Open AccessArticle
New Occurrence of Pyroxenites in the Veria-Naousa Ophiolite (North Greece): Implications on Their Origin and Petrogenetic Evolution
Geosciences 2017, 7(4), 92; doi:10.3390/geosciences7040092 -
Abstract
The Veria-Naousa ophiolite represents a dismembered unit in north Greece, which includes variably serpentinised lherzolite and harzburgite, locally intruded by a sparse network of dykes or thin layers of websterite and olivine-orthopyroxenite composition. The websterite and the olivine-orthopyroxenite show abundant petrographic and geochemical
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The Veria-Naousa ophiolite represents a dismembered unit in north Greece, which includes variably serpentinised lherzolite and harzburgite, locally intruded by a sparse network of dykes or thin layers of websterite and olivine-orthopyroxenite composition. The websterite and the olivine-orthopyroxenite show abundant petrographic and geochemical evidence (relic olivines with mantle affinities, Cr-rich spinels, low Al2O3, depletions in incompatible elements, and concave upwards rare earth element patterns) that they comprise replacive bodies from refractory subarc mantle precursors. The occurrence of these pyroxenites in dykes implies that channelled percolation of melts account for their replacive character. High CaO/Al2O3, low Zr and crystallisation of diopside suggest that a melt of ankaramitic/carbonatitic composition percolated in lherzolite replacing porphyroclastic olivine and forming the pyroxenes in the websterite. At a shallower level, harburgites were impregnated by boninitic melts (inferred by U-shape rare earth element patterns and very rich in Cr spinels) triggering the replacement of porphyroclastic olivine by orthopyroxene for the formation of olivine-orthopyroxenite. These peritectic replacements of olivine commonly occur in a mantle wedge regime. The peculiar characteristics of the Veria-Naousa pyroxenites with LREE and compatible elements enrichments resemble the subarc pyroxenites of Cabo Ortegal implying a similar environment of formation. Whole-rock and mineralogical (spinel and clinopyroxene) compositions are also in favour of a backarc to arc environment. It is recommended that the evolution of the Veria-Naousa pyroxenites record the evolution of the subarc region and the opening of a backarc basin in a broad SSZ setting in the Axios Zone of eastern Greece. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Accurate Reconstruction of the Roman Circus in Milan by Georeferencing Heterogeneous Data Sources with GIS
Geosciences 2017, 7(3), 91; doi:10.3390/geosciences7030091 -
Abstract
This paper presents the methodological approach and the actual workflow for creating the 3D digital reconstruction in time of the ancient Roman Circus of Milan, which is presently covered completely by the urban fabric of the modern city. The diachronic reconstruction is based
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This paper presents the methodological approach and the actual workflow for creating the 3D digital reconstruction in time of the ancient Roman Circus of Milan, which is presently covered completely by the urban fabric of the modern city. The diachronic reconstruction is based on a proper mix of quantitative data originated by current 3D surveys and historical sources, such as ancient maps, drawings, archaeological reports, restrictions decrees, and old photographs. When possible, such heterogeneous sources have been georeferenced and stored in a GIS system. In this way the sources have been analyzed in depth, allowing the deduction of geometrical information not explicitly revealed by the material available. A reliable reconstruction of the area in different historical periods has been therefore hypothesized. This research has been carried on in the framework of the project Cultural Heritage Through Time—CHT2, funded by the Joint Programming Initiative on Cultural Heritage (JPI-CH), supported by the Italian Ministry for Cultural Heritage (MiBACT), the Italian Ministry for University and Research (MIUR), and the European Commission. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Quantitative Examination of Piezoelectric/Seismoelectric Anomalies from Near-Surface Targets
Geosciences 2017, 7(3), 90; doi:10.3390/geosciences7030090 -
Abstract
The piezoelectric and seismo-electrokinetic phenomena are manifested by electrical and electromagnetic processes that occur in rocks under the influence of elastic oscillations triggered by shots or mechanical impacts. Differences in piezoelectric properties between the studied targets and host media determine the possibilities of
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The piezoelectric and seismo-electrokinetic phenomena are manifested by electrical and electromagnetic processes that occur in rocks under the influence of elastic oscillations triggered by shots or mechanical impacts. Differences in piezoelectric properties between the studied targets and host media determine the possibilities of the piezoelectric/seismoelectric method application. Over a long time, an interpretation of obtained data is carried out by the use of methods developed in seismic prospecting. Examination of nature of piezoelectric/seismoelectric anomalies observed in subsurface indicates that these may be related (mainly) to electric potential field. In this paper, it is shown that quantitative analysis of piezoelectric/seismoelectric anomalies may be performed by the advanced and reliable methodologies developed in magnetic prospecting. Some examples from mining geophysics (Russia) and ancient metallurgical site (Israel) confirm applicability of the suggested approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Flood Frequency Analysis Methods for Ungauged Catchments in France
Geosciences 2017, 7(3), 88; doi:10.3390/geosciences7030088 -
Abstract
The objective of flood frequency analysis (FFA) is to associate flood intensity with a probability of exceedance. Many methods are currently employed for this, ranging from statistical distribution fitting to simulation approaches. In many cases the site of interest is actually ungauged, and
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The objective of flood frequency analysis (FFA) is to associate flood intensity with a probability of exceedance. Many methods are currently employed for this, ranging from statistical distribution fitting to simulation approaches. In many cases the site of interest is actually ungauged, and a regionalisation scheme has to be associated with the FFA method, leading to a multiplication of the number of possible methods available. This paper presents the results of a wide-range comparison of FFA methods from statistical and simulation families associated with different regionalisation schemes based on regression, or spatial or physical proximity. The methods are applied to a set of 1535 French catchments, and a k-fold cross-validation procedure is used to consider the ungauged configuration. The results suggest that FFA from the statistical family largely relies on the regionalisation step, whereas the simulation-based method is more stable regarding regionalisation. This conclusion emphasises the difficulty of the regionalisation process. The results are also contrasted depending on the type of climate: the Mediterranean catchments tend to aggravate the differences between the methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Taking into Account the Role of the Weathering Profile in Determining Hydrodynamic Properties of Hard Rock Aquifers
Geosciences 2017, 7(3), 89; doi:10.3390/geosciences7030089 -
Abstract
The present study aims at understanding the role of the structure and the geometry of the weathering profile on the hydrodynamic behavior of hard rock aquifers. We first described 2D geophysical cross sections of weathering profiles realized and validated on an experimental site.
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The present study aims at understanding the role of the structure and the geometry of the weathering profile on the hydrodynamic behavior of hard rock aquifers. We first described 2D geophysical cross sections of weathering profiles realized and validated on an experimental site. Next, we implemented five long-term pumping tests in wells drilled at various locations of these cross sections. Finally, we chose the appropriate analytical solutions to determine the hydrodynamic parameters in consistence with the structure and the geometry of the weathering profile. Results reveal that land covers, weathering type and thickness, presence of no flow boundaries, etc. are all factors that explain the flow regime, which appears therefore much less unpredictable. In other words, the 2D geophysical data are enough to locate the best permeable areas, or the areas where the structure of the aquifer without impervious boundaries and with leakage favor a good long-term behavior of the well. The values of aquifer’s transmissivity vary between 5.10−3 and 4.10−5 m2/s. The storage varies between 0.06 and 7.10−7. The variability of these parameters from site to site reflects the high heterogeneity of hard rock aquifers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ground Stability Monitoring of Undermined and Landslide Prone Areas by Means of Sentinel-1 Multi-Temporal InSAR, Case Study from Slovakia
Geosciences 2017, 7(3), 87; doi:10.3390/geosciences7030087 -
Abstract
Multi-temporal synthetic aperture radar interferometry techniques (MT-InSAR) are nowadays a well-developed remote sensing tool for ground stability monitoring of areas afflicted by natural hazards. Its application capability has recently been emphasized by the Sentinel-1 satellite mission, providing extensive spatial coverage, regular temporal sampling
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Multi-temporal synthetic aperture radar interferometry techniques (MT-InSAR) are nowadays a well-developed remote sensing tool for ground stability monitoring of areas afflicted by natural hazards. Its application capability has recently been emphasized by the Sentinel-1 satellite mission, providing extensive spatial coverage, regular temporal sampling and free data availability. We perform MT-InSAR analysis over the wider Upper Nitra region in Slovakia, utilizing all Sentinel-1 images acquired since November 2014 until March 2017. This region is notable for its extensive landslide susceptibility as well as intensive brown coal mining. We focus on two case studies, being impaired by recent activation of these geohazards, which caused serious damage to local structures. We incorporate a processing chain based on open-source tools, combining the current Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP) and Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) implementation. MT-InSAR results reveal substantial activity at both case studies, exceeding the annual displacement velocities of 30 mm/year. Moreover, our observations are validated and their accuracy is confirmed via comparison with ground truth data from borehole inclinometers and terrestrial levelling. Detected displacement time series provide valuable insight into the spatio-temporal evolution of corresponding deformation phenomena and are thus complementary to conventional terrestrial monitoring techniques. At the same time, they not only demonstrate the feasibility of MT-InSAR for the assessment of remediation works, but also constitute the possibility of operational monitoring and routine landslide inventory updates, regarding the free Sentinel-1 data. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Are We There Yet? A Review and Assessment of Archaeological Passive Airborne Optical Imaging Approaches in the Light of Landscape Archaeology
Geosciences 2017, 7(3), 86; doi:10.3390/geosciences7030086 -
Abstract
Archaeologists often rely on passive airborne optical remote sensing to deliver some of the core data for (European) landscape archaeology projects. Despite the many technological and theoretical evolutions that have characterised this field of archaeology, the dominant aerial photographic surveys, but also less
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Archaeologists often rely on passive airborne optical remote sensing to deliver some of the core data for (European) landscape archaeology projects. Despite the many technological and theoretical evolutions that have characterised this field of archaeology, the dominant aerial photographic surveys, but also less common approaches to archaeological airborne reconnaissance, still suffer from many inherent biases imposed by sub-par sampling strategies, cost, instrument availability and post-processing issues. This paper starts with the concept of landscape (archaeology) and uses it to frame archaeological airborne remote sensing. After introducing the need for bias reduction when sampling an already distorted archaeological population and expanding on the ‘theory-neutral’ claim of aerial survey, the paper presents eight key characteristics that all have the potential to increase or decrease the subjectivity and bias when collecting airborne optical imagery with passive sensors. Within this setting, the paper then offers some technological-methodological reflection on the various passive airborne optical imaging solutions that landscape archaeology has come to rely upon in the past decades. In doing so, it calls into question the effectiveness and suitability of these highly subjective approaches for landscape archaeology. Finally, the paper proposes a new, more objective approach to aerial optical image acquisition with passive sensors. In the discussion, the text argues that the suggested exhaustive (or total) airborne sampling of the preserved archaeological record might transcend particular theoretical paradigms, while the data generated could span various interpretational perspectives and oppositional analytical approaches in landscape archaeology. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Ground Motion in Areas of Abandoned Mining: Application of the Intermittent SBAS (ISBAS) to the Northumberland and Durham Coalfield, UK
Geosciences 2017, 7(3), 85; doi:10.3390/geosciences7030085 -
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate land motion and groundwater level change phenomena using differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) over the Northumberland and Durham coalfield in the United Kingdom. The study re-visits earlier research that applied a persistent scatterers interferometry (PSI) technique to
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In this paper, we investigate land motion and groundwater level change phenomena using differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) over the Northumberland and Durham coalfield in the United Kingdom. The study re-visits earlier research that applied a persistent scatterers interferometry (PSI) technique to ERS (European Remote Sensing) and ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) data. Here, the Intermittent Small Baseline Subset (ISBAS) DInSAR technique is applied to ERS, ENVISAT and Sentinel-1 SAR datasets covering the late 1990s, the 2000s and the mid-2010s, respectively, to increase spatial coverage, aid the geological interpretation and consider the latest Sentinel-1 data. The ERS data identify surface depressions in proximity to former collieries, while all three data sets ascertain broad areas are experiencing regional scale uplift, often occurring in previously mined areas. Uplift is attributed to increases in pore pressure in the overburden following the cessation of groundwater pumping after mine closure. Rising groundwater levels are found to correlate to ground motion measurements at selected monitoring sites, most notably in the surrounding area of Ashington. The area is divided by an impermeable EW fault; to the south, surface heave was identified as groundwater levels rose in the 1990s, whereas to the north, this phenomenon occurred two decades later in the 2010s. The data emphasize the complexity of the post-mining surface and subsurface environment and highlight the benefit that InSAR, utilizing the ISBAS technique, can provide in its characterization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Combined Sensitivity of Nadir TIR Satellite Observations to Volcanic SO2 and Sulphate Aerosols after a Moderate Stratospheric Eruption
Geosciences 2017, 7(3), 84; doi:10.3390/geosciences7030084 -
Abstract
Monitoring gaseous and particulate volcanic emissions with remote observations is of particular importance for climate studies, air quality and natural risk assessment. The concurrent impact of the simultaneous presence of sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions and the subsequently formed secondary sulphate aerosols
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Monitoring gaseous and particulate volcanic emissions with remote observations is of particular importance for climate studies, air quality and natural risk assessment. The concurrent impact of the simultaneous presence of sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions and the subsequently formed secondary sulphate aerosols (SSA) on the thermal infraRed (TIR) satellite observations is not yet well quantified. In this paper, we present the first assessment of the combined sensitivity of pseudo-observations from three TIR satellite instruments (the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectro radiometer (MODIS) and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI)) to these two volcanic effluents, following an idealized moderate stratospheric eruption. Direct radiative transfer calculations have been performed using the 4A (Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas) radiative transfer model during short-term atmospheric sulphur cycle evolution. The results show that the mutual effect of the volcanic SO2 and SSA on the TIR outgoing radiation is obvious after three to five days from the eruption. Therefore, retrieval efforts of SO2 concentration should consider the progressively formed SSA and vice-versa. This result is also confirmed by estimating the information content of the TIR pseudo-observations to the bi-dimensional retrieved vector formed by the total masses of sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosols. We find that it is important to be careful when attempting to quantify SO2 burdens in aged volcanic plumes using broad-band instruments like SEVIRI and MODIS as these retrievals present high uncertainties. For IASI, the total errors are smaller and the two parameters can be retrieved as independent quantities. Full article
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Open AccessLetter
Heat Response of Global Vegetation Biomes to Ongoing Climate Warming Based on Remote Sensing
Geosciences 2017, 7(3), 83; doi:10.3390/geosciences7030083 -
Abstract
Research is needed by global change scientists on how global vegetation biomes respond to ongoing climate warming. To address this issue, we selected study sites with significant climate warming for diverse vegetation biomes, and used global gridded temperature and remote sensing data over
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Research is needed by global change scientists on how global vegetation biomes respond to ongoing climate warming. To address this issue, we selected study sites with significant climate warming for diverse vegetation biomes, and used global gridded temperature and remote sensing data over the past 32 years (1982–2013). The results suggested that climate warming in areas above approximately 60° N is relaxing the heat-constraints on vegetation activity, thus promoting plant growth; whereas, in mid to low latitude areas, ongoing climate warming probably imposes negative impacts on vegetation biomes through drought and heat stress. Understanding these potential effects is important for planning adaptation strategies to mitigate the impacts of climate warming, particularly for agro-ecosystems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Bruneau Woodpile: A Miocene Phosphatized Fossil Wood Locality in Southwestern Idaho, USA
Geosciences 2017, 7(3), 82; doi:10.3390/geosciences7030082 -
Abstract
The Bruneau Woodpile site has long been popular among fossil collectors; however, the deposit has received scant attention from scientists. Our research reveals that the fossilized wood was deposited ca. 6.85 Ma, within the Chalk Hills Formation, and was mineralized with carbonate-fluorapatite. The
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The Bruneau Woodpile site has long been popular among fossil collectors; however, the deposit has received scant attention from scientists. Our research reveals that the fossilized wood was deposited ca. 6.85 Ma, within the Chalk Hills Formation, and was mineralized with carbonate-fluorapatite. The diverse assemblage of conifers and hardwoods is representative of the warm temperate forests that flourished in southwest Idaho, USA during the late Miocene. Limb and trunk fragments preserved in a single thin sandstone bed appear to represent woody debris that was transported by streams. One possible explanation is that wood, pumice, and sandy volcaniclastic sediment arrived separately as a result of ordinary stream action, and later were combined into a single assemblage during a subsequent high-energy sedimentation event. We favor an alternate hypothesis: a catastrophic event (e.g., a windstorm) damaged trees on slopes bordering the ancient lake. Branches and small trunk fragments were carried by wind and rain into local streams and ponds where they became waterlogged. After a delay that allowed pumice and wood to become saturated, storm water transported these materials, along with finer volcaniclastic sediment, into a lake. The resulting density current produced a fining-upward sedimentary cycle where wood was preserved in the lowest, coarsest stratum. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Cancer and Non-Cancer Risk of Santiago Island (Cape Verde) Population due to Potential Toxic Elements Exposure from Soils
Geosciences 2017, 7(3), 78; doi:10.3390/geosciences7030078 -
Abstract
The hazard index (HI) and carcinogenic risk due to the exposure of some potentially toxic elements to the Santiago Island (Cape Verde) population were calculated, considering soil ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact as exposure pathways. The topsoil of Santiago Island, compared with that
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The hazard index (HI) and carcinogenic risk due to the exposure of some potentially toxic elements to the Santiago Island (Cape Verde) population were calculated, considering soil ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact as exposure pathways. The topsoil of Santiago Island, compared with that of the upper continental crust, is enriched with Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn, Mn, and Cd. Hazard indices (HIs) for these metals and the As exposures to the Santiago Island population were calculated, and these calculations were performed for children and adults. For children, HIs were higher than 1 for Co, Cr, and Mn. Therefore, there is an indication of potential non-carcinogenic risk for children, due to the high Co (HI = 2.995), Cr (HI = 1.329), and Mn (HI = 1.126) values in these soils. For the other elements, in adults, there is no potential non-carcinogenic risk. Cancer risk for As, Cd, Cr, and Ni exposures, in adults and children, was calculated, and the results are mainly lower than the carcinogenic target risk of 1 × 10−6 for As, Cd, and Ni. However, in adults, cancer risk is higher than the carcinogenic target risk for Cr. Regarding As, for children, the fraction due to Riskingestion represents 51.6%, while Riskinhalation represents 48.0% and Riskdermalcontact represents only 0.4% of the total risk. For adults, Riskinhalation represents 81.3%, Riskingestion represents 16.6%, and Riskdermal contact represents 2.1%. These results reflect the higher daily ingestion dose for children and the higher inhalation rate and higher dermal contact surface for adults. For the other elements, the cancer risk due to Cr, Ni, and Cd inhalation is always higher for adults than it is for children, reflecting the higher inhalation rate for adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison Study to the Use of Geophysical Methods at Archaeological Sites Observed by Various Remote Sensing Techniques in the Czech Republic
Geosciences 2017, 7(3), 81; doi:10.3390/geosciences7030081 -
Abstract
A combination of geophysical methods could be very a useful and a practical way of verifying the origin and precise localisation of archaeological situations identified by different remote sensing techniques. The results of different methods (and scales) of monitoring these fully non-destructive methods
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A combination of geophysical methods could be very a useful and a practical way of verifying the origin and precise localisation of archaeological situations identified by different remote sensing techniques. The results of different methods (and scales) of monitoring these fully non-destructive methods provide distinct data and often complement each other. The presented examples of combinations of these methods/techniques in this study (aerial survey, LIDAR-ALS and surface magnetometer or resistivity survey) could provide information on some specifics and may also be limitations in surveying different archaeological terrains, types of archaeological situations and activities. The archaeological site in this contribution is considered to be a material of this study. In case of Neolithic ditch enclosure near Kolín were compared aerial prospection data, magnetometer survey and aerial photo-documentation of excavated site. In the case of hillforts near Levousy we compared LIDAR data with aerial photography and large-scale magnetometer survey. In the case of the medieval castle Liběhrad we compared LIDAR data with geoelectric resistivity measurement. In case of a burial mound cemetery we combined LIDAR data with magnetometer survey. In the case of the production area near Rynartice we combined LIDAR data with magnetometer and resistivity measurements and result of archaeological excavation. Fortunately for successful combination of geophysical and remote sensing results, their conditions and factors for efficient use in archaeology are not the same. On the other hand, the quality and state of many prehistoric, early medieval, medieval and also modern archaeological sites is rapidly changing over time and both groups of techniques represent important support for their comprehensive and precise documentation and protection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis and Processing of Nadir and Stereo VHR Pleiadés Images for 3D Mapping and Planning the Land of Nineveh, Iraqi Kurdistan
Geosciences 2017, 7(3), 80; doi:10.3390/geosciences7030080 -
Abstract
The impressive hydraulic system built by the Assyrian King Sennacherib is composed by different archaeological areas, displaced along the Land of Nineveh, in Iraqi Kurdistan. The extensive project we are working on has the aim of mapping and geo-referencing any kind of documentation
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The impressive hydraulic system built by the Assyrian King Sennacherib is composed by different archaeological areas, displaced along the Land of Nineveh, in Iraqi Kurdistan. The extensive project we are working on has the aim of mapping and geo-referencing any kind of documentation in order to design an archaeological-environmental park able to preserve and enhance the archaeological complex. Unfortunately, the area is failing a topographic documentation and the available cartography is not sufficient for planning and documentation purposes. The research work presented in these pages moves towards this direction, by exploiting Pleiadés Very High Resolution (VHR) images (in both nadir and stereo configuration) for an accurate mapping of the site. In more depth, Pleiadés nadir VHR images have been used to perform a pansharpening procedure used to enhance the visual interpretation of the study area, whilst stereo-pair have been processed to produce the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the study area. Statistical evaluations show the high accuracy of the processing and the reliability of the outputs as well. The integration of different products, at different Levels of Detail within a unique GIS environment, besides protecting, preserving and enhancing the water system of Sennacherib’s, paves the way to allow the Kurdistan Regional Government to present a proposal for the admission of the archaeological complex in the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List (WHTL). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Manifold Approach for the Investigation of Early and Middle Neolithic Settlements in Thessaly, Greece
Geosciences 2017, 7(3), 79; doi:10.3390/geosciences7030079 -
Abstract
The IGEAN (Innovative Geophysical Approaches for the study of Early Agricultural villages of Neolithic) Thessaly project focused on Early and Neolithic settlements in Thessaly, Central Greece. The aim of the project was to highlight in an extensive way differences in settlement layouts while
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The IGEAN (Innovative Geophysical Approaches for the study of Early Agricultural villages of Neolithic) Thessaly project focused on Early and Neolithic settlements in Thessaly, Central Greece. The aim of the project was to highlight in an extensive way differences in settlement layouts while investigating commonalities as a way to understand Neolithic use of space. To accomplish this, a suite of geophysical prospection techniques (geomagnetic, electromagnetic induction, and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)), aerial platforms (historic aerial imagery and Remotely Piloted Aerial Systems (RPAS)) as well as very high resolution spaceborne sensors were integrated to acquire comprehensive pictures of settlements. Results of the IGEAN project provide archaeological information on the dynamic character of enclosures, the structure of architectural features and open spaces within sites as an indication of economic or communal spaces. At the same time, they demonstrated the importance of employing a suite of different geophysical techniques to reveal different aspects of the hindered prehistoric settlements that could not be highlighted with a single geophysical approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Scale and Potential of GLOF in the Bhutan Himalayas Using a Satellite-Based Integral Glacier–Glacial Lake Inventory
Geosciences 2017, 7(3), 77; doi:10.3390/geosciences7030077 -
Abstract
A comprehensive glacier–glacial lake inventory was developed for the Bhutan Himalayas based on satellite observations between 1987–1990 and 2006–2011. In total, 733 lakes (covering 82.6 km2) were delineated between 4000 and 6000 m a.s.l. and their relationships to associated glaciers were
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A comprehensive glacier–glacial lake inventory was developed for the Bhutan Himalayas based on satellite observations between 1987–1990 and 2006–2011. In total, 733 lakes (covering 82.6 km2) were delineated between 4000 and 6000 m a.s.l. and their relationships to associated glaciers were documented. Using this new inventory, the scale and potential for glacial lake outburst flooding (GLOF) based on multiple criteria was examined. This included a history of connectivity characteristics of glacial lakes to mother glaciers, potential flood volumes, and debris-cover of mother glaciers in addition to the conventional criteria of expansion rate and lake size. The majority of the lakes with high expansion rates (more than double in size) and large areas (>0.1 km2) met the conditions of being continuously in contact with a mother debris-covered glacier for nearly 20 years. Based on these multiple criteria, two lakes were identified as having potential for large-scale GLOF. Potentially dangerous glacial lakes listed in the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) study were re-visited, and some overlaps with the glacier–glacial lake inventory were found. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of the Mineral Element Content of Public Drinking Fountains and Bottled Water: A Case Study of Ferrara City
Geosciences 2017, 7(3), 76; doi:10.3390/geosciences7030076 -
Abstract
Mineral elements are essential nutrients for humans and play important roles in many human physiological and bio-chemical processes. In this study, a comparison between the levels of mineral elements present in the water of public drinking fountains (PDRF) and in bottled water was
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Mineral elements are essential nutrients for humans and play important roles in many human physiological and bio-chemical processes. In this study, a comparison between the levels of mineral elements present in the water of public drinking fountains (PDRF) and in bottled water was carried out. The aim of the study is to assess the effectiveness of PDRF as a mineral supplement, compared to the low-mineral bottled water for out-door non-competitive activity, such as jogging. The city of Ferrara was chosen as the study site. It has ancient walls and on their top there is a gravel road that people use for jogging and walking. Along the road, there are two public drinking fountains that are always used. Water from these fountains was sampled and analysed for major cations and anions using ionic chromatography. Data analyses were compared with the same analyses carried out on bottled water usually used by joggers. Results showed that fountains are a valid substitute of bottled water as they have a moderate content of mineral elements. During outdoor sport activity, the water from fountains is preferable for the reintegration of mineral elements, instead of bottled water that has a very low quantity of minerals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Melt Reintegration Modelling: Testing against a Subsolidus Reference Assemblage
Geosciences 2017, 7(3), 75; doi:10.3390/geosciences7030075 -
Abstract
Phase equilibria modelling incorporating melt reintegration offers a methodology to create hypothetical rock compositions that may have existed prior to melt loss, allowing the potential prograde evolution of rocks to be explored. However, melt reintegration modelling relies on assumptions concerning the volume of
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Phase equilibria modelling incorporating melt reintegration offers a methodology to create hypothetical rock compositions that may have existed prior to melt loss, allowing the potential prograde evolution of rocks to be explored. However, melt reintegration modelling relies on assumptions concerning the volume of melt that was lost and is generally restricted by the absence of direct constraints on the pre-anatectic mineral assemblages. Mg-rich granulite in the 514–490 Ma Delamerian Orogen in southern Australia contains spinel–cordierite symplectic intergrowths that surround rare, coarse blocky domains of sillimanite. These sillimanite cores, as well as the widespread presence of andalusite in lower grade areas of the southern Delamerian Orogen, suggest that the subsolidus precursor to the granulite contained andalusite. This provides the opportunity to test if melt reintegration modelling of the granulite predicts subsolidus andalusite. Stepwise down-temperature melt reintegration modelling produces a water-saturated solidus after the addition of 12 mol% melt. When modelled at subsolidus conditions, the resulting rock composition produces andalusite-bearing assemblages with andalusite modes similar to the abundance of the sillimanite-cored spinel–cordierite intergrowths. The modelling results from this case study suggest that melt reintegration modelling is a valid method to recreate prograde subsolidus bulk rock compositions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigation of Debris-Induced Loading in Tsunami-Like Flood Events
Geosciences 2017, 7(3), 74; doi:10.3390/geosciences7030074 -
Abstract
Debris loads during flood events have been well-documented by forensic engineering field surveys of affected communities. Research has primarily focused on debris impact loading and less emphasis has been placed into quantifying the loads and effects associated with debris damming, which occurs when
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Debris loads during flood events have been well-documented by forensic engineering field surveys of affected communities. Research has primarily focused on debris impact loading and less emphasis has been placed into quantifying the loads and effects associated with debris damming, which occurs when solid objects accumulate at the front of structures. The formation of the debris dam has been shown to results in increased drag forces, backwater rise, and flow accelerations which can influence the stability of the structure. This study examined the formation of a debris dam in steady-state conditions of debris common to flood-prone communities. The study determined that the hydraulic conditions, in particular flow velocity, influenced the formation of the debris dam. Additionally, the study examined the influence of the blockage ratio on the backwater rise as well as the drag coefficient. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Historical Monitoring of Shoreline Changes in the Cua Dai Estuary, Central Vietnam Using Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing Data
Geosciences 2017, 7(3), 72; doi:10.3390/geosciences7030072 -
Abstract
Cua Dai is one of the major estuarine areas in Central Vietnam that plays a significant role in local maritime transport, fisheries, and tourism activities. This paper presents a study that monitored the shoreline dynamics of the Cua Dai estuary over a period
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Cua Dai is one of the major estuarine areas in Central Vietnam that plays a significant role in local maritime transport, fisheries, and tourism activities. This paper presents a study that monitored the shoreline dynamics of the Cua Dai estuary over a period of 50 years (1964–2014) by using field survey data, geographic information systems techniques, and multi-temporal satellite remote sensing images (ALOS-AVNIR2 and Landsat imageries). The assessment of shoreline changes was divided into three phases: 1964–1980, 1981–2000, and 2001–2014. The results revealed that over the last 50 years, shoreline changes dramatically occurred between 1964 and 1980. The general trends of erosion and accretion at the Cua Dai estuary show that the river mouth moved towards the south due to the erosion of shorelines in the north and the river bank in the south of the Cua Dai estuary. The study outcomes can provide essential information for planning, zoning, and sustainable development activities of the coastal zones in the context of climate change. Full article
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