Abstract: The genus Alternaria has more than 80 species. Alternaria alternata and Alternaria infectoria are the most frequent species associated with infections in humans. Their clinical importance lies in the growing number of cases reported in immunocompromised patients. Herein, we report three cases of kidney-transplanted patients with different clinical presentations of cutaneous alternariosis and we discuss the treatment options.
Abstract: No particular regimen is considered standard therapy for widespread metastatic melanoma, although surgery is the primary choice for regional nodal metastases. Systemic interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an effective immunotherapy for melanoma, but standard doses are associated with severe toxicity. We report a patient who was treated with intralesional low-dose IL-2 and V-beam pulsed dye laser for the treatment of scalp melanoma metastases. This treatment resulted in rapid regression of metastatic tumors with limited adverse effects.
Abstract: Examination by ultrasonography (US) is a rapid, sensitive, cost-effective, and even portable technique for confirming the presence of tumors. However, US is not routinely used worldwide for the diagnostic work-up of cutaneous malignant melanoma. High-resolution US using a 6–14 MHz or 5–13 MHz linear transducer enables the preoperative assessment of tumor size and thickness. Compared with physical examination, US is also very effective in the early detection of lymph node metastases. It can be easily repeated for the follow-up of cutaneous malignant melanoma and lymph node metastases. Ultrasonographic appearance of some lymph nodes may overlap, thus producing diagnostic pitfalls. In such cases with overlapping findings, Doppler imaging and elastography may additionally facilitate the evaluation of cutaneous malignant melanoma and lymph node metastases. US-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) finally helps to confirm ultrasonographic results, thus improving the specificity and sensitivity in difficult situations in which US alone gives unclear results in lymph node assessment.
Abstract: Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) belongs to the most frequent human neoplasms. Its exposed location facilitates a fast ambulant treatment. However, in the clinical practice far more lesions are removed than necessary, due to the lack of an efficient pre-operational examination procedure: Standard imaging methods often do not provide a sufficient spatial resolution. The demand for an efficient in vivo imaging technique might be met in the near future by non-linear microscopy. As a first step towards this goal, the appearance of NMSC in various microspectroscopic modalities has to be defined and approaches have to be derived to distinguish healthy skin from NMSC using non-linear optical microscopy. Therefore, in this contribution the appearance of ex vivo NMSC in a combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second harmonic generation (SHG) and two photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) imaging—referred as multimodal imaging—is described. Analogous to H&E staining, an overview of the distinct appearances and features of basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma in the complementary modalities is derived, and is expected to boost in vivo studies of this promising technological approach.
Abstract: Preventive care for frail older adults includes providing tailor-made diet information suited to their health conditions. The present study aims to explore the current situation and challenges of home nutrition advice for Japanese frail older adults using qualitative data from a ten-person group discussion among care managers. As the results of our analysis, nine themes were identified: (1) Homebound older adults develop poor eating habits; meals turn into a lonely and unpleasant experience; (2) With age, people’s eating and drinking patterns tend to deteriorate; (3) Many older adults and their family know little about food management according to condition and medication; (4) Many older adults do not understand the importance of maintaining a proper diet; (5) Many homebound older adults do not worry about oral hygiene and swallowing ability; (6) Some older adults are at high risk for food safety problems; (7) Only a limited range of boil-in-the-bag meal options are available for older adults; (8) Many older adults feel unduly confident in their own nutrition management skills; and (9) For many family caregivers, nutrition management is a burden. We conclude that the provision of tailor-made information by skilled dietitians and high-quality home-delivered meal service are essential for the successful nutrition management of the older adults.
Abstract: So far, the very meaning of health and therefore, treatment and rehabilitation is benchmarked to the normal or species-typical body. We expect certain abilities in members of a species; we expect humans to walk but not to fly, but a bird we expect to fly. However, increasingly therapeutic interventions have the potential to give recipients beyond species-typical body related abilities (therapeutic enhancements, TE). We believe that the perfect storm of TE, the shift in ability expectations toward beyond species-typical body abilities, and the increasing desire of health consumers to shape the health system will increasingly influence various aspects of health care practice, policy, and scholarship. We employed qualitative and quantitative methods to investigate among others how human enhancement, neuro/cognitive enhancement, brain machine interfaces, and social robot discourses cover (a) healthcare, healthcare policy, and healthcare ethics, (b) disability and (c) health consumers and how visible various assessment fields are within Neuro/Cogno/ Human enhancement and within the BMI and social robotics discourse. We found that health care, as such, is little discussed, as are health care policy and ethics; that the term consumers (but not health consumers) is used; that technology, impact and needs assessment is absent; and that the imagery of disabled people is primarily a medical one. We submit that now, at this early stage, is the time to gain a good understanding of what drives the push for the enhancement agenda and enhancement-enabling devices, and the dynamics around acceptance and diffusion of therapeutic enhancements.