Abstract: The naturally occurring geogenic elements iodine (I), lithium (Li), and strontium (Sr) have a beneficial effect on human health. Iodine has an essential role in human metabolism while Li and Sr are used, respectively, as a treatment for various mental disorders and for post-menopausal osteoporosis. The aim here is to evaluate the potential for future epidemiological investigations in Denmark of lifelong and chronic exposure to low doses of these compounds. The drinking water data represents approximately 45% of the annual Danish groundwater abstraction for drinking water purposes, which supplies approximately 2.5 million persons. The spatial patterns were studied using inverse distance weighted interpolation and cluster analysis. The exposed population was estimated based on two datasets: (1) population density in the smallest census unit, the parishes, and (2) geocoded addresses where at least one person is residing. We found significant spatial variation in the exposure for all three elements, related mainly to geochemical processes. This suggests a prospective opportunity for future epidemiological investigation of long-term effects of I, Li, and Sr, either alone or in combinations with other geogenic elements such as Ca, Mg or F.
Abstract: In this study we investigated Isidis Planitia, a 1325 km diameter multi-ring impact basin intersecting the Martian hemispheric dichotomy, located in the eastern hemisphere, between Syrtis Major and Utopia Planitia. From Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter gridded data we observed that in the center of Isidis the −3700 m and −3800 m isolines strike NW-SE, being quasi-parallel to the diameter of the basin. We interpreted this as evidence that the basement of Isidis Planitia was faulted prior to being completely covered by layers of sediments and volcanic rocks. Plotting the morphometric data of impact craters located on the floor of the basin in a measured depths vs. predicted depths diagram (MPD), we concluded that the fault planes should dip SW, which is consistent with the location of the most topographically depressed sector of Isidis Planitia. We also estimated a minimum vertical displacement of ~1–2 km. Considering that the crust under Isidis Planitia is only a few km thick, our estimate implies brittle behavior of the lithosphere under the basin, suggesting that a low geothermal gradient and rheologically strong material characterize this Martian location.
Abstract: Uranium occurrence and development has left a legacy of long-lived health effects for many Native Americans and Alaska Natives in the United States. Some Native American communities have been impacted by processing and development while others are living with naturally occurring sources of uranium. The uranium production peak spanned from approximately 1948 to the 1980s. Thousands of mines, mainly on the Colorado Plateau, were developed in the western U.S. during the uranium boom. Many of these mines were abandoned and have not been reclaimed. Native Americans in the Colorado Plateau area including the Navajo, Southern Ute, Ute Mountain, Hopi, Zuni, Laguna, Acoma, and several other Pueblo nations, with their intimate knowledge of the land, often led miners to uranium resources during this exploration boom. As a result of the mining activity many Indian Nations residing near areas of mining or milling have had and continue to have their health compromised. This short review aims to rekindle the public awareness of the plight of Native American communities living with the legacy of uranium procurement, including mining, milling, down winders, nuclear weapon development and long term nuclear waste storage.
Abstract: Outreach by scientific researchers in school classrooms often results in widespread benefit for learners, classroom teachers and researchers. This paper presents a consideration of these benefits using two case studies in the Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences (GEES). In each case, different school classroom-based activities were designed by scientists, but were improved by input from educational professionals, which helped to maximize the mutual learning experiences and to ensure the quality of the content and its delivery. Each case study suggests an improvement in scientist’s working knowledge of best practices for classroom-based outreach activities, which can translate to improved practices for University-level teaching, among other tangible career-relevant benefits. Despite these benefits, these projects highlight the well-established need for improved training for researchers in effective outreach practices, increased value on programme evaluation, and the growing need for meaningful professional recognition for researchers involved in these important, and ever-growing, outreach activities.
Abstract: Deep-seated continental collision sutures, formed at a depth of more than 20 km, are exposed near Kangerlussuaq, close to the Greenland ice cap, on the southern margin of the Nagssugtoqidian orogen in Central West Greenland, thus offering a rare opportunity to study the tectonic deformation style of such an orogen. This paper adds new information on the tectonic history of the southern flank of the Nagssugtoqidian orogen. It focuses on (1) the results of a detailed structural investigation of lineament zones revealed from remote sensing of geophysical and topographic data and aerial photo interpretation, (2) detailed geological mapping at key locations and (3) a tectonic structural model describing the geological development of the area. The area has undergone several episodes of deformation, which have been compiled into an event succession that recognizes eight tectonic events overprinting each other: Two stages of folding (F1 and F2) have been identified along with one major episode of intrusion of the Kangâmiut mafic dyke swarm (2.05 Ga) into the Archaean continent. These dyke intrusions are very important, since by examining the style of deformation for these intrusions it is possible to define the transition from the North Atlantic Craton in the south to the mobile belts in the Nagssugtoqidian orogen in the north. Five different types of pronounced lineaments and one less pronounced lineament post-dating the Kangâmiut dykes extending from ductile deformation shearing events to brittle deformation with extensive faulting. These lineaments cover both the collisional and post-collisional tectonic history of the area. The study focused on two types of lineaments: one semi-ductile type trending E–W with a dextral sense of shear and a second, a pronounced lineament outlining the Kangerlussuaq–Russell thrust fault. These two features are interpreted to be related to the Nagssugtoqidian orogeny, while the latter lineaments have a more brittle appearance and are regarded to be considerably younger and probably related to post-orogenic tectonic events.