5040086 -
Abstract
Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine was developed to reduce HPV-attributable cancers, external genital warts (EGW), and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Adolescent HPV vaccination series completion rates are less than 40% in the United States of America, but up to 80% in Australia and the
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Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine was developed to reduce HPV-attributable cancers, external genital warts (EGW), and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Adolescent HPV vaccination series completion rates are less than 40% in the United States of America, but up to 80% in Australia and the United Kingdom. Population-based herd immunity requires 80% or greater vaccination series completion rates. Pro-vaccination counseling facilitates increased vaccination rates. Multimodal counseling interventions may increase HPV vaccination series non-completers’ HPV-attributable disease knowledge and HPV-attributable disease prophylaxis (vaccination) acceptance over a brief 14-sentence counseling intervention. An online, 4-group, randomized controlled trial, with 260 or more participants per group, found that parents were more likely to accept HPV vaccination offers for their children than were childless young adults for themselves (68.2% and 52.9%). A combined audiovisual and patient health education handout (PHEH) intervention raised knowledge of HPV vaccination purpose, p = 0.02, and HPV vaccination acceptance for seven items, p < 0.001 to p = 0.023. The audiovisual intervention increased HPV vaccination acceptance for five items, p < 0.001 to p = 0.006. That HPV causes EGW, and that HPV vaccination prevents HPV-attributable diseases were better conveyed by the combined audiovisual and PHEH than the control 14-sentence counseling intervention alone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Medication in Supporting Emotional Wellbeing in Young People with Long-Term Needs
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 84; doi:10.3390/healthcare5040084 -
Abstract
Young people frequently use and access prescribed medications for a range of health problems. Medications aimed at treating both common health problems and long-term physical and mental health needs in adolescence can have a significant effect on a young person’s emotional well-being. We
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Young people frequently use and access prescribed medications for a range of health problems. Medications aimed at treating both common health problems and long-term physical and mental health needs in adolescence can have a significant effect on a young person’s emotional well-being. We use a series of case studies to illustrate the challenges for healthcare professionals supporting young people with medication use. The studies illustrate the efficacy and limitations of medication on improving emotional well-being by alleviating illness and distress, and how this efficacy must be balanced against both the adverse effects and the burden of treatment. There are specific challenges for medication management during adolescence including issues of adherence/concordance, facilitating autonomy and participation in decision making, and promoting independence. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Socioeconomic Status and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes; Race by Gender Differences
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 83; doi:10.3390/healthcare5040083 -
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to investigate differences in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) across race by gender groups. Methods: Using a convenient sampling strategy, participants were 112 patients with type 2
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Background: This study aimed to investigate differences in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) across race by gender groups. Methods: Using a convenient sampling strategy, participants were 112 patients with type 2 DM who were prescribed insulin (ns = 38 Black women, 34 Black men, 14 White women, and 26 White men, respectively). Linear regression was used to test the associations between sociodemographic variables (race, gender, SES, governmental insurance) and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in the pooled sample and within subgroups defined by race and gender. Results: In the pooled sample, neither SES nor governmental insurance were associated with HbA1c. However, the race by gender interaction approached statistical significance (B = 0.34, 95% CI = −0.24–3.00, p =0.094), suggesting higher HbA1c in Black women, compared to other race by gender groups. In stratified models, SES (B = −0.33, 95% CI = −0.10–0.00, p = 0.050), and governmental insurance (B = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.05–2.42, p = 0.042) were associated with HbA1c for Black men, but not for any of the other race by gender subgroups. Conclusion: Socioeconomic factors may relate to health outcomes differently across race by gender subgroups. In particular, SES may be uniquely important for glycemic control of Black men. Due to lack of generalizability of the findings, additional research is needed. Full article
Open AccessReview
Updates on the Management of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer (NMSC)
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 82; doi:10.3390/healthcare5040082 -
Abstract
Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most common malignancy worldwide, of which 99% are basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of skin. NMSCs are generally considered a curable diseases, yet they currently pose an increasing global healthcare problem due to
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Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most common malignancy worldwide, of which 99% are basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of skin. NMSCs are generally considered a curable diseases, yet they currently pose an increasing global healthcare problem due to rising incidence. This has led to a shift in emphasis on prevention of NMSCs with development of various skin cancer prevention programs worldwide. This article aims to summarize the most recent changes and advances made in NMSC management with a focus on prevention, screening, diagnosis, and staging. Full article
Open AccessReview
Senescent Nephropathy: The New Renal Syndrome
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 81; doi:10.3390/healthcare5040081 -
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition characterized by progressive and irreversible deterioration of renal function due to the reduction of nephron mass for a period of at least three months. The prevalence of CKD is roughly 10% in the general population but
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition characterized by progressive and irreversible deterioration of renal function due to the reduction of nephron mass for a period of at least three months. The prevalence of CKD is roughly 10% in the general population but increases with age, affecting more than one-third of people older than 65. Frailty is a condition usually found in elderly people, characterized by weakness, motility, and balance issues, with a declined ability to resist stressors leading to increased risks of adverse health outcomes including falls, fracture, hospitalization, institutionalization, disability, dependence, dementia, poor quality of life, and death. There is interdependence between CKD and normal ageing whereby CKD makes ageing more accelerated and pronounced (senescence), whereas senescence accelerates chronic nephropathy’s progression. Frailty status catalyzes this spiral, with renal and systemic consequences, phenomenon which can be named senescent nephropathy. In conclusion, senescent nephropathy is a new renal syndrome that should be taken into account, and we must try to handle its appearance and progression not only by applying nephron prevention measurements but also by diagnosis and treating frailty in the CKD population. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Strengthening the Referral System through Social Capital: A Qualitative Inquiry in Ghana
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 80; doi:10.3390/healthcare5040080 -
Abstract
The referral system in health care has been noted as very influential in determining which services are accessed and when. Nonetheless, existing studies have relied on specific measurable factors relating to health personnel, transportation and communication infrastructure, and finance to explain the challenges
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The referral system in health care has been noted as very influential in determining which services are accessed and when. Nonetheless, existing studies have relied on specific measurable factors relating to health personnel, transportation and communication infrastructure, and finance to explain the challenges facing the referral policy in developing countries. While this is understandable, the role of social capital remains mostly uncharted even though it is implicit in the well-known lay referral system. Using various facets of the social capital concept, this paper empirically examines how the resources embedded in both structural and cognitive aspects of social relationships influence knowledge of, and adherence to, referral policy. This study is based on semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted with 79 adults in the Ashanti Region of Ghana in 2015. Of the 79 participants, 28 lived in urban areas and 51 in rural localities. Eight health personnel and eight community leaders also contributed to the study. Additionally, six focus group discussions were held. The findings indicated that both cognitive and structural forms of social capital considerably underpinned the ability and willingness of people to adhere to the referral process. Moreover, the role of social capital was double-barrelled. It contributed in a significant way to encouraging or dissuading potential patients from rightly embracing the policy. In addition, precepts of social capital reinforced both positive and adverse effects of the other determinants of the policy such as finance and transportation. However, the magnitude of such impact was linked to how ‘resourceful’ and ‘trustworthy’ one’s available social acquaintances were. The paper suggests that a cautious engagement with social capital will make it a potentially powerful tool for understanding the gaps in and improving the effectiveness of referral policy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Is Obesity More Than a Double Burden among People with Mobility Disability? The Effect of Obesity on HRQoL and Participation in Society
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 79; doi:10.3390/healthcare5040079 -
Abstract
Obesity is more common in individuals with mobility disability than in those without this condition. Individuals with mobility disability also have lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and are limited in their participation in society. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the body
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Obesity is more common in individuals with mobility disability than in those without this condition. Individuals with mobility disability also have lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and are limited in their participation in society. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the body mass index (BMI) status and the association of overweight or obesity on HRQoL and participation in society among those with mobility disability in comparison to those without mobility disability. This cross-sectional study was based on a health survey conducted in Sweden in 2012 (n = 18,322; age, 18–64 years). Logistic regression with and without interaction analysis was applied. Effect modification by overweight status was significant for, moderate pain. For obesity, effect modification was seen for low general health, pain (moderate and severe), and not participating in work. BMI was higher among those with mobility disability, but no associations between overweight or obesity and HRQoL or participation in society were observed for those with mobility disability. Overweight and obesity did not add an additional burden to mobility disability, probably because mobility disability is associated with low HRQoL and low participation in society. Despite these results, population obesity prevention strategies are still needed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Perceptions of Risk Stratification Workflows in Primary Care
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 78; doi:10.3390/healthcare5040078 -
Abstract
Risk stratification (RS) in primary care is frequently used by policy-makers, payers, and health systems; the process requires risk assessment for adverse health outcomes across a population to assign patients into risk tiers and allow care management (CM) resources to be targeted effectively.
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Risk stratification (RS) in primary care is frequently used by policy-makers, payers, and health systems; the process requires risk assessment for adverse health outcomes across a population to assign patients into risk tiers and allow care management (CM) resources to be targeted effectively. Our objective was to understand the approach to and perception of RS in primary care practices. An online survey was developed, tested, and administered to 148 representatives of 37 primary care practices engaged in RS varying in size, location and ownership. The survey assessed practices’ approach to, perception of, and confidence in RS, and its effect on subsequent CM activities. We examined psychometric properties of the survey to determine validity and conducted chi-square analyses to determine the association between practice characteristics and confidence and agreement with risk scores. The survey yielded a 68% response rate (100 respondents). Overall, participants felt moderately confident in their risk scores (range 41–53.8%), and moderately to highly confident in their subsequent CM workflows (range 46–68%). Respondents from small and independent practices were more likely to have higher confidence and agreement with their RS approaches and scores (p < 0.01). Confidence levels were highest, however, when practices incorporated human review into their RS processes (p < 0.05). This trend was not affected by respondents’ professional roles. Additional work from a broad mixed-methods effort will add to our understanding of RS implementation processes and outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Helping Health Services to Meet the Needs of Young People with Chronic Conditions: Towards a Developmental Model for Transition
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 77; doi:10.3390/healthcare5040077 -
Abstract
The transition to adult healthcare has been the subject of increased research and policy attention over many years. However, unmet needs of adolescent and young adults (AYAs) and their families continue to be documented, and universal implementation has yet to be realised. Therefore,
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The transition to adult healthcare has been the subject of increased research and policy attention over many years. However, unmet needs of adolescent and young adults (AYAs) and their families continue to be documented, and universal implementation has yet to be realised. Therefore, it is pertinent to re-examine health transition in light of the principles of adolescent medicine from which it emerged, and consider this particular life transition in terms of a developmental milestone rather than a negotiation of structural boundaries between child and adult services. Health transitions are an integral part of AYA development and as such, occur alongside, and in connection with, a range of other important transitions that affect many other areas of life. In this paper, we discuss the interrelated nature of health transitions and AYA development; outline the underpinnings of a developmentally appropriate approach to transitional care; and consider the outcome measurement of such care based on existing evidence. A developmental approach has the potential to refocus transition on the fundamental principles of adolescent medicine, enabling health transition to be integrated along with other life transitions into routine AYA developmental assessments rather than being limited to the geographies of different healthcare settings and a potential health crisis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Variability in Strength, Pain, and Disability Changes in Response to an Isolated Lumbar Extension Resistance Training Intervention in Participants with Chronic Low Back Pain
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 75; doi:10.3390/healthcare5040075 -
Abstract
Strengthening the lumbar extensor musculature is a common recommendation for chronic low back pain (CLBP). Although reported as effective, variability in response in CLBP populations is not well investigated. This study investigated variability in responsiveness to isolated lumbar extension (ILEX) resistance training in
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Strengthening the lumbar extensor musculature is a common recommendation for chronic low back pain (CLBP). Although reported as effective, variability in response in CLBP populations is not well investigated. This study investigated variability in responsiveness to isolated lumbar extension (ILEX) resistance training in CLBP participants by retrospective analysis of three previous randomized controlled trials. Data from 77 participants were available for the intervention arms (males = 43, females = 34) 37 participants data (males = 20, females = 17) from the control arms. Intervention participants had all undergone 12 weeks of ILEX resistance training and changes in ILEX strength, pain (visual analogue scale; VAS), and disability (Oswestry disability index; ODI) measured. True inter-individual (i.e., between participants) variability in response was examined through calculation of difference in the standard deviation of change scores for both control and intervention arms. Intervention participants were classified into responder status using k-means cluster analysis for ILEX strength changes and using minimal clinically important change cut-offs for VAS and ODI. Change in average ILEX strength ranged 7.6 Nm (1.9%) to 192.1 Nm (335.7%). Change in peak ILEX strength ranged −12.2 Nm (−17.5%) to 276.6 Nm (169.6%). Participants were classified for strength changes as low (n = 31), medium (n = 36), and high responders (n = 10). Change in VAS ranged 12.0 mm to −84.0 mm. Participants were classified for VAS changes as negative (n = 3), non-responders (n = 34), responders (n = 15), and high responders (n = 19). Change in ODI ranged 18 pts to −45 pts. Participants were classified for ODI changes as negative (n = 2), non-responders (n = 21), responders (n = 29), and high responders (n = 25). Considerable variation exists in response to ILEX resistance training in CLBP. Clinicians should be aware of this and future work should identify factors prognostic of successful outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring Knowledge and Attitudes about Vitamin D among Adults in Saudi Arabia: A Qualitative Study
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 76; doi:10.3390/healthcare5040076 -
Abstract
Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to explore participants’ knowledge about vitamin D and attitudes toward sun exposure. The study also aimed to explore the social and cultural factors that might potentially contribute
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Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to explore participants’ knowledge about vitamin D and attitudes toward sun exposure. The study also aimed to explore the social and cultural factors that might potentially contribute to vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabia. Face-to-face interviews were carried out in the cities of Jeddah and Makkah between May and October 2015. The interview questions were semi-structured, and the data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Study participants showed a reasonable level of knowledge in different areas about vitamin D, including the effect of vitamin D deficiency on bone health and exposure to sunlight as the main source of vitamin D. Participants were also knowledgeable about vitamin D supplements as another source of this vitamin. Nevertheless, there was a shortage of knowledge in relation to dietary sources of vitamin D. In respect to attitudes toward sun exposure, some participants had positive attitudes toward sunlight and were willing to expose themselves to sunlight, but it was restricted to the early morning or late afternoon to avoid the heat. These participants who liked exposure to sunlight were largely exposing only their faces and hands to sunlight. Other participants had negative attitudes toward sun exposure and were avoiding sunlight. Moreover, the study participants identified several barriers to sun exposure, including hot climate, living in high-rise buildings, limited public areas allowing outdoor activities, lifestyle issues such as physical inactivity, and some religious concerns such as wearing the hijab. The study results also demonstrate that females were more enthusiastic about taking actions to improve their vitamin D status in comparison with males. Recommendations for health education interventions that increase awareness about vitamin D sources, especially food sources, are made. Also, educational interventions should focus on increasing awareness about the sufficient time of the day and duration for sun exposure to improve vitamin D status and the importance of the intake of vitamin D supplements as an affordable source to improve vitamin D status. Increasing males’ awareness of the benefits of vitamin D is important to encourage them to adopt behaviors to improve vitamin D. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Reference Intervals for Non-Fasting CVD Lipids and Inflammation Markers in Pregnant Indigenous Australian Women
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 72; doi:10.3390/healthcare5040072 -
Abstract
Indigenous Australians experience high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The origins of CVD may commence during pregnancy, yet few serum reference values for CVD biomarkers exist specific to the pregnancy period. The Gomeroi gaaynggal research project is a program that undertakes research and
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Indigenous Australians experience high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The origins of CVD may commence during pregnancy, yet few serum reference values for CVD biomarkers exist specific to the pregnancy period. The Gomeroi gaaynggal research project is a program that undertakes research and provides some health services to pregnant Indigenous women. Three hundred and ninety-nine non-fasting samples provided by the study participants (206 pregnancies and 175 women) have been used to construct reference intervals for CVD biomarkers during this critical time. A pragmatic design was used, in that women were not excluded for the presence of chronic or acute health states. Percentile bands for non-linear relationships were constructed according to the methods of Wright and Royston (2008), using the xriml package in StataIC 13.1. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, cystatin-C and alkaline phosphatase increased as gestational age progressed, with little change seen in high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and γ glutamyl transferase. Values provided in the reference intervals are consistent with findings from other research projects. These reference intervals will form a basis with which future CVD biomarkers for pregnant Indigenous Australian women can be compared. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Importance of Leadership Style towards Quality of Care Measures in Healthcare Settings: A Systematic Review
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 73; doi:10.3390/healthcare5040073 -
Abstract
Effective leadership of healthcare professionals is critical for strengthening quality and integration of care. This study aimed to assess whether there exist an association between different leadership styles and healthcare quality measures. The search was performed in the Medline (National Library of Medicine,
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Effective leadership of healthcare professionals is critical for strengthening quality and integration of care. This study aimed to assess whether there exist an association between different leadership styles and healthcare quality measures. The search was performed in the Medline (National Library of Medicine, PubMed interface) and EMBASE databases for the time period 2004–2015. The research question that guided this review was posed as: “Is there any relationship between leadership style in healthcare settings and quality of care?” Eighteen articles were found relevant to our research question. Leadership styles were found to be strongly correlated with quality care and associated measures. Leadership was considered a core element for a well-coordinated and integrated provision of care, both from the patients and healthcare professionals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biopsychosocial Measures Related to Chronic Low Back Pain Postural Control in Older Adults
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 74; doi:10.3390/healthcare5040074 -
Abstract
This study examined the biopsychosocial measures related to postural control in the growing population of older adults (i.e., 60 years and older). The sample of the study consisted of 129 older adults (M = 74.45, SD = 6.95), with 34 males and 95
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This study examined the biopsychosocial measures related to postural control in the growing population of older adults (i.e., 60 years and older). The sample of the study consisted of 129 older adults (M = 74.45, SD = 6.95), with 34 males and 95 females; 36 were classified with chronic low-back pain (CLBP), and 93 without chronic low-back pain (NCLBP). Physical and psychosocial constructs were analyzed as predictors for postural control measures. Additionally, gender and classification of low-back pain were examined as moderators for all physical and psychosocial measures. Results demonstrated that physical and psychosocial measures were able to significantly predict composite, visual, and vestibular balance measures, but not somatosensory or preference balance measures. The chair-stand test, modified sit-and-reach test, sleep disturbance, and balance efficacy were all identified as individually significant predictors. Gender and CLBP did not moderate the utility of any predictor variables. Results of the current study re-confirm the importance of utilizing the biopsychosocial approach for future research examining postural control in older adults. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Near Retirement Age (≥55 Years) Self-Reported Physical Symptoms and Use of Computers/Mobile Phones at Work and at Leisure
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 71; doi:10.3390/healthcare5040071 -
Abstract
The aim of this research is to study the symptoms and use of computers/mobile phones of individuals nearing retirement age (≥55 years). A questionnaire was sent to 15,000 Finns (aged 18–65). People who were ≥55 years of age were compared to the rest
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The aim of this research is to study the symptoms and use of computers/mobile phones of individuals nearing retirement age (≥55 years). A questionnaire was sent to 15,000 Finns (aged 18–65). People who were ≥55 years of age were compared to the rest of the population. Six thousand one hundred and twenty-one persons responded to the questionnaire; 1226 of them were ≥55 years of age. Twenty-four percent of the ≥55-year-old respondents used desktop computers daily for leisure; 47.8% of them frequently experienced symptoms in the neck, and 38.5% in the shoulders. Workers aged ≥55 years had many more physical symptoms than younger people, except with respect to symptoms of the neck. Female daily occupational users of desktop computers had more physical symptoms in the neck. It is essential to take into account that, for people aged ≥55 years, the use of technology can be a sign of wellness. However, physical symptoms in the neck can be associated with the use of computers. Full article
Open AccessViewpoint
What Else? The Basics and Beyond for Effective Consultations with Youth with Special Healthcare Needs
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 69; doi:10.3390/healthcare5040069 -
Abstract
Youth with special healthcare needs (YSHCN) require medical support for disease management and equally require that providers be responsive to their ever-changing and sometimes unique psychosocial and developmental needs. This paper reviews the fundamentals of adolescent consultation reminding the reader that YSHCN are,
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Youth with special healthcare needs (YSHCN) require medical support for disease management and equally require that providers be responsive to their ever-changing and sometimes unique psychosocial and developmental needs. This paper reviews the fundamentals of adolescent consultation reminding the reader that YSHCN are, after all, still youth with the same basic needs as their healthy peers. Beyond the basics, consultations with this population are characterized by complexities which are best managed by providers who can nimbly adjust their clinical stance. In non-urgent clinical scenarios, clinicians can adopt a coaching stance which we introduce and expand upon in this paper. Characterized by the five elements of non-judgment, curiosity, empathy, openness, and flexibility, the coaching stance can be adopted without specific training. We demonstrate its application using TGROW (Topic, Goal, Reality, Options and Wrap Up), a coaching framework that holds promise for use in clinical settings. Consultants may consider incorporating the coaching stance and TGROW into their practice repertoire, as both may be particularly helpful when consulting with adolescents with chronic illness. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Social Determinants and Poor Diet Quality of Energy-Dense Diets of Australian Young Adults
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 70; doi:10.3390/healthcare5040070 -
Abstract
This research aimed to determine the diet quality and socio-demographic determinants by level of energy-density of diets of Australian young adults. Secondary analysis of the Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey-2011/2012 for adults aged 18–34 years (n = 2397) was conducted.
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This research aimed to determine the diet quality and socio-demographic determinants by level of energy-density of diets of Australian young adults. Secondary analysis of the Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey-2011/2012 for adults aged 18–34 years (n = 2397) was conducted. Diet was assessed by 24-h recalls. Dietary energy-density was calculated as dietary energy/grams of food (kJ/g) and the Healthy-Eating-Index-for-Australians (HEIFA-2013) was used to assess diet quality (highest score = 100). Dietary energy-density was examined with respect to diet quality and sociodemographic determinants including gender, highest tertiary-education attainment, country-of-birth, age, income, and socio-economic-index-for-area (SEIFA). Higher dietary energy-density was associated with lower diet quality scores (β = −3.71, t (2394) = −29.29, p < 0.0001) and included fewer fruits and vegetables, and more discretionary foods. The mean dietary energy-density was 7.7 kJ/g and 7.2 kJ/g for men and women, respectively. Subpopulations most at risk of consuming high energy-dense diets included those with lower education, Australian and English-speaking countries of birth, and men with low income and women from areas of lower socio-economic status. Young adults reporting low energy-dense diets had higher quality diets. Intensive efforts are needed to reduce the high energy-density of young adults’ diets, and should ensure they include populations of lower socio-economic status. Full article
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