Abstract: To better understand the origin of across-strike K2O enrichments in silicic volcanic rocks from the Andean Central Volcanic Zone, we compare geochemical data for Quaternary volcanic rocks erupted from three well-characterized composite volcanoes situated along a southeast striking transect between 21° and 22° S latitude (Aucanquilcha, Ollagüe, and Uturuncu). At a given SiO2 content, lavas erupted with increasing distance from the arc front display systematically higher K2O, Rb, Th, Y, REE and HFSE contents; Rb/Sr ratios; and Sr isotopic ratios. In contrast, the lavas display systematically lower Al2O3, Na2O, Sr, and Ba contents; Ba/La, Ba/Zr, K/Rb, and Sr/Y ratios; Nd isotopic ratios; and more negative Eu anomalies toward the east. We suggest that silicic magmas along the arc front reflect melting of relatively young, mafic composition amphibolitic source rocks and that the mid- to deep-crust becomes increasingly older with a more felsic bulk composition in which residual mineralogies are progressively more feldspar-rich toward the east. Collectively, these data suggest the continental crust becomes strongly hybridized beneath frontal arc localities due to protracted intrusion of primary, mantle-derived basaltic magmas with a diminishing effect behind the arc front because of smaller degrees of mantle partial melting and primary melt generation.
Abstract: In her paper, A.C. Marra intends to review the current knowledge on Quaternary mammals of Sicily. As a review, the paper should have presented a clear, updated and rigorous picture of the chosen topic. Actually, most of the paper’s contents come from previous review papers (quoted with the numbers 1–6, 18, 19 and 50), most of which are dated. Above all, A.C. Marra overlooked recent important data concerning the species contained in the different faunal assemblages of Sicily, as well as previous data concerning the stratigraphy and datings of the faunal deposits.
Abstract: Over the last forty years, research has revealed the importance of magma mixing as a trigger for volcanic eruptions, as well as its role in creating the diversity of magma compositions in arcs. Sensitive isotopic and microchemical techniques can reveal subtle evidence of magma mixing in igneous rocks, but more robust statistical techniques for bulk chemical data can help evaluate complex mixing relationships. Polytopic vector analysis (PVA) is a multivariate technique that can be used to evaluate suites of samples that are produced by mixing of two or more magma batches. The Papagayo Tuff of the Miocene-Pleistocene Bagaces Formation in northern Costa Rica is associated with a segment of the Central American Volcanic Arc. While this segment of the arc is located on oceanic plateau, recent (<8 Ma) ignimbrites bear the chemical signatures of upper continental crust, marking the transition from oceanic to continental crust. The Papagayo Tuff contains banded pumice fragments consistent with one or more episodes of mixing/mingling to produce a single volcanic deposit. The PVA solution for the sample set is consistent with observations from bulk chemistry, microchemistry and petrographic data from the rocks. However, without PVA, the unequivocal identification of the three end-member solution would not have been possible.
Abstract: The Central Asian Orogenic Belt, or Altaids, is an amalgamation of volcanic arcs and microcontinent blocks that records a complex late Precambrian–Mesozoic accretionary history. Although microcontinents cored by Precambrian basement are proposed to play an integral role in the accretion process, a lack of isotopic data hampers volume estimates of newly produced arc-derived versus old-cratonic crust in southeastern Mongolia. This study investigates metamorphic tectonites in southern Mongolia that have been mapped as Precambrian in age, largely on the basis of their high metamorphic grade and high strain. Here we present results from microstructural analyses and U-Pb zircon geochronology on samples from Tavan Har (44.05° N, 109.55° E) and the Yagan-Onch Hayrhan metamorphic core complex (41.89° N, 104.24° E). Our results show no compelling evidence for Precambrian basement in southeastern Mongolia. Rather, the protoliths to all tectonites examined are Paleozoic–Mesozoic age rocks, formed during Devonian–Carboniferous arc magmatism and subsequent Permian–Triassic orogenesis during collision of the South Mongolia arc with the northern margin of China. These results yield important insights into the Paleozoic accretionary history of southern Mongolia, including the genesis of metamorphic and igneous basement during the Paleozoic, as well as implications for subsequent intracontinental reactivation.
Abstract: The Isère River system drains parts of the Western Alps in south-eastern France. Zircon fission-track data of the Isère River and its tributaries show a range of apparent cooling ages from about 7 to 150 Ma. Zircons with Jurassic to early Tertiary cooling ages are derived from partially reset or non-reset sedimentary cover units of the internal and external Alps, while grains belonging to the minimum age fraction are derived from areas of active river incision in the external crystalline massifs or from the Penninic front. With the absence of major normal faults, upper crustal exhumation in the Western Alps is driven by erosion. First-order long-term exhumation rate estimates based on minimum ages are about 0.5–0.6 km/Myr for the fastest exhuming areas, while drainage basin average rates based on central ages are about 0.2–0.4 km/Myr. These rates are slower than published short-term erosion rates determined from detrital quartz 10Be analyses in the Pelvoux massif. While present-day erosion is faster than the long-term average exhumation rates, the Isère River drainage zircon fission-track data do not show evidence for increasing erosion rates at 5 Ma. Exhumation has not been sufficient in this area to expose rocks with <5 Ma cooling ages today. The increase in erosion may have happened only in glaciated areas between 1 and 2 Ma.